S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958. • Main page


Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, ÐÔÔÈ #06-06-80-420a, ÐÔÔÈ #07-06-00441-à



V. RELIGION

DETAILED SYNOPSIS

†V0.--V99. Religious services

†V0. Religious services

†V10. Religious sacrifices

†V20. Confession of sins

†V30. Sacrament

†V40. Mass

†V50. Prayer

†V60. Funeral rites

†V70. Religious fasts and feasts

†V80. Religious services -- miscellaneous

†V100.--V199. Religious edifices and objects

†V100. Religious edifices and objects

†V110. Religious buildings

†V120. Images

†V130. Other sacred objects connected with worship

†V140. Sacred relics

†V150. Sacred objects -- miscellaneous

†V200.--V299. Sacred persons

†V200. Sacred persons

†V210. Religious founders

†V220. Saints

†V230. Angels

†V250. The Virgin Mary

†V290. Other sacred persons

†V300.--V399. Religious beliefs

†V300. Religious beliefs

†V310. Particular dogmas

†V320. Heretics

†V330. Conversion from one religion to another

†V340. Miracle manifested to non-believers

†V350. Conflicts between religions

†V360. Christian and Jewish traditions about each other

†V380. Religious beliefs -- miscellaneous

V. RELIGION.

†V0-†V99. Religious services.

V0. †V0. Religious services. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Norwegian: Solheim 22; Jewish: *Neuman.

V1. †V1. Objects of worship. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 649b; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 214, *Boberg.

V1.1. †V1.1. Worship of particular gods and goddesses.

V1.1.1. †V1.1.1. Worship of one god. Jewish: Neuman.

V1.2. †V1.2. Worship of spirits.

V1.2.1. †V1.2.1. Worship of fairies. Irish myth: Cross (†V1.16, †V1.16.1); Icelandic: *Boberg.

V1.2.2. †V1.2.2. Worship of devil. Irish myth: Cross (†V1.15, †V1.15.1).

V1.2.3. †V1.2.3. Worship of "disar". Icelandic: *Boberg.

V1.2.4. †V1.2.4. Worship of angels. Jewish: *Neuman.

V1.3. †V1.3. Worship of ancestors. Encyc. Rel. Ethics I 425--67; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 411 s. v. "Ahnenfiguren"; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 160; Society Islands: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 561; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/619); Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 233, (Fang): Trilles 140.

V1.4. †V1.4. Worship of heavenly bodies. Jewish: Neuman.

V1.4.1. †V1.4.1. Worship of the sky. (Cf. †A210.)

V1.4.2. †V1.4.2. Worship of the sun. (Cf. †A220.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 12.

V1.4.3. †V1.4.3. Worship of moon. (Cf. †A240.) Jewish: Neuman.

V1.4.4. †V1.4.4. Worship of stars. (Cf. †A250.) Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

V1.5. †V1.5. Worship of manifestations in nature.

V1.5.1. †V1.5.1. Worship of clouds. (Cf. †A283.)

V1.5.2. †V1.5.2. Worship of thunder. (Cf. †A284.)

V1.5.3. †V1.5.3. Worship of wind. (Cf. †A282.)

V1.5.4. †V1.5.4. Worship of storm. (Cf. †A281.)

V1.5.5. †V1.5.5. Worship of dawn. (Cf. †A270.)

V1.5.6. †V1.5.6. Worship of light. (Cf. †A260.)

V1.5.6.1. †V1.5.6.1. Worship of rainbow. (Cf. †A288.)

V1.5.7. †V1.5.7. Worship of frost. (Cf. †A289.1.)

V1.6. †V1.6. Worship of elements of nature.

V1.6.1. †V1.6.1. Worship of earth. (Cf. †A400.) India: Thompson-Balys.

V1.6.1.1. †V1.6.1.1. Worship of mountains and hills. (Cf. †A495.) Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 65ff., (1931) 47ff.

V1.6.2. †V1.6.2. Worship of water. (Cf. †A420.)

V1.6.2.0.1. †V1.6.2.0.1. Worship of water-goddess. India: Thompson-Balys.

V1.6.2.1. †V1.6.2.1. Sacred rivers and lakes. (Cf. †A425.)

V1.6.2.2. †V1.6.2.2. Worship of sea. (Cf. †A421.) Irish myth: Cross.

V1.6.3. †V1.6.3. Worship of fire. (Cf. †A493.) Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 202c; Penzer III 160; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V1.6.3.1. †V1.6.3.1. Sacred fire. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 202b; Penzer I 260, II 247--55; Irish myth: *Cross.

V1.6.3.1.1. †V1.6.3.1.1. (Sacrificial) fire from which all others must be lighted. Irish myth: *Cross.

V1.6.4. †V1.6.4. Worship of minerals and metals. (Cf. †A492.)

V1.6.4.1. †V1.6.4.1. Sacred stones. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 322, Boberg, Schmidt DF XXXIX 86ff.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 88ff.; Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 382.

V1.6.4.2. †V1.6.4.2. Sacred shells. Tonga: Gifford 52; Tahiti: Henry 391.

V1.7. †V1.7. Worship of trees and plants. (Cf. †A430, †C51.2.2.) *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 611b; *Penzer II 96 n. 1, VII 162 n. 1; Schmidt Brandtrær og Ulykkestrær Danske Studier (1928) 54ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 214; S. Am. Indian (Antilles): Alexander Lat. Am. 25f.

V1.7.1. †V1.7.1. Sacred tree. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 611a; *Fb "træ" III 866a; Wimberly 156; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

V1.7.1.1. †V1.7.1.1. Sacred oak. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

V1.7.1.2. †V1.7.1.2. Sacred ash. Irish myth: *Cross.

V1.7.1.3. †V1.7.1.3. Sacred yew. Irish myth: *Cross.

V1.7.1.4. †V1.7.1.4. Sacred bo-tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

V1.8. †V1.8. Worship of animals. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 28a; Jewish: *Neuman.

V1.8.1. †V1.8.1. Cow worship. Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 142bc; **Burnell FL LVIII 377ff.; *Penzer II 240; Icelandic: Boberg.

V1.8.1.1. †V1.8.1.1. Bull worship. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V1.8.2. †V1.8.2. Horse worship. Penzer II 57; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 216, *Boberg.

V1.8.3. †V1.8.3. Dog worship. Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 167b; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Werner 422.

V1.8.4. †V1.8.4. Swine worship. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 109, *Boberg.

V1.8.5. †V1.8.5. Wolf worship. Icelandic: Boberg.

V1.8.6. †V1.8.6. Serpent worship. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 539a; *Penzer III 142; Jewish: *Neuman.

V1.8.7. †V1.8.7. Bird worship. (Cf. †A132.6.1.) Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 313f.

V1.8.8. †V1.8.8. Dragon worship. Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 103f.

V1.8.9. †V1.8.9. Lion worship. Jewish: Neuman.

V1.8.10. †V1.8.10. Ass worship. Jewish: Neuman.

V1.8.11. †V1.8.11. Fish worship. Marquesas: Handy 104; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 129.

V1.9. †V1.9. Worship of tools and implements.

V1.9.1. †V1.9.1. Plow worship. (Cf. †A432.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V1.9.2. †V1.9.2. Worship of weapons. Irish myth: *Cross.

V1.9.3. †V1.9.3. Worship of hammer (axe). Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 147.

V1.10. †V1.10. Worship of fetish. (Cf. †D1274.) *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 200a; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 96.

V1.10.1. †V1.10.1. Man worships a cake which from time to time he eats. *Chauvin V 24 No. 13 n. 1.

V1.10.2. †V1.10.2. Cult of heads. Irish myth: Cross.

V1.10.3. †V1.10.3. Sacred feather. Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 289.

V1.11. †V1.11. Worship of idols. (Cf. †Q558.12, †V11.10.) Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V1.11.1. †V1.11.1. Worship of golden calf. Jewish: Neuman.

V1.11.2. †V1.11.2. Worship of stone idols. Jewish: Neuman.

V1.11.3. †V1.11.3. Worship of wooden idol. Icelandic: *Boberg; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 16.

V4. †V4. Value of religious exercises.

V4.1. †V4.1. Religious exercises weighed in balance. A son doubts whether the words spoken by the priests to whom his father has willed a sum of money is worth so much. The words are put on paper and are found to outweigh the money. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 465; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 65, 113, Beal XXI 325, 335.

V5. †V5. Negligence in religious exercise. (Cf. †Q223.)

V5.1. †V5.1. Virgin Mary reproves a monk who sleeps at altar. Alphabet No. 284.

V5.2. †V5.2. Negligent priests buried under bags filled with words omitted from service. *Crane Vitry 141 No. 19.

V5.3. †V5.3. Devils cause monk to perspire and stay away from church service. Pauli (ed. Bolte). No. 260.

V10. †V10. Religious sacrifices. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 511b; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 19--54, 496--547; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 329; Jewish: *Neuman.

V10.1. †V10.1. Goddess prevents suicide of man despairing of ability to make sacrifice. India: Thompson-Balys.

V10.2. †V10.2. God dislikes offerings beyond one's ability. India: Thompson-Balys.

V11. †V11. Power to which sacrifice is made.

V11.1. †V11.1. Sacrifice to tree. (Cf. †V1.1.) *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 611a; Fb "træ" III 866a.

V11.2. †V11.2. Sacrifice to sea. *Penzer II 72 n. 1, VII 146 n. 1; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

V11.2.1. †V11.2.1. Sacrifice to river. India: Thompson-Balys.

V11.3. †V11.3. Sacrifice to stone. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 570; *Fb "sten" III 553a; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 225, *Boberg; Danish: Schmidt DF XXXIX 90ff.

V11.4. †V11.4. Sacrifices to Confucius. Encyc. Rel. Ethics IV 13f.; Chinese: Werner 102.

V11.5. †V11.5. Sacrifice to wind. Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 645b; Icelandic: *Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 307 No. 29; Greek: Euripides Iphigenia at Aulis.

V11.6. †V11.6. Sacrifice to the dead. (Cf. †A108.1.) *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 512b; Irish myth: *Cross.

V11.6.1. †V11.6.1. Human sacrifice in connection with funeral. (Cf. †S260.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V11.6.2. †V11.6.2. Animal sacrifice in connection with funeral. Irish myth: *Cross.

V11.7. †V11.7. Sacrifice to animal. Jewish: Neuman.

V11.7.1. †V11.7.1. Sacrifice to serpent. India: Thompson-Balys.

V11.8. †V11.8. Sacrifice to saint. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 89.

V11.9. †V11.9. Sacrifice to deity. Jewish: Neuman.

V11.9.1. †V11.9.1. Sacrifice to unknown god. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 70.

V11.10. †V11.10. Sacrifice to idols. (Cf. †V1.11.) Jewish: *Neuman.

V12. †V12. Nature of sacrifice.

V12.1. †V12.1. Blood as sacrifice. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 90.

V12.2. †V12.2. Jewels as sacrifice to sea. (Cf. †V11.2.) *Penzer II 72 n. 1.

V12.3. †V12.3. Skulls as sacrifice to a god. India: Thompson-Balys.

V12.4. †V12.4. Animals as sacrifice. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

V12.4.0.1. †V12.4.0.1. Sacrifice of animals at the edification of a temple. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†V17.8).

V12.4.1. †V12.4.1. Dog as sacrifice. Irish myth: Cross; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 218 No. 167.

V12.4.2. †V12.4.2. Cat as sacrifice. Irish myth: *Cross.

V12.4.3. †V12.4.3. Pig as sacrifice. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 218 No. 167.

V12.4.3.1. †V12.4.3.1. Hog as sacrifice. Icelandic: Boberg; Greek: Homer Odyssey XIV 435; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 123.

V12.4.4. †V12.4.4. Ox (bull) as sacrifice. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg: Greek: Homer passim; Jewish: Neuman.

V12.4.4.1. †V12.4.4.1. Cow as sacrifice. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

V12.4.4.1.1. †V12.4.4.1.1. Heifer as sacrifice. Greek: Homer passim.

V12.4.4.2. †V12.4.4.2. Calf as sacrifice. Jewish: *Neuman.

V12.4.5. †V12.4.5. Goat as sacrifice. Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

V12.4.6. †V12.4.6. Sheep (ram) as sacrifice. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; Jewish: Neuman.

V12.4.7. †V12.4.7. Hare as sacrifice. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

V12.4.8. †V12.4.8. Ass as sacrifice. *Krappe Classical Philology XLII (1947) 223--34; Jewish: *Neuman.

V12.4.9. †V12.4.9. Horse as sacrifice. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 262b; *Howey 185ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg.

V12.4.10. †V12.4.10. Fish as sacrifice. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 19, 420; Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 241.

V12.4.11. †V12.4.11. Bird as sacrifice. Jewish: *Neuman.

V12.5. †V12.5. Gold as sacrifice to false wooden god. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V12.6. †V12.6. Thrall as sacrifice. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V12.7. †V12.7. Eyes (human or animal) as sacrifice. Marquesas: Handy 134; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 130, 497.

V12.8. †V12.8. Flowers as sacrifice. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 16.

V12.9. †V12.9. Libations. Drink poured out to the gods. Greek: Homer passim; Chinese: Graham.

V12.10. †V12.10. Incense as sacrifice. Jewish: *Neuman.

V13. †V13. Sacrifice made when treasure is found. Fb "skat" III 235b.

V14. †V14. Sacrifice must be without blemish. Greek: Homer passim; Jewish: Neuman.

V15. †V15. Sacrifice: olive branch laid on altar of Mercy. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 375 n. 2.

V16. †V16. Sacrifice at religious festivals. Jewish: Neuman.

V16.1. †V16.1. Sacrifices at Passover. Jewish: Moreno Esdras, *Neuman.

V17. †V17. Purpose of sacrifice.

V17.0.1. †V17.0.1. Sacrifice to deity in order to obtain favors. India: Thompson-Balys.

V17.1. †V17.1. Sacrifice for a good year, crops. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V17.2. †V17.2. Sacrifice after committing a sin. Jewish: Neuman.

V17.3. †V17.3. Sacrifice to get help in danger. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V17.4. †V17.4. Sacrifice for good weather. (Cf. †V17.1.) Icelandic: Örvar-Odds saga 38f.

V17.4.1. †V17.4.1. Sacrifice to get snow and good conditions for skiing. Icelandic: Flateyjarbók I 21f., Boberg.

V17.5. †V17.5. Sacrifice to get knowledge.

V17.5.1. †V17.5.1. Sacrifice to find out where abducted daughter is. Icelandic: Flateyjarbók I 219, Boberg.

V17.6. †V17.6. Sacrifice in order that king may live 300 years. (Cf. †F571.7.) Icelandic: Boberg.

V17.7. †V17.7. Sacrifice to deity for return of abducted persons. India: Thompson-Balys.

V17.8. †V17.8. Sacrifice at edification of temple. (Cf. †V12.4.0.1.) Jewish: Neuman.

V17.9. †V17.9. Sacrifice by women at childbirth. Jewish: Neuman.

V18. †V18. Ceremony of sacrifice. Jewish: *Neuman.

V19. †V19. Religious sacrifices -- miscellaneous.

V19.1. †V19.1. Rising smoke as sign of acceptance of sacrifice. Jewish: *Neuman.

V20. †V20. Confession of sins. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 133b; *De Vooys Middelnederlandse Legenden en Exempelen (Den Haag, 1926) 241ff.; *R. Pettazzoni La confessione dei peccati (Bologna, 1929); Jewish: *Neuman; Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 143.

V20.1. †V20.1. Protection of sinners by confession. *Crane Vitry 245 No. 261, 246f. No. 263; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V20.1.1. †V20.1.1. A man without a confessor is a body without a head. Irish myth: *Cross.

V20.1.2. †V20.1.2. Confessor as "soul-friend". Irish myth: *Cross.

V21. †V21. Confession brings forgiveness of sin. Nouvelles de Sens No. 15; Spanish: Keller, Espinosa Jr. No. 182.

V21.1. †V21.1. Sincere confession miraculously obliterated as sign of forgiveness. *Crane Vitry 266f. Nos. 301, 302; Alphabet Nos. 205, 209; Scala Celi 44b, 46a, 55a, 56b, 85b, 104a Nos. 251, 258, 308, 316, 493, 561; Ward II 663 No. 12; Herbert III 259, 380, 432, 469.

V21.2. †V21.2. Woman confesses murder: unharmed by execution fire. Alphabet No. 466; Scala Celi 47a No. 265; Wright Latin Stories 66.

V21.3. †V21.3. Confession of monk who intended to rob monastery brings forgiveness. Eventually elected prior. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V21.4. †V21.4. Prior pardons sinning friar who has confessed. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V21.5. †V21.5. Sinner confesses before sinning and thus is pardoned. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V21.6. †V21.6. Sinner's tearmarks on written confession cause bishop to pardon his sins. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V22. †V22. Condemnation because of death without confession. (Cf. †Q223.4.) Alphabet Nos. 231, 455; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 89 No. 760A*, Keller.

V23. †V23. Miracle to permit confession.

V23.1. †V23.1. Unshriven man restored to life in order to confess. (Cf. †V251.) Herbert III 14; *Crane Vitry 267 No. 303; *Crane Miraculis 93 No. 27; English: Wells 167 (Vernon Miracles).

V23.2. †V23.2. Dumb man recovers speech in order to confess. *Fb "stum".

V24. †V24. Miraculous manifestation at confession.

V24.1. †V24.1. Confession of sins of a pilgrim calms a great storm at sea. Alphabet No. 174.

V25. †V25. Easy confession not effective.

V25.1. †V25.1. Man returns from dead to protest against priest who has been too easy with him at confession. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 303.

V25.2. †V25.2. Confession without giving up sin punished. Scala Celi 55a No. 309.

V27. †V27. Penance magically concluded by confession. Type 756B; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 136ff.

V29. †V29. Confession -- miscellaneous motifs.

V29.1. †V29.1. Search for confessor. Great sinner sent from one confessor to another. All say that his sins are too great for forgiveness. Finally he succeeds. *Type 756C; **Andrejev FFC LIV 28ff.; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 46, 48, Beal XXI 317.

V29.2. †V29.2. Monks shrive selves clean under threat of complete exposure of their sins by brother possessed of fiend. Alphabet No. 171.

V29.3. †V29.3. Miracle attests fact that man does not need to confess. He hangs his sack on a sunbeam. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 146 No. 1805A.

V29.4. †V29.4. Sodomist makes sport of confession. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V29.5. †V29.5. Unnecessary for husband to confess as his wife has already done it for him. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V29.6. †V29.6. Penitent brings manuscript of sins to confession. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V29.6.1. †V29.6.1. List of sins: schedule is returned miraculously cleansed of all his sins. *Loomis White Magic 131.

V29.7. †V29.7. Confessor and penitent exchange confidences. Balance sins and cancel wrongs. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V29.8. †V29.8. The devil goes to confession. Performs very severe penance, but cannot bear to humble himself and to stoop before the altar. (Cf. †G303.16.9.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 818*.

V29.9. †V29.9. Extortionate confessor demands golden statue. India: Thompson-Balys.

V30. †V30. Sacrament. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 510; DeVooys Middelnederlandse Legenden en Exempelen (Den Haag, 1926) 230ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

V30.1. †V30.1. The eaten god. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics V 136--39.

V30.1.1. †V30.1.1. Flesh of Artemis eaten as quail or bear. Greek: Fox 183.

V31. †V31. Unconsecrated host.

V31.1. †V31.1. Host taken away from sinful priest. Alphabet Nos 689, 691; Scala Celi 40b, 41a Nos. 229--36; Herbert III 398, 399, 465, 480, 483, 609, 709; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 409; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V31.2. †V31.2. Unconsecrated host ineffective. Alphabet No. 162.

V31.3. †V31.3. Unconsecrated host refused. Alphabet Nos. 161, 310.

V31.4. †V31.4. Altar casts away host with louse baked in it. Alphabet No. 690.

V31.5. †V31.5. Devil eats unblessed bread. Scala Celi 64b No. 353.

V32. †V32. Host miraculously given when it is refused a man by the priest. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 129; Alphabet Nos. 160, 420; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Icelandic: Boberg.

V33. †V33. Incredulity as to sacredness of host punished. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 687; Alphabet No. 309.

V33.1. †V33.1. Incredulity as to sacredness of host confounded by miraculous appearance. Scala Celi 42a, 65b, 66a Nos. 239, 357--60, 364; Herbert III 539.

V33.1.1. †V33.1.1. Incredulity of true transformation of host banished by actual appearance of Jesus's body and blood. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V34. †V34. Miraculous working of the host.

V34.1. †V34.1. Host cures disease. Alphabet No. 164.

V34.2. †V34.2. Princess sick because toad has swallowed her consecrated wafer. *Type 613; **Christiansen FFC XXIV 83f.; *BP I 322ff.

V34.3. †V34.3. Man who has received sacrament overcomes enemy, a blasphemer. Alphabet No. 163; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 535.

V34.4. †V34.4. Clothes of knight who kneels in mud before host as it passes miraculously kept clean. Alphabet No. 492; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V35. †V35. The stolen sacrament.

V35.1. †V35.1. Jews bribe woman to steal host for them: miraculous manifestations. Scala Celi 64a No. 350.

V35.1.1. †V35.1.1. Horse kneels before stolen sacrament. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 556; Mensa Philosophica No. 59; Scala Celi 64a Nos. 349f.

V35.1.2. †V35.1.2. Sacred image miraculously appears on stolen sacrament. (Cf. †V39.5.) Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 557.

V35.2. †V35.2. Stolen sacred hosts put into coffin. Before death, a woman asks to put a bag into coffin. It is filled with hosts. (Cf. †C55, †D1031.1.1.) Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 628ff.

V39. †V39. Sacrament -- miscellaneous motifs.

V39.1. †V39.1. Man considering self unworthy to receive host given it by God himself. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 687.

V39.2. †V39.2. Wicked woman unable to endure presence of host at mass. English: Wells 151 (Richard Coer de Lyon).

V39.3. †V39.3. Sacrament effective even from unworthy priest. Man who has refused such a sacrament shown a vision of a leper giving men good water without harm. Alphabet No. 687; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 126, Beal XXI 334, 337.

V39.4. †V39.4. Vision of sacrament in form of young child. Alphabet No. 694; Scala Celi 66a Nos. 360--64; Toldo IV 49ff.; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 109.

V39.5. †V39.5. Sacred image appears on host. Woman who has vowed not to use make-up or ornaments thus rewarded. (Cf. †V35.1.2.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V39.6. †V39.6. Host given as pledge to keep one's word. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V39.7. †V39.7. Voice from grave asks that it be opened. Corpse spits out host because he has missed confession. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V39.8. †V39.8. Sick men die and go to hell because they hesitate to take sacrament. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V39.9. †V39.9. Woman who eats before communion cannot swallow the wafer. Irish myth: *Cross.

V40. †V40. Mass. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 368a; Irish myth: *Cross.

V41. †V41. Masses work miracles. *Herbert III 273ff. passim; Scala Celi 130b, 131a Nos. 712--16.

V41.1. †V41.1. Imprisoned miner kept alive by masses performed by his wife. Ward II 675; Herbert III *85, 284, 324, 365; Alphabet No. 499.

V41.2. †V41.2. Hearing masses causes triumph in tournament. Angel takes absent knight's place. He is delayed by going to mass. *Liebrecht 29; Alphabet No. 462; Scala Celi 130b No. 714; *Ward II 662; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V42. †V42. Masses release souls from hell (purgatory). Herbert III 284 Nos. 54ff. passim, 473; Alphabet Nos. 613, 652; Scala Celi 111b No. 620; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 228; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 99, Beal XXI 332; English: Wells 172 (Trentalle Sancti Gregorii); Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 11; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 192--97.

V43. †V43. Holy man has his own mass. (Cf. †F1011.1, †V29.3.) When upbraided for not coming to mass, he hangs his coat on a sunbeam. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 309 No. 10; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 147 No. 1805B.

V44. †V44. Faithful attendance at mass outweighs evil deeds. *Crane Vitry Nos. 223ff. passim; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 98, Beal XXI 331.

V45. †V45. Mass said for dead; they arise and say "Amen". Scala Celi 133a No. 732.

V46. †V46. Pebble put in box each time mass is heard. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 127.

V48. †V48. The canonical hours. Irish myth: *Cross.

V49. †V49. Mass -- miscellaneous motifs.

V49.1. †V49.1. Werwolves hold mass. (Cf. †D113.1.1, †E492, †G243.) Köhler-Bolte I 134; Gascon: Bladé Contes pop. de Gascogne II 360 No. 4.

V49.2. †V49.2. Angel holds mass in church on the day that the king absents himself for sake of hunting trip. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V50. †V50. Prayer. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 470a; Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Jewish: *Neuman.

V51. †V51. Learning to pray. Jewish: Neuman.

V51.1. †V51.1. Man who does not know how to pray so holy that he walks on water. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 332; **Andrejev "Tri Starca" Novoje Delo (Kazan, 1922) (Cf. Anderson Zs. f. Vksk. XXX-XXXII 171); Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 827*; Russian: Andrejev No. 827*.

V51.2. †V51.2. Worldly-minded learn to pray by thinking of their usual business. Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 334, 338; Scala Celi 37b No. 209.

V51.3. †V51.3. Woman shows that the Lord's Prayer is the best. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 333.

V51.4. †V51.4. Woman taught that it is better to pray before Christ's image than before a saint's. Wesselski Arlotto I 201 No. 26.

V51.5. †V51.5. "Beatus" best prayer for saving condemned souls. (Cf. †E754.1.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V52. †V52. Miraculous power of prayer. Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 334, O'Suilleabhain 112; Spanish Exempla: Keller; West Indies: Flowers 579. Cf. Nouvelles de Sens No. 26.

V52.1. †V52.1. Man saved from lechery through prayer. Alphabet No. 65; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V52.2. †V52.2. Continuous prayer sustains man through frightful vigil. *Type 307; *BP III 534; *Köhler-Bolte II 213ff.; Irish: Beal XXI 313, 319, O'Suilleabhain 37, 53; Japanese: Ikeda.

V52.3. †V52.3. Prayer before battle brings victory. Scala Celi 151b No. 833; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

V52.4. †V52.4. Objects supplied through prayer. Irish myth: Cross.

V52.5. †V52.5. Prayer restores shattered vessel. Irish myth: Cross.

V52.6. †V52.6. Mariners saved from maelstrom through prayer. Irish myth: Cross.

V52.7. †V52.7. Prayer at saint's flagstone averts trouble. Irish myth: Cross.

V52.8. †V52.8. Prayer brings death to enemy. Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 105, 345.

V52.9. †V52.9. Prayer for protection on journey to land of dead. Irish myth: *Cross.

V52.10. †V52.10. Prayers of devout woman free husband from death and imprisonment. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V52.11. †V52.11. Prayer of sinner changes his color from black into white. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V52.12. †V52.12. The clever brothers work, the foolish brother only prays; finally he acquires all the property. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1666*.

V52.13. †V52.13. Saint's Paternoster outweighs ox. Irish myth: Cross.

V52.14. †V52.14. Reciting martyrology will prevent decomposition of body of one who recites it. Irish myth: Cross.

V52.15. †V52.15. Prayer said by saint into his right hand restores displaced eye of opponent. Irish myth: *Cross

V53. †V53. Prayers of family comfort prisoner. Alphabet No. 298.

V53.1. †V53.1. Prayer unfastens boy's fetters. (Cf. †R211.) Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 345.

V55. †V55. Man worships devil's image in order to secure advancement. Scala Celi 8b No. 56; Alphabet No. 50.

V57. †V57. Purpose of prayer.

V57.1. †V57.1. Prayer for good harvest. India: Thompson-Balys; Maori: Clark 32.

V57.2. †V57.2. Prayer for shower of gold. India: Thompson-Balys.

V57.3. †V57.3. Prayer on special occasions. Jewish: *Neuman.

V58. †V58. Prayer as ceremony.

V58.1. †V58.1. Prayers at sunrise and sunset. Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 143.

V58.2. †V58.2. Prayer with face toward east. Irish myth: Cross.

V58.3. †V58.3. Repeated circumambulations with prayer. India: Thompson-Balys.

V58.4. †V58.4. Handwashing before prayer. Greek: Homer passim; Jewish: *Neuman.

V58.5. †V58.5. Prayer shawl. Jewish: Neuman.

V59. †V59. Prayers answered -- miscellaneous. India: *Thompson-Balys.

V59.1. †V59.1. Skill in theft granted as answer to prayer. Africa (Duala): Lederbogen JAS IV 64.

V60. †V60. Funeral rites. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 212a; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

V60.1. †V60.1. Stones sold at funeral wakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

V60.2. †V60.2. Funeral rites by druids. Irish myth: Cross.

V61. †V61. Various ways of disposing of dead.

V61.1. †V61.1. Dead placed on boat. Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 79c, 545b; Fb "skib" III 243b; Icelandic: *Boberg. Cf. Beowulf.

V61.2. †V61.2. Dead burned on pyre. (Cremation.) *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 143c; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

V61.3. †V61.3. Coffin buried upright. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "cercueil".

V61.3.0.1. †V61.3.0.1. Hero buried in armor, standing with face toward land of enemies. (Cf. †V67.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V61.3.0.2. †V61.3.0.2. Person buried in standing position with friends about him. Irish myth: Cross.

V61.3.0.3. †V61.3.0.3. Man buried upright beneath kitchen stairway in order that he may watch his family. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V61.4. †V61.4. Head buried one place, body another. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

V61.4.1. †V61.4.1. Corpse buried face down. (Cf. †S139.2.2.3.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

V61.4.2. †V61.4.2. Dismemberment before burial. Gaster Thespis 242.

V61.5. †V61.5. King buried in his war car. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V61.6. †V61.6. Christian buried in stone coffin. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V61.7. †V61.7. Christian buried in wooden coffin. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V61.8. †V61.8. Burial in grave-mound. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V61.8.1. †V61.8.1. Chiefs buried in hidden caves. Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 224.

V61.9. †V61.9. Lion buried in stone cave with gold letters. Icelandic: Boberg.

V61.10. †V61.10. Corpses exposed in tree. Greek: Argonautica III 205.

V61.11. †V61.11. Aversion to burial in "strange city". Irish myth: Cross.

V62. †V62. Restrictions on burial.

V62.1. †V62.1. Funeral rites forbidden. Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Fox 53, Sophocles' "Antigone".

V62.2. †V62.2. Only usurers to carry body of usurer to grave. Alphabet No. 793.

V63. †V63. Bones of dismembered person assembled and buried. (Cf. †E30.) Type 720; BP I 412ff., *422.

V64. †V64. Money tied on corpse thrown overboard from ship in order to secure burial. Child III 342, IV 506.

V64.1. †V64.1. Shipwrecked each get a piece of the chief's gold ring in order to have gold with them in death. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V65. †V65. Commemoration of death. Irish myth: Cross.

V65.1. †V65.1. Calves kept separate from cows in commemoration of hero's death. Irish myth: Cross.

V65.2. †V65.2. Drinking festival in memory of the dead. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V65.3. †V65.3. Wedding and funeral festival on same time. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V65.4. †V65.4. Professional mourning. Virgil Aeneid XI 37; Greek: Aeschylus Libation-Pourers 423; India: Thompson-Balys.

V65.4.1. †V65.4.1. Funeral song sung over dead. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. VIII 1071ff.; *E. Reiner Die rituelle Totenklage der Griechen (Stuttgart, 1938); Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

V65.5. †V65.5. Funeral games. Virgil Aeneid V 66; Irish myth: *Cross.

V66. †V66. Funeral sermon.

V66.1. †V66.1. Witty funeral sermon. Priest having nothing good to say about man damns him with faint praise or gives anecdotes with unfavorable implications. (Cf. †K1961.1.2.1.) *Wesselski Arlotto I 216ff. No. 64.

V67. †V67. Accompaniments of burial. (Cf. †V61.3.0.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

V67.1. †V67.1. Ornaments (arms, chariots) buried with hero. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

V67.2. †V67.2. Shoes buried with the dead. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 305.

V67.3. †V67.3. Treasure buried with the dead. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V67.3.1. †V67.3.1. King buried with immense treasure in the ground of an artificially dried river; later the normal course of the river is restored. *Krappe "Les funérailles d'Alaric" Annuaire de l'institut de philologie et d'histoire orientales et slaves VII 229--40.

V67.4. †V67.4. Men buried with dead chief. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V67.4.1. †V67.4.1. Captain buried with his crew. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V67.5. †V67.5. Animals buried with the dead. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V68. †V68. Preparations for burial. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Lagerholm 33, *Boberg.

V68.1. †V68.1. Dead washed (in river). Irish myth: *Cross.

V68.2. †V68.2. Dead washed and hair combed. Icelandic: Boberg.

V68.3. †V68.3. Dying hero wants to be buried in the clothes of his brother who killed him. Icelandic: Boberg.

V68.4. †V68.4. Dead is undressed. Icelandic: Göngu-Hrólfs saga 245.

V68.4.1. †V68.4.1. Dead not to be buried naked. Jewish: Neuman.

V68.5. †V68.5. Dead rubbed with red paint. Africa (Fang): Trilles 140.

V69. †V69. Funeral rites -- miscellaneous.

V69.1. †V69.1. All dead are buried after battle. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V69.2. †V69.2. Hero buried as unknown merchant in foreign country. Icelandic: Boberg.

V70. †V70. Religious feasts and fasts. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 198; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V70.1. †V70.1. The first day of summer. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V70.1.1. †V70.1.1. Festival of Beltane (== May Day). Irish myth: *Cross.

V70.2. †V70.2. Whitsuntide. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V70.3. †V70.3. Midsummer. (Cf. †A1535.3.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

V70.3.1. †V70.3.1. Feast of Saint John the Baptist. Irish myth: *Cross.

V70.4. †V70.4. Harvest-festival. Icelandic: *Boberg.

V70.5. †V70.5. Festival of Samhain (Hallowe'en, Tara [Temair]). Irish myth: *Cross.

V70.6. †V70.6. Festival of Imbolg (Brigit, Candlemas). Irish myth: *Cross.

V70.7. †V70.7. Feast of the new moon. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†V74).

V70.8. †V70.8. Festival of Cenn (Crom) Cruaich. Irish myth: *Cross.

V71. †V71. Sabbath. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 509c; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†V71.2.), *Neuman.

V71.1. †V71.1. Jewish automaton will not work on Saturday. *Dickson 212 n. 140.

V71.1.1. †V71.1.1. Manna does not descend on Sabbath. Jewish: *Neuman.

V71.2. †V71.2. Misfortune ascribed to breaking Sabbath. Irish myth: *Cross.

V71.3. †V71.3. Various events, from creation to Resurrection, that occurred on Sabbath. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

V72. †V72. Christmas. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 121b; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX 979ff., IX Nachträge 864--968; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

V72.1. †V72.1. Little Christmas. Irish myth: Cross.

V73. †V73. Fasts. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V73.0.1. †V73.0.1. Christ in the desert overcomes devil by fasting. Irish myth: Cross.

V73.1. †V73.1. Fast to prevent pestilence. Irish myth: *Cross.

V73.2. †V73.2. Fast improves health. Irish myth: Cross.

V73.3. †V73.3. Saint causes two youths to be fed with the best food, says one is doomed to go to hell, the other will practice austerity in his old age. Irish myth: *Cross.

V73.4. †V73.4. Fasting to secure a prosperous journey. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†V74.1).

V73.5. †V73.5. Fasting on "Golden Fridays" as charm against certain misfortunes. Irish myth: *Cross.

V73.6. †V73.6. Lent. Irish myth: Cross.

V73.6.1. †V73.6.1. Christ's forty-days' fast called "His Lent". Irish myth: Cross.

V73.6.2. †V73.6.2. Saint remains silent during Lent by holding stone in mouth. Irish myth: *Cross.

V73.6.3. †V73.6.3. Holy man eats pork and beef in Lent because pig is raised on milk, ox on grass; but refuses to eat cake because it contains weevils (live meat). Irish myth: Cross.

V75. †V75. Easter. Irish myth: *Cross.

V75.1. †V75.1. Passover. Jewish: Moreno Esdras, *Neuman.

V80. †V80. Religious services -- miscellaneous.

V81. †V81. Baptism. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 61c; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 337, O'Suilleabhain 128; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

V81.1. †V81.1. Girl having been stolen by mountain-folk must be baptized anew. *Fb "døbe" I 227.

V81.2. †V81.2. Tails fall off mountain spirits when they are baptized. Fb "hale" IV 197b.

V81.3. †V81.3. Metamorphosis brought about by baptism. Monster born of union of heathen ruler and Christian maiden becomes a handsome boy on being baptized. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V81.4. †V81.4. Baptism of infants. Maori: Clark 185.

V81.5. †V81.5. Sea bath as purificatory rite. Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 144; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 152, 176.

V82. †V82. Circumcision. (Cf. †F81.3.) *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 126c; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

V83. †V83. Hymns. Irish myth: *Cross.

V84. †V84. Excommunication. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 193b; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

V84.1. †V84.1. Lightning strikes excommunicated person who enters church. Scala Celi 85b No. 492.

V84.2. †V84.2. Priest shows power of excommunication over host. It turns black. Scala Celi 85b No. 495; Herbert III 446 No. 17.

V84.3. †V84.3. Pirate excommunicated, goes on pilgrimage as penance. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V85. †V85. Religious pilgrimages. (Cf. †V84.3.) Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 186f.

V86. †V86. Sign of the Cross. Encyc. Rel. Ethics VI 539b; Fb "kors" II 274; Scala Celi 67b--71b Nos. 373--404 passim.

V86.1. †V86.1. Sign of cross protects from injury.

V86.1.1. †V86.1.1. Sign of cross prevents child from being stolen from cradle. Fb "kors" II 285f.

V86.1.2. †V86.1.2. Sign of cross prevents garment from burning. Alphabet No. 232.

V86.1.3. †V86.1.3. Man dies because he has killed a man with the sign of the cross on his forehead. Köhler-Bolte I 382.

V86.2. †V86.2. Martyr with sign of cross on his heart. (Cf. †V254.3.) Herbert III 77, 416, 467, 487, 530; Scala Celi 69b No. 388; Alphabet No. 563.

V86.3. †V86.3. Punishment for profane use of the cross. Drunkard kisses cross, thinking it is a bottle of wine. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 271.

V86.4. †V86.4. Miraculous manifestations to scoffers of the cross. Alphabet. No. 230; English: Wells 97 (Chevalere Assigne), 89 (The Sege of Melayne).

V86.5. †V86.5. Praying with arms extended so as to form a cross. Irish myth: *Cross.

V86.6. †V86.6. Loaf bursts in oven because sign of cross has not been made over it. Irish myth: *Cross.

V86.7. †V86.7. The seven significances of the sign of the cross. Irish myth: Cross.

V87. †V87. Christening.

V88. †V88. Ceremony of the proclamation of a Buddha. Chinese: Werner 271.

V91. †V91. Accidental calling on god's name held to outweigh a life of wickedness. Hindu: Keith 180.

V92. †V92. "Our Lady's Tumbler." A tumbler, turned monk, dances while others chant psalms. He is praising God in the only way he knows. *Herbert III 417; *Wicksteed Romania II 315; Romanische Forschungen XI 223.

V93. †V93. Religious dancing. (Cf. †A1542.) India: Thompson-Balys.

V96. †V96. Ritual bathing. Jewish: *Neuman.

V96.1. †V96.1. Taking bath in a sacred river (Ganges). India: Thompson-Balys.

V97. †V97. Study of Tora as religious service. Jewish: *Neuman.

†V100-†V199. Religious edifices and objects.

V100. †V100. Religious edifices and objects. Irish myth: Cross.

V110. †V110. Religious buildings. Irish myth: *Cross.

V111. †V111. Churches. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 123c; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 335, O'Suilleabhain 112.

V111.1. †V111.1. Visit to certain church protects from drowning on pilgrimage. (Cf. †D1384, †D1388.) Irish myth: Cross.

V111.2. †V111.2. Stones for building church (chapel) miraculously supplied. (Cf. †D931.0.1.) Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

V111.3. †V111.3. Place where a church must be built miraculously indicated. *Loomis White Magic 127f.

V111.3.1. †V111.3.1. Birds indicate the site where a church is to be built by making a model of the structure on the spot. *Loomis White Magic 68.

V111.3.2. †V111.3.2. Divine person points out site for church. United States: Baughman.

V112. †V112. Temples. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 591b; Jewish: *Neuman.

V112.0.1. †V112.0.1. Ark of the temple. Jewish: *Neuman.

V112.1. †V112.1. Spirit huts. Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 69; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 112.

V112.2. †V112.2. Mosques.

V112.3. †V112.3. Synagogues. Jewish: *Neuman.

V113. †V113. Shrines. (Cf. †C51.1.) *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 546a; Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Jewish: Neuman.

V113.0.1. †V113.0.1. Miracles at shrine. India: Thompson-Balys.

V113.0.2. †V113.0.2. Vow to visit shrine. India: Thompson-Balys.

V113.1. †V113.1. Cripples at shrine frightened and run away without crutches. *Herbert III 21; *Crane Vitry 241f. No. 254.

V113.2. †V113.2. Robbers promise to make offerings to the shrine of a hermit if successful. India: Thompson-Balys.

V114. †V114. Sacred groves. *Frazer Golden Bough XII 293 s. v. "Grove(s), sacred"; Irish myth: *Cross.

V114.1. †V114.1. Sacred groves of druids. Irish myth: *Cross.

V115. †V115. Church bells. Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 69a; Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 868ff.; E. Lippert Glockenläuten als Rechtsbrauch (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1939); *P. Sartori Das Buch von deutschen Glocken (Berlin, 1932). --Irish myth: *Cross; Norwegian: Solheim Register 21.

V115.1. †V115.1. Church bell sunk in river (sea). (Cf. †F993.) *Fb. "kirkeklokke" IV 260b; Wales, England: *Baughman; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 47 No. 88; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 72 Nos. 608--11; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 135 No. 88.

V115.1.1. †V115.1.1. Sunken bell travels on sea bottom. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 72 No. 609.

V115.1.2. †V115.1.2. Raising sunken church bell. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 73 No. 620.

V115.1.3. †V115.1.3. Sunken church bell cannot be raised. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 73 Nos. 612--22.

V115.1.3.1. †V115.1.3.1. Church bell cannot be raised because silence is broken. (Cf. †C401.4.) Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 72f. Nos. 612, 613, 619.

V115.1.3.2. †V115.1.3.2. Church bell cannot be raised because person blasphemes. England: *Baughman.

V115.2. †V115.2. Girl sold for new church bell. (Cf. †S210.) England: Child I 91ff.

V115.3. †V115.3. Devil buys church bell and demoralizes congregation. They have always come early before since they had no bell to announce the time. Now they wait for the bell. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 92.

V115.4. †V115.4. What church bells say. Fb "kirkeklokke" IV 260A.

V116. †V116. Altars. (Cf. †V135.) *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 18a; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V117. †V117. Pulpits.

V118. †V118. Monasteries. Irish myth: *Cross.

V118.0.1. †V118.0.1. Hell as a monastery -- the devil, abbot; sinners, monks. Irish myth: Cross.

V118.1. †V118.1. Monastery on otherworld island. Irish myth: Cross.

V118.2. †V118.2. Subaqueous monastery. Irish myth: *Cross.

V118.2.1. †V118.2.1. Submarine oratory. Irish myth: *Cross.

V120. †V120. Images. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 271b; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V120.1. †V120.1. Images and druids. Irish myth: Cross.

V121. †V121. Miraculous image of Christ impressed on napkin. Veronica. Ward II 641 No. 20.

V122. †V122. Image bars way of nun trying to escape convent to join lover. Wesselski Mönchslatein 74 No. 65.

V122.1. †V122.1. Image of Jesus descends from cross and wounds nun leaving convent. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V123. †V123. Image blamed by suppliant for misfortunes. Type 1479**, *Wesselski Arlotto I 196 No. 23; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys.

V123.1. †V123.1. God under compulsion: suppliant threatens to mutilate (crush) holy image if his wish is not fulfilled. India: Thompson-Balys.

V124. †V124. Preacher criticizes the likeness of Christ exhibited in his church. Says that it is unworthy of the original. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V124.1. †V124.1. Saint hangs cowl in thornbrake as symbol of Christ on the Cross. Irish myth: Cross.

V125. †V125. Casting of image of Buddha delayed until a maniac's mite is thrown into the furnace. Chinese: Werner 401.

V126. †V126. Image of saint speaks. *Loomis White Magic 124.

V127. †V127. Image of deity in wood (stone). (Cf. †V1.11.) Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 111; Cook Islands: ibid. 131; Marquesas: Handy 122; Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 344.

V128. †V128. Motions of various kinds attributed to images.

V128.1. †V128.1. An apple is offered to a statue of the Virgin and her child. The infant reaches out and takes the fruit. *Loomis White Magic 124.

V128.2. †V128.2. Portraits exude oil. *Loomis White Magic 124.

V130. †V130. Other sacred objects connected with worship.

V131. †V131. Religious robes (vestments). *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 629c; Gaster Thespis 270f.; Jewish: *Neuman.

V131.1. †V131.1. Sight of holy fringe on garment restrains a man from fornication and reforms the harlot. Gaster Exempla 192f. No. 35; Jewish: *Neuman.

V131.2. †V131.2. White robes of druids. Irish myth: *Cross.

V132. †V132. Holy water. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics IV 61f.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

V132.1. †V132.1. Holy water prevents a man from committing incest with his daughter. (Cf. †T411.) Alphabet No. 523.

V132.2. †V132.2. Holy water disperses demons. (Cf. †D1385.) Irish myth: Cross.

V132.2.1. †V132.2.1. Holy water removes mark placed on man's face by the devil. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V132.3. †V132.3. Drinking holy water facilitates cursing. Irish myth: Cross.

V133. †V133. Holy candles. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics III 188ff.

V134. †V134. Sacred wells. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 640c; Fb "kilde" II 119: Namn och Bygd XXXIII (1945) 1ff. --Danish: Schmidt Danmarks Helligkilder (DF XXXIII); Irish myth: *Cross; England, Wales, Ireland, U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: *Boberg.

V134.0.1. †V134.0.1. Tree beside holy well. Irish myth: *Cross.

V134.1. †V134.1. Oracles and auguries from holy well. Irish myth: *Cross.

V134.2. †V134.2. Offerings to holy wells. Irish myth: *Cross.

V134.3. †V134.3. Fish in water from certain well: water refuses to boil till fish are returned to well. Irish myth: *Cross.

V134.4. †V134.4. Ducks in pool in church: water in which they are placed refuses to boil till ducks are restored to pool. Irish myth: *Cross.

V135. †V135. Altar cloths. (Cf. †F962.12.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

V135.1. †V135.1. Poverty-stricken couple wrap newly-born child in altar-coverings. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V136. †V136. Bible. Irish myth: Cross.

V136.1. †V136.1. Copy of gospels buried with saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V137. †V137. House of woman who launders clothes for church spared in great fire. Alphabet No. 76.

V140. †V140. Sacred relics. **Saintyves Les réliques et les images légendaires (Paris, 1912); Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 493a.

V140.1. †V140.1. Angel reveals (buried) relics to saint. Irish myth: *Cross.

V140.2. †V140.2. Saint's relics miraculously recovered. *Loomis White Magic 127f.

V140.3. †V140.3. A cow licks the stone under which the secreted body of saint is buried. *Loomis White Magic 62.

V140.4. †V140.4. Testing the authenticity of relics: bones are cast into fire; with great noise they jump away from the flames. *Loomis White Magic 92.

V141. †V141. Possession of relic brings prosperity, its loss sickness. Wesselski Mönchslatein 113 No. 96.

V142. †V142. Devout possessor of false relics miraculously receives authentic ones. Alphabet Nos. 89, 402; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V142.1. †V142.1. Sham relics perform miracles if faith is great. India: *Thompson-Balys.

V143. †V143. Saint's bones for lack of worship remove themselves from church. (Cf. †D1641.) Alphabet No. 679.

V143.1. †V143.1. Saint's bones miraculously removed from reliquary broken in pillage. Irish myth: Cross.

V143.2. †V143.2. Relics (images) carried away return to their original church. *Loomis White Magic 48.

V144. †V144. Belief in miraculous powers of sacred relics. Irish myth: Cross.

V144.1. †V144.1. Sacred relics carried in battle to aid victory. Irish myth: Cross.

V144.2. †V144.2. The relics of saint protect horses from the attack of wild beasts. *Loomis White Magic 106.

V150. †V150. Sacred objects -- miscellaneous.

V151. †V151. Sacred writings. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 530a; Irish myth: *Cross.

V151.1. †V151.1. Captive released because of ability to recite beginning of Genesis. (Cf. †J1185.) Gaster Exempla 193 No. 38.

†V200-†V299. Sacred persons.

V200. †V200. Sacred persons.

V200.1. †V200.1. Flame illuminates cradle of sacred person. (Cf. †H41.4.) Saintyves Saints Successeurs 247--48.

V201. †V201. God. *Encyc. Relic Ethics Index 223b.

V202. †V202. Sacred spirits. Hawaii: *Beckwith Myth 104, 107, 108, 180, 382, 447, 512.

V205. †V205. Royal family as sacred.

V205.1. †V205.1. Third son of king possesses sacred power. Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 130.

V210. †V210. Religious founders. Jewish: *Neuman.

V211. †V211. Christ. *DeVooys Middelnederlandse Legenden en Exempelen (Den Haag, 1926) 129ff.; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

V211.0.1. †V211.0.1. Christ born from crown of Virgin's head. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.0.2. †V211.0.2. Christ conceived on same day He was crucified. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.0.3. †V211.0.3. Seventeen marvels at the birth of Christ. Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.0.4. †V211.0.4. Christ as prophet. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.0.5. †V211.0.5. Christ called "druid". Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.1. †V211.1. The Nativity of Christ. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.1. †V211.1.1. Air fragrant at Nativity. (Cf. †V222.4.) Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.2. †V211.1.2. Star shines through day of Nativity. (Cf. †F961.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.2.1. †V211.1.2.1. Hairy star appears before Nativity. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.3. †V211.1.3. Shining cloud marks place of Nativity. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.3.1. †V211.1.3.1. Vast intolerable light on night of Christ's Nativity. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.4. †V211.1.4. Virgin suffers no birth pangs at Christ's Nativity. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.5. †V211.1.5. Elements silent and motionless at Nativity. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.6. †V211.1.6. A "crown of thorns" among gifts given by the shepherds to Joseph, husband of Virgin Mary. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.7. †V211.1.7. Three (seven) druids come to adore infant Jesus. Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.1.8. †V211.1.8. The Infant Jesus. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.8.1. †V211.1.8.1. Christ in form of an infant nursed by saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.8.2. †V211.1.8.2. Christ in form of an infant fondled by nuns. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.1.8.3. †V211.1.8.3. Christ as infant in mother's arms causes bare hillside to become field of wheat as protection. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.2. †V211.2. Christ on earth. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.2.1. †V211.2.1. Fiery pillar as sign of Christ's visit. (Cf. †F964.0.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

V211.2.1.1. †V211.2.1.1. Christ disguised as leper. Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.2.1.2. †V211.2.1.2. Christ disguised as beggar. Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.2.1.2.1. †V211.2.1.2.1. Jesus had "dark hair and a long red beard". Irish myth: Cross.

V211.2.2. †V211.2.2. Christ leaves bachall after visit. (Cf. †D1277.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.2.3. †V211.2.3. The Crucifixion. Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.2.3.0.1. †V211.2.3.0.1. Angel warns of Christ's danger. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.2.3.0.2. †V211.2.3.0.2. Smith's wife made nails for the Cross because her husband believed Christ to be a true prophet. *Loomis White Magic 51f.

V211.2.3.1. †V211.2.3.1. Earth trembles at Crucifixion. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.2.3.2. †V211.2.3.2. Moon bloody at Crucifixion. (Cf. †F961.3.) Irish myth: Cross.

V211.2.3.3. †V211.2.3.3. Sun darkened at Crucifixion. (Cf. †F965.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

V211.3. †V211.3. Finding of the Cross. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.4. †V211.4. Construction of the Cross.

V211.4.1. †V211.4.1. Cross of Christ made of four kinds of wood. Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.5. †V211.5. The five wounds of Christ. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.5.1. †V211.5.1. Blood and wine issue from wound in side of crucified Savior. Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.6. †V211.6. Dialogue between Christ and the Virgin Mary. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.7. †V211.7. Christ's descent to hell. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.7.1. †V211.7.1. The harrowing of hell. Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.7.2. †V211.7.2. Dialogue (debate) between Christ and Satan (at the harrowing of hell). Irish myth: *Cross.

V211.7.3. †V211.7.3. The three bolts left on hell by Christ. Irish myth: Cross.

V211.8. †V211.8. Christ's resurrection (on March 27). Irish myth: Cross.

V211.9. †V211.9. Christ's ascent to Heaven (on May 5). Irish myth: Cross.

V211.10. †V211.10. Letter (message) of Christ. Irish myth: *Cross. Cf. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 642.

V211.10.1. †V211.10.1. Christ sends message to voyaging clerics. Irish myth: Cross.

V212. †V212. Buddha.

V212.1. †V212.1. Sacred books received from Buddha in person. Chinese: Werner 340.

V212.2. †V212.2. Precepts heard from Buddha in person. India: Thompson-Balys.

V220. †V220. Saints. **Toldo Studien zur vgl. Litgsch. I--IX passim; **Saintyves Saints Successeurs 23--26; *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 514a. --Norwegian: Solheim Register 22; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 140--42, 162, 210, 411. For references in addition to those given below, see volume VI s. v. "Saints".

V221. †V221. Miraculous healing by saints. Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 246a; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: *Boberg.

V221.0.1. †V221.0.1. Relics of saint cure disease. Alphabet Nos. 398, 432; *Loomis White Magic 104.

V221.0.1.1. †V221.0.1.1. Oil flowing from relics has curative powers. *Loomis White Magic 104.

V221.0.1.2. †V221.0.1.2. The wine (water) occasionally used to bathe relics assumes healing powers. *Loomis White Magic 104.

V221.0.1.3. †V221.0.1.3. Shrine of saint carried around to suppress pestilence. *Loomis White Magic 105.

V221.0.2. †V221.0.2. Saint miraculously healed. Irish myth: Cross.

V221.0.2.1. †V221.0.2.1. Crippled saint miraculously receives horse and chariot. Irish myth: Cross.

V221.0.3. †V221.0.3. Miraculous healing power of saint as child. *Loomis White Magic 25.

V221.1. †V221.1. Saint cures palsy. Alphabet No. 731; Irish myth: *Cross.

V221.2. †V221.2. Saint restores dumb man's speech. (Cf. †D1507.) Alphabet No. 401; Icelandic: *Boberg.

V221.3. †V221.3. Saint cures leprosy. Irish myth: *Cross.

V221.3.1. †V221.3.1. Leper cured by the kiss of a saint. *Loomis White Magic 103.

V221.4. †V221.4. Saint subdues madman. (Cf. †D1508.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V221.4.0.1. †V221.4.0.1. Saint cures frenzied animal. Irish myth: *Cross.

V221.4.0.1.1. †V221.4.0.1.1. Saint's blessing sufficient to control a mad dog. *Loomis White Magic 106.

V221.5. †V221.5. Saint purifies monk with sign of the cross. (Cf. †D1766.6.) Irish myth: Cross.

V221.6. †V221.6. Saint sustains man on gallows. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V221.7. †V221.7. Woman relieved of incurable malady by kissing letter from saint. (Cf. †D1266.1.) *Loomis White Magic 105.

V221.8. †V221.8. Wounds cured by saint leave no scars. *Loomis White Magic 106.

V221.9. †V221.9. Cut off parts of body attached again by saint. *Loomis White Magic 84.

V221.10. †V221.10. Men with enormous and unnatural appetite cured by saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V221.11. †V221.11. Saint cures dumb person. Irish myth: *Cross.

V221.12. †V221.12. Saint cures blindness. Irish myth: *Cross.

V222. †V222. Miraculous manifestation acclaims saint. Alphabet Nos. 345, 354, 602, 637, 762; Irish: Beal XXI 305, 326, 335, O'Suilleabhain 70f., 115; Spanish: Keller, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 45, 182; India: Thompson-Balys.

V222.0.1. †V222.0.1. Birth of saint predicted by visions of miracles. Irish myth: *Cross.

V222.0.1.1. †V222.0.1.1. Pillar of fire rises over woman pregnant with future saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V222.0.1.2. †V222.0.1.2. Saint identified by pillar of fire above her head. Irish myth: *Cross.

V222.0.1.3. †V222.0.1.3. Dazzling heavenly light by day and night marks place of saint's birth. Irish myth: *Cross.

V222.0.2. †V222.0.2. Angels appear above place where saint is born. Irish myth: Cross.

V222.1. †V222.1. Marvelous light accompanying saint. Alphabet No. 473; Plummer cxxxviii, clxxviii; Loomis White Magic 27f.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

V222.1.0.1. †V222.1.0.1. Supernaturally bright light marks sleeping infant saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V222.1.0.2. †V222.1.0.2. "Fair Drop" from. Heaven falls upon infant saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V222.1.1. †V222.1.1. Radiance fills church when saint dies. Irish myth: *Cross.

V222.1.2. †V222.1.2. Hand of saint made bright by Lord's touch. Too splendid for man's sight thereafter. Irish myth: *Cross.

V222.1.3. †V222.1.3. Column of light descends from heaven upon chosen man. Loomis White Magic 28.

V222.1.4. †V222.1.4. Lights show where the body of saint is buried. Loomis White Magic 28.

V222.2. †V222.2. Brake in which saint loses tooth bursts into flame. Irish myth: Cross.

V222.3. †V222.3. Choral singing accompanies saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V222.4. †V222.4. House of saint filled with fragrance. Irish myth: *Cross.

V222.4.1. †V222.4.1. Aromatic smell of a saint's body. *Loomis White Magic 54f.

V222.5. †V222.5. Oil bursts from ground as saint is made bishop. Irish myth: Cross.

V222.6. †V222.6. Bell sounds at approach of saint. Irish myth: Cross; England: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

V222.6.1. †V222.6.1. Church bells ring without aid of human hands at death of holy person. *Loomis White Magic 52.

V222.7. †V222.7. Dead holy man stretches hand from tomb to honor saint. Irish myth: *Cross.

V222.8. †V222.8. Holy man passes through fire for his faith. Only his clothing burns. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V222.9. †V222.9. Earthquake accompanies entrance of holy man into palace of heathen emperor. Irish myth: Cross.

V222.10. †V222.10. Saint falling into an abyss found perched in the branches of a tree which projected from the cliff. As soon as the man is drawn up, the tree vanishes. *Loomis White Magic 127.

V222.11. †V222.11. Flowers fall from saint's mouth while he speaks. (Cf. †D1454.2.1.) *Loomis White Magic 95.

V222.12. †V222.12. Holy man restores a garden to bloom. India: *Thompson-Balys.

V222.13. †V222.13. Sun sends shaft of heat to cook meat given persecuted saint. India: Thompson-Balys.

V222.14. †V222.14. Roses lose thorns when saint walks on them. England: Baughman.

V222.15. †V222.15. Saint changes maggots in the sores of a nun into precious stones. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V222.16. †V222.16. Robbers who enter saint's garden to steal are caused to spade it up for him. This proves him to be saint. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V223. †V223. Saints have miraculous knowledge. Alphabet No. 482; *Loomis White Magic 72f.; Irish myth: *Cross; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 307 No. 25.

V223.1. †V223.1. Saint gives advice. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 119f.

V223.2. †V223.2. Saint warns against poisoned well. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 114 No. 99.

V223.3. †V223.3. Saint can perceive the thoughts of another man and reveal hidden sins. Irish myth: *Cross.

V223.4. †V223.4. Saint helps with learning.

V223.4.1. †V223.4.1. Truant boy learns long lesson while asleep with head in saint's lap. Irish myth: *Cross.

V223.5. †V223.5. Saints blessed with ability to discourse in the native idioms of the people whom they visit. *Loomis White Magic 72.

V223.5.1. †V223.5.1. Saint understands language of wren, fly, cat. Irish myth: Cross.

V223.6. †V223.6. Saint as prognosticator. India: Thompson-Balys.

V223.6.1. †V223.6.1. Saint can foretell the weather. Irish myth: Cross.

V224. †V224. Miraculous replacement of objects (animals) for saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V224.1. †V224.1. Objects used as firewood for saint miraculously replaced. Irish myth: *Cross.

V224.2. †V224.2. Food (animals) eaten by saint miraculously replaced. Loomis White Magic 70; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

V224.3. †V224.3. Animals stolen from saint miraculously replaced. Irish myth: *Cross.

V224.4. †V224.4. Performing fox accidentally killed miraculously replaced for saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V224.5. †V224.5. Supply of lime for building church miraculously renewed for saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V225. †V225. Saints in several places at once. *Toldo V 343; *Loomis White Magic 131.

V226. †V226. Saints as hermits. *Toldo II 99; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

V227. †V227. Saints have divine visitors. *Toldo IV 49ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

V227.1. †V227.1. God gives staff of Jesus to saint. Irish myth: *Cross.

V228. †V228. Immunities of saints (holy men). (Cf. †D1840.)

V228.1. †V228.1. Saint immune to poisoning. India: Thompson-Balys.

V228.1.1. †V228.1.1. Saint drinks poison without being injured. Irish myth: *Cross.

V228.2. †V228.2. Anchorite immune to magician's powers. India: Thompson-Balys.

V229. †V229. Saints -- miscellaneous. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.1. †V229.1. Saint commands return from dead with supernatural information. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.2. †V229.2. Sanctity of saints. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.2.1. †V229.2.1. Saintly babe repeatedly found with arms extended in form of cross. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.2.2. †V229.2.2. Saintly babe disgorges unclean food. Irish myth: *Cross.

V229.2.3. †V229.2.3. Saint will drink only milk of cow milked by faithful woman. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.2.3.1. †V229.2.3.1. Saint as baby refuses to take mother's breast on Wednesdays and Fridays. *Loomis White Magic 114.

V229.2.4. †V229.2.4. Baptism of a wonder child is accompanied by a variety of phenomena. *Loomis White Magic 23.

V229.2.5. †V229.2.5. Place of saint's martyrdom perpetually green. *Loomis White Magic 95.

V229.2.6. †V229.2.6. Martyrs emit milk instead of blood from their wounds. *Loomis White Magic 79.

V229.2.6.1. †V229.2.6.1. Saint sheds tears of blood. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.2.7. †V229.2.7. Flowers grow on graves from the mouths or hearts of holy persons. (Cf. †E631.1.) *Loomis White Magic 95.

V229.2.8. †V229.2.8. Saint's body remains unspoiled in the earth for a long time. *Loomis White Magic 43f.

V229.2.9. †V229.2.9. Tombs of saints distill oil. *Loomis White Magic 43.

V229.2.10. †V229.2.10. Stones answer "Amen" after saint's preaching. *Loomis White Magic 126.

V229.2.11. †V229.2.11. Miracle saves saint from unjust censure. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.2.11.1. †V229.2.11.1. Saint causes gluttonous reptile to leap from saint's body into bishop's throat and then return as proof of bishop's injustice. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.2.12. †V229.2.12. Extraordinary longevity of saints. Irish myth: *Cross.

V229.2.12.1. †V229.2.12.1. Seven Irish saints who never died. Irish myth: *Cross.

V229.2.12.2. †V229.2.12.2. Saint lives for 300 (100?) years without eating food or uttering evil. Irish myth: *Cross.

V229.2.13. †V229.2.13. Saint promises to return from heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.3. †V229.3. Saint banishes snakes. Irish myth: *Cross.

V229.4. †V229.4. Saint overcomes (destroys) monsters (dragons). Irish myth: *Cross.

V229.5. †V229.5. Saint banishes demons. Irish myth. *Cross.

V229.5.1. †V229.5.1. Saint confines monster (dragon) in lake. Irish myth: *Cross.

V229.6. †V229.6. Saint in conflict with druid. Irish myth: *Cross.

V229.6.1. †V229.6.1. Saint limits powers of satirist (druid). Irish myth: Cross.

V229.6.2. †V229.6.2. Ale poisoned by druid miraculously purified by saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.6.3. †V229.6.3. Druid raised in air, cast down, and brains scattered on stone by power of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.6.4. †V229.6.4. Druid by spells seeks to drive saint from island. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.7. †V229.7. Invaders miraculously defeated by saints. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.7.1. †V229.7.1. Saint drives away an army by bringing upon it a dense and smoky cloud. (Cf. †D2163.4.) *Loomis White Magic 123; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

V229.8. †V229.8. Saints create magic concealing mist. (Cf. †D1361.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V229.9. †V229.9. Unusual fuel used by saints: burning stone, snow and icicles, marble pillar, and green timber. *Loomis White Magic 34f.

V229.10. †V229.10. Broken objects restored to their original forms by saint. *Loomis White Magic 82f., 85.

V229.10.1. †V229.10.1. Burned clothes restored to their previous form. *Loomis White Magic 128.

V229.10.2. †V229.10.2. Holy man restores cut-off hands and feet. India: Thompson-Balys.

V229.10.3. †V229.10.3. Saint causes grey hair to grow in black. India: Thompson-Balys.

V229.11. †V229.11. Saint with tongue of fire (literally). *Loomis White Magic 34.

V229.12. †V229.12. Sinful beauty is converted and spends the end of her life doing penance (Mary Magdalene, Mary of Egypt, and Thais). *Loomis White Magic 109f.

V229.13. †V229.13. Ground elevates itself to give protection or comfort to saint. *Loomis White Magic 45.

V229.14. †V229.14. Saint in anger shows strength: wall broken by his kick. (Cf. †F610.) *Loomis White Magic 131.

V229.15. †V229.15. Saint disguised as poor man saves almsgiving king from punishment in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.16. †V229.16. Lake of milk made through merit of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.17. †V229.17. Saint's blessing causes a river to be best place for fishing. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.18. †V229.18. Dispute between two saints settled by angel. Irish myth: Cross.

V229.19. †V229.19. Objects mourn death of saint (holy man). India: Thompson-Balys.

V229.20. †V229.20. Downfall of ascetic (saint). Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 185 No. 126.

V229.20.1. †V229.20.1. After birth of son holy person loses miraculous power. India: Thompson-Balys.

V229.21. †V229.21. House and family appear overnight to afford hospitality to benighted priests. (Cf. †Q45.1.) U.S.: Baughman.

V229.22. †V229.22. Severed head of saint speaks so that searchers can find it. (Cf. †D1610.5.) England: Baughman.

V229.23. †V229.23. Stone turns red when saint's picture is removed. England: Baughman.

V229.24. †V229.24. Saint turns snakes to stones. (Cf. †D420.) England: Baughman.

V229.25. †V229.25. Conversation of animals reveals to man how to become saint. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 42.

V230. †V230. Angels. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 26b; Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 107, Beal XXI 334; German: Grimm No. 3. For an extensive analysis of angels in Jewish tradition see *Neuman.

V230.1. †V230.1. Man beholds angels. Irish myth: *Cross.

V230.2. †V230.2. Angels powerful. Irish myth: Cross.

V230.3. †V230.3. Angel and mortal struggle. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V231. †V231. Appearance of angel. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

V231.1. †V231.1. Angel in bird shape. *Fb "fugl" I 380b; Irish myth: *Cross.

V231.2. †V231.2. Shooting star as angel. BP III 234.

V231.3. †V231.3. Angel with four wings. Irish myth: Cross.

V231.4. †V231.4. Angel is form of cleric. Irish myth: Cross.

V231.5. †V231.5. Angel appears to woman to warn her not to force girl into marriage. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V231.6. †V231.6. Angel in the form of an old man. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

V232. †V232. Angel as helper. Spanish: Keller, Espinosa Jr. No. 188; Jewish: *Neuman.

V232.1. †V232.1. Angel as helper in battle. English: Wells 76 (Joseph of Aramathie); Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V232.1.1. †V232.1.1. Angels appear and help boy prince slay treacherous uncle. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V232.2. †V232.2. Angel carries mortal. Irish myth: *Cross.

V232.2.0.1. †V232.2.0.1. Angel carries boat to water. Irish myth: Cross.

V232.2.0.2. †V232.2.0.2. Angel transports saint's staff. Irish myth: Cross.

V232.3. †V232.3. Angels supply food to mortal. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

V232.3.1. †V232.3.1. Angel shows saint where to dig for water. Irish myth: *Cross.

V232.4. †V232.4. Angel looses man's fetters. (Cf. †R121.) Irish myth: Cross.

V232.5. †V232.5. Angel as guide. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V232.5.1. †V232.5.1. Angel guides chariot. Irish myth: *Cross.

V232.6. †V232.6. Angel reveals location of lost (buried) object. Irish myth: *Cross.

V232.7. †V232.7. Gifts from angels. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V232.7.1. †V232.7.1. Angel brings cross as gift to saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V232.8. †V232.8. Angel helps Peter to escape from prison. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V232.9. †V232.9. Angel cleans hearth. Irish myth: Cross.

V232.10. †V232.10. Angels build church. Irish myth: *Cross.

V233. †V233. Angel of death. *Chauvin VI 184 No. 349; *Fb "engel" I 250; Jewish: *Neuman, bin Gorion Born Judas I 313f., 149f., 371ff., 380.

V233.1. †V233.1. Angel of death spares mother who is suckling children. As punishment angel must serve as sexton. Type 795*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 795*; Russian: Andrejev No. 795A*; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV No. 795*.

V234. †V234. Songs of the angels. *Chauvin VI 106 No. 270; *Loomis White Magic 53; Irish myth: *Cross.

V234.1. †V234.1. Angels sing in honor of saint. Irish myth: *Cross.

V234.1.1. †V234.1.1. Angels sing to welcome saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V234.1.2. †V234.1.2. Angels sing over saint's body. Irish myth: *Cross.

V234.1.3. †V234.1.3. Angel choir responds when saint receives orders. Irish myth: *Cross.

V234.2. †V234.2. Angels sing on night of Christ's Nativity. Irish myth: *Cross.

V235. †V235. Mortal visited by angel. Irish: Plummer clxxxii, *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 301 No. 16; Spanish: Keller Espinosa Jr. No. 186; Jewish: *Neuman.

V235.0.1. †V235.0.1. Mortals visited by angel in vision. (Cf. †V510.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V235.0.2. †V235.0.2. Angel invoked by fasting. Irish myth: *Cross.

V235.1. †V235.1. Angel announces birth of Christ to shepherds. Irish myth: Cross.

V235.2. †V235.2. Angel comforts repentant sinner. Irish myth: Cross.

V235.3. †V235.3. Angel bars abbot from his cell because abbot has cast out a sinning monk. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V236. †V236. Fallen angels. Jewish: Neuman.

V236.1. †V236.1. Fallen angels become fairies (dwarfs, trolls). *Fb "engel" I 250; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 59, 61, Beal XXI 323f.

V237. †V237. Angel bars the way to Baalam's ass. Numbers 22: 27; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V238. †V238. Guardian angel. (Cf. †F403.2.2.2, †V232, 246.) Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

V238.1. †V238.1. Angels hover over mortal (saint). Irish myth: *Cross.

V238.2. †V238.2. Angels melt snow around saintly babe. Irish myth: Cross.

V238.3. †V238.3. Service of angels marks saint's destination. Irish myth: Cross.

V238.4. †V238.4. Air above grave of converted druid full of angels. Irish myth: *Cross.

V241. †V241. Angels honor mortal. (Cf. †V234.1.) Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V241.1. †V241.1. Angels attend saint's funeral. Irish myth: Cross.

V241.1.1. †V241.1.1. Angel directs saint's burial. Irish myth: *Cross.

V241.2. †V241.2. Angels hold service over (saint's) tomb. (Cf. †V242.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V241.2.1. †V241.2.1. Angels shed light upon saint's tomb. Irish myth: Cross.

V241.3. †V241.3. Angels run races before saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V241.4. †V241.4. Angel baptizes saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V241.4.1. †V241.4.1. Angel names child. Irish myth: *Cross.

V241.5. †V241.5. Angels set heavenly veil upon head of pious woman. Irish myth: Cross.

V242. †V242. Holy place (object) glorified by angel's presence. (Cf. †V421.2.)

V242.1. †V242.1. Train of angels rises from graveyard. Irish myth: Cross.

V242.2. †V242.2. Angel abides in church. Irish myth: Cross.

V242.2.1. †V242.2.1. Angels attend church service. Irish myth: *Cross.

V242.3. †V242.3. Angel passes daily over blessed stone. Irish myth: Cross.

V243. †V243. Angel answers mortal's prayer. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

V243.1. †V243.1. Angels appear above grave of fallen girl through virtue of prayers said by her lover (young monk). Irish myth: Cross.

V244. †V244. Angel beseeches at unholy grave of redeemed sinner until body is moved to sanctified ground. Irish myth. Cross.

V245. †V245. Angel punishes mortal. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V245.1. †V245.1. Angel scourges mortal for disobedience to God. (Cf. †Q220, †Q325, †Q458.) Irish myth: Cross.

V246. †V246. Angel counsels mortal. (Cf. †V232, †V238.) Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V246.0.1. †V246.0.1. Angel leaves letter (book) with instructions for saint. Irish myth: *Cross.

V246.0.2. †V246.0.2. Angel dictates (gives) book. Irish myth: *Cross.

V246.1. †V246.1. Angel tells saint where to build his church. Irish myth: *Cross.

V246.2. †V246.2. Angel as saint's teacher. Irish myth: *Cross.

V246.3. †V246.3. Angel informs saint of coming of guests. Irish myth: Cross.

V247. †V247. Daily life of angels. Jewish: *Neuman.

V248. †V248. Angels and God. Jewish: *Neuman.

V249. †V249. Angels -- miscellaneous motifs. Irish myth: Cross.

V249.1. †V249.1. Angel makes proclamation. Irish myth: Cross.

V249.2. †V249.2. Language of angels.

V249.2.1. †V249.2.1. Hebrew the language of the angels. Irish myth: Cross.

V250. †V250. The Virgin Mary. **Crane Liber de Miraculis; *DeVooys Middelnederlandse Legenden en Exempelen 57; Genthe Die Jungfrau Maria: ihre Evangelien und ihre Wunder (Halle, 1852); *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 366c. --Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 59, 78, Beal XXI 307, 314, 323, 327; Spanish: Keller, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 202--04. For references in addition to those given below, see volume VI s. v. "Virgin Mary".

V250.1. †V250.1. Irish saint as "Mary of the Gael". Irish myth: *Cross.

V250.2. †V250.2. Virgin Mary has golden hair. Irish myth: Cross

V251. †V251. Virgin Mary prevents (retards) death so as to save sinner's soul. Permits time for repentance and absolution. (Sometimes resuscitation.) Alphabet No. 464; Ward II 606 No. 14, 633 No. 31, 650 No. 1; *Crane Miraculis Nos. 6, 7, 10, 31, 39; Wells 169 (De Miraculo Beate Marie); Scala Celi 123a, 125b Nos. 674, 681. --Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V251.1. †V251.1. Virgin Mary brings man back to life after he has seen hell's torments. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V252. †V252. Virgin Mary defends innocent accused. Alphabet No. 381; Wesselski Mönchslatein 78 No. 68; *Crane Miraculis No. 34; Icelandic: Boberg.

V252.1. †V252.1. Virgin Mary returns borrowed money and reveals cheat. A man borrows money from a Jew with the Virgin as security. Unable to return the money in time, he commits the money to the sea with a prayer to the Virgin. The Jew receives it but claims that the money is not paid. The Virgin reveals the cheat. Ward II 638 No. 10; *Crane Miraculis No. 33; Wells 167 (Vernon Miracles).

V252.2. †V252.2. Virgin Mary saves criminal from fire at stake. *Ward II 663 No. 12; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V253. †V253. Faithfulness to Virgin Mary, even if not to Christ, rewarded. Alphabet No. 555; Wesselski Mönchslatein 128 No. 113.

V254. †V254. Efficacy of saying "Aves". Irish: Beal XXI 335, O'Suilleabhain 114, 117.

V254.1. †V254.1. Saying of "Aves" obliterates sin. *Crane Miraculis No. 12; Ward II 605ff. Nos. 10, 18, 20; Herbert III 26; *Crane Vitry 263 No. 296.

V254.1.1. †V254.1.1. Virgin Mary supports robber on gallows because he once said "Ave Maria". Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V254.2. †V254.2. Ship in storm saved because of sailors' "Ave Maria". (Cf. †D2141.1.) *Crane Miraculis No. 28; Ward II 626 No. 9, 640 Nos. 12, 14, 15, *677 No. 12.

V254.3. †V254.3. "Ave" on the tongue. Because of faithfulness in saying "Aves" the words are found imprinted on the dead man's tongue. (Cf. †V86.2.) Ward II 612 No. 29, 677 No. 1, cf. 632 No. 30.

V254.3.1. †V254.3.1. Blasphemer paralyzed in all members except tongue which had once said "Ave Maria". Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V254.4. †V254.4. Devil exorcised by "Ave". Ward II 686 Nos. 74, 75, 77.

V254.5. †V254.5. Nun forgets to hail Mary and goes into the world to sin. Alphabet No. 470.

V254.6. †V254.6. Joseph and Mary threaten to leave heaven when the man who has always prayed to them is refused admittance. *Type 805*.

V254.7. †V254.7. Murdered boy still sings "Ave" after his death. (Chaucer's Prioress's Tale.) **Brown PMLA XXI 486ff.; Ward II 656, 697 and passim; Herbert III 528; Wells Catalogue of Romances 166 (Vernon Miracles).

V254.7.1. †V254.7.1. Criminal who said "Ave" beheaded. His head calls repeatedly, "Ave Maria". Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V254.8. †V254.8. Virgin Mary will not let devil (authorities) take robber noble who daily says "Ave". Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V254.9. †V254.9. Virgin forbids devil to take robber as long as he continues to say two "Aves" daily. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V255. †V255. Virgin Mary has dissolute monk buried in consecrated ground: his only mass is that of the Virgin. *Crane Miraculis Nos. 3, 9; Ward II 607 No. 15, 660 No. 29; Scala Celi 116a, 116b Nos. 644, 645; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V255.1. †V255.1. Devotee of Virgin not buried in consecrated ground has lily issue from mouth so that his grave is made known. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V255.2. †V255.2. Virgin gives private mass to devout lady unable to attend. Spanish Exempla: Keller

V256. †V256. Miraculous healing by Virgin Mary. (Cf. †D2161.) Irish myth: Cross.

V256.1. †V256.1. Healing spittle of Virgin Mary. (Cf. †D1500.1.7.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

V256.2. †V256.2. Miracles of healing performed before image of Virgin Mary. Irish myth: Cross.

V256.3. †V256.3. Virgin Mary restores severed hand to Saint John Damascene. He had cut it off to repress lust. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V256.4. †V256.4. Virgin Mary saves life of man who at devil's instigation has castrated himself. She will not, however, restore his severed members. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V256.5. †V256.5. Virgin Mary restores life to drowned man who always had saluted her. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V261. †V261. Virgin Mary designates favorite for election for office. *Crane Miraculis No. 13; Ward II 608 No. 19.

V261.1. †V261.1. Virgin restores office to an ignorant man because of his faith. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V261.2. †V261.2. Virgin pardons man who repented for cheating in election. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V262. †V262. Virgin Mary supplies mead for unprepared hostess of the king. Ward II 614 No. 35.

V263. †V263. Portrait of the Virgin appears to devotee. *Ward II 611 Nos. 26, 27; *Crane Miraculis Nos. 21, 44.

V264. †V264. Virgin Mary rescues man attacked by the devil. *Crane Miraculis No. 23; Ward II 612 No. 30; Spanish Exempla: Keller; West Indies: Flowers 580.

V264.1. †V264.1. Virgin Mary brings man a pact he signed with the devil and frees the man from devil's power. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V265. †V265. Virgin miraculously prevents nun (monk) from deserting cloister. Ward II 634 No. 34, 636 Nos. 7, 41, 667 No. 13, 721 No. 17; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V265.1. †V265.1. Image of Virgin tries in vain to keep nun from leaving convent. Crane Vitry 160 No. 60; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V266. †V266. Virgin Mary converts a Jew. (Cf. †V330.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V267. †V267. Devotee of Virgin is comforted in the hour of death. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V268. †V268. Miracles performed under protection of Virgin Mary. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V268.1. †V268.1. Boy under protection of Virgin Mary pulled from well alive after a week. Irish myth: Cross.

V268.2. †V268.2. Virgin Mary saves devotee from death in waves. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V268.3. †V268.3. Virgin Mary destroys Moorish army besieging Constantinople. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V268.4. †V268.4. Virgin Mary saves devotee's son from shipwreck. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V268.5. †V268.5. Image of Virgin Mary works miracles. Irish myth: Cross.

V271. †V271. Virgin Mary as foster mother. Type 710; *BP I 13ff.

V275. †V275. Virgin Mary comforts repentant criminals. Ward II 603 No. 6, 606 No. 12, 610 No. 25, 618 No. 39, 648 No. 44; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V276. †V276. Virgin Mary appears to erring man.

V276.1. †V276.1. Virgin Mary appears to erring monk and exalts him to prayer. His prayers weave her a garment. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V276.2. †V276.2. Virgin Mary appears and pardons monk who has been too overworked to pray to her. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V276.3. †V276.3. Virgin Mary aids repentant slayer of priest. Priest is resurrected in order to forgive murderer and then is returned to tomb. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V277. †V277. Virgin Mary appears to devotee.

V277.1. †V277.1. Virgin Mary appears to devout nun with infant Jesus. The nun devoutly prayed to see Him. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V281. †V281. Devotee of Virgin Mary given present by her. Ward II 660 No. 28.

V282. †V282. Stella Maris: Virgin Mary as protectress of sailors. Canney Revue de l'Histoire des Religions CXV (1937) 90ff.; Krappe Review of Religion (1948) 376ff.

V283. †V283. Testament of Virgin Mary. Irish myth: *Cross.

V284. †V284. During a flood the Virgin descends into the streets to save her image from the flood waters. U.S.: Baughman.

V290. †V290. Other sacred persons. Irish myth: Cross.

V291. †V291. Master poets (ollamhs) as sacred persons. Irish myth: *Cross.

V292. †V292. The Apostles of Christ.

V292.1. †V292.1. Appearance of the Apostles. Irish myth: Cross.

V292.2. †V292.2. The Twelve Apostles of Ireland. Irish myth: *Cross.

V293. †V293. Lepers as sacred persons. Irish myth: Cross.

V294. †V294. The Pope. Irish myth: Cross.

†V300-†V399. Religious beliefs.

V300. †V300. Religious beliefs.

V310. †V310. Particular dogmas.

V311. †V311. Belief in the life to come. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 272b; Irish myth: *Cross.

V311.0.1. †V311.0.1. Doctrine of immortality taught by druids. Irish myth: *Cross.

V311.1. †V311.1. Man converted to belief in future life on deathbed. Feels sure nevertheless that nothing will come of it. Wesselski Bebel I 182 No. 32.

V311.2. †V311.2. Dying man refuses to believe in life to come. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V311.3. †V311.3. Given choice between life and heaven, person chooses latter. Irish myth: *Cross.

V312. †V312. Belief in Immaculate Conception. (Cf. †T510.) *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 272a; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V312.1. †V312.1. Proclamation of dogma of Immaculate Conception stops plague. Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 552, 553.

V312.2. †V312.2. Man miraculously dies for opposing dogma of Immaculate Conception. Attempt to disprove the dogma by false miracle. Sham dead man is to rise if the dogma is not true. He is found to be actually dead. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 554.

V313. †V313. Last judgment. Jewish: Moreno Esdras, *Neuman.

V315. †V315. Belief in the Atonement. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 48c; Jewish: *Neuman.

V315.1. †V315.1. Power of repentance. Jewish: *Neuman.

V316. †V316. Efficacy of prayer. Jewish: *Neuman.

V316.1. †V316.1. "He that asks shall receive." Hermit wants to prove truth of these words of the Gospel and asks for the hand of the princess. Performs the difficult task imposed upon him. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 779*; Russian: Andrejev No. 841I*.

V317. †V317. The chosen people. Jewish: *Neuman.

V317.1. †V317.1. Holy land. Jewish: *Neuman.

V320. †V320. Heretics. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 251b; Irish myth: Cross.

V321. †V321. Insane man burns heretic in his bed: restored to his senses as reward. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 47.

V322. †V322. Heretical baptism. Heathen baptized into devil's possession. Irish myth: *Cross.

V323. †V323. Atheists.

V323.1. †V323.1. Epicureans regarded as atheists. Jewish: Neuman.

V325. †V325. Baptismal water vanishes before Aryan bishop. Alphabet No. 95.

V326. †V326. Hero renounces heaven because dead companions (heathen) are not there. Irish myth: *Cross.

V327. †V327. Author of book against heretic honored by Virgin Mary and angels. Scala Celi 117b No. 652.

V328. †V328. Man sets fire to his house and perishes in it rather than accept Christianity. Irish myth: *Cross.

V330. †V330. Conversion from one religion to another. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics X 400--403.

V331. †V331. Conversion to Christianity. (Cf. †M177.1.) Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 555; Dickson 199 n. 89; Malone PMLA XLIII 413. --Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 65, Beal XXI 325; Icelandic: *Boberg; English: Wells 88 (Roland and Vernagu); Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 178.

V331.0.1. †V331.0.1. Druid converted to Christianity. Irish myth: *Cross.

V331.0.2. †V331.0.2. Three (two) Irishmen who believed in Christianity before the coming of St. Patrick. (Cf. †A1546.3.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V331.1. †V331.1. Conversion to Christianity through miracle. Dickson 193--98 passim; Alphabet No. 558; Icelandic: *Boberg; Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 71, 74, Beal XXI 326; English: Wells 91 (Otuel), 119 (Octovian), *Hibbard 45ff.; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

V331.1.1. †V331.1.1. Conversion to Christianity by miracle of seeing blood flow from Jesus' image. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V331.1.2. †V331.1.2. Conversion to Christianity through appearance of the cross and angels. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V331.1.3. †V331.1.3. Conversion to Christianity because the heathen gods prove to be less powerful. *Loomis White Magic 75.

V331.1.4. †V331.1.4. Conversion because saint's staff miraculously goes through neophytes' foot. Irish myth: *Cross.

V331.2. †V331.2. Conversion to Christianity on pain of death. *Dickson 188 n. 64, 224; Icelandic: *Boberg.

V331.3. †V331.3. Miraculous beautification upon conversion to Christianity. (Cf. †D1860.) English: Wells 122 (The King of Tars).

V331.4. †V331.4. Conversion to Christianity through repentance. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V331.5. †V331.5. Conversion to Christianity through love. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

V331.6. †V331.6. Conversion to Christianity out of gratitude. Ruler has captive baptize his sister and then marry her. Grateful for past kindnesses. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V331.7. †V331.7. Saladin asks to be made a Christian knight. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V331.8. †V331.8. Fairies converted to Christianity. Irish myth: *Cross.

V331.9. †V331.9. Swans (transformed children) do not suffer in harsh weather after conversion to Christianity. Irish myth: *Cross.

V331.10. †V331.10. Conversion to Christianity because of admiration for Christian virtue.

V331.10.1. †V331.10.1. Conversion to Christianity through show of forgiveness and gentleness. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V332. †V332. Baptism of heathen. *Thien Motive 40f.; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V336. †V336. Conversion to Judaism. Jewish: *Neuman.

V340. †V340. Miracle manifested to non-believers. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

V341. †V341. Pagan sybil draws picture of Madonna and Child in sand. Result of vision. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 560.

V342. †V342. Sign of cross intimidates Jews. Type 1709*.

V343. †V343. Jews protesting against marriage of Jewess and Christian are struck dumb. Wesselski Mönchslatein 52 No. 62.

V344. †V344. Temple about to be taken over by pagans saved by appearance of a Sign of the Cross (image of the Virgin). Alphabet No. 708; *Crane Miraculis No. 20.

V345. †V345. Dove flies out of man's mouth. Impious anchorite has agreed to forsake his religion in return for the possession of a maid. When he repents the dove reenters his mouth. Italian Novella: Rotunda; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V346. †V346. Skeptic kicked by sacrificial animal. India: Thompson-Balys.

V347. †V347. Idols found on their faces after saint's arrival. *Loomis White Magic 89; Irish myth: Cross.

V350. †V350. Conflicts between religions. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V351. †V351. Duel (debate) to prove which religion is better. Dickson 187 nn. 61, 62; English: Wells 88 (Roland and Vernagu), 91 (Otuel); Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V351.1. †V351.1. Wise heretic is vanquished in debate with a Christian. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V351.1.1. †V351.1.1. Brahmin wins a discussion on religion. India: Thompson-Balys.

V351.2. †V351.2. Unbeliever loses argument with hermit. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V351.3. †V351.3. Magician overpowered in contest with a saint. *Loomis White Magic 75f.

V351.3.1. †V351.3.1. Contest of St. Peter with Simon Magus, a magician. *Loomis White Magic 120.

V351.4. †V351.4. Prayer-contest to prove which religion is better. Irish myth: *Cross.

V351.5. †V351.5. Contest of miraculous powers between a Yogi and a Musselman. India: Thompson-Balys.

V352. †V352. Pagan disputant with Christian stricken dumb. English: Wells 76 (Joseph of Aramathie); Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V352.1. †V352.1. Pagan disputant with Christian bested by the words put in his mouth by God. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V354. †V354. Life of heroic age preferable to Christian living. Irish myth: *Cross.

V355. †V355. Buddhists become slaves of Taoists because they cannot produce rain. Chinese: Werner 353.

V356. †V356. Christian hero (saint) overthrows heathen idols. *Boje 82; *Toldo V 339; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

V356.1. †V356.1. Saint dispels pagan devils from ancient shrines. *Loomis White Magic 115.

V356.2. †V356.2. Pagan shrines and idols, or magic books destroyed by fire from heaven. *Loomis White Magic 35.

V356.2.1. †V356.2.1. Heathen idols sink into earth up to their necks through power of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

V356.3. †V356.3. Saint's bachall pointed at idol defaces it. (Cf. †V347.) Irish myth: Cross.

V360. †V360. Christian and Jewish traditions about each other. *DeVooys Middelnederlandse Legenden en Exempelen (Den Haag, 1926) 199ff.

V361. †V361. Christian child killed to furnish blood for Jewish rite. (Hugh of Lincoln.) (Cf. †V254.7.) **V. Manzini La superstizione omicida e i sacrifici umani, con particolare riguardo alle accuse contro gli Ebrei (2d ed., Padua, 1930); **Berger Mélusine VIII 169ff.; *Ward II 656 No. 3; *Brown PMLA XXI 486ff. --English: Child III 240ff., IV 497a.

V362. †V362. Plague from Jews' poisoning wells. German: H. Rauchfuss Alte Geschichte u. neue Sagen aus Thuringen 60.

V363. †V363. Jewish child thrown into oven by father for taking eucharist. Preserved by Virgin Mary. *Ward II 601; Irish myth: Cross (†V35.1.0.1); Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V363.1. †V363.1. Jewish child resurrected (saved by power of Virgin Mary) after being burned to ashes for eating consecrated bread in Christian church. Irish myth: *Cross.

V364. †V364. A Christianized Jew becomes a priest. During Mass, he stabs the consecrated host, blood flows (cf. †C55, †J1261.2, †V30). He kills the other priest who saw him commit the sacrilege, and before killing, forces him to renounce his faith. A miracle exposes the murderer. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3270, Legends Nos. 416ff.

V365. †V365. Jewish traditions concerning non-Jews. Jewish: *Neuman.

V380. †V380. Religious beliefs -- miscellaneous.

V381. †V381. Heathen beats his god because of misfortune. (Cf. †V123.) *Boje 101; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 238 No. 185.

V382. †V382. Doctor ridicules belief in Devil, Heaven, and Hell. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V383. †V383. Religious fanaticism. Irish myth: Cross.

V383.1. †V383.1. Prolonged prostration in worship causes death. Irish myth: Cross.

V383.2. †V383.2. Hindu drinks water by mistake from Mohammedan's vessel: his fortune turns to evil. India: Thompson-Balys.

V385. †V385. Romans won't include Jesus in their pantheon because of his poverty which they hate. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

†V400-†V449. Religious virtues.

V400. †V400. Charity. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 111c; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

V410. †V410. Charity rewarded. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 22, Beal XXI 307, 337; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 137, 200--204; Jewish: *Neuman.

V410.1. †V410.1. Charity rewarded above prayer or hearing of masses. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 131; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 87 No. 756E*.

V410.2. †V410.2. Prince's motto: charity conquers. India: *Thompson-Balys.

V411. †V411. Miraculous reward for charities. India: Thompson-Balys.

V411.1. †V411.1. Queen gives away a sleeve of her dress: miraculously restored. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 322.

V411.2. †V411.2. Saint exchanges coat with beggar: gold sleeves miraculously appear. Herbert III 6; Crane Vitry 173 No. 92.

V411.3. †V411.3. Man who has given all in charity has foot amputated: restored miraculously. Alphabet No. 81; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V411.4. †V411.4. Stones turn to gold for charitable money-lender. Hence money borrowed for wedding is never refused by lenders. India: Thompson-Balys.

V411.5. †V411.5. Treasure given away by saint miraculously restored. Irish myth: *Cross.

V411.5.1. †V411.5.1. Man earns as much as he gave away for charity in his former life. India: Thompson-Balys.

V411.6. †V411.6. Food given away by saint miraculously restored. Irish myth: *Cross.

V411.7. †V411.7. Charitable king blows nose after having given to beggar. Huge ruby appears in his kerchief. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V411.8. †V411.8. Jesus appears to St. Martin when he gives his cloak to beggar. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V411.9. †V411.9. Charity miraculously repaid: flame settles on forehead. India: Thompson-Balys.

V412. †V412. Miraculous manifestations during act of charity. *Ward III 7; *Crane Vitry Nos. 92, 94, 95.

V412.1. †V412.1. Bread stolen by St. Nicholas for purpose of feeding poor is miraculously restored. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V412.2. †V412.2. The more bread (flour) the monks give to the poor the more God places in their bins. (Cf. †D1652.1.1.) Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V413. †V413. Son's acts of charity save his father's soul. English: Wells 175 (The Child of Bristowe).

V414. †V414. Saint shares punishment of sinful man whose cloak he shared in life. Irish myth: Cross.

V415. †V415. Children envious of money given by deceased father to bishop. In vision they take their father's body up and find a quittance saying that he has received more than a hundredfold reward. Alphabet No. 302; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V416. †V416. Act of charity obliterates sin.

V416.1. †V416.1. Man convicted of cheating at his bookkeeping is excused when it is learned that he has given the money to the poor. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V420. †V420. Reward of the uncharitable.

V421. †V421. Shipman refuses alms: ship turned to stone. Alphabet No. 608.

V422. †V422. Uncharitable knight drives bargain even in giving alms: devoured by serpents. His alms of corn turn to serpents. *Herbert III 334 No. 7, 340.

V425. †V425. Uncharitable pope wanders after death. Alphabet No. 294.

V430. †V430. Charity -- miscellaneous motifs.

V431. †V431. Charity of usurers ineffective. Alphabet Nos. 260, 754, 786, 789, 792; Irish: Beal XXI 337; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 213.

V432. †V432. Man beggars self by charity. India: *Thompson-Balys.

V433. †V433. Charity of saints. Irish myth: *Cross.

V434. †V434. Conqueror restores kingship to king for charity. Irish myth: Cross.

V435. †V435. Pious man charitable to man who has formerly refused him charity. India: Thompson-Balys.

V436. †V436. Mendicant refuses to accept alms from barren woman. India: Thompson-Balys.

V437. †V437. Saint repeatedly bestows father's goods upon the poor. Irish myth: Cross.

V438. †V438. Merit for charity lost by asking work in return. India: Thompson-Balys.

V440. †V440. Other religious virtues. Irish myth: Cross.

V441. †V441. Forgiveness. Irish myth: Cross.

V441.1. †V441.1. Saint heals enemy. Irish myth: *Cross.

†V450-†V499. Religious orders.

V450. †V450. Religious orders. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 384a, 389b; Irish myth: Cross.

V451. †V451. First-born son and one of every ten born thereafter given to Church. Irish myth: Cross.

V453. †V453. Levites as religious order. Jewish: *Neuman.

V460. †V460. Clerical virtues and vices.

V461. †V461. Clerical virtue. Irish myth: *Cross.

V461.1. †V461.1. Obedient and industrious nun the worthiest in the convent. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 690; Alphabet No. 322; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V461.2. †V461.2. Truthful monk refuses to cheat even for his order. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 111.

V461.3. †V461.3. Chastity as clerical virtue. Irish myth: *Cross.

V461.4. †V461.4. Submission as clerical virtue. Irish myth: Cross.

V461.4.1. †V461.4.1. Truthfulness as clerical virtue. Irish myth: Cross.

V461.5. †V461.5. Extended meditation as clerical virtue. Irish myth: Cross.

V461.6. †V461.6. Monk lives where people speak ill of him to avoid danger of flattery. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V461.7. †V461.7. Clerical virtue of absolute faith. Man captured by robbers is so confident that God will protect him that he is saved. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V461.8. †V461.8. Poverty as saintly virtue. Irish myth: Cross.

V462. †V462. Asceticism. *Loomis White Magic 111f.; *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 42b; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

V462.0.1. †V462.0.1. Kingship renounced to become an ascetic. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

V462.0.2. †V462.0.2. Since salvation is predestined, asceticism deemed useless. Irish myth: Cross.

V462.0.3. †V462.0.3. Husband abandons wife to become ascetic. India: Thompson-Balys.

V462.0.4. †V462.0.4. Murderer becomes ascetic. India: Thompson-Balys.

V462.1. †V462.1. Maintaining silence as ascetic practice. Alphabet Nos. 709, 711, 712, 725; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 32; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V462.2. †V462.2. Ascetic fasting. Alphabet Nos. 24, 145; Wesselski Mönchslatein 170 No. 135; Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

V462.2.1. †V462.2.1. Ascetic faster increases his sufferings by placing food and drink before himself. Alphabet Nos. 22, 23; Scala Celi 4a No. 16; India: Thompson-Balys.

V462.2.2. †V462.2.2. Person refuses to eat dainties. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.2.2.1. †V462.2.2.1. Saint refuses pearls as alms and asks for food. India: Thompson-Balys.

V462.2.3. †V462.2.3. Death from ascetic devotions. India: Thompson-Balys.

V462.3. †V462.3. Ascetic weeping. Irish myth: Cross.

V462.4. †V462.4. Asceticism: allowing self no repose. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.4.1. †V462.4.1. Asceticism: cleric practices continual genuflexion. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.4.2. †V462.4.2. Cross vigil. Cleric stands with hands extended in shape of cross. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.4.3. †V462.4.3. Saint always extends one hand toward heaven while performing such acts as eating or reaping. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.5. †V462.5. Ascetic cleric tortures his flesh. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.5.0.1. †V462.5.0.1. Ascetic cleric prays to become diseased. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.5.1. †V462.5.1. Ascetic cleric wears hair garment. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.5.1.1. †V462.5.1.1. Saint never wears woolen clothing, but skins of wolves and other beasts. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.5.1.2. †V462.5.1.2. Ascetic cleric sleeps (prays) with wet sheet (mantle) about him. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.5.2. †V462.5.2. Ascetic cleric sleeps on stone. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.5.2.1. †V462.5.2.1. Saint takes but little sleep. Irish myth: Cross.

V462.5.2.2. †V462.5.2.2. Saint stands for seven years without sleep. Irish myth: Cross.

V462.6. †V462.6. Ascetic cleric avoids listening to music. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.7. †V462.7. Ascetic cleric never smiles. Irish myth: Cross.

V462.8. †V462.8. Ascetic immersion. Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.8.1. †V462.8.1. Saint confines himself in narrow pen during Lent. Irish myth: Cross.

V462.8.2. †V462.8.2. Saint stands (asleep) while bird builds nest and hatches brood in his hand. Irish myth: Cross.

V462.9. †V462.9. Ascetic cleric leads mendicant life. Irish myth: Cross.

V462.10. †V462.10. Ascetic cleric lives for seven years on whale's back. Irish myth: Cross.

V462.11. †V462.11. Ascetic cleric renounces world (to become a herder). Irish myth: *Cross.

V462.12. †V462.12. Monk refuses chance of having temptation removed since he considers it strengthening to have it ever present to test him. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V462.13. †V462.13. Evil ascetic misuses magic powers obtained through religious meditation. India: Thompson-Balys.

V462.14. †V462.14. Boy takes twelve years to wash off ascetic's dirt. India: Thompson-Balys.

V463. †V463. Religious martyrdom. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman

V463.1. †V463.1. Cleric surrenders life that body may consecrate land. Irish myth: Cross.

V463.2. †V463.2. First martyr: John the Baptist. Irish myth: Cross.

V464. †V464. Self-torture to secure holiness. India: *Thompson-Balys:

V465. †V465. Clerical vices.

V465.1. †V465.1. Incontinence of clergy. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 113b, 136c; West Indies: Flowers 580.

V465.1.1. †V465.1.1. Incontinent monk (priest). Irish myth: *Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda

V465.1.1.1. †V465.1.1.1. Monk seduces girl; then kills her; becomes infidel. *Chauvin VIII 128 No. 118; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V465.1.1.2. †V465.1.1.2. Marriage of clerics. Irish myth: *Cross.

V465.1.2. †V465.1.2. Incontinent nun. Irish myth: *Cross.

V465.1.2.1. †V465.1.2.1. Nun hidden by abbess from pursuing knight betrays her own hiding place to him. Is afterwards abandoned. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 13; Crane Vitry 159 No. 58.

V465.1.2.2. †V465.1.2.2. Nun tempted into sinning with man who tells her God can't see things that happen in the dark. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V466. †V466. Simony. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V466.1. †V466.1. Pope guilty of simony. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V467. †V467. Priest uses cook-book instead of breviary. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V468. †V468. Priest is bribed into betraying the confessional. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V470. †V470. Clerical vows. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 634a.

V471. †V471. Taking clerical vows heals disease. Alphabet No. 783.

V472. †V472. Clerical vows because of disappointment in love.

V472.1. †V472.1. Man becomes hermit when he realizes selfishness of his beloved's love. (Cf. †T93.2.) Heptameron No. 24.

V473. †V473. Former monk refuses to take pay for his work, considering it as a religious act. India: Thompson-Balys.

V475. †V475. Renunciation of clerical vows. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V475.1. †V475.1. Monk who has left order punished (dies in torment). Alphabet Nos. 73, 784.

V475.2. †V475.2. Monk who has left his order forgiven and miraculously reinstated. Alphabet No. 781.

V475.3. †V475.3. Man who is disappointed with his religious order renounces his vow. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

V475.4. †V475.4. Saint leaves his order because he is fond of music. India: Thompson-Balys.

V475.5. †V475.5. Anchorite tempted by money to return to worldly life. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 807.

†V500-†V599. Religious motifs -- miscellaneous.

V510. †V510. Religious visions. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 632b; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V510.1. †V510.1. God speaks in vision to devotee. India: *Thompson-Balys.

V510.2. †V510.2. Only man without sin can see God. India: Thompson-Balys.

V511. †V511. Visions of the other world.

V511.1. †V511.1. Visions of heaven. **Becker Medieval Visions of Heaven and Hell (Baltimore, 1899); **Ward II 396ff. passim; Alphabet No. 622, 743; Dickson 265; Scala Celi 66a, 138b Nos. 362, 777. --Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 57, Beal XXI 322; English: Malory Morte D'Arthur XV 3; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 105 No. 932; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

V511.1.1. †V511.1.1. Saints have visions of heaven. *Toldo IV 49.

V511.1.2. †V511.1.2. Vision of angels defending road to heaven against devils. Irish myth: Cross.

V511.2. †V511.2. Visions of hell. *Becker (Cf. †V511.1); Alphabet No. 610; Dickson 265; Herbert III 25; **Ward II 386ff.; *Crane Vitry 260f. No. 289; Scala Celi 34b, 74a, 85b Nos. 195, 422, 497. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V511.2.1. †V511.2.1. Vision of fires of hell. Irish myth: Cross.

V511.2.2. †V511.2.2. Vision of gate of hell. Irish myth: Cross.

V511.2.3. †V511.2.3. Girl sees vision of her mother in hell. She chooses to live the poor life of her father which leads to heaven. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V511.3. †V511.3. Visions of purgatory. *Dickson 265 n. 87; *Loomis White Magic 116; Irish myth: *Cross.

V511.4. †V511.4. Visions of Land of the Saints. Irish myth: *Cross.

V512. †V512. Vision of judgment. Man sees his own soul being judged.

V512.1. †V512.1. His faith into the balance. A clerk sees his good and evil deeds being weighed. He asks them to throw his faith in Christ (the Virgin) into the scale. He is saved. Ward II 651 No. 5; *Herbert III 471.

V512.2. †V512.2. Man whose only good deed was unintentional sees this deed outweigh all his evil in the scales of judgment. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V513. †V513. Saints have miraculous visions. Irish myth: Cross.

V513.1. †V513.1. Saint incited (instructed) through vision. Irish myth: *Cross.

V513.2. †V513.2. Vision of the earth in the devil's snares. Saint sees earth in snares. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

V514. †V514. Non-religious visions. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

V515. †V515. Allegorical visions. Irish myth: *Cross.

V515.1. †V515.1. Allegorical visions -- religious.

V515.1.1. †V515.1.1. Vision of chairs (thrones) in heaven. Chairs of gold, silver, crystal (glass) assigned to saints according to merit. (Cf. †A661.0.3.) Irish myth: *Cross.

V515.1.2. †V515.1.2. Wife sees moon enter mouth of husband; husband sees star enter mouth of wife: famous child (saint) will be born. Irish myth: Cross.

V515.1.3. †V515.1.3. Saint sees vision of flames covering Ireland quenched except for sparks; then great light appears, dispelling darkness. Flames are those of the faith brought by St. Patrick; they become less until restored by St. Columkill. Irish myth: Cross.

V515.1.3.1. †V515.1.3.1. When shower falls, small stone becomes larger, large stone wastes away. Vision of present and future state of Irish church. Irish myth: Cross.

V515.1.3.2. †V515.1.3.2. Vision in which swineherd sees yew tree upon a rock, with an oratory in front of it and angels ascending from it. Vision interpreted by druid as symbolizing founding of Cashel and the royal line of Munster. Irish myth: *Cross.

V515.1.4. †V515.1.4. Constantine's vision of the Cross. Irish myth: *Cross.

V515.1.5. †V515.1.5. Vision of dry bones. Jewish: Neuman.

V515.2. †V515.2. Allegorical visions -- political. Irish myth: Cross.

V515.2.1. †V515.2.1. Vision in which chieftain sees pair of gray seals that sucked at his two breasts. They are two of his allies who are being overpowered by invaders. Irish myth: Cross.

V515.2.1.1. †V515.2.1.1. Vision in which king sees whelp reared by him gather dogs of Ireland and Britain against him but suffer death in battle at last. The whelp is one of king's two foster sons. Irish myth: Cross.

V515.2.2. †V515.2.2. Vision in which saint foresees allegorically the ramifications of king's family Irish myth: Cross.

V515.2.3. †V515.2.3. Vision in which king sees his four sons changed into lion, greyhound, beagle, cur, which fight with alternating success, until lion subdues the other three. Irish myth: *Cross.

V516. †V516. Vision of future. Jewish: Neuman.

V520. †V520. Salvation. *Encyc. Rel. Ethics Index 517b; Irish myth: Cross.

V522. †V522. Sinner reformed after visit to heaven and hell. Irish myth: Cross.

V523. †V523. The only king ever saved in spite of himself. Irish myth: Cross.

V525. †V525. Sinner who thinks of God saved; devotee who thinks of worldly things goes to hell. India: Thompson-Balys.

V526. †V526. Worship of particular deity brings reward of birth in Brahma-world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 13.

V530. †V530. Pilgrimages. Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

V531. †V531. Pilgrimage to Holy Land. Irish myth: Cross.

V531.1. †V531.1. Pilgrimage to follow roads Christ walked. Irish myth: Cross.

V532. †V532. Pilgrimage to Mecca. India: Thompson-Balys.

V533. †V533. Pilgrimage to Benares. India: Thompson-Balys.

V535. †V535. Pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Jewish: *Neuman.

V540. †V540. Intervention of Providence saves person's life. (Cf. †R341.)

V541. †V541. Man is prevented from taking passage on ship which later sinks. U.S.: Baughman.

V542. †V542. Man hears voice telling him to leave danger spot in mine. U.S.: *Baughman.