# <!-- document.writeln("Using P-Elements</font>") //-->

## <!-- document.writeln("<font color=" + color4[0] + ">Introduction</font>"); //-->

This tutorial was completed using ANSYS 7.0. This tutorial outlines the steps necessary for solving a model meshed with p-elements. The p-method manipulates the polynomial level (p-level) of the finite element shape functions which are used to approximate the real solution. Thus, rather than increasing mesh density, the p-level can be increased to give a similar result. By keeping mesh density rather coarse, computational time can be kept to a minimum. This is the greatest advantage of using p-elements over h-elements.

A uniform load will be applied to the right hand side of the geometry shown below. The specimen was modeled as steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa.

## ANSYS Command Listing

```
finish
/clear

/title, Convection Example
/prep7				! Enter the preprocessor

! define geometry

k,1,0,0				! Define keypoints
k,2,0.03,0
k,3,0.03,0.03
k,4,0,0.03
a,1,2,3,4			! Connect the keypoints to form area

! mesh 2D areas

ET,1,Plane55			! Element type

MP,Dens,1,920			! Define density
mp,c,1,2040			! Define specific heat
mp,kxx,1,1.8			! Define heat transfer coefficient

esize,0.0005			! Mesh size
amesh,all			! Mesh area

finish
/solu				! Enter solution phase

antype,4			! Transient analysis

time,60				! Time at end of analysis

nropt,full			! Newton Raphson - full
lumpm,0				! Lumped mass off
nsubst,20			! Number of substeps, 20
neqit,100			! Max no. of iterations
autots,off			! Auto time search off
lnsrch,on			! Line search on
outres,all,all			! Output data for all substeps
kbc,1				! Load applied in steps, not ramped

IC,all,temp,268			! Initial conditions, temp = 268

nsel,s,ext			! Node select all exterior nodes
sf,all,conv,10,368		! Apply a convection BC
nsel,all			! Reselect all nodes
/gst,off			! Turn off graphical convergence monitor

solve
finish

/post1				! Enter postprocessor
set,last			! Read in last subset of data
etable,melty,temp,		! Create an element table
esel,s,etab,melty,273		! Select all elements from table above 273
finish

/solu				! Re-enter solution phase
antype,,rest			! Restart analysis
ekill,all			! Kill all selected elements
esel,all			! Re-select all elements

finish

/post1				! Re-enter postprocessor
set,last			! Read in last subset of data
esel,s,live			! Select all live elements
plnsol,temp			! Plot the temp contour of the live elements

```