S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958. • Main page

Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, ÐÔÔÈ #06-06-80-420a, ÐÔÔÈ #07-06-00441-à



†R0.--R99. Captivity

†R0. Captivity

†R10. Abduction

†R40. Places of captivity

†R50. Conditions of captivity

†R70. Behavior of captives

†R100.--R199. Rescues

†R100. Rescues

†R110. Rescue of captive

†R130. Rescue of abandoned or lost persons

†R150. Rescuers

†R170. Rescue -- miscellaneous motifs

†R200.--R299. Escapes and pursuits

†R200. Escapes and pursuits

†R210. Escapes

†R220. Flights

†R260. Pursuits

†R300.---R399. Refuges and recapture

†R300. Refuges and recapture

†R310. Refuges

†R350. Recapture of fugitive


†R0-†R99. Captivity.

R0. †R0. Captivity.

R1. †R1. Wild man captured and tamed. *Dickson 116 n. 44, 122; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 319 n. 152.

R2. †R2. God holds the devil captive for three years. Dh. I 184.

R3. †R3. King imprisons another king's embassy. Thien Motive 10.

R4. †R4. Surprise capture. Irish myth: *Cross.

R4.1. †R4.1. Enemy surprised while bathing: taken. Irish myth: *Cross.

R5. †R5. Capture on field of battle. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

R5.1. †R5.1. Enemy host imprisoned by earthen walls thrown up by hero's chariot wheels. Irish myth: *Cross.

R5.2. †R5.2. Hero captured by being pressed between shields from all sides. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R6. †R6. Messenger of Death imprisoned. India: Thompson-Balys.

R7. †R7. Men held captive in the Land of Women. (Cf. †F112.) India: Thompson-Balys.

R8. †R8. Gods captured. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R9. †R9. Captivity -- miscellaneous.

R9.1. †R9.1. Sun captured.

R9.1.1. †R9.1.1. Sun captured during visit to earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

R9.1.2. †R9.1.2. Sun and Moon captured by creditor, thus causing eclipse. India: Thompson-Balys.

R9.1.3. †R9.1.3. Sun and Moon imprison each other. India: Thompson-Balys.

R9.2. †R9.2. Grain and pulse in human form imprisoned by wicked king. India: Thompson-Balys.

R9.3. †R9.3. Ogress captured and reformed. India: Thompson-Balys.

R9.4. †R9.4. Fire-maiden imprisoned in iron house. India: Thompson-Balys.

R9.5. †R9.5. Cow imprisoned until it promises not to eat men. India: Thompson-Balys.

R9.6. †R9.6. King imprisons all living creatures. India: Thompson-Balys.

R10. †R10. Abduction. **Feilberg Bjærgtagen (København, 1910), Nissens Historie; **Hdwb. d. Märchens I 541ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 86, (Zuñi): Benedict II 334.

R10.1. †R10.1. Princess (maiden) abducted. (Cf. †R11.1, †R12.1, †R13.1, †R16.1, †R17.1, †R25.1, †R31.) *Types 301, 302, 311, 312; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 553b nn. 296--315; Feilberg Bjærgtagen (København 1910). --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "princesse"; Spanish: Espinosa II No. 133--135; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Grote I 156; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 220.

R10.1.1. †R10.1.1. Maiden abducted by soldiers. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

R10.1.2. †R10.1.2. Lover abducts maiden from cruel father and brother. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R10.2. †R10.2. Pretended abduction. Adulterous wife plots own abduction by paramour. Irish myth: Cross.

R10.3. †R10.3. Children abducted. Icelandic: Boberg.

R10.4. †R10.4. Hero abducted by witch who loves him. Icelandic: Boberg.

R10.4.1. †R10.4.1. Abduction of bridegroom and killing of his bride planned as giantess's revenge. Icelandic: Lagerholm 56--58, Boberg.

R11. †R11. Abduction by monster (ogre). (Cf. †G440.) **Feilberg Bjærgtagen (København, 1910); Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 133--135, III Nos. 141f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 129, 1060; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 39.

R11.1. †R11.1. Princess (maiden) abducted by monster (ogre). (Cf. †R10.1.) *Types 301, 302, 311, 312; *BP I 398, 404, II 301, 317, III 434; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 544b, 547a nn. 60--79, 140--174; *Fb "brud" IV 64b. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 221 No. 98; Japanese: Dixon 215 n. 17; Eskimo (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 167; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 341f. nn. 228, 228a, 231, 235.

R11.1.1. †R11.1.1. Abduction of girl by half bestial man (hair on body, nails of dog). India: *Thompson-Balys.

R11.2. †R11.2. Abduction by devil.

R11.2.1. †R11.2.1. Devil carries off wicked people. Scala Celi 6b, 43a, 54b, 77b Nos. 39, 246, 306, 441; Fb "fanden" I 267a; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 55, Beal XXI 322; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 13 Nos. 116, 118; Spanish Exempla: Keller; West Indies: Flowers 571.

R11.2.1.1. †R11.2.1.1. Devil carries off emperor because of his many murders. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

R11.2.2. †R11.2.2. Abduction by demon. India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 507, 1053; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1386).

R11.2.2.1. †R11.2.2.1. Abduction by Echo. India: Thompson-Balys.

R11.3. †R11.3. Abduction by giant. (Cf. †F531, †G100.) English romance: Malory V 5; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 166 No. 72; N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict II 334.

R12. †R12. Abduction by pirates.

R12.1. †R12.1. Maiden abducted by pirates (robbers). (Cf. †R10.1.) *Reinhard PMLA XXXVIII 465; Irish myth: *Cross; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 981.

R12.2. †R12.2. Man abducted by pirates. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

R12.2.1. †R12.2.1. Child abducted by robbers and brought up in their ways. Later becomes wealthy and law-abiding. Irish myth: Cross.

R12.3. †R12.3. Lovers abducted by pirates. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

R12.4. †R12.4. Girl enticed into boat and abducted. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R13. †R13. Abduction by animal. Chinese: Graham.

R13.0.1. †R13.0.1. Children carried off by animals. *Hibbard 270 n. 10, 276; Irish myth: *Cross.

R13.1. †R13.1. Abduction by wild beast.

R13.1.1. †R13.1.1. Baboons abduct boy. Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 42.

R13.1.2. †R13.1.2. Lion carries off child. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

R13.1.3. †R13.1.3. Rhinoceros carries off man. India: Thompson-Balys.

R13.1.4. †R13.1.4. Abduction by tiger.

R13.1.4.1. †R13.1.4.1. Tiger abducts man. India: Thompson-Balys.

R13.1.4.2. †R13.1.4.2. Abduction of woman by tiger. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 142.

R13. †R13. Tigers abduct princess to be wife of their human ward. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R13.1.5. †R13.1.5. Wolf abducts person. Irish myth: *Cross.

R13.1.6. †R13.1.6. Girl abducted by bear and made his wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

R13.1.7. †R13.1.7. Abduction by monkey.

R13.1.7.1. †R13.1.7.1. Girl carried off by monkeys. India: Thompson-Balys.

R13.1.8. †R13.1.8. Abduction by rabbit. India: Thompson-Balys.

R13.1.9. †R13.1.9. Abduction by leopard. India: Thompson-Balys.

R13.1.10. †R13.1.10. Abduction by elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

R13.1.11. †R13.1.11. Abduction by fox. India: Thompson-Balys.

R13.2. †R13.2. Abduction by domestic beast.

R13.2.1. †R13.2.1. Girl carried off by ram. (Cf. †R10.1.) Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bélier".

R13.2.2. †R13.2.2. Bull carries off devil after he has tried to deceive God. (Cf. †A60.) Dh I 35.

R13.2.3. †R13.2.3. Abduction by cat. Irish myth: *Cross.

R13.2.3.1. †R13.2.3.1. Abduction by goddess's cat. India: Thompson-Balys.

R13.3. †R13.3. Person carried off by bird. German: Grimm No. 51; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 183, 201; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 79; Africa (Yoruba): Frobenius Atlantis X 222ff. No. 14.

R13.3.1. †R13.3.1. Abduction by ravens. Irish myth: Cross.

R13.3.2. †R13.3.2. Eagle carries off youth. Greek: Fox 240 (Ganymede); Japanese: Ikeda.

R13.4. †R13.4. Abduction by reptile.

R13.4.1. †R13.4.1. Abduction by snake. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R14. †R14. Deity (demigod) abducts person. Greek: Grote I 35, 83, 261; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 183.

R16. †R16. Abduction by transformed person.

R16.1. †R16.1. Maiden abducted by transformed hero. (Cf. †D658, †D2121.7, †R10.1.) *Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 112; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 57 No. 425.

R16.2. †R16.2. Child carried off by werwolf. (Cf. †D113.1.1.) Hibbard 216.

R16.3. †R16.3. Woman abducted by (transformed) fairy. Irish myth: *Cross.

R16.4. †R16.4. Abduction by tiger-man. India: Thompson-Balys.

R16.5. †R16.5. Abduction by elephant-man. India: Thompson-Balys.

R17. †R17. Abduction by whirlwind. (Cf. †D1520.28.) Hartland Science 175; Icelandic: Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 160 No. 23.

R17.1. †R17.1. Whirlwind carries princess away. (Cf. †R10.1.) *Fb "hvirvelvind" I 708.

R18. †R18. Abduction by rejected suitor. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

R22. †R22. Abduction by giving soporific. Irish myth: Cross.

R22.1. †R22.1. Abduction by giving soporific and rolling up in a cloak. *Chauvin V 23 No. 13 n. 2.

R22.2. †R22.2. Abduction by means of sleep-giving music. Irish myth: Cross.

R23. †R23. Abduction with aid of magic mask which renders invisible. (Cf. †D1361.32.) Irish myth: Cross.

R24. †R24. Abductor in disguise. (Cf. †K1310.) India: Thompson-Balys.

R24.1. †R24.1. Prince disguised as holy man abducts princess. India: Thompson-Balys.

R24.2. †R24.2. Princely suitor in minstrel disguise carries princess away. India: Thompson-Balys.

R25. †R25. Abduction through underground passage.

R25.1. †R25.1. Princess abducted through underground passage. (Cf. †R10.1.) *Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 102; BP I 46ff.; Icelandic: Boberg.

R31. †R31. Light extinguished and woman stolen. (Cf. †R10.1.) Icelandic: *Boberg; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 343 n. 237.

R32. †R32. Abduction by stealing clothes of bathers. Africa (Cameroon): Lederbogen Märchen II 122f. No. 9.

R33. †R33. Fairy physician abducted to heal wounded mortals. (Cf. †F344.) Irish myth: Cross.

R35. †R35. Abducted princess gives birth to child. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R39. †R39. Abduction -- miscellaneous.

R39.1. †R39.1. Abduction by magician. India: Thompson-Balys.

R39.2. †R39.2. Abduction by old woman. India: Thompson-Balys.

R40. †R40. Places of captivity. Missouri French: Carrière.

R41. †R41. Captivity in tower (castle, prison).

R41.1. †R41.1. Captivity in castle. *Type 400; English: Wells 66 (Ywain and Gawain); Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R41.1.1. †R41.1.1. Captivity in subterranean palace. India: Thompson-Balys.

R41.2. †R41.2. Captivity in tower. *Type 310; Dickson 198 n. 8; Irish myth: *Cross; Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 1, IV No. 6, Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R41.2.1. †R41.2.1. Slandered wife is locked in tower for forty days. If no champion appears, she is to be burned. Former suitor rescues her. Spanish: Childers.

R41.2.2. †R41.2.2. Captivity in bower. Irish myth: *Cross.

R41.3. †R41.3. Captivity in dungeon. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 22 (Sir Beues of Hamtoun); Jewish: Neuman.

R41.3.1. †R41.3.1. Prison filled with snakes. (Cf. †Q465.1.) *Boje 92; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 436b nn. 183--198; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

R41.3.2. †R41.3.2. Prison with stream of water in it. Boje 93.

R41.3.3. †R41.3.3. Prison floor with spikes in it. Boje 91ff.

R41.3.4. †R41.3.4. Captivity in well. India: Thompson-Balys.

R41.4. †R41.4. Groom as prisoner in his and giantess's bridal chamber. (Cf. †R41.5.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

R41.5. †R41.5. Abducted princess fettered in hall with 100 doors. Bridal bed for her and giant in the midst. (Cf. †R111.2.3.) Icelandic: Boberg.

R41.5.1. †R41.5.1. Queen kept in palace of forty doors, each of them watched by a dog. Africa (Dahome): Einstein 25.

R41.6. †R41.6. Captivity in a pillar. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

R41.7. †R41.7. Captivity in cages. (Cf. †Q433.1.) Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; Jewish: Neuman.

R42. †R42. Captivity in sunken valley. Irish myth: *Cross.

R43. †R43. Captivity on island. Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R45. †R45. Captivity in mound (cave, hollow hill). *Type 870; *BP III 443ff., 450; *Fb "höj" I 740b, 741; **Liungman Traditionsstudie över sagan om prinsessani jordkulan (Göteborg, 1925). --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 54 No. 405*A; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

R45.1. †R45.1. Man confined under roots of tree. N. Am. Indian (Seneca): CurtinHewitt RBAE XXXII 705 No. 135.

R45.2. †R45.2. Imprisonment in lion's den. Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 5; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: Neuman.

R45.3. †R45.3. Captivity in cave.

R45.3.1. †R45.3.1. Bear keeps human wife captive in cave with stone at entrance. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R46. †R46. Captivity under water. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R47. †R47. Captivity in lower world. India: Thompson-Balys.

R49. †R49. Other places of captivity.

R49.1. †R49.1. Captivity in tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

R49.2. †R49.2. Captivity in an oven. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

R49.3. †R49.3. Ogre seizes girl and puts her in a drum. Africa (Luba): DeClerq ZsKS IV 225.

R50. †R50. Conditions of captivity.

R51. †R51. Mistreatment of prisoners. Irish myth: Cross.

R51.1. †R51.1. Prisoners starved. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

R51.2. †R51.2. Prisoners confined in chains. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

R51.3. †R51.3. Prisoners mutilated. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

R51.4. †R51.4. Prisoner massacred. Jewish: Neuman.

R53. †R53. Captivity as refuge for the captive. Type 870.

R53.1. †R53.1. Woman hidden in underground chamber or mud cabin. (Cf. †R45.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

R53.2. †R53.2. Woman hidden in sacred place which her lover is not supposed to dare to enter. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R53.3. †R53.3. Girl locked up in order to postpone wedding. Icelandic: Göngu-Hrólfs saga 306.

R53.4. †R53.4. Faithful servant locks his master and his friend up in a little house built from wood from their wrecked ships; they falsely think themselves betrayed. Icelandic: Boberg.

R54. †R54. Hero locked up while his father is murdered. Icelandic: Boberg.

R61. †R61. Person sold into slavery. *Types 506, 888; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Fang): Einstein 151.

R70. †R70. Behavior of captives. Irish myth: *Cross.

R71. †R71. Captive prince joins captor out of gratitude for his freedom. (He had refused to promise that he would not fight again.) (Cf. †W27.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

R72. †R72. Defiant prisoners refuse to accept grace even from their father unless it is granted them all. (Cf. †M165.) Hdwb. d. Märchens II "Gnade ausbitten"; Icelandic: Boberg.

R74. †R74. Defeated warriors go into the conqueror's service. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R74.1. †R74.1. Defeated enemy turns conqueror's best friend. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R74.2. †R74.2. Defeated enemy's son turns conqueror's man. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R74.3. †R74.3. Defeated enemy holds rank and country when he promises to pay tax to conqueror. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R74.3.1. †R74.3.1. Imprisoned king's son released when he promises to be a faithful subject and pay tax. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R75. †R75. Surrendering.

R75.1. †R75.1. Defeated surrender their city. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R75.2. †R75.2. Warriors surrender after chief's death. Icelandic: Boberg.

R75.2.1. †R75.2.1. Warriors flee after chief's death. Icelandic: Boberg.

R81. †R81. Woman suckles imprisoned relative through prison wall. **Köhler-Bolte I 373, II 387; *Fb "datter" IV 94b; *DeCock Studien en Essays 23ff.; *Crane Vitry 232f. No. 238; *Oesterley No. 215; Herbert III 220; Alphabet No. 166; Scala Celi 39a No. 220; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 28. --Spanish: Keller, Espinosa II No. 17; Jewish: Neuman.

R81.1. †R81.1. Woman suckles husband isolated on rock. Irish myth: Cross.

R82. †R82. Captive sends secret message outside (in orange or on handkerchief). India: *Thompson-Balys.

R83. †R83. Baker, disguised as old woman, substitutes for princess in cell when he brings bread to her. India: Thompson-Balys.

R84. †R84. Prisoner's sustenance from outside prison. (Cf. †R81.) Jewish: *Neuman.

R85. †R85. Captive protected by angel from abductor. Jewish: *Neuman.

†R100-†R199. Rescues.

R100. †R100. Rescues.

R110. †R110. Rescue of captive.

R110.1. †R110.1. Goddess delivers and restores goods of man thrown into jail. India: Thompson-Balys.

R111. †R111. Rescue of captive maiden. (Cf. †H1385.1, †R10.1.) *Sparnaay 45ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 550a nn. 219, 220, 554b; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "princesse"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 133--35, III Nos. 140, 143; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 334ff.

R111.0.1. †R111.0.1. All man's property offered to rescuer of stolen daughter. India: Thompson-Balys.

R111.1. †R111.1. Princess (maiden) rescued from captor. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R111.1.1. †R111.1.1. Rescue of princess from ogre. See references to †R11.1. Type 590; BP III 1; *Basset RTP III 562; English: Wells 64 (The Avowynge of King Arthur), 66 (Ywain and Gawain), 70 (Libeaus Disconus); Irish myth: *Cross: Spanish: Espinosa III No. 143; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 3; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 307, 359; N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict II 341.

R111.1.2. †R111.1.2. Princess rescued from robbers. *Types 506B, 970**; *BP III 490ff.; *Liljeblad Tobiasgeschichte; Icelandic: Boberg; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 7; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R111.1.3. †R111.1.3. Rescue of princess (maiden) from dragon. *Types 300, 303; *Hartland Perseus III 1--65 passim; **Ranke FFC CXIV; *BP I 534; *Loomis White Magic 119. See also references to †B11.10 and †B11.11. --Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 133--135, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 68f.; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 158 n. 3; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

R111.1.4. †R111.1.4. Rescue of princess (maiden) from giant (monster). (Cf. †G100.) *Dickson 132 n. 106; *Brown Iwain 50 n. 1; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 117 (Sir Torrent of Portyngale); Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

R111.1.5. †R111.1.5. Rescue of woman from snake-husband. (Cf. †B604.1.) Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 272 No. 85.

R111.1.6. †R111.1.6. Princess ransomed from slavery. (Cf. †R61.) *Type 506A; India: Thompson-Balys.

R111.1.6.1. †R111.1.6.1. Queen rescued from slavery. Irish myth: Cross.

R111.1.7. †R111.1.7. Rescue of princess (maiden) from magician. (Cf. †D1711.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

R111.1.8. †R111.1.8. Rescue of maidens from witches. (Cf. †G200.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

R111.1.9. †R111.1.9. Princess rescued from undesired suitor. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R111.1.10. †R111.1.10. Rescue of princess (queen, maiden) from supernatural being who has won her at game of chance. Irish myth: *Cross.

R111.1.11. †R111.1.11. Maiden rescued from rakshasa. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R111.1.12. †R111.1.12. Princess rescued from captivity of elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

R111.1.13. †R111.1.13. Rescue of girl from tigers. Chinese: Graham.

R111.1.13.1. †R111.1.13.1. Rescue of woman from bear's cave. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; India: Thompson-Balys.

R111.2. †R111.2. Princess rescued from place of captivity. India: Thompson-Balys.

R111.2.1. †R111.2.1. Princess(es) rescued from lower world. *Type 301; *BP II 300; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 25; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa II 133--135; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: Dixon 215.

R111.2.1.1. †R111.2.1.1. Stolen woman rescued from lower world. India: Thompson-Balys.

R111.2.2. †R111.2.2. Rescue of princess from mountain. *Type 530; *BP III 111; Icelandic: De la Saussaye 143, 144 (Siegfried and Brunhilde).

R111.2.3. †R111.2.3. Princess rescued from giant's cave where she is fettered to a chair by the hair. (Cf. †R41.5.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

R111.2.3.1. †R111.2.3.1. Rescue of earl's daughter from giant's cave where she is chained to the wall (a pillar). Icelandic: *Boberg.

R111.2.4. †R111.2.4. Princess rescued from temple where she is imprisoned. Icelandic: Bósa saga 30ff ch. 8, 114ff ch. 12, Boberg.

R111.2.5. †R111.2.5. Girl rescued from tree. Chinese: Graham.

R111.3. †R111.3. Means of rescuing princess.

R111.3.1. †R111.3.1. Girl rescued by traveling through air. Jones PMLA XXIII 563; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R111.4. †R111.4. Hero returns rescued princess to her betrothed. Type 506; BP III 490ff.

R111.5. †R111.5. Nobleman rescues lady from treacherous servant. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R111.6. †R111.6. Girl rescued and then abandoned. Types 300, 303; *Ranke FFC CXIV.

R111.7. †R111.7. Joint rescuers quarrel over rescued princess. Type 653; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Konde): Gemuseus und Berger ZsES XXIII 1ff., (Tanga): Nassau JAFL XXVIII 30ff. No. 5, (Vai): Ellis 200f. No. 18.

R111.8. †R111.8. Rescued person stolen from rescuer.

R111.8.1. †R111.8.1. Rescued woman stolen from rescuer by demon. India: Thompson-Balys.

R111.8.2. †R111.8.2. Rescued woman stolen from rescuer by other men. India: Thompson-Balys.

R112. †R112. Magic rescue of prisoner from mound. (Cf. †R45.) *Fb "höj" I 740b; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Espinosa III No. 140; India: Thompson-Balys.

R112.1. †R112.1. Three blasts on horn before sunrise to rescue prisoner from mound. *Fb "höj" I 740b.

R112.2. †R112.2. Riding three times around hill to free captive confined within. Fb "ride" III 52b.

R112.3. †R112.3. Rescue of prisoners from fairy stronghold. Irish myth: *Cross.

R115. †R115. King transformed to parrot frees captured parrots. (Cf. †D641.) *Fischer-Bolte 209.

R115.1. †R115.1. Husband transformed into mouse so he can enter cave-prison of his wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

R116. †R116. Rescue from robbers' den. (Cf. †R111.1.2.) *Type 851; BP I 188ff.; French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R117. †R117. Rescue from being burned. (Cf. †R175.) Icelandic: Lagerholm 117--18, *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

R121. †R121. Means of rescue from prison.

R121.1. †R121.1. Princess pulled through prison window by hand and freed. Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 280 No. 91, 283 No. 92.

R121.2. †R121.2. Rescuer impersonates captive and deceives blind guardian while captive escapes. Mangaia (Cook Group): Dixon 75.

R121.3. †R121.3. House burned (torn) down to deliver man imprisoned in it. *Chauvin VI 74 No. 239.

R121.4. †R121.4. Ants carry silk threads to prisoner, who makes rope and escapes. They have thread tied to their feet. Fischer-Bolte 212.

R121.5. †R121.5. Ariadne-thread. Prisoner given a thread as a clue to find his way out of the labyrinth in which he is being confined. *Herbert III 204; Oesterley No. 63; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 135 n. 3.

R121.6. †R121.6. Rescue from prison by saint, who enters and breaks fetters. (Cf. †R165.) Alphabet No. 436; *Loomis White Magic 89, 93; Icelandic: *Boberg.

R121.6.1. †R121.6.1. Saint appears to captor in vision and demands prisoner's release. (Cf. †R165.) Irish myth: Cross.

R121.6.2. †R121.6.2. Locks marvelously open for person. Irish myth: Cross (†F1088.4); Jewish: Neuman.

R121.7. †R121.7. Lovers ransomed from prison. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

R121.8. †R121.8. Fairy mound destroyed to rescue person confined in it. Irish myth: *Cross.

R121.9. †R121.9. Stream carries communication between prisoner and rescuer. Irish myth: Cross.

R121.10. †R121.10. With her teeth woman files away chain tying up husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

R122. †R122. Miraculous rescue. Irish myth: Cross.

R122.1. †R122.1. Prisoner whirled away in blaze of fire. Irish myth: Cross.

R122.2. †R122.2. Prisoner carried off in cloud. (Cf. †D2121.7.) Irish myth: Cross.

R123. †R123. Boon granted after prayer and widow's son is released from prison. India: Thompson-Balys.

R130. †R130. Rescue of abandoned or lost persons.

R131. †R131. Exposed or abandoned child rescued. Gaster Oldest Stories 171; Icelandic: *Boberg; Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa II No. 19, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 138--41; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R131.0.1. †R131.0.1. Nurse begs alms from door to door so as to keep child and nurture him. India: Thompson-Balys.

R131.0.2. †R131.0.2. Miraculous rescue of all exposed children. Jewish: Neuman.

R131.1. †R131.1. Hunter rescues abandoned child. *Type 930; *Aarne FFC XXIII 56, 59; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Fox 22 (Telephos), 57 (Atalanta).

R131.2. †R131.2. Miller rescues abandoned child. *Types 707, 930; BP II 380ff.; *Aarne FFC XXIII 61; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 116.

R131.2.1. †R131.2.1. Miller rescues drowning princess. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

R131.3. †R131.3. Herdsman rescues abandoned child. (Cf. †S351.2.) India: Thompson-Balys.

R131.3.1. †R131.3.1. Shepherd rescues abandoned child. (Cf. †N841.) *Type 930; Hartland Perseus III 3 ff.; *Aarne FFC XXIII 56ff.; Dickson 101, 170; *Nutt FLR IV 1ff. --Roman: Fox 307 (Romulus and Remus); Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Longus Daphnis and Chloe, Fox 43 (Zethos and Amphion), 48 (Oedipus), 118 (Paris).

R131.3.2. †R131.3.2. Goatherd rescues abandoned child. Greek: Fox 280.

R131.3.3. †R131.3.3. Cowherd rescues abandoned child. Irish myth: *Cross; MacCulloch Celtic 74; English: Wells 20 (William of Palerne); Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 338 n. 1.

R131.3.3.1. †R131.3.3.1. Person pushed into well by wife rescued by cowherd. India: Thompson-Balys.

R131.3.4. †R131.3.4. Swineherd rescues abandoned child. Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R131.4. †R131.4. Fisher rescues abandoned child. *Types 707, 930; BP II 380ff.; *Boje 65, 126; *Aarne FFC XXIII 62; English: Wells 14 (The Lay of Havelok); Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R131.5. †R131.5. Servant rescues abandoned child. Irish myth: *Cross, Icelandic: Gunnlaugs saga Ormstungu ch. 3, Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R131.6. †R131.6. Peasant rescues abandoned child. Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 139; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Babylonian: Spence 17, 157; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R131.7. †R131.7. Merchant rescues abandoned child. (Cf. †N851.) Dickson 104 n. 13; Jewish: *Neuman.

R131.8. †R131.8. Other workmen rescue abandoned child.

R131.8.1. †R131.8.1. Horse-keeper rescues abandoned child. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 82 n. 2.

R131.8.2. †R131.8.2. Gardener rescues abandoned child. India: *Thompson-Balys; Palaung tribe: Scott Indo-Chinese 276.

R131.8.3. †R131.8.3. Washerman rescues abandoned child. Palaung tribe: Scott Indo-Chinese 277.

R131.8.4. †R131.8.4. Smith rescues abandoned child. (Cf. †N855.) Krappe Balor 3; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: De la Saussaye 143.

R131.8.5. †R131.8.5. Forester rescues abandoned child. *Boje 125ff.; Sparnaay 43; Chinese: Ferguson 41.

R131.8.6. †R131.8.6. Potter rescues abandoned child(ren). India: *Thompson-Balys.

R131.8.7. †R131.8.7. Gold-washer rescues abandoned child. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R131.8.8. †R131.8.8. Barber rescues and befriends abandoned boy. India: Thompson-Balys.

R131.9. †R131.9. Porter rescues abandoned child. English: Wells 126 (Lai Le Freine).

R131.10. †R131.10. Hermit rescues abandoned child. (Cf. †N843, †R169.2.) English: Wells 96 (Chevalere Assigne); Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R131.10.1. †R131.10.1. Woman disguised as hermit rescues abandoned child. (Cf. †K1837.3.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R131.11. †R131.11. Exalted person rescues abandoned child. Dickson 170.

R131.11.1. †R131.11.1. Princess rescues abandoned child. Sparnaay 33; Dickson 37, 170; Jewish: *Neuman; China: Eberhard FFC CXX 99ff. No. 58, FFC CXXVIII 76f. No. 34.

R131.11.2. †R131.11.2. King rescues abandoned child. Dickson 170 n. 24; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 2; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R131.11.3. †R131.11.3. Prince rescues abandoned child. Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 8.

R131.11.4. †R131.11.4. Deity rescues abandoned child. India: Thompson-Balys.

R131.11.5. †R131.11.5. Minister's son recovers prince's lost wife for him. India: Thompson-Balys.

R131.12. †R131.12. Fairy rescues abandoned child. (Cf. †F311.) Krappe Balor 3; Irish myth: Cross.

R131.13. †R131.13. Palmer rescues abandoned child. (Cf. †N846.1.) English: Wells 118 *(Octovian).

R131.14. †R131.14. Sailors rescue abandoned child. Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 2.

R131.15. †R131.15. Children abandoned in a boat survive storm and are rescued. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R131.16. †R131.16. Angel rescues abandoned child. Jewish: Neuman.

R131.17. †R131.17. Coyote rescues abandoned child(ren). N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 89.

R131.18. †R131.18. Pious woman rescues abandoned child. Irish myth: Cross.

R131.19. †R131.19. Bard (poet) rescues abandoned child. Irish myth: *Cross.

R131.20. †R131.20. Indians rescue abandoned children. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

R133. †R133. Vanished wife rescued.

R133.1. †R133.1. Hero finds his vanished wife and disenchants her. India: Thompson-Balys.

R133.2. †R133.2. Lost wife restored by conjurer. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 246.

R135. †R135. Abandoned children (wife, etc.) find way back by clue (bread-crumb, grain, pebble, etc.). They have dropped the objects while being led away. *Types 327, 431, 620, 955; *BP I 115ff., 124, 370; Köhler-Bolte I 134; *Penzer III 104 n. 2; Fb "ært" III 1153b, "gryn" IV 187a; *Saintyves Perrault 310. -- Irish myth: Cross; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 8; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: *Dixon 227 n. 35, DeVries's list No. 147; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 442; Lkuñgen: Hill-Tout JAI XXXVII 334; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 145; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 120.

R135.0.1. †R135.0.1. Stolen wife makes trail of speaking spittle for husband. Spittle speaks and directs him. Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 263 No. 67.

R135.0.2. †R135.0.2. Trail of grain (Cf.ds). (Cf. †R267.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

R135.0.2.1. †R135.0.2.1. Trail of rice husks. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R135.0.3. †R135.0.3. Trail of jewels. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R135.0.4. †R135.0.4. Trail of shreds of dress. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R135.0.5. †R135.0.5. Trail of thread. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R135.0.6. †R135.0.6. Trail of ashes. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R135.0.7. †R135.0.7. Trail of flowers. India: Thompson-Balys.

R135.1. †R135.1. Crumb (grain) trail eaten by birds. Lost persons cannot find way back. *Types 327, 431; Missouri French: Carrière; Japanese: Ikeda.

R135.1.1. †R135.1.1. Feathers left to mark trail blown away by wind. S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 145.

R137. †R137. Mermaid rescues heroine who has been thrown overboard. (Cf. †B81.) Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 7; India: Thompson-Balys.

R138. †R138. Rescue from shipwreck. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

R138.1. †R138.1. Mermaid rescues hero (boy) from shipwreck. Icelandic: Lagerholm 164f., Boberg.

R138.2. †R138.2. Gam rescues hero as boy from shipwreck. Icelandic: Lagerholm 163--164.

R141. †R141. Rescue from well. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R142. †R142. Exposed children swallowed by earth; vomited up when grown. (Cf. †F900.) Jewish: Neuman.

R143. †R143. Abandoned man befriended by a Centaur. (Cf. †B21.) Greek: Grote I 109.

R150. †R150. Rescuers. Missouri French: Carrière.

R151. †R151. Husband rescues wife. Irish myth: Cross.

R151.1. †R151.1. Husband rescues stolen wife. (Cf. †H1385.3, †R11.1.) Krappe Revue Celtique XLVIII (1931) 94--123; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 46 No. 316; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 342 n. 235; Africa (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 399 No. 1.

R151.1.1. †R151.1.1. Husband frees wife who has sold herself into slavery in order to ransom him. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R151.2. †R151.2. Husband rescues wife from burning at stake. (Cf. †R175.) *Dickson 78.

R151.3. †R151.3. Husband rescues wife from cannibal. (Cf. †G10.) Chinese: Graham.

R152. †R152. Wife rescues husband. Type 316; Missouri French: Carrière; Greek: Grote I 462f.; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R152.1. †R152.1. Disguised wife helps husband escape from prison. (Cf. †R121.) *Types 880, 888, 890; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; West Indies: Flowers 521.

R152.2. †R152.2. Woman disguised as man sells herself into slavery in order to ransom (free) her husband (lover). (Cf. †K1837.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

R152.3. †R152.3. Wives change clothes with their imprisoned husbands when allowed to visit them. Husbands escape. Greek: Grote I 463.

R152.4. †R152.4. Wife gets back her husband from land of serpents by charming him with her beautiful dance. India: Thompson-Balys.

R152.5. †R152.5. Transformed wife takes husband out of captivity. India: Thompson-Balys.

R153. †R153. Parents rescues child. (Cf. †S351.)

R153.1. †R153.1. Parents rescue son.

R153.1.1. †R153.1.1. Parents rescue son from lower world on rope. Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 86 No. 13.

R153.2. †R153.2. Father rescues children.

R153.2.1. †R153.2.1. Father hides children from murderous mother. After many years they come forth and she dies of fright. *Type 765.

R153.3. †R153.3. Father rescues son(s). Icelandic: Lagerholm 170ff., *Boberg.

R153.3.1. †R153.3.1. Father rescues son captured by enemy. Type 899*; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

R153.3.2. †R153.3.2. Father rescues son stolen by animals. Africa (Bushmen, South of Zambesi): Theal 56.

R153.3.3. †R153.3.3. Old robber frees his three sons: relates frightful adventures. In order to free them he must relate three adventures, each more frightful than the last. *Type 953; *BP III 369; Wesselski Märchen 217 No. 29.

R153.3.4. †R153.3.4. Father rescues son from prison. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R153.3.5. †R153.3.5. Fathers thrust sons above water even as they themselves drown. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

R153.3.6. †R153.3.6. Father hides son from Satan. Jewish: Neuman.

R153.4. †R153.4. Mother rescues son.

R153.4.1. †R153.4.1. Mother rescues fettered son. Icelandic: Boberg.

R153.4.2. †R153.4.2. Mother hides twin (triplet) sons to keep them from death. (Cf. †S314.) Africa (Fang): Tessman 90, Einstein 56.

R153.5. †R153.5. Father rescues daughter. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Lagerholm 134ff., *Boberg; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 85, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 584, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 164.

R154. †R154. Children rescue parents. India: Thompson-Balys.

R154.0.1. †R154.0.1. Children rescue mother from lion's den. Dickson 57 n. 75.

R154.1. †R154.1. Son rescues mother. Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 207.

R154.1.1. †R154.1.1. Son rescues mother from burning at stake. (Cf. †R175.) *Dickson 128ff. nn. 98, 99.

R154.2. †R154.2. Son rescues father. Type 301C*; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R154.2.1. †R154.2.1. Son frees father by bringing riddle the king cannot solve. (Cf. †H542.) Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 112 No. 927*B.

R154.2.2. †R154.2.2. Son recovers father's bones. Hawaii: Beckwith myth 259, 263, 346f.; Tahiti: ibid. 266; Maori: ibid. *249.

R154.2.3. †R154.2.3. Sons rescue father. India: Thompson-Balys.

R154.3. †R154.3. Daughter rescues father. Rumania: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 879*; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

R155. †R155. Brothers rescue brothers. Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys.

R155.1. †R155.1. Youngest brother rescues his elder brothers. (Cf. †L31.) *Types 303, 303*, 327**, 471, 551; MacCulloch Childhood 353; *BP I 503ff., 528ff. --Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Arabian: Burton Nights S V 249; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 182; N. Am. Indian (Arapaho): Dorsey and Kroeber FM V 23ff. Nos. 10, 11, (Dakota): Wissler JAFL XX 199, (Chinook): Boas BBAE XXV 9ff. Nos. 1, 2, (Quinault): Farrand JE II 114 No. 10, (Caddo): Dorsey CI XLI 58ff. Nos. 32, 33, (Klikitat): Jacobs U Wash II 7; Africa (Thonga): Junod 229, (Fjort): Dennett 64 No. 12.

R155.2. †R155.2. Elder brother rescues younger. India: Thompson-Balys.

R156. †R156. Brother rescues sister(s). (Cf. †G551.1.) Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Espinosa II No. 18; Greek: Grote I 156; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

R157. †R157. Sisters rescue sisters. (Cf. †G551.2.)

R157.1. †R157.1. Youngest sister rescues elder. (Cf. †L50.) *Type 311; *BP I 398ff.; *Roberts 219.

R158. †R158. Sister rescues brother(s). *Type 707; Icelandic: *Boberg; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVII No. 879*; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R161. †R161. Lover rescues his lady. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; West Indies: Flowers 571.

R161.0.1. †R161.0.1. Hero rescued by his lady. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

R161.1. †R161.1. Lover rescues his lady from abductor. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 80 (Sir Tristrem); India: Thompson-Balys.

R161.2. †R161.2. Princess rescued by blind man restores his sight and marries him. India: Thompson-Balys.

R161.3. †R161.3. Lover rescues his lady from drowning. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R161.4. †R161.4. Lover rescues his lady from the gallows. England, U.S.: *Baughman, Child No. 95.

R162. †R162. Rescue by captor's daughter (wife, mother). Types 516, 975**; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 102; *Loomis White Magic 117; Basset RTP XVI 614; Irish myth: Cross; English: Wells 85 (The Sowdone of Babylone); Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus II 135 n. 3 (Ariadne); India: *Thompson-Balys.

R163. †R163. Rescue by grateful dead man. (Cf. †E341.) *Types 505--508; **Liljeblad passim; India: Thompson-Balys.

R164. †R164. Rescue by giant. (Cf. †G100.) India: Thompson-Balys.

R164.1. †R164.1. Giant rescues maiden. Dickson 154.

R164.2. †R164.2. Giant rescues woman from burning at stake. (Cf. †R175.) *Dickson 130 n. 102.

R165. †R165. Rescue by saint (holy man). (Cf. †R121.6.) Alphabet No. 560; *Loomis White Magic 93; Irish: Plummer cxlix, *Cross.

R165.1. †R165.1. Rescue of poor girl by St. Nicholas. Saint keeps her from being sold into slavery. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

R165.2. †R165.2. Innocently hanged person saved by saint. Icelandic: Boberg.

R165.3. †R165.3. Abducted wife brought back by fakir. India: Thompson-Balys.

R166. †R166. Brothers having extraordinary skill rescue princess. *Type 653; BP III 45ff.; *Köhler-Bolte I 198, 439; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 7; Japanese: Ikeda.

R167. †R167. Master rescues disciple. India: Thompson-Balys.

R168. †R168. Angels as rescuers. Irish myth: Cross (†R169.12); Jewish: *Neuman.

R169. †R169. Other rescuers.

R169.1. †R169.1. Hero in disguise of foolish knight, then of black knight, rescues lady. (Cf. †R222.) English: Wells 147 (Ipomadon).

R169.2. †R169.2. Boys rescued from beasts by hermit. (Cf. †N843, †R131.10.) Dickson 105.

R169.3. †R169.3. Boy saved by werwolf. (Cf. †D113.1.1.) English: Wells 19 (William of Palerne).

R169.4. †R169.4. Hero rescued by servant. (Cf. †P361, †R53.4.) *Type 519, 851; India: Thompson-Balys.

R169.4.1. †R169.4.1. Rescue of bride from mysterious perils by hidden faithful servant. Type 516; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 128; India: *Thompson-Balys.

R169.4.2. †R169.4.2. Rescue of king's children by faithful servant. Icelandic: Boberg.

R169.5. †R169.5. Hero rescued by friend. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R169.5.1. †R169.5.1. Hero's wife rescued by his faithful friend. India: Thompson-Balys.

R169.6. †R169.6. Youth saved from death sentence by father's friend. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R169.7. †R169.7. Royal minister rescues abandoned queen(s). (Cf. †P110.) India: Thompson-Balys.

R169.8. †R169.8. Predestined rescuer. South Africa: Bourhill and Drake 237ff. No. 20.

R169.9. †R169.9. Boy rescued by childless woman. Africa (Fang): Tessman 91.

R169.10. †R169.10. Unpromising hero as rescuer. (Cf. †L100.) India: Thompson-Balys.

R169.10.1. †R169.10.1. Fool rescues girl and wins her for his wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

R169.11. †R169.11. Unknown helper(s) emerge(s) in the last moment and turn(s) out later to be well known. (Cf. †R222.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

R169.12. †R169.12. Hero rescued by sailors. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

R169.13. †R169.13. Child rescued by nurse. Irish myth: *Cross.

R169.14. †R169.14. Wounded hero restored in peasant's house. Icelandic: Boberg.

R169.15. †R169.15. Rescue by stranger. India: Thompson-Balys.

R169.16. †R169.16. Death as rescuer. (Cf. †R185.) Africa (Dahomé): Einstein 27.

R170. †R170. Rescue -- miscellaneous motifs.

R175. †R175. Rescue at the stake. (Cf. †R151.2, †R154.1.1, †R164.2, †R215.) *Dickson 78 n. 40; *Boje 116ff.; English: Wells 97 (Chevalere Assigne); Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 572.

R175.1. †R175.1. Escape from sacrificial altar on ram with golden fleece. Greek: Grote I 117.

R176. †R176. Executioner miraculously blinded: condemned man saved. Jewish: *bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 39, 361, Neuman.

R181. †R181. Demon enclosed in bottle released. *Type 331; *BP II 414ff., IV 321; Jewish: Neuman, **Levi Revue des Études Juives LXXXV 137; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

R181.1. †R181.1. Demon imprisoned in tree released. India: Thompson-Balys.

R182. †R182. True rescuer hidden by girl when he arrives to claim her. India: Thompson-Balys.

R185. †R185. Mortal fights with "Death". (Cf. †R169.16.) *BP III 293; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 92 n. 3, Fox 38, 107 (Alcestis, Sisyphus); India: Thompson-Balys.

R185.1. †R185.1. Mortal deceives Angel of Death. (Cf. †V233.) Jewish: Neuman.

R187. †R187. Horn of Roncevalles. Hero calls aid of waiting soldiers on horn. *Thien Motive 32; Old French: Chanson de Roland.

R187.1. †R187.1. Dord fían. A call used by members of a fían (warrior band) for summoning aid. Irish myth: Cross.

R188. †R188. Rescued person horrifies rescuers: e.g., they swoon on seeing him. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 2. and note.

R191. †R191. King (prince) returns home (from exile) and rescues his native country. Icelandic: *Boberg.

†R200-†R299. Escapes and pursuits.

R200. †R200. Escapes and pursuits.

R210. †R210. Escapes. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

R211. †R211. Escape from prison. Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière.

R211.1. †R211.1. Giant breaks from tower prison. Dickson 130 n. 102; Japanese: Ikeda.

R211.2. †R211.2. Captive bores way out of prison. Icelandic: *Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 98; Korean: Zong in-Sob 174 No. 75.

R211.3. †R211.3. Escape through underground passage. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 7.

R211.4. †R211.4. Escape from slavery (pirates). (Cf. †R61.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

R211.5. †R211.5. Captive hews through iron prison with sword. Irish myth: Cross.

R211.6. †R211.6. Captive knocks prison roof off. (Cf. †F627.) Irish myth: *Cross.

R211.7. †R211.7. Escape from pit of snakes by means of rope. (Cf. †Q465, †R41.3.1.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

R211.8. †R211.8. Rescue from prison by beheading giant keeper. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

R211.9. †R211.9. Escape from prison because of bribed guards. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 355.

R212. †R212. Escape from grave.

R212.1. †R212.1. Man buried alive with king escapes from the tomb. Follows noise made by sea animal and finds way out to sea. Chauvin VII 19 No. 373D n. 3.

R212.1.1. †R212.1.1. Man buried alive escapes from tomb when thief tries to rob it. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R212.1.2. †R212.1.2. Captive buried alive to his neck fastens his teeth on jackal that comes to eat him and companions. Rest flee when they hear him howl. In struggles to get free jackal loosens earth around captive, who manages to free himself. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 570.

R212.2. †R212.2. Man buried alive with beloved escapes, as thieves break open the tomb. Icelandic: Boberg.

R213. †R213. Escape from home.

R213.1. †R213.1. Prince escapes from home in order to see world. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R214. †R214. Animal eludes bird watchman and escapes from his hole. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 112.

R215. †R215. Escape from execution.

R215.1. †R215.1. Escape from execution pyre by means of wings. *Type 575.

R215.1.2. †R215.1.2. Escape from execution pyre through underground passage. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 600b. nn. 17--18.

R215.2. †R215.2. Escape from death by boiling oil. Irish myth: Cross.

R215.3. †R215.3. Escape from execution on flying wooden horse. (Cf. †D1626.1.) India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 839.

R216. †R216. Escape from ship while captors quarrel. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

R216.1. †R216.1. Escape from ship by jumping into the sea. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R217. †R217. Inscription accidentally seen tells hero how to escape captivity. Africa (Swahili): Steere 331ff.

R218. †R218. Escape from fairyland. (Cf. †F210.) Irish myth: *Cross.

R219. †R219. Escapes -- miscellaneous.

R219.1. †R219.1. Man carried off on bed escapes by grasping tree limbs as he passes under tree. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R219.2. †R219.2. Man and wife escape from land of dead upon a vine. (Cf. †E481.) Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 185.

R220. †R220. Flights. India: Thompson-Balys.

R221. †R221. Heroine's three-fold flight from ball. Cinderella (Cap o' Rushes) after meeting the prince at a ball (church) flees before identification is possible. Repeated three times. *Type 510; **Cox 1--121, 437--446 passim; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 123f.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6; India: Thompson-Balys.

R222. †R222. Unknown knight. (Three days' tournament.) For three days in succession an unknown knight in different armor wins a tournament and escapes without recognition. Finally identified by tokens. **Weston The Three Days Tournament; *Types 314, 502; *BP III 111; *Child V 44ff.; *Webster Kittredge Memorial Volume 227; Bruce MLN XXIV 257; *Hibbard 226 n. 2; *Fb "hest" I 598a; Zs. f. Vksk. IV 98; RTP VIII 82. --English: Wells 48 (Lancelot of the Laik), 147 (Ipomadon); Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 349ff., 407, (Wichita): Dorsey JAFL XVI 160, (Skidi Pawnee): Dorsey MAFLS VIII Nos. 40, 41.

R224. †R224. Girl flees to escape incestuous brother. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R225. †R225. Elopement. *Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 106; *Thien Motive 27; *Boje 110ff.; *Krappe Revue Hispanique LXXVIII (1930) 489--543. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus II 174 n. 1 (Helen); India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 860.

R225.1. †R225.1. Elopement on winged horse. Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 110.

R225.2. †R225.2. Lovers elope to prevent girl's marriage to undesired fiancé. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 98.

R227. †R227. Wife flees from husband. (Cf. †P210, †T200.) India: Thompson-Balys.

R227.1. †R227.1. Wife flees from animal husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

R227.2. †R227.2. Flight from hated husband. Irish myth: *Cross.

R227.3. †R227.3. Supernatural wife finds garment stolen from her by husband and leaves him. India: Thompson-Balys.

R228. †R228. Children leave home because their parents refuse them food. Irish myth: Cross.

R231. †R231. Obstacle flight -- Atalanta type. Objects are thrown back which the pursuer stops to pick up while the fugitive escapes. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 526; Köhler-Bolte I 430; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 122--25; Greek: Roscher Lexikon s. v. "Absyrtos"; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 860; Japanese: Anesaki 224; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 342 n. 232; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 74; Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 99 No. 18, 125 No. 22, (Zulu): Callaway 145, (Angola): Chatelain 101 No. 6, (Kaffir): Theal 46 No. 2, (Yoruba): Ellis 269 No. 4.

R231.1. †R231.1. Ogre tries to retain fugitive by tempting him with gold ring; but he takes ring by cutting off the hand. Icelandic: Boberg.

R231.2. †R231.2. Fugitive cuts tail of camel caught by pursuer and it turns into grass. India: Thompson-Balys.

R231.2.1. †R231.2.1. Helpful animal's tail cut off so pursuers who hang onto tail are shaken off into river. India: Thompson-Balys.

R233. †R233. Fugitive kills pursuer and takes his extraordinary horse to continue flight. Boje 96ff.

R235. †R235. Fugitives cut support of bridge so that pursuer falls. Indonesia: Dixon 229.

R236. †R236. Pursuers aided by magic weather phenomenon. Jewish: *Neuman.

R236.1. †R236.1. Fugitive aided by magic mist. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

R236.2. †R236.2. Sun sets at high noon to hide fugitive. (Cf. †F965.) Jewish: *Neuman.

R236.3. †R236.3. Earthquake saves fugitive. Jewish: Neuman.

R236.4. †R236.4. Fugitive has magic wind against him, pursuer with him (caused by goddess). Icelandic: Boberg.

R241. †R241. Flight on skis; two on one pair. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R242. †R242. Flight carrying friend (girl) on back. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R243. †R243. Fugitives aided by helpful animal. (Cf. †B520.)

R243.1. †R243.1. Pursuer misdirected by animal to help fugitive. India: Thompson-Balys.

R244. †R244. Ships burned to prevent flight. Icelandic: Boberg.

R245. †R245. Whale-boat. A man is carried across the water on a whale (fish). (He usually deceives the whale as to the nearness of the land or as to hearing thunder. As a consequence the whale runs into the shore or is killed by lightning.) *Loomis White Magic 91; cf. Aarne FFC XXIII 137; Maori: Dixon 8; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327 n. 179; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 256f. Nos. 38, 39, 275 No. 86; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 310 n. 1.

R245.1. †R245.1. Crocodile-boat. Trickster props his jaws apart and leaves him. India: Thompson-Balys.

R245.2. †R245.2. Snake king takes fleeing captives across river. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 785.

R246. †R246. Crane-bridge. Fugitives are helped across a stream by a crane who lets them cross on his leg. The pursuer is either refused assistance or drowned by the crane. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 340 n. 227.

R246.1. †R246.1. Stone bridge appears for fugitives. Disappears and drowns pursuers. Loomis White Magic 130.

R251. †R251. Flight on a tree, which ogre tries to cut down. **Parsons Zs. f. Ethnologie LIV 1-29; Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII--XXXIV 38; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 9 No. 3; Africa (Togo): Einstein 12f.; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 121 n. 3, 125, 131f.; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 91 No. 12. Cf. Thompson Tales 341 n. 230. Most African references in †B421.

R252. †R252. Flight by vaulting on stick. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 92.

R253. †R253. Escape from nest of giant bird by seizing two young birds and jumping. Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 201.

R255. †R255. Formula for girl fleeing: behind me night, etc. "Behind me night and before me day that no one shall see where I go." *Type 510B; *BP II 46; Ainu: Ikeda (Type 175).

R257. †R257. Fugitives sustain selves on apples. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 90b no. 3.

R260. †R260. Pursuits. Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys.

R261. †R261. Pursuit by rolling object.

R261.1. †R261.1. Pursuit by rolling head. *Kittredge Gawain and the Green Knight 189 n. 1; Japanese: Ikeda; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 343 nn. 238, 238a, *Alexander N. Am. Myth. 290 n. 37; cf. JAFL II 69; (California): Gayton and Newman 79; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684, (Chaco, Warrau, Shipaya): Lowie ibid. 54f., (Tenetehara): Wagley-Galvao ibid. 148; Africa (Congo): Weeks 207 n. 4.

R262. †R262. Magic eel pursues man over land. Irish myth: Cross.

R265. †R265. Pursuer (witch, giant) pulls out tail of fugitive's horse. Fb "hale" IV 197b; cf. Burns "Tam O' Shanter"; India: Thompson-Balys.

R267. †R267. Fugitives trailed by mustard seeds (ashes) dropped from bag. (Cf. †R135.) India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 127ff.

R268. †R268. Dew in footprints reveals man's way. Icelandic: *Boberg.

R271. †R271. Pursuit by fire. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 82.

R272. †R272. Pursuer follows successive night campfires (each brighter than last). Chinese: Graham.

†R300-†R399. Refuges and recapture.

R300. †R300. Refuges and recapture.

R310. †R310. Refuges. *Encyc. Rel. & Ethics s. v. "Asylum".

R311. †R311. Tree refuge. Type 162*; *Fb "træ" III 865a; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 199a; BP I 429, II 195f. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "arbres"; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 341 n. 230; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 62; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 145, 346.

R311.1. †R311.1. Trees magically hide a fugitive. Dh II 40ff.; N. Am. Indian: Kroeber JAFL XXI 225.

R311.1.1. †R311.1.1. Thorn-brake as refuge. Irish myth: Cross.

R311.2. †R311.2. King escapes pursuers through hollow tree in his hall. Icelandic: Boberg.

R311.3. †R311.3. Stolen child found in hollow tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

R311.4. †R311.4. Stretching tree refuge for fugitive. (Cf. †D482.1.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

R312. †R312. Forest as refuge.

R312.1. †R312.1. Forest as refuge of eloping lovers. (Cf. †R225.) Schoepperle 391ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

R313. †R313. Princess hides in straw. *Fb "halmstrå" I 540.

R314. †R314. Negro takes refuge under princess's throne. Malone PMLA XLIII 407.

R315. †R315. Cave as refuge. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo, (Greenland): Rasmussen I 150.

R315.1. †R315.1. Cave as eloping lovers' refuge. (Cf. †R225, †T35.) Schoepperle 391ff.; Irish myth: Cross.

R315.2. †R315.2. Christians crushed in cave where they take refuge from heathen. Icelandic: Boberg.

R316. †R316. Refuge on rock in sea. Finnish: Kalevala rune 4.

R316.1. †R316.1. Refuge on island. Icelandic: Boberg.

R317. †R317. Well (spring) as refuge. Fb "kilde" II 118b; Irish myth: Cross; Africa (Benga): Nassau 225 No. 33, (Kaffir): Theal 129, (Basuto): Jacottet 160 No. 23.

R318. †R318. Girl hidden in skin of her dead mother. Köhler-Bolte I 346.

R318.1. †R318.1. Boy hidden under skin in order not to be seen and prophesied about. Icelandic: Örvar-Odds saga 12--13.

R321. †R321. Escape to the stars. Fugitives rise in the air and become stars. (Cf. †R324.) Greek: Fox 250; Hindu: Keith 76; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 218 No. 98; Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 360; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 291f. nn. 71, 71a; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 158, 164, (Jivaro): ibid. 149.

R321.1. †R321.1. Sister escapes to the stars to avoid marrying brother. He is the thunder and her face is Lightning. India: Thompson-Balys.

R321.2. †R321.2. Escape to moon. Pursued hero escapes to moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

R322. †R322. Eagle's nest as refuge. Scottish: Campbell-McKay 1 n., 25; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 95.

R323. †R323. Refuge in upper world.

R323.1. †R323.1. Murderer escapes to sky on sky rope. (Cf. †F51.) India: Thompson-Balys.

R323.2. †R323.2. Murderer escapes to sky in magic chariot. Greek: Euripides' Medea.

R324. †R324. Refuge in air. Fugitive supernaturally rises in air to escape. (Cf. †R321.) India: Thompson-Balys.

R324.1. †R324.1. Escape from battle by flying in air. Irish myth: *Cross; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 81, 86, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 315, 541f., (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 151, (Greenland): Rasmussen III 99f., Rink 320, 455, 460.

R325. †R325. Church (altar) as refuge. Fb "kirke" II 125b; Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 276 n. 4; Jewish: *Neuman; Gaster Thespis 303f.; Japanese: Ikeda.

R325.1. †R325.1. Devil chases ghost of wicked man until he puts his head into chapel window. (Cf. †E754.) England: *Baughman.

R325.2. †R325.2. Idol cracks open to grant refuge to fugitive in answer to prayer; then closes again. India: Thompson-Balys.

R325.3. †R325.3. Saint offers murderer refuge. Irish myth: Cross.

R326. †R326. Escape to fairyland. (Cf. †F210.) Irish myth: *Cross.

R327. †R327. Earth opens to rescue fugitive. India: *Thompson-Balys.

R331. †R331. Hero takes refuge at king's court. *Dickson 143 nn. 140--42; Deutschbein 34; *Boje 74ff.

R335. †R335. Roof as refuge for pursued animals. West Indies: *Flowers 573--75, Parsons MAFLS XVIII (3) 26 No. 6.

R336. †R336. Refuge under kettle. Icelandic: Boberg.

R341. †R341. Escape by intervention of Providence. (Cf. †F942.1.)

R341.1. †R341.1. Lightning strikes branch on which man is being hanged. Delay gives him chance to prove his innocence. (Cf. †R175.) U.S.: *Baughman.

R345. †R345. Cities of refuge. Jewish: *Neuman.

R350. †R350. Recapture of fugitive.

R351. †R351. Fugitive discovered by reflection in water. *Type 408; *Cox 503; *Cosquin Contes indiens 85ff.; *Köhler-Bolte I 281; Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 64 to Gonzenbach No. 14; Malone PMLA XLIII 399. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 212, Dixon 140 n. 21, 226 n. 33; New Hebrides, Torres Straits, New Guinea: ibid. 140 n. 21; Melanesia: ibid. 226 n. 33; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 352 n. 270.

R351.1. †R351.1. Milk drops from woman's breast on tiger's leg and reveals her hiding place in tree. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 156, 161.

R352. †R352. Lovers fleeing from slavery are recaptured. (Cf. †R211.4.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

R355. †R355. Eloping girl recaptured by parents. (Cf. †R225.) Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 111.