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S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged. edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958.


Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, ÐÔÔÈ #06-06-80-420a, ÐÔÔÈ #07-06-00441-à

S. UNNATURAL CRUELTY

DETAILED SYNOPSIS

†S0--S99. Cruel relatives

†S0. Cruel relatives

†S10. Cruel parents

†S20. Cruel children and grandchildren

†S30. Cruel step- and foster relatives

†S40. Cruel grandparents

†S50. Cruel relatives-in-law

†S60. Cruel spouse

†S70. Other cruel relatives

†S100--S199. Revolting murders or mutilations

†S100. Revolting murders or mutilations

†S110. Murders

†S140. Cruel abandonments and exposures

†S160. Mutilations

†S180. Wounding or torturing

†S200--S299. Cruel sacrifices

†S200. Cruel sacrifices

†S210. Children sold or promised

†S220. Reasons for promise (sale) of child

†S240. Children unwittingly promised (sold)

†S250. Saving the promised child

†S260. Sacrifices

†S300--S399. Abandoned or murdered children

†S300. Abandoned or murdered children

†S310. Reasons for abandonment of children

†S330. Circumstances of murder or exposure of children

†S350. Fate of abandoned child

†S400--S499. Cruel persecutions

†S400. Cruel persecutions

†S410. Persecuted wife

†S430. Disposal of cast-off wife

†S450. Fate of outcast wife

†S460. Other cruel persecutions

S.

S. UNNATURAL CRUELTY

S. S. Unnatural cruelty.

S0--S99.

†S0--†S99. Cruel relatives.

S0. †S0. Cruel relative.

S10. †S10. Cruel parents. *Types 327AB, 517, 832; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys. See also †S300--†S399, Abandoned or murdered children, and many of the motifs in †S200--†S299, Cruel sacrifices.

S11. †S11. Cruel father. *Types 451, 516, 671, 706, 725, 870; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 120; *Schlauch Constance and other accused Queens 40; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 326 n. 177.

S11.1. †S11.1. Father mutilates children. (Cf. †S160.) *Type 706; Greek: Fox 74 (Phineus).

S11.2. †S11.2. Jealous father sends son to upper world on stretching tree. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 332 n. 199; Africa (Benga): Nassau 176 No. 23.

S11.3. †S11.3. Father kills child.

S11.3.1. †S11.3.1. Man who doubts his children’s paternity kills them. Murders wife and paramour. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S11.3.2. †S11.3.2. Father kills deformed children. (Cf. †S325.0.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

S11.3.3. †S11.3.3. Father kills son. India: Thompson-Balys.

S11.3.3.1. †S11.3.3.1. Father kills son (for stealing). Irish myth: *Cross.

S11.3.3.2. †S11.3.3.2. Father murders his two sons for whining. Tonga: Gifford 24.

S11.3.4. †S11.3.4. Cruel father, learning that he is to be killed by his son, puts to death all children born to him. (Cf. †M375.) Irish myth: Cross.

S11.3.5. †S11.3.5. Cruel king slays brother and brother‘s son. Irish myth: *Cross.

S11.3.6. †S11.3.6. Father throws boy into river (sea). Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 407, (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 20 No. 3, (Fang): Tessman 91.

S11.3.7. †S11.3.7. Father orders son assassinated. (Cf. †K512.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 529; Africa (Fang): Tessman 92.

S11.3.8. †S11.3.8. Father eats own children. (Cf. †G10.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 920; Africa (Pangwe): Tessman 108, 365.

S11.4. †S11.4. Father plans child’s death. India: Thompson-Balys.

S11.4.1. †S11.4.1. Jealous father vows to kill daughter‘s suitors. Irish myth: *Cross.

S11.4.2. †S11.4.2. Father kisses son while planning to kill him. Icelandic: Boberg.

S11.4.3. †S11.4.3. Cruel fathers threaten to kill their children if they are of undesirable sex. India: Thompson-Balys.

S11.4.4. †S11.4.4. Cruel father seeks to kill infant son. Irish myth: *Cross.

S11.5. †S11.5. Father banishes son at request of fairy wife. (Cf. †F302, †S322.4.3.) Irish myth: Cross.

S11.6. †S11.6. Father flogs child. India: Thompson-Balys.

S12. †S12. Cruel mother. *Types 511, 590, 706, 765, 781; *BP I 551, III 2; *Boje 62f.; *Child V 475 s.v. “Cruel”. -- Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “mère”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Keller, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 115, 148f., Espinosa II Nos. 115f.; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Eskimo: Rink 389, Kroeber JAFL XII 181; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 76 No. 12, 168 No. 24, 190 No. 28, (Angola): Chatelain 30 No. 1.

S12.1. †S12.1. Treacherous mother marries ogre and plots against son. *Type 590; *BP III 1; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl. II 392.

S12.1.1. †S12.1.1. Treacherous mother and paramour plan son’s death. India: Thompson-Balys.

S12.2. †S12.2. Cruel mother kills child. Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 139, 151, 157; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S12.2.1. †S12.2.1. Mother feeds newly-born illegitimate child to dog. (Cf. †S312.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S12.2.2. †S12.2.2. Mother throws children into fire. Jewish: *Neuman.

S12.2.3. †S12.2.3. Mother forces child to break eating tabu: child dies. Africa (Fang): Tessman 162.

S12.3. †S12.3. Mother orders son‘s death. Icelandic: Völsunga saga ch. 6--8, 40 (38), 43 (41); Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

S12.4. †S12.4. Cruel mother blinds son. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 99, Rasmussen I 312, III 201, Holm 31.

S12.5. †S12.5. Cruel mother expels (drives away) child. India: Thompson-Balys.

S12.5.1. †S12.5.1. Girl impregnated by god driven from home by mother. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 164.

S12.6. †S12.6. Cruel mother refuses children food. Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 625, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 168; Cook Islands: Clark 77.

S12.7. †S12.7. Mother tells healthy sons to wipe soiled hands on lame son. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 79.

S20. †S20. Cruel children and grandchildren.

S20.1. †S20.1. Children sell mother. N. A. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict 340.

S20.2. †S20.2. Child hides food from starving parents. Marquesas: Handy 114.

S21. †S21. Cruel son. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 139, 151, 157; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 287, 547, 632; Africa (Fang): Einstein 161.

S21.1. †S21.1. Son buries aged mother alive. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 326 No. 4.

S21.2. †S21.2. Son blinds father. (Cf. †Q451.7, †S165.) Irish myth: Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S21.3. †S21.3. Son gives mother as hostage. Irish myth: Cross.

S21.4. †S21.4. King banishes mother to stables. India: Thompson-Balys.

S21.5. †S21.5. Cruel son tries to sterilize father. Jewish: *Neuman.

S22. †S22. Parricide. (Cf. †Q211.1.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 35, 1148, II 651, 1101, 1169; Tonga: Gifford 189.

S22.1. †S22.1. Parricide to obtain kingship. Irish myth: Cross.

S22.1.1. †S22.1.1. Adopted son plots death of parents. Usurps the throne. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S222. †S222. Prince plans to kill wicked father for cruelty. India: Thompson-Balys.

S22.3. †S22.3. Father learns that his son is planning to kill him. Gives his son a weapon to do so. Son repents. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S25. †S25. Cruel grandson.

S25.1. †S25.1. Boy kills his grandfather. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

S30. †S30. Cruel step- and foster relatives.

S31. †S31. Cruel stepmother. *Types 403, 425, 432, 450, 451, 480, 502, 510, 511, 516, 590, 592, 706, 708, 709, 720; BP I 42ff., 70ff., 79ff., 165ff., 207ff., 227ff., 412ff., *421, 427ff., 450ff., II 45ff., 229ff., 490ff., III 60ff., 137, 338f.; **W. Lincke Das tiefmuttermotiv im Märchen der germanischen Völker (Berlin, 1933); *MacCulloch Childhood 150; *Cox Cinderella passim; Böklen Sneewittchenstudien passim; *Arfert Unterschobene Braut passim; Rösch FFC LXXVII 120; Ranke FFC CXIV 154ff.; *Child V 497 s.v. “stepmother”; *Fb “stifmoder”; Dh III 414ff.--Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “marâtre”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 63 No. 453; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6, III No. 10, V No. 8, Rotunda; Greek: Grote I 103, 116; Jewish: *Neuman, *bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 375; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Penzer I 185; Chinese: Ferguson 162, Eberhard FFC CXX 52f., 109, 125; Japanese: Ikeda, Anesaki 324; Korean: Zong in-Sob 201f. No. 97; Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 209, Dixon 238f.; Hawaii, Micronesia, Melanesia: ibid 89 nn. 97--102; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 382ff.; S. A. Indian (Karib): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 147; Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 228; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 269 No. 81.

S31.1. †S31.1. Adulteress and paramour plot against her stepson. They fear that he may betray them. Fischer-Bolte 214.

S31.2. †S31.2. Children enchanted by stepmother. (Cf. †D683.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

S31.3. †S31.3. Cruel bird stepmother feeds young ones with thorns. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S31.4. †S31.4. Cruel stepmother feeds children with fish spines (thorns) to kill them. India: Thompson-Balys.

S31.5. †S31.5. Girl persuades her father to marry a widow who has treated her kindly. *Roberts 136.

S32. †S32. Cruel stepfather. Type 970**; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S33. †S33. Cruel stepbrother. (Cf. †K2211.3.) Irish myth: Cross.

S34. †S34. Cruel stepsister(s). Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

S36. †S36. Cruel foster father. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 480.

S37. †S37. Cruel foster son. (Cf. †S22.1.1.) S. A. Indian (Warrau): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 146, (Jivaro): ibid. 148, (Amuesha): ibid. 150.

S40. †S40. Cruel grandparents.

S41. †S41. Cruel grandmother. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “grand’mère”; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 254 No. 37.

S42. †S42. Cruel grandfather. Kills his grandchildren. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S50. †S50. Cruel relatives-in-law. Chinese: Graham.

S51. †S51. Cruel mother-in-law. See references to †K2110.1. and †K2215, many of which have the present motif. *Type 706; *BP I 295ff.; *Dickson 25 n. 26, 29 n. 3, 30 n. 4, 31 n. 9, 41 n. 40; Saintyves Perrault 67; **Däumling Studie über den Typus des Märchens ohne Hände (München, 1912); *Andree (1878) 159; Hibbard 26; Schlauch Constance and Accused Queens 40. -- English: Wells 96 (Chevalere Assigne), 118 (Octovian), 130 (Emare); Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 1480*; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 5, *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Penzer III 44f.; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 342, 736; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 125, 189; New Guinea: Dixon 136; S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 177; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 180 n. 1.

S51.1. †S51.1. Cruel mother-in-law plans death of daughter-in-law. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S52. †S52. Cruel father-in-law. *Type 516; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 120; *BP I 46ff.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “gendre”; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99--103, 105; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 85, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 168.

S54. †S54. Cruel daughter-in-law. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 256f.; Marquesas: Handy 111.

S54.1. †S54.1. Burned and underbaked bread. Wishing to rid herself of her father-in-law, the daughter-in-law starts to feed him burned bread; but the old man begins to thrive on it. When she tries underbaked bread, he dies very soon. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2427*.

S55. †S55. Cruel sister-in-law. Chinese: Graham.

S56. †S56. Cruel son-in-law. India: Thompson-Balys; Marquesas: Handy 126; S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 177.

S56.1. †S56.1. Lover asks girl to kill her father. India: Thompson-Balys.

S60. †S60. Cruel spouse.

S62. †S62. Cruel husband. *Type 760, 887. See references to †H461. Icelandic: *Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 152; Eskimo: Boas BAM XV 188, 310, 331.

S62.1. †S62.1. Bluebeard. Girl marries murderous husband. *Type 312; cf. Type 955; *BP I 404ff.; Child I 47; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 312f. Nos. 73, 77; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 91--93.

S62.2. †S62.2. Man has bride drowned so that he may marry another. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S62.3. †S62.3. Barren wife exposed by husband. Jewish: Neuman.

S62.4. †S62.4. Husband leaves wife to die of thirst. Marquesas: Handy 99.

S63. †S63. Spouse murder pact. Princess kills her husband. Prince kills his wife. Murderers marry and usurp the throne. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

S70. †S70. Other cruel relatives. Missouri French: Carrière.

S71. †S71. Cruel uncle. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 19 (William of Palerne); Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “oncle”; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Greek: Aeschylus Agamemnon 1220 (Atreus); India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 447, 1303; Hindu: Keith 177; Chinese: Graham; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 422; Samoa: ibid. 473; Mono: Wheeler No. 29; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 313 n. 127.

S71.1. †S71.1. Cruel uncle poisons nephew (king). Irish myth: *Cross.

S72. †S72. Cruel aunt. Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 7; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

S73.1. †S73.1. Fratricide. Krappe Revue des Études Anciennes XXXV (1933) 146ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Grote I 219; Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 13; Tonga: Gifford 83; Maori: Clark 157, Beckwith 157.

S73.1.0.1. †S73.1.0.1. Murder of stepbrother (foster brother). Irish myth: *Cross.

S73.1.1. †S73.1.1. Fratricide in order to gain control of kingship. Irish myth: *Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 492.

S73.1.2. †S73.1.2. Brother kills and eats brother. (Cf. †G10.) Tonga: Gifford 27, Mono: Wheeler No. 22.

S73.1.3. †S73.1.3. Elder brother threatens to kill younger as soon as he is born. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 436.

S73.1.4. †S73.1.4. Fratricide motivated by love-jealousy. (Cf. †T257.) Irish myth: Cross.

S73.2. †S73.2. Person banishes brother (sister). Irish myth: Cross.

S73.3. †S73.3. Man blinds brother. (Cf. †S165.) Irish myth: *Cross.

S74. †S74. Cruel nephew. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

S74.1. †S74.1. Nephew (niece) kills uncle. Irish myth: *Cross.

S100--S199.

†S100--†S199. Revolting murders or mutilations.

S100. †S100. Revolting murders or mutilations.

S110. †S110. Murders. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

S110.1. †S110.1. Old people killed in famine. *Wesselski Märchen 237 No. 48; Fb “gammel” IV 174a; Icelandic: *Boberg.

S110.1.1. †S110.1.1. Child condemned to be killed in famine. Irish myth: Cross.

S110.2. †S110.2. Man kills all guests, hoping some day to kill rival. Dickson 83 n. 47.

S110.3. †S110.3. Princess builds tower of skulls of unsuccessful suitors. Malone PMLA XLIII 414; India: Thompson-Balys.

S110.3.1. †S110.3.1. Princess makes necklace of heads of unsuccessful suitors. India: Thompson-Balys.

S110.4. †S110.4. Prince resolves to drive relatives from his domain. Kills many. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S110.5. †S110.5. Murderer kills all who come to certain spot. India: Thompson-Balys.

S111. †S111. Murder by poisoning. *Type 709; *Böklen 100ff.; *Child V 491 s.v. “Poisoning”; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 115f., Espinosa Jr. Nos. 143, 145; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 80, 491, 510,

S111.1. †S111.1. Murder with poisoned bread. *Type 709; *Böklen 102; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 80 No. 12.

S111.2. †S111.2. Murder with poisoned lace. *Type 709; *BP I 450ff.; *Böklen 104.

S111.3. †S111.3. Murder with poisoned comb. *Type 709; *BP I 450ff.; *Böklen 109.

S111.4. †S111.4. Murder with poisoned apple. *Type 709; *BP I 450ff.; *Böklen 100; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S111.5. †S111.5. Murder with poisoned book. King wets finger to turn leaves and falls dead. *Chauvin V 276 No. 156 n. 3.

S111.6. †S111.6. Murder with poisoned robe. Consumes wearer. Greek: Fox 115, *Frazer Apollodorus I 123; India: Thompson-Balys.

S111.7. †S111.7. Murder with poisoned slippers. Africa (Thonga): Junod 266ff., (Swahili): Baker FL XXXVIII 299ff. No. 16.

S111.8. †S111.8. Murder by feeding poisonous snake. English ballad: Child No. 12 (Lord Randal); Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

S111.9. †S111.9. Murder by placing a poisoned fingernail on step. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S112. †S112. Burning to death. (See notes to †K955 and †Q414.) Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 97 (Chevalere Assigne); Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 192 No. 28.

S112.0.1. †S112.0.1. City burned with all inhabitants. Irish myth: *Cross.

S112.0.2. †S112.0.2. House (hostel) burned with all inside. Irish myth: *Cross; Marquesas: Handy 132; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 386; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 514.

S112.1. †S112.1. Boiling to death. Often in pitch or oil. *Cosquin Études 360ff.; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 83 No. 711A*; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 321 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

S112.2. †S112.2. Murder with hot iron. Bored through eye or nose. *Krappe Balor 4ff.; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 592, Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 52 No. 8.

S112.2.1. †S112.2.1. Murder by hot iron through heart. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 592, Boberg.

S112.2.2. †S112.2.2. Murder by driving red-hot iron spits through soles of feet and into shins. Irish myth: *Cross.

S112.3. †S112.3. Murder by hot lead poured into ear. (Cf. †S115.1.) *Fb “øre” III 1180b, 1181a.

S112.4. †S112.4. Attempted murder by live coals in garments. India: Thompson-Balys.

S112.5. †S112.5. Murder by feeding on over-hot food. Person forced to eat. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S112.6. †S112.6. Murder by roasting alive in oven furnace). Jewish: *Neuman; Tonga: Gifford 190.

S112.7. †S112.7. Son takes mother to woods and tries to burn her up while she sleeps. India: Thompson-Balys.

S113. †S113. Murder by strangling. See references to †Q424. Irish myth: Cross; Chinese: Werner 267.

S113.1. †S113.1. Murder by hanging. Dickson 186 n. 60; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière.

S113.1.1. †S113.1.1. Slaves killed by hanging. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S113.1.2. †S113.1.2. Prisoners taken in war (enemy‘s messengers) hanged. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S113.2. †S113.2. Murder by suffocation. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; West Indies: Flowers 575.

S113.2.1. †S113.2.1. Devil cuts off hand of woman and suffocates her. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 289; Scala Celi 57b No. 321.

S113.2.2. †S113.2.2. Suffocating in bathroom. Icelandic: Boberg; Danish: Grundtvig No. 121; Lithuanian: M. Boehm u. F. Sprecht Lettische-Litauische Volksmärchen (Jena, 1924) 193 No. 11.

S113.2.3. †S113.2.3. Murder by luring to feast and suffocating. All holes are stopped and house set afire. India: Thompson-Balys.

S114. †S114. Murder by flaying. *Fb “hud” I 661; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

S114.1. †S114.1. Skin of murdered person found in enemy’s house. Koryak: *Jochelson JE VI 377.

S115. †S115. Murder by stabbing. Heptameron No. 40; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 592; Japanese: Ikeda.

S115.1. †S115.1. Murder by stabbing in ear. (Cf. †S112.3.) Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 236, 265; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 350 n. 264.

S115.2. †S115.2. Murder by sticking needle through head. Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 9; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 52, Rasmussen III 65, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 185.

S115.2.1. †S115.2.1. Murder by driving nail through head. West Africa: Nassau Fetischism in West Africa (London, 1904) 337ff. No. 2.

S115.3. †S115.3. Murder by piercing with pins and needles. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S116. †S116. Murder by crushing. (Cf. †S167.) Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 592, Boberg; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 168 No. 24.

S116.1. †S116.1. Murder by grinding in mill. Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S116.2. †S116.2. Pregnant woman crushed beneath chariot. (Cf. †S185.) Irish myth: Cross.

S116.3. †S116.3. Murder by breaking back. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S116.4. †S116.4. Murder by crushing head. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S116.5. †S116.5. Murder by crushing beneath falling tree. India: Thompson-Balys; Tonga: Gifford 184.

S116.6. †S116.6. Murder by trampling of horses (elephants). English romance: Malory IX 25; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 647.

S117. †S117. Death by dragging behind horse. *Fb “hest” I 599b; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S118. †S118. Murder by cutting.

S118.1. †S118.1. Murder by cutting adversary in two. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S118.2. †S118.2. Murder by cutting throat. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 228.

S121. †S121. Murder by slamming down chest-lid. Done while victim is looking into the chest. *Type 720; *BP I 412ff., 422; *Cox 479; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 91b n. 36; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6; Icelandic: *Boberg.

S122. †S122. Flogging to death. (Cf. †Q458.2.) Fb “piske” II 834; Icelandic: Boberg; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 152.

S123. †S123. Burial alive. **Feilberg “Levende begravet” (Årbog for dansk Kulturhistorie, 1892); *Liebrecht 284; *Fb “høj” I 741b, “levende” II 403a--404a, “jord” II 45b. -- Irish: *Cross, O‘Suilleabhain 74, Beal XXI 327; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 326 No. 4; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “enterrement”; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 203f.; Greek: Sophocles’ Antigone; India: *Thompson-Balys; Society Islands: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 557; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 221, 232, Rasmussen II 94, III 53, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 171, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 639, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 34, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 161, (Ungava): Turner RBAE VI 262.

S123.0.1. †S123.0.1. Hostages buried alive. Irish myth: *Cross.

S123.1. †S123.1. Burial alive of drugged person. *Chauvin VI 15 No. 188 n. 1.

S123.2. †S123.2. Burial of living husband or wife with dead spouse. Type 612; *BP I 126ff., 128; *Chauvin VII 20 No. 373D; Missouri French: Carrière.

S123.2.1. †S123.2.1. Burial of living man with dead blood brother. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S123.3. †S123.3. Living children buried with dead mother. Child I 180, 185, IV 450a (No. 15).

S123.4. †S123.4. Avenger plans to let king starve in mountain chamber. Icelandic: Boberg.

S123.5. †S123.5. Burial alive of maiden to keep her safe from rival. Icelandic: Boberg.

S123.6. †S123.6. Enemies buried alive up to their necks and exposed to jackals. (Cf. †Q456.1.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 570.

S125. †S125. Immolation. Greek: Grote I 278f.; Jewish: Neuman; S. A. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 317.

S125.1. †S125.1. Self-immolation. Hindu: Tawney I 163, 398, 522, II 255, 490, 546, 558, 560, Panchatantra III 8 (tr. Ryder 334).

S127. †S127. Murder by throwing from height. Greek: Grote I 278.

S131. †S131. Murder by drowning. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 346b nn. 130--46; English: Wells 96 (Chevalere Assigne); Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 651; Marquesas: Handy 53; Maori: Beckwith Myth 318; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 56, Rasmussen I 363, III 200, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 152, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 637; Africa (Fang): Einstein 153.

S131.1. †S131.1. River carrier (whale, crocodile) throws passenger off and drowns him. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Madagascar): Renel II 207f. No. 119.

S132. †S132. Murder by starvation. (Cf. †R51.1, †S123.4.) Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 287.

S133. †S133. Murder by beheading. (Cf. †Q421.) India: Thompson-Balys.

S135. †S135. Murder by springing bent tree. Man bound to it is torn to pieces. (Cf. †H1522.1.) Fb “træ” III 865b; India: Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: *Boberg.

S139. †S139. Miscellaneous cruel murders.

S139.1. †S139.1. Murder by twisting out intestines. (Cf. †K1444, †Q469.7.) *Fb “tarm” III 776a; Icelandic: *Boberg; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 66, 384.

S139.2. †S139.2. Slain person dismembered. Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 72 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys.

S139.2.1. †S139.2.1. Head of murdered man displayed before his own house. *Siberian and North Pacific Coast of America: Jochelson JE VI 381.

S139.2.1.1. †S139.2.1.1. Head of murdered man taken along as trophy. Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 43, 77.

S139.2.2. †S139.2.2. Other indignities to corpse. Irish myth: Cross.

S139.2.2.1. †S139.2.2.1. Heads of slain enemies impaled upon stakes. (Cf. †Q421.1.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

S139.2.2.1.1. †S139.2.2.1.1. Heads (tongues) of slain enemies as trophies. Irish myth: *Cross.

S139.2.2.1.2. †S139.2.2.1.2. Impaled head used as target. Irish myth: Cross.

S139.2.2.1.3. †S139.2.2.1.3. Custom: sitting upon head of slain enemy. Irish myth: *Cross.

S139.2.2.1.4. †S139.2.2.1.4. Heads of defeated enemies hung on conqueror’s saddle. India: Thompson-Balys.

S139.2.2.1.5. †S139.2.2.1.5. Hand of slain enemy nailed to castle. Irish myth: Cross.

S139.2.2.1.6. †S139.2.2.1.6. Heads brandished to intimidate foe. Irish myth: *Cross.

S139.2.2.2. †S139.2.2.2. Dead man gutted and filled with stones. India: Thompson-Balys.

S139.2.2.3. †S139.2.2.3. Dead dog buried with enemy. Irish myth: Cross.

S139.2.2.3.1. †S139.2.2.3.1. Corpse buried face down as indignity. Irish myth: *Cross.

S139.2.2.4. †S139.2.2.4. Parts of corpses used in sport. Irish myth: Cross.

S139.2.2.4.1. †S139.2.2.4.1. Head used as ball. Irish myth: *Cross.

S139.2.2.4.2. †S139.2.2.4.2. Brains of enemies fashioned into balls (as trophies for play). Irish myth: *Cross.

S139.2.2.4.3. †S139.2.2.4.3. Chess board and men made from bones of slain enemies. Irish myth: Cross.

S139.2.2.5. †S139.2.2.5. Corpses burned as fuel for cooking. Irish myth: Cross.

S139.2.2.6. †S139.2.2.6. Corpse drawn asunder. Irish myth: Cross.

S139.2.2.7. †S139.2.2.7. Ash (hazel) stakes thrust through bodies of slain warriors. India: Thompson-Balys.

S139.2.2.8. †S139.2.2.8. Ashes of murdered person passed through sieve and remains put to manure heap. India: Thompson-Balys.

S139.3. †S139.3. Captured women hanged and crucified. Irish myth: Cross.

S139.4. †S139.4. Murder by mangling with axe. Irish myth: Cross.

S139.5. †S139.5. Murder by cutting off uvula. Icelandic: Boberg.

S139.6. †S139.6. Murder by tearing out heart. India: Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: *Boberg.

S139.7. †S139.7. Murder by slicing person into small pieces. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 154; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (TpG. 3/912).

S139.8. †S139.8. Murder by biting the throat. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S140. †S140. Cruel abandonments and exposures. India: Thompson-Balys.

S140.1. †S140.1. Abandonment of aged. Type 981*; *Encyc. Religion Ethics s.v. “Abandonment and exposure”; *F. Brouga-Brey Revista de dialectologia y tradiciones populares (Madrid) I 496--573; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 547; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 116; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 186 No. 82.

S141. †S141. Exposure in boat. A person (usually woman or child) set adrift in a boat (chest, basket, cask). *Types 590, 675, 708, 930; BP I 489, II 236f., III 2; **Cosquin Études 199ff., 215ff.; Chauvin VII 95ff.; *Hertel Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 83; *Aarne FFC XXIII 60; *Penzer II 4, VII 81 n. 1; Dickson 35 n. 16, 41f. nn. 40, 42, 169f. n. 23; *Krappe Balor 3ff., 17ff. nn. 57--60; *Sparnaay 31ff., 50; *Frazer Old Testament II 437ff.; *Fb “å” III 1187b, “båd” IV 87a; *Schoepperle II 374 n. 4; Hibbard 276; *Basset 1001 Contes II 371. -- Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “enfant”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 116; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 2, *Rotunda; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 155, Grote I 86, *103, Fox 22, 33, 307; Egyptian: Müller 116; Babylonian: Spence 16; Jewish: *Neuman, bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 165, 372; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 103, 633; Japanese: *Ikeda; Chinese: Ferguson 192; Palaung tribe: Scott Indo-Chinese 276; Indonesian: DeVries’s list No. 219; Tonga: Gifford 154; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/45); Marquesas: *Beckwith Myth 502 n. 4; Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 167, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 152, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 261; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 313 n. 131.

S141.1. †S141.1. Man springs ashore and pushes companion in boat out to sea. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S141.2. †S141.2. Father saves himself in storm and forgets his two children. They are abandoned in a boat. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S141.3. †S141.3. Exposure astride a log of wood floated down river. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S142. †S142. Person thrown into the water and abandoned. *Types 450, 506, 612, 667*, 707; *BP I 79ff., 126ff., II 380ff., III 490ff.; *Krappe Balor 12 n. 43; *Fb “spinde” III 492b; Dickson 86. -- Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 167, *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 7; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 526; Tahiti: Handy 408; Tonga: Gifford 122; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/45, 403, z-G. 3/1117).

S143. †S143. Abandonment in forest. *Types 327, 450, 708, 872*; BP I 79ff., 115ff.; *Dickson 35 n. 16; *Sparnaay 41ff.; Roberts 128. -- English: Wells 118 (Octovian); Icelandic: Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “abandon”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa II 99-105, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 142 --45; Greek: Grote I 109; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S143.1. †S143.1. Child abandoned in hollow tree. English: Wells 126 (Lai Le Freine); Irish myth: *Cross.

S143.2. †S143.2. Abandonment in tall tree. India: *Thompson-Balys; S. A. Indian (Mundurucú): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 294, (Sherente): Lowie ibid. (1) 515.

S143.2.1. †S143.2.1. Tortoise placed in tall tree and left. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa: Weeks Congo 209ff. No. 6.

S143.3. †S143.3. Mutilated man on horseback chased into the forest. Icelandic: Boberg.

S143.4. †S143.4. Husband abandons wife in childbirth in jungle. (Cf. †S430.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

S144. †S144. Abandonment in desert. *Type 310; BP I 97ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

S144.1. †S144.1. Abandonment alone on foreign coast. English: Wells 80 (Sir Tristrem).

S145. †S145. Abandonment on an island. (Marooning.) *Type 506, 890; BP III 490ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “abandon”; French Canadian: Morin JAFL XXX 147; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 53 n. 5; Papua: Ker 7, 112; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 358; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 56, Rasmussen III 200, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 152, (Central): Boas RBAE VI 637, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 163, 166; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 405ff.

S146. †S146. Abandonment in pit. Chauvin VII 108 No. 379bis; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Lagerholm 161--63, Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Hebrew: Genesis ch. 37, *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 41.

S146.1. †S146.1. Abandonment in well. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S146.2. †S146.2. Abandonment in cave. Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 471.

S147. †S147. Abandonment on mountain. *Type 675; Irish myth: Cross.

S147.1. †S147.1. Abandonment on cliff. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule; Greek: Aeschylus Prometheus Bound; India: Thompson-Balys.

S147.1.1. †S147.1.1. Abandonment on cliff near nest of a bird. S. A. Indian (Mundurucú): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 294.

S148. †S148. Abandonment in bonds that cannot be loosed. Irish myth: Cross.

S152. †S152. Children abandoned in box in potter‘s kiln. India: Thompson-Balys.

S153. †S153. Abandonment in stable. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S160. †S160. Mutilations. Nouvelles de Sens No. 24; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

S160.1. †S160.1. Self-mutilation. (Cf. †T327.1, †T327.2, †T333.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Penzer III 21 n.; Chinese: Werner 314.

S160.2. †S160.2. Jealous women mutilate her who is most attractive to men. Irish myth: Cross.

S160.3. †S160.3. Fairies mutilate mortals. (Cf. †F362.) Irish myth: Cross.

S160.4. †S160.4. Mutilation of envoys. (Cf. †R51.3.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 701.

S160.5. †S160.5. Moon mutilates his earth mistress. Eskimo (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 180.

S161. †S161. Mutilation: cutting off hands (arms). Heptameron No. 48; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Keller, Espinosa II Nos. 99--103, Espinosa Jr. No. 137; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 710, 885; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 151.

S161.0.1. †S161.0.1. Masons who build mausoleum of princess lose their right hands so they may never again construct so fine a building. (Cf. †S165.7, †W181.2.) India: Thompson-Balys.

S161.1. †S161.1. Mutilation: cutting off fingers. *Fb “guld ring” I 514a; *Dickson 41 n. 41; Icelandic: *Boberg; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 22; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 17, Rasmussen III 58, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 168, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 262, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 152, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 165, (Central): Boas RBAE VI 584, 586, 637.

S161.1.1. †S161.1.1. Child‘s finger-ends cut off to give long life. Irish myth: Cross.

S162. †S162. Mutilation: cutting off legs (feet). *Type 519; *Krappe Archiv f. d. Studium d. neueren Sprachen CLX 161ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 710, 885; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 242.

S162.1. †S162.1. Fighting on stumps of legs after they have been cut off at knee. Child V 497 s.v. “stumps”; Icelandic: Boberg.

S162.2. †S162.2. Hamstringing. E. H. Meyer Germanen 161f.; *P. Maurus Wielandsage in der Literatur (Müncher Beiträge zur rom. und eng. Philologie XXV [1902]); Icelandic: *Boberg.

S162.3. †S162.3. Mutilation: cutting off toes. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S162.4. †S162.4. Mutilation: cutting off heelbone. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S162.5. †S162.5. Mutilation: crushing feet and turning them backward. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S163. †S163. Mutilation: cutting (tearing) out tongue. Often to prevent revelation of secret. Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 67 No. 510, Keller; Greek: Fox 70 (Philomela), Grote I 181; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/600); Koryak, American Indian: *Jochelson JE VI 372.

S164. †S164. Mutilation: knocking out teeth. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S165. †S165. Mutilation: putting out eyes. *Types 310, 533, 590, 613; *BP I 97ff., II 273ff., 468ff., III 1ff.; **Christiansen FFC XXIV 46ff.; *Cox 501; Gaster Thespis 332f. -- Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “yeux”; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 63, 67 Nos. 455, 510, Espinosa II 99--103, 111--112, Espinosa Jr. No. 137; Greek: *Grote I 183, Fox 74 (Phineus); Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 111, 1163; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 250 No. 193; Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 251; Hawaii: ibid. 248; Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 165, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 585; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 391ff.

S165.1. †S165.1. Eyes of beheaded person gouged out. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 278 n. 1.

S165.2. †S165.2. Crane pecks out tiger‘s eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.

S165.3. †S165.3. Blinding by thrusting needles into eyes. Irish myth: Cross.

S165.4. †S165.4. Eyes torn out and filled with sand. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S165.5. †S165.5. Necklace made of torn out human eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.

S165.6. †S165.6. Human eyes used as fishbait. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 245.

S165.7. †S165.7. Artisan who has built palace blinded so he cannot build another like it. (Cf. †S161.0.1, †W181.2.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 489, 672.

S166. †S166. Mutilation: skin cut from back. Hdwb. d. Märchens II 102a n. 140; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 447, Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 163--7; India: Thompson-Balys.

S166.1. †S166.1. Mutilation: beard torn off with the skin (and cheeks). (Cf. †S187.1.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

S166.2. †S166.2. Mutilation: cheek and chin cut off, but held together by biting the beard. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S166.3. †S166.3. Mutilation: shoulder-skin torn off in wrestling. Icelandic: Göngu-Hrólfs saga 264.

S166.4. †S166.4. Mutilation: cheeks cut off. (Cf. †S166.2.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

S166.5. †S166.5. Mutilation: chin and lips cut off. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S166.6. †S166.6. Blood-eagle cut on man’s back by flaying and salting. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 656, *Boberg.

S167. †S167. Mutilation by crushing. (Cf. †S116.) Irish myth: *Cross.

S167.1. †S167.1. Mutilation: crushing victim‘s limbs. India: Thompson-Balys.

S168. †S168. Mutilation: tearing off ears. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S172. †S172. Mutilation: nose cut off or crushed. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S172.1. †S172.1. Angry paramour bites off his mistress’s nose. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 318, 328.

S173. †S173. Mutilation: breaking (two, three) ribs. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S175. †S175. Horses mutilated: tails cut off and manes torn off with the skin in order to humiliate their owner. (Cf. †J1169.5.) Icelandic: Boberg.

S176. †S176. Mutilation: sex organs cut off. (Cf. †Q241, †Q451.10.) Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

S176.1. †S176.1. Mutilation: emasculation. Irish myth: *Cross; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 270, III 293.

S180. †S180. Wounding or torturing.

S181. †S181. Wounding by trapping with sharp knives (glass). *Type 432; *BP II 261ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone II Nos. 2, 5; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S181.1. †S181.1. Victim bound to a bladed wheel. (Cf. †Q423.) *Loomis White Magic 118.

S182. †S182. Girl fastened by hair to rafter. *Fb “hår” I 771b.

S182.1. †S182.1. Man hanged by hair to tree. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

S182.2. †S182.2. Girl pulled about by her hair. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 706.

S183. †S183. Frightful meal. (Cf. †Q478.) Irish myth: Cross.

S183.0.1. †S183.0.1. Person forced to eat red-hot meal. Irish myth: Cross.

S183.1. †S183.1. Person forced to eat hearts (flesh) of relatives (draw blood). Irish myth: *Cross.

S183.2. †S183.2. Person forced to eat loathsome animal. Irish myth: *Cross.

S185. †S185. Cruelty to pregnant woman. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

S185.1. †S185.1. Co-wife forces pregnant woman to perform lowly tasks. (Cf. †T257.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

S185.2. †S185.2. King demands intercourse with woman in childbed. Irish myth: *Cross.

S186. †S186. Torturing by beating. Der Heiligen Leben und Leiden 100ff. (Santa Barbara); Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 587.

S187. †S187. Torturing by scratching.

S187.1. †S187.1. Torture by tearing out the sides (of a person). (Cf. †S166.1.) Der Heiligen Leben und Leiden 100f. (Santa Barbara); Jewish: Neuman.

S187.2. †S187.2. Hair combed with iron combs. India: Thompson-Balys.

S191. †S191. Driving insane by keeping awake. Nouvelles Récréations No. 68.

S200--S299.

†S200--†S299. Cruel sacrifices.

S200. †S200. Cruel sacrifices.

S210. †S210. Children sold or promised. *Type 930; Aarne FFC XXIII 54; BP I 98; Grimm Nos. 12, 31, 55, 92, 181; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

S210.1. †S210.1. Child sold into slavery. English: Wells 22 (Sir Beues of Hamtoun); Greek: Grote I 163; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 946. See also story of Joseph.

S210.2. †S210.2. Child sold to be killed. Jewish: *Neuman.

S211. †S211. Child sold (promised) to devil (ogre). See also references to †S220--†S259, practically all of which apply here. *Types 314, 400, 502, 756B, 810; BP II 329, III 463, 531; *Cosquin Études 365, 542ff.; *Wesselski Märchen 242 No. 52; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 46; Sébillot France III 446, IV 127; Gaster Exempla 248 No. 352. -- Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 42 No. 29AB; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 293 No. 1, 300 No. 2; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “enfant”, “diable”; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 17; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99--103, Espinosa Jr. No. 66; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 147; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 210, 212; Africa: Werner African 214.

S211.1. †S211.1. Child of woman and devil taken to his father. Type 756B; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 49.

S212. †S212. Child sold to magician. *Type 325; *Cosquin Études 523; BP II 60; Jones PMLA XXIII 567; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S213. †S213. Child promised to wood-spirit. (Cf. †F441.) Type 667*.

S214. †S214. Child promised to mermaid. (Cf. †B81.) Köhler-Bolte I 178; Irish myth: Cross.

S215. †S215. Child promised to animal. (Cf. †B620.1.) India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa: Werner African 223.

S215.1. †S215.1. Girl promises herself to animal suitor. *Type 440; BP I 1ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

S216. †S216. Mothers exchange children. India: Thompson-Balys.

S220. †S220. Reasons for promise (sale) of child.

S221. †S221. Child sold (promised) for money. *Type 756B; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 50ff., 56ff., *223, 227 n., *230 n.; Fb “sælge” III 722a; *Ward II 661 No. 4 (wife sold); Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 65 No. 471B*, Espinosa II No. 117.

S221.1. †S221.1. Bankrupt father sells his daughters in marriage to animals. (Sometimes to pay gambling debt.) (Cf. †S215.) *Types 425C, 552A; *BP II 234ff., III 424ff.; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 65; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 149, II 1013.

S221.2. †S221.2. Youth sells himself to an ogre in settlement of a gambling debt. (Cf. †M211, †S215.) *Type 313; BP I 442.

S222. †S222. Man promises (sells) child in order to save himself from danger or death. *Types 310, 425C, 756B, 500; BP I 490ff.; MacCulloch Childhood 421; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 51, 58, 229 n.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S222.1. †S222.1. Woman promises her unborn child to appease offended witch. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 1.

S222.2. †S222.2. Woman promises unborn daughter to snake as wife for ferrying her across stream. India: Thompson-Balys.

S222.3. †S222.3. Woman promises unborn child to tiger if he will spare her. India: Thompson-Balys.

S222.4. †S222.4. Sultan’s daughter demanded by giant ogre as price for letting his subjects alone. India: Thompson-Balys.

S223. †S223. Childless couple promise child to the devil if they may only have one. *Type 756B; *BP III 107; *Wesselski Märchen 242 No. 52; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 49, 52, *223ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Swahili): Steere 379.

S223.0.1. †S223.0.1. Robert the Devil. Childless couple wish for a child even if he comes from the devil. He is diabolical. *Wells 784; *Hibbard 49ff. (Sir Gowther); *Krappe Mod. Lang. Rev. XXIV (1929) 200ff.; Irish myth: Cross.

S223.0.2. †S223.0.2. Maid pledged to devil dresses conspicuously. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 14 No. 124.

S223.1. †S223.1. Girl promises unborn child to devil if he will suffer the birth pangs. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 40 No. 31**; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3254, Legends Nos. 370ff.

S223.2. †S223.2. Mother curses her unborn child. (Cf. †M411.1.) *Type 756B; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 49.

S223.3. †S223.3. An old maid promises the devil her first born. She wishes to get a husband. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 391.

S223.4. †S223.4. Childless couple promise one of two children to devil if they may only have them. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S224. †S224. Child promised to devil for acting as godfather. (Cf. †N411.) *Types 314, 502, 756B; *BP II 319ff., 329; Andrejev FFC LXIX 50; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “filleul”.

S225. †S225. Child promised to devil for help on road with broken wagon. Andrejev FFC LXIX 50, 56, 228 n.

S226. †S226. Child promised to devil for directions out of woods when father is lost. *Andrejev FFC LXIX 51, 58, 229 n.; BP II 483f.

S227. †S227. Child promised to devil in exchange for a good catch of fish. *Andrejev FFC LXIX 51, 60, 230 n.; Irish: O‘Suilleabhain 38, Beal XXI 314.

S228. †S228. Daughter promised to monster as bride to secure flower (bird) she has asked for. *Type 425C; *Tegethoff 12, 18; *BP II 229ff., *232 n. 2; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S232. †S232. Daughter promised to tiger in marriage for help in carrying load. (Cf. †B620.1.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

S233. †S233. Children given in return for being taught magic. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S234. †S234. Children sold in exchange for food. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 60.

S235. †S235. Angry man gives away his daughter to a beggar. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 248 No. 193.

S240. †S240. Children unwittingly promised (sold). (Cf. †S211.) *Types 314, 400, 710, 756B; *BP II 329; *Fb “frugtsommelig” I 376, “ufødt” III 926a; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 50ff., 56ff., 223; *MacCulloch Childhood 418; Irish: Baughman; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 8.

S240.1. †S240.1. Girl promised unwittingly by her parents to ogre. India: Thompson-Balys.

S241. †S241. Child unwittingly promised: “first thing you meet.” (Jephthah’s vow.) *Types 425, 810; *BP II 329, 483; *Fb “først” I 404, “møde” II 647a; Wünsche 34f.; *Tegethoff 18; *Cox Cinderella 511; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 50, 62, 228 n.; Johnston MLN XXII 233. -- French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 17; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 66; N. A. Indian (Zuñi): Boas JAFL XXXV 66 No. 2.

S241.1. †S241.1. Unwitting bargain with devil evaded by driving dog over bridge first. The child has been unwittingly promised (the first thing that goes over the bridge). Kittredge Witchcraft 206, *518 n. 19; Hazlitt Shakespeare Jest Books I 86f. No. 67; Mensa Philosophica No. 11.

S241.2. †S241.2. Devil is to have last one who leaves “black school”. Fb. “fanden” I 267b; Scotland, England: Baughman.

S241.3. †S241.3. Princess promised unwittingly to madman: “what you ask for.” India: Thompson-Balys.

S242. †S242. Child unwittingly promised: “what you have at home.” The man thinks it is a cat (dog). *Types 316, 710; *BP I 21; Köhler-Bolte I 312; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 50, 62, 228 n.; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 54 No. 455; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99--103.

S242.1. †S242.1. Child unwittingly promised: “What you wife has under her belt.” BP I 98f.; Danish: Grundtvig No. 33.

S243. †S243. Child unwittingly promised: Nix-Naught-Nothing. The child born while the father is away is named Nix-Naught-Nothing. Köhler-Bolte I 279; English: Jacobs English Fairy Tales 33.

S245. †S245. Child unwittingly promised: what is born on your farm. Two women agree that what is born on the farm of each belongs exclusively to the owner. The child of one is born on the farm of the other. Africa (Fjort): Dennett 58 No. 11.

S247. †S247. Daughter unwittingly promised to dog rescuer. (Cf. †B620.1.) Without knowing that a dog has rescued her, the father offers her in marriage to her rescuer. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 421; Japanese: Ikeda:

S250. †S250. Saving the promised child. Missouri French: Carrière.

S251. †S251. Virgin Mary rescues child promised to the devil. *Meyer Romania XXXIII 163ff.; Ward II 632 No. 29, Herbert III 504; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99--103.

S252. †S252. Vain attempt to save promised child.

S252.1. †S252.1. Vain attempt to save promised child by use of substitute. *Type 425.

S252.2. †S252.2. Vain attempt to save promised child by evasions. India: Thompson-Balys.

S255. †S255. Deity saves person about to be sacrificed. (Cf. †S263.2.1.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

S255.1. †S255.1. Deity promises deliverance of promised child to mother in dream. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S255.2. †S255.2. Child sacrificed to deity returned to mother alive and whole after the ablution and ceremonial rites in honor of her. India: Thompson-Balys.

S260. †S260. Sacrifices. (Cf. †S255.) Irish myth: *Cross.

S260.1. †S260.1. Human sacrifice. *Penzer IV 65 n.; *Encyc. Religion Ethics s.v. “Human sacrifice”; *V. Manzini La superstizione omicida e i sacrifici umani, con particolare riguardo alle accuse contro gli Ebrei (2d. ed., Padua, 1930); Krappe Hessische Blätter für Volkskunde XXVI (1927) 18--25. -- Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Keller, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 61, 68f.; Greek: Fox 183; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 189, II 54, 851; Marquesas: Beckwith 269, Handy 73; N. A. Indian (Sia): Alexander N. Am. 203, (Hopi): ibid. 205, (Zuñi): ibid. 201, *Benedict 342; Africa (Bushongo): Torday 250.

S260.1.1. †S260.1.1. Child sacrifice as religious rite. Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 329, O‘Suilleabhain 90; Jewish: *Neuman; N. A. Indian (Aztec): Alexander Lat. Am. 72.

S260.1.2. †S260.1.2. Sacrifice of sister on advice of yogi. India: Thompson-Balys.

S260.1.3. †S260.1.3. Prisoners sacrificed to goddess. Irish myth: Cross.

S260.1.4. †S260.1.4. Sacrifice of child to save life of another. (Cf. †S268.) Korean: Zong in-Sob 44 No. 26.

S261. †S261. Foundation sacrifice. A human being buried alive at base of the foundation of a building or bridge. *Krappe Balor 165 n. 1; *Gaidoz Mélusine IV (1888) No. 2; Krappe Revue Celtique XLIII (1926) 124ff. -- Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 39 (Arthour and Merlin), 42 (Nennius’ Historia Britonum); Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 200; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 46 No. 81; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 73 No. 620; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3519; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 133 No. 81; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 139, 151, 157; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

S261.0.1. †S261.0.1. Human blood mixed with rice to make leaky tanks hold water. India: Thompson-Balys.

S261.1. †S261.1. Child as foundation sacrifice smiles and wins freedom. The king asks him why he smiles. “One first expects mercy from the parents; if they have none, then from the king. Now only God will have mercy.” *Krappe Balor 171ff.; Penzer VII 87 n. 1, 88--96, 250ff.; *DeVries “De Sage van het ingemetselde Kind” Nederlandsche Tijdschrift voor Volkskunde XXXII (1917); India: *Thompson-Balys.

S262. †S262. Periodic sacrifices to a monster. *Schoepperle II 326ff.; *Panzer Beowulf 276ff.; *Frazer Pausanias V 143; Brown Iwain 17 and passim; *Freytag Am Urquell I (1890) 179ff., 197ff.; *Fb “glarbjærg” I 459, “jomfru” II 43; Chauvin VI 110 No. 274.--Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 139, 151, 157; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 207 n. 2, II 119 n. 2, 134 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 189, II 573, 1188; Japanese: Ikeda; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 154 No. 22, (Fang): Trilles 166.

S262.0.1. †S262.0.1. One man disappears each night. English: Beowulf; Icelandic: *Boberg.

S262.1. †S262.1. Woman given to devastating monster as wife to appease it. Irish myth: *Cross; Japanese: Ikeda; N. A. Indian (Creek): Alexander N. Am. 71.

S262.2. †S262.2. Tribute of youths regularly sent to foreign king. English: Wells 80 (Sir Tristrem).

S262.2.1. †S262.2.1. Youths and maidens as yearly tribute to monsters (Fomorians). Irish myth: *Cross.

S262.3. †S262.3. Sacrificial victim chosen by lot. (Cf. †N126.) Icelandic: *Boberg; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 793; West Africa: Tauxier La Noir du Yatenga (Paris, 1917) 496f. No. 1, (Hausa): Basset Mélusine III 226f. No. 2, (Senegambia): Bérenger-Feraud II 185ff. No. 2.

S262.4. †S262.4. Girl offers to sacrifice herself to dragon in place of her parents. India: Thompson-Balys.

S263. †S263. Sacrifice to appease spirits (gods). (Cf. †K1603, †T211.1.1.) Irish myth: Cross; Japanese: Ikeda.

S263.1. †S263.1. Highest ranking man in land to be sacrificed for good crops. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S263.2. †S263.2. Child sacrificed to gain favor of gods. Penzer II 214ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 111, Fox 52, 126; India: Thompson-Balys.

S263.2.1. †S263.2.1. Gods furnish substitute for child sacrifice. (Cf. †S255.) Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 192 n. 1; Jewish: *Neuman.

S263.2.2. †S263.2.2. Daughters sacrificed to avert famine. *Frazer Pausanias II 78.

S263.2.3. †S263.2.3. Man shows himself willing to sacrifice his child to prove his desire to follow God. He is prevented by abbot. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

S263.3. †S263.3. Person sacrificed to water spirit to secure water supply. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Lamba): Doke MAFLS XX 14 No. 11, (Hausa): Basset Mélusine III 226f. No. 2, (Fulah): Frobenius Atlantis VI 182ff. No. 4.

S263.3.1. †S263.3.1. Human sacrifice to water serpent to secure tribal prosperity. Africa Tauxier La Noir du Yatenga (Paris, 1917) 496f. No. 1, (Senegambia): Béranger-Feraud II 185ff. No. 2.

S263.3.2. †S263.3.2. Serpent in stream demands pair of human eyes for drink of water. (Cf. †M225.) India: Thompson-Balys.

S263.3.3. †S263.3.3. Raja sacrifices his entire family so as to purify lake water. India: Thompson-Balys.

S263.4. †S263.4. Sacrifice to river-god who has stopped boat in mid-stream. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 152ff. No. 22.

S263.4.1. †S263.4.1. Sacrifice to offended gods, who hold ship back. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 586; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 111.

S263.5. †S263.5. Sacrificial suicide. (Cf. †S264.1.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

S263.5.1. †S263.5.1. Saints (monks) sacrifice themselves (to avert plague). Irish myth: *Cross.

S263.5.2. †S263.5.2. Monks sacrifice themselves (to save king and princes from pestilence). Irish myth: Cross.

S263.5.3. †S263.5.3. Man leaps from vessel into jaws of sea-beast, so as to save remaining passengers. Irish myth: Cross.

S263.6. †S263.6. Man sacrifices his wife to procure wealth in jars. India: Thompson-Balys.

S264. †S264. Sacrifice to rivers and seas. *Fb “sø” III 731a, “å” III 1187b.

S264.1. †S264.1. Man thrown overboard to placate storm. (Cf. †S263.5.3.) Type 973*; Child V 496 s.v. “Ships”; Chauvin VII 30 No. 212 n. 2; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 227; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1024; Korean: Zong in-Sob 107 No. 57.

S264.1.1. †S264.1.1. Man carried on top of mast ready to be sacrificed to storm spirit. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S264.1.2. †S264.1.2. Woman drowns herself as sacrifice to water-gods to save husband’s boat from capsizing. (Cf. †S263.5.) Japanese: Ikeda.

S264.2. †S264.2. Sacrifice to tank. India: Thompson-Balys.

S265. †S265. Sacrifice of strangers. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 224 n. 1, II 273 n. 2; Japanese: Ikeda.

S265.1. †S265.1. Hostages sacrificed. Irish myth: *Cross.

S266. †S266. Burial of live girl to banish plague. German: Knoop Sagen u. Erzählungen aus Posen 123.

S267. †S267. Flood stopped by sacrifice of boy and girl. N. A. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict 337.

S268. †S268. Child sacrificed to provide blood for cure of friend. (Cf. †S260.1.4.) *Type 516; **Rösch FFC LXXVII 138ff., 161ff.; BP I 56; *Chauvin VIII 195 No. 235: *Wells 787 (Amis and Amiloun); Hibbard 70ff.; Scala Celi 10a No. 64; Alphabet No. 55.--Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 9, Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

S268.1. †S268.1. Sacrifice of child demanded as cure for feigned sickness. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S268.1.1. †S268.1.1. Prince‘s life can only be prolonged if servant sacrifices his only son to goddess. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S268.2. †S268.2. Son sold for transfusion of blood to sick king. India: Thompson-Balys.

S271. †S271. Sacrifice of child to remove barrenness. Penzer I 154; Chauvin V 176 No. 100; India: Thompson-Balys.

S272. †S272. Sacrifice of brothers promised if girl is born. *Type 451; BP I 71ff.

S272.1. †S272.1. Flight of brothers from home to avoid being sacrificed. *Type 451; BP I 70.

S273. †S273. Child bought to serve as sacrifice to demon. Penzer VII 87 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys.

S274. †S274. Sacrifice as an agricultural rite. Irish myth: *Cross.

S276. †S276. Sacrifice as protection against disease. Irish myth: *Cross.

S300--S399.

†S300--†S399. Abandoned or murdered children.

S300. †S300. Abandoned or murdered children.

S301. †S301. Children abandoned (exposed). *Types 327, 450, 590, 675, 920, 930; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 40ff.; *Penzer VII 81 n. 1, 82 n. 250; *Boje 65; *Cosquin Études 199ff.; *Prato RTP IV 178; **Nutt FLR IV 1ff.; **Hartland FLJ IV 308; *Aarne FFC XXIII 60; Cowell Jataka V 230; Dickson 152.--Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. “enfant”; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99--103, 119; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 8, *Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 94f.; Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 471; Tonga: Gifford 122; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 523; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 369, 385; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 349 n. 255, (California): Gayton and Newman 89, (Zuñi): Benedict II 335; West Indies: Flowers 576.

S302. †S302. Children murdered. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

S302.1. †S302.1. All new-born male children slaughtered. Jewish: *Neuman.

S303. †S303. Son killed at instigation of lover. India: Thompson-Balys.

S303.1. †S303.1. Woman asks suitor to kill the child of his first wife. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 228.

S310. †S310. Reasons for abandonment of children. (Cf. †K2015, †M371, †M373, †M375.)

S311. †S311. Undesirable children exposed, desirable preserved. *Frazer Old Testament II 437ff.; Icelandic: Boberg.

S311.1. †S311.1. Parents successively bury alive their sons who mention something about smith’s, potter‘s, washerman’s, and tom-tom beater‘s trade, but keep fifth child who says something about being future king. India: Thompson-Balys.

S312. †S312. Illegitimate child exposed. (Cf. †S12.2.1, †T640.) *Encyc. Religion Ethics s.v. “Abandonment and exposure”; *Nutt FLR IV 1ff.; Frazer Apollodorus I 252 n. 2; Aarne FFC XXIII 63; *Hertel Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 83ff., 91. -- Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S312.1. †S312.1. Child of incest exposed. (Cf. †T410.) *Type 933; Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 173 (to Gonzenbach No. 85); *Baum PMLA XXXI 562 n. 59; Krappe Neuphilologische Mitteilungen XXXIV (1933) 11--22; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

S312.2. †S312.2. Violated woman’s child exposed. Icelandic: *Boberg.

S312.3. †S312.3. Posthumous child to be exposed. Icelandic: Boberg.

S312.4. †S312.4. Woman abandons baby boy (of which she was artificially impregnated) in forest. India: Thompson-Balys.

S313. †S313. Child of supernatural birth exposed. (Cf. †T520.) *Nutt FLR IV 1ff., Gaster Thespis 255; Greek: Grote I 103; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

S314. †S314. Twins (triplets) exposed. (Cf. †T587.) *Krappe Balor 17 n. 55; Dickson 103 n. 10; Gaster Thespis 255; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Grote I 103.

S321. †S321. Destitute parents abandon children. *Encyc. Religion Ethics s.v. “Abandonment and exposure”; *Type 327; *BP I 123; Missouri French: Carrière; Greek: Grote I 103; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 256 No. 200a; Korean: Zong in-Sob 43 No. 25.

S321.1. †S321.1. Children abandoned in famine. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 374, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 34a; N. A. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict II 335; Africa (Wachaga): Gutmann 142.

S322. †S322. Children abandoned (driven forth, exposed) by hostile relative. *Roberts 128; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish: Espinosa II No. 114, Espinosa Jr. No. 140.

S322.0.1. †S322.0.1. Orphaned boy deprived of his inheritance by relatives. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S322.1. †S322.1. Father casts daughter forth. Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 107f., 154, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 120--123.

S322.1.1. †S322.1.1. Father who wanted son exposes (murders) daughter. Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Fox 56 (Atalanta); India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 203.

S322.1.2. †S322.1.2. Father casts daughter forth when she will not marry him. (Cf. †T411.1.) *Type 510B; BP II 45; Cox passim; Krappe Zeitschrift für englische Philologie XLIX 361--69; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99--103.

S322.1.2.1. †S322.1.2.1. Exposure in jungle for refusing to marry according to father‘s wishes. India: Thompson-Balys.

S322.1.3. †S322.1.3. Father condemns daughter to death because he believes her unchaste. Type 883A; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Somali): Kirk FL XV 319ff. No. 3, Reinisch Die Saho-Sprache (Wien, 1889) I 76ff. No. 3.

S322.1.4. †S322.1.4. Princess humiliated by father after she has married loathly bridegroom. India: Thompson-Balys.

S322.1.5. †S322.1.5. Boy turned out of doors by father. India: Thompson-Balys.

S322.1.5.1. †S322.1.5.1. King, jealous of son, banishes him and his wife. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 210.

S322.2. †S322.2. Jealous mother casts daughter forth. (Cf. †S12.) *Type 709; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 30 No. 1.

S322.2.1. †S322.2.1. Mother exposes child (for fear of jealous co-wife). Irish myth: *Cross.

S322.3. †S322.3. Jealous co-wife kills woman’s children. (Cf. †K2222.) India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 246 No. 36, (Zulu): Callaway 237.

S322.3.1. †S322.3.1. Jealous co-wife demands murder of woman‘s children. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S322.3.2. †S322.3.2. Jealous concubine plots against real wife’s daughter. Chinese: Graham.

S322.4. †S322.4. Evil stepmother casts boy forth. *Types 592; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S322.4.1. †S322.4.1. Banishment (death) of stepchildren demanded as cure for feigned illness. India: Thompson-Balys.

S322.4.2. †S322.4.2. Evil stepmother orders stepdaughter to be killed. Irish myth: *Cross.

S322.4.3. †S322.4.3. Stepmother irritates two stepsons so that one kills the other. India: Thompson-Balys.

S322.5. †S322.5. Repulsed lover kills woman‘s child. Dickson 73 n. 26.

S322.6. †S322.6. Jealous mother-in-law and sisters cast woman’s children forth. Roberts 132; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S322.7. †S322.7. Evil stepmother works stepdaughter to death in absence of merchant husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

S324. †S324. Pregnant woman ordered by husband to kill child to be born. Irish myth: Cross.

S325. †S325. Diseased child exposed. Africa (Kaffir): Kidd 224 No. 1.

S325.0.1. †S325.0.1. Monstrous (deformed) child exposed. (Cf. †S11.3.2, †T550.) Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Grote I 55; Chinese: Graham; Marquesas: Handy 114; Tonga: Gifford 31, 60.

S325.0.1.1. †S325.0.1.1. Child born with caul exposed. Irish myth: Cross.

S326. †S326. Disobedient children cast forth. India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 205.

S326.1. †S326.1. Disobedient child burned. Irish myth: Cross.

S327. †S327. Child cast out because of his stupidity. Type 563; Grimm No. 36; India: Thompson-Balys.

S327.1. †S327.1. Father wants to kill son because of foolish boasting. India: Thompson-Balys.

S327.2. †S327.2. Baby ordered killed because it pulls beard of father (raja). India: Thompson-Balys.

S327.3. †S327.3. Half-wit abandoned because of his tricks. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XXII 23.

S328. †S328. Mother sells her child to heathen sailors. Boje 63, *67.

S329. †S329. Reasons for abandonment of children--miscellaneous.

S329.1. †S329.1. Child exposed so as to avoid death decree. India: Thompson-Balys.

S330. †S330. Circumstances of murder or exposure of children.

S331. †S331. Exposure of child in boat (floating chest). See references for †S141, nearly all of which refer to this motif. Type 930; W. R. Halliday Indo-European Folk Tales and Greek Legend (London, 1933) 55; Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Greek: Grote I 103; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 558, 931; Japanese: Ikeda; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 152.

S332. †S332. Queen hides her child and accuses wolf of eating it. Malone PMLA XLIII 437.

S333. †S333. Child‘s ankles pierced before exposing him. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 344 n. 1 (Oedipus).

S334. †S334. Tokens of royalty (nobility) left with exposed child. (Cf. †H80.) *Penzer VII 81 n. 1; Irish myth: Cross; English: Wells 134 (Sir Degare), 126 (Lai Le Freine); Greek: Fox 71.

S334.1. †S334.1. Child exposed with twelve years’ supply of food and attendants. India: Thompson-Balys.

S335. †S335. Child exposed at palace gate. Penzer VII 81 n. 1, 82 n., 250.

S336. †S336. Abandoned child wrapped in straw. DeVries FFC LXXIII 326f.

S337. †S337. Children enticed into grain pot and imprisoned. India: Thompson-Balys.

S338. †S338. Father abandons his daughter in forest and leaves axes tied so that they move in wind. Daughter thinks he is cutting wood. *Roberts 137.

S341. †S341. Exposure prevented.

S341.1. †S341.1. Exposure given up on account of newborn son‘s protesting stanza. Icelandic: Boberg.

S342. †S342. Mother induced by rival to kill her children. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S345. †S345. Parents trick children into going on hunt, and then abandon them in forest. (Cf. †S143.) India: Thompson-Balys.

S350. †S350. Fate of abandoned child. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 54 No. 33; Japanese: Ikeda.

S350.1. †S350.1. Infant condemned to death saved by a smile. Irish myth: Cross.

S350.2. †S350.2. Child driven out (exposed) brought up in secret. Irish myth: *Cross.

S351. †S351. Abandoned child cared for by mother secretly. (Cf. †R153.) Africa (Zulu): Callaway 236, (Basuto): Jacottet 128ff. No. 18.

S351.0.1. †S351.0.1. Abandoned child made over to its own mother (sister) acting as wet nurse. Jewish: *Neuman.

S351.1. †S351.1. Abandoned child cared for by grandmother (aunt, foster mother). Irish: *Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 167; N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 91.

S351.2. †S351.2. Abandoned child reared by herdsman. (Cf. †R131.3.) Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Grote I 241, 263; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 458.

S351.2.1. †S351.2.1. Abandoned princess, brought up by herdsmen, becomes wife of king. Irish myth: *Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 378.

S352. †S352. Animal aids abandoned child(ren). (Cf. †B535.) Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; S. A. Indian (Sherenti): Lowe BBAE CXLIII (1) 515; West Indies: Flowers 576.

S352.1. †S352.1. Animal preserves fire for abandoned children in a clam shell. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 347, 349 nn. 247, 255.

S353. †S353. Abandoned child reared by supernatural beings. India: *Thompson-Balys; Maori: Dixon 42.

S353.1. †S353.1. Deity nurtures and rears abandoned child. India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1366.

S353.2. †S353.2. Exposed children miraculously fed by angels. Jewish: Neuman.

S354. †S354. Exposed infant reared at strange king’s court (Joseph, Oedipus). *Type 931; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman, bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 165, 372; India: Thompson-Balys.

S354.1. †S354.1. Abandoned child adopted and found by queen. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S354.2. †S354.2. Travelers find exposed baby girl and take her to emperor‘s court. India: Thompson-Balys.

S354.3. †S354.3. Prince (princess) adopts exposed child. Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Wachaga): Gutmann 142.

S355. †S355. Exposed child carried off by wild beast. (Cf. †R13.) Dickson 169ff.

S356. †S356. Children left at home seek exposed brothers and sisters. Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 207.

S357. †S357. Abandoned sister rescued by brothers. When she is refused entrance to house, she makes complaint in a song and brothers bring her clothes. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 883C*.

S361. †S361. Bird carries food from deserted child to starving parents. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 348 n. 250.

S362. †S362. Starving parents come to abandoned child for food. Jewish: *Neuman (Joseph); Sulka of New Britain: Dixon 132 n. 2; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 349 n. 255.

S365. †S365. Maltreated children transformed. (Cf. †D642.)

S365.1. †S365.1. Maltreated children transformed to doves. India: Thompson-Balys.

S366. †S366. Abandoned children return and kill parents. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 89.

S371. †S371. Abandoned daughter‘s son becomes hero. *Dixon 130, 132 n. 2, 136 nn. 10, 11; Greek: Grote I 854; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S375. †S375. Old woman’s maledictions inform abandoned hero of his parentage and future. He has knocked her over (broken pots). *Cosquin Contes indiens 398.

S376. †S376. Tree feeds abandoned children with its sap. India: Thompson-Balys.

S378. †S378. Deserted children become Thunder. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 91.

S400--S499.

†S400--†S499. Cruel persecutions.

S400. †S400. Cruel persecutions.

S401. †S401. Unsuccessful attempts to kill person in successive reincarnations (transformations). Egyptian: Petrie Egyptian Tales (London, 1895) I 36ff., Von Sydow “Den fornegyptiska Sagan om de två Bröderna” Yearbook of the New Society of Letters of Lund, 1930, 53ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

S410. †S410. Persecuted wife. *Types 450, 705, 706, 707, 708, 712, 872*; *BP II 236, 284; *Schlauch Constance and Accused Queens (New York, 1927); *Hibbard 29, 35ff.; *Wehrhan 51; *Krappe Anglia XLIX 361ff. --Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Keller, Espinosa II No. 105; India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 365, III 104, Rink 441, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 198.

S411. †S411. Wife banished. India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 526.

S411.1. †S411.1. Misunderstood wife banished by husband. She has decorated the house for his homecoming, but he thinks that she is expecting a paramour. *Type 890 (Christiansen Norske Eventyr 113); Japanese: Ikeda.

S411.2. †S411.2. Wife banished for some small fault. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S411.2.1. †S411.2.1. Queen banished for saying that man‘s condition depends on what kind of wife he has. India: Thompson-Balys.

S411.3. †S411.3. Barren wife sent away. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S411.4. †S411.4. Wife banished because she eats by stealth. India: Thompson-Balys.

S412. †S412. Heroine taunted with her unknown past. (Cf. †F302.) Dickson 74.

S412.1. †S412.1. Husband expels wife because her industry indicates her peasant origin. Chinese: Graham.

S413. †S413. Unfaithful husband and his mistress persecute his wife. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

S413.1. †S413.1. Ogress-wife orders raja to turn out his six wives. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S413.2. †S413.2. Second wife orders husband to persecute first. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S414. †S414. Woman abandoned when with child. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1038.

S416. †S416. Queen banished when she defeats king in argument. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S430. †S430. Disposal of cast-off wife.

S431. †S431. Cast-off wife exposed in boat. *Hertel Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 83ff.

S431.1. †S431.1. Cast-off wife and child exposed in boat. Hibbard 26ff.; English: Wells 115 (Sir Eglamour of Artois), 117 (Sir Torrent of Portyngale), 129 (Emare), Chaucer’s Man of Law‘s Tale; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 3; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 155 n. 3; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

S432. †S432. Cast-off wife thrown into water. (Cf. †S142.) *Types 403, 450, 707; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 382ff., (Teton): Dorsey JAFL II 137.

S433. †S433. Cast-off wife abandoned on island. (Cf. †S145.) Type 890 (Christiansen Norske Eventyr 113); Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 105, 119.

S435. †S435. Cast-off wife abandoned in pit. (Cf. †T581.2.) India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 202.

S436. †S436. Cast-off wife‘s head shaven. India: Thompson-Balys.

S437. †S437. Cast-off wife sent to herd cows. India: Thompson-Balys.

S438. †S438. Abandoned queen blinded. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S441. †S441. Cast-off wife and child abandoned in forest. (Cf. †S143.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

S442. †S442. Outcast wife and her son live in poverty. India: *Thompson-Balys.

S445. †S445. Abandoned wife hidden under a tub. Cox 501; Grimm No. 9.

S446. †S446. Rejected wife asks to take away only what she brought. Type 887; Chinese: Graham.

S450. †S450. Fate of outcast wife.

S451. †S451. Outcast wife at last united with husband and children. *Types 706, 712, 938; *Loomis White Magic 118; *Chauvin VI 167ff. No. 327. Chauvin discusses the following stories having this motif: St. Clement, St. Eustace, Crescentia, Hildegarde, Florence, Octavianus, Sebile, Genevieve of Brabant, Euriant, the Maiden without Hands, Helena of Constantinople, the Count of Toulouse.--Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 105, 119, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 138--41; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries’s list Nos. 201, 202.

S452. †S452. Outcast wife commits suicide when confronted with heads of relatives killed in revenge for her wrong-doing. Irish myth: Cross.

S453. †S453. Exposed woman helped by magician. India: Thompson-Balys.

S460. †S460. Other cruel persecutions.

S461. †S461. Tale-bearer unjustly drowned for lack of proof of accusation. Irish myth: Cross.

S463. †S463. Jealous wife has merchant turn out queen and son, whom he had befriended and taken into his home. India: Thompson-Balys.

S464. †S464. Deity appears before persecuted youngest brother and gives him a flock of sheep. India: Thompson-Balys.

S465. †S465. Abandoned person in woods comforted by prophet and birds. (Cf. †S143.) *Grünwald Hessische Blätter für Vksk. XXX--XXXI 315.

S466. †S466. Practice of one‘s religion forbidden. Jewish: *Neuman.

S471. †S471. Persecuted sons of co-wife. (Cf. †K2222.) India: Thompson-Balys.

S481. †S481. Cruelty to animals. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 181 No. 123.