S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958. • Main page


Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, ÐÔÔÈ #06-06-80-420a, ÐÔÔÈ #07-06-00441-à



P. SOCIETY

DETAILED SYNOPSIS

†P0.--P99. Royalty and nobility

†P0. Royalty and nobility

†P10. Kings

†P20. Queens

†P30. Princes

†P40. Princesses

†P50. Noblemen (knights)

†P60. Noble (gentle) ladies

†P90. Royalty and nobility -- miscellaneous

†P100.--P199. Other social orders

†P110. Royal ministers

†P120. Church dignitaries

†P150. Rich men

†P160. Beggars

†P170. Slaves

†P190. Other social orders -- miscellaneous

†P200.--P299. The family

†P200. The family

†P210. Husband and wife

†P230. Parents and children

†P250. Brothers and sisters

†P260. Relations by law

†P270. Foster relatives

†P280. Steprelatives

†P290. Other relatives

†P300.--P399. Other social relationships

†P310. Friendship

†P320. Hospitality

†P340. Teacher and pupil

†P360. Master and servant

†P400.--P499. Trades and professions

†P400. Trades and professions

†P410. Laborers

†P420. Learned professions

†P430. Financiers and merchants

†P440. Artisans

†P460. Other trades and professions

†P500.--P599. Government

†P500. Government

†P510. Law courts

†P550. Military affairs

†P600.--P699. Customs

†P600. Customs

†P700.--P799. Society -- miscellaneous motifs

†P710. Nations

P. SOCIETY.

†P0-†P99. Royalty and nobility.

P0. †P0. Royalty and nobility.

P3. †P3. Issue of marriage of brother and sister of highest chiefly rank is a god. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 521.

P10. †P10. Kings. Jewish: *Neuman.

P10.1. †P10.1. Special place where occur births of royalty. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 376.

P11. †P11. Choice of kings. India: Thompson-Balys.

P11.0.1. †P11.0.1. Prophecy that brother who first kisses saint will be king. Irish myth: Cross.

P11.0.2. †P11.0.2. Choice of king of trees.

P11.0.2.1. †P11.0.2.1. Bramble chosen king of trees. Herbert III 34; Hebrew: Judges 9: 8--15.

P11.1. †P11.1. Choice of kings by divine will. *Egerton JAOS XXXIII 158; Krappe Revue Hispanique LVI (1922) 5--24; *Penzer V 175ff.; *Chauvin VI 75 No. 239; India: Thompson-Balys.

P11.1.1. †P11.1.1. Kings chosen by lot. *Chauvin VI 75 No. 239; Africa (Swahili): Steere 141.

P11.2. †P11.2. Winner of contest to be king. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 269; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

P11.2.1. †P11.2.1. King chosen by contest: princes finding greatest fault with their father. Youngest can find no fault and is chosen. Type 924**.

P11.2.2. †P11.2.2. King chosen by contest. Irish myth: Cross.

P11.2.2.1. †P11.2.2.1. The one of two giant brothers who performs the greatest feat and procures the wildest dog elected as king. Icelandic: Boberg.

P11.2.3. †P11.2.3. The one of two giant brothers who gets the most skillful princess elected as king. Icelandic: Boberg.

P11.3. †P11.3. Owner of magic object chosen as king. India: Thompson-Balys.

P11.4. †P11.4. King chosen on basis of strength and exploits. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P11.4.1. †P11.4.1. He who can open palace door to be king. India: Thompson-Balys.

P11.4.2. †P11.4.2. Amasser of largest fortune to be king. India: Thompson-Balys.

P11.5. †P11.5. He who can fill out a certain wide seat chosen as king. Icelandic: Boberg.

P11.6. †P11.6. Inauguration of king as espousal to goddess. Irish myth: *Cross.

P12. †P12. Character of kings.

P12.1. †P12.1. Hunting a madness of kings. Penzer II 127; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

P12.2. †P12.2. Injustice deadliest of monarch's sins. Penzer I 124 n. 1.

P12.2.1. †P12.2.1. Tyrannical king. Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

P12.3. †P12.3. Usurper imposes burdensome taxes. Dickson 175 n. 39.

P12.4. †P12.4. King who intends rape killed. Attackers flee into exile. Irish myth: Cross.

P12.5. †P12.5. Good king never retreats in battle. Irish myth: *Cross.

P12.5.0.1. †P12.5.0.1. Dead king carried into battle in his war-chariot. Irish myth: Cross.

P12.5.1. †P12.5.1. King in battle hides in ditch, with earth piled around him. Irish myth: *Cross.

P12.6. †P12.6. Just king brings good fortune upon people. Irish myth: *Cross.

P12.6.1. †P12.6.1. Four duties of king to subjects: devotion, protection of subjects, justice, and increase of his kingdom. India: Thompson-Balys.

P12.7. †P12.7. Clever king knows everything in advance. Icelandic: Boberg.

P12.8. †P12.8. King banishes nobleman whose castle he wants. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P12.9. †P12.9. Nobility of character a mark of kings. Kings overcomes passion for beautiful captives and sends them back untouched to their people. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P12.10. †P12.10. King is superior to all in strength, beauty, largeness, etc., and usually has victory. Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

P12.11. †P12.11. Uxorious king neglects duties. India: Thompson-Balys.

P12.12. †P12.12. King avenges lack of homage. India: Thompson-Balys.

P12.13. †P12.13. King quick to anger. India: Thompson-Balys.

P12.13.1. †P12.13.1. King to be seen after anger cools. India: Thompson-Balys.

P12.14. †P12.14. Modesty of king. Jewish: *Neuman.

P13. †P13. Customs connected with kings. Irish myth: *Cross.

P13.0.1. †P13.0.1. Privileges of under-king. Irish myth: Cross.

P13.0.2. †P13.0.2. Duties of under-king's retainers. Irish myth: Cross.

P13.1. †P13.1. King cannot judge without crown. Fb "konge" II 264b.

P13.2. †P13.2. Mismanagement of king's treasury a mortal offense. Fb "penge" II 803a.

P13.3. †P13.3. Royal purple (golden diadem) worn as sign of royalty. Irish myth: Cross.

P13.3.1. †P13.3.1. Kingly insignia worn only on field of battle. Irish myth: Cross.

P13.3.2. †P13.3.2. Ring can make or unmake a king. India: Thompson-Balys.

P13.4. †P13.4. King must marry. Irish myth: Cross.

P13.5. †P13.5. Crowning of kings. Icelandic: *Boberg; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 986.

P13.5.1. †P13.5.1. Anointing of kings. Jewish: *Neuman.

P13.6. †P13.6. Custom to appoint a king by day and slay him at night. India: Thompson-Balys.

P13.7. †P13.7. Royal anniversaries. Jewish: *Neuman.

P13.8. †P13.8. King must never be present at funeral. Jewish: *Neuman.

P13.9. †P13.9. Royal perquisites.

P13.9.1. †P13.9.1. King has first choice in booty. Jewish: Neuman.

P13.9.2. †P13.9.2. Fifth of the land's production belongs to king. Jewish: *Neuman.

P14. †P14. Particular practices of kings.

P14.1. †P14.1. Prisoners released as celebration of king's success. *Chauvin VI 101 No. 269 n. 2; Babylonian: Spence 59.

P14.2. †P14.2. King will not permit a one-eyed man in his presence. *Chauvin V 160 No. 84 n. 1.

P14.3. †P14.3. King playing chess when important news arrives. *Dickson 233 n. 30; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P14.4. †P14.4. King orders all gold brought to him. Wesselski Archiv Orientální I 77.

P14.5. †P14.5. King never touches earth: carried always by slaves. Africa (Upoto): Einstein 121.

P14.6. †P14.6. King's (prince's) sulking chamber. He sulks here until his wishes are carried out. India: *Thompson-Balys.

P14.7. †P14.7. None permitted to enter hall of king unless he possesses an art. Irish myth: Cross.

P14.8. †P14.8. King does not want men who are unable to engage in any sport. Icelandic: Örvar-Odds saga 142--43.

P14.8.1. †P14.8.1. King asks all newcomers what they can do and expects a prompt answer. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P14.9. †P14.9. Law that nobody may give the king bad tidings. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P14.10. †P14.10. Kings have seat on hills. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

P14.11. †P14.11. King angry at hero who rides straight into the castle without permission. Icelandic: Völsunga saga ch. 28 (26).

P14.12. †P14.12. King has his own gifts stolen back for him. India: Thompson-Balys.

P14.13. †P14.13. King gives his own wife as reward. India: Thompson-Balys.

P14.14. †P14.14. King requires everyone who comes before him to tell a story. Irish myth: Cross.

P14.15. †P14.15. King has champion to enforce respect. Irish myth: Cross.

P14.15.1. †P14.15.1. Old, wise counsellor of court. Irish myth: Cross.

P14.15.2. †P14.15.2. Court messenger. Irish myth: Cross.

P14.16. †P14.16. Threefold division of king's day: one third dedicated to watching boys at play; one third to playing fidehell (chess?); one third to drinking. Irish myth: Cross.

P14.17. †P14.17. King's stronghold on island. Irish myth: Cross.

P14.18. †P14.18. King orders man whose neck the rope will fit to be executed. India: Thompson-Balys.

P14.19. †P14.19. King goes in disguise at night to observe his subjects. India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 424, 908.

P14.20. †P14.20. Tom-tom beater to spread the news of kingship. India: *Thompson-Balys.

P14.21. †P14.21. King shows himself in public only one day a year. Jewish: *Neuman.

P14.22. †P14.22. King keeps lions as pets and a lion-tamer at his palace. Jewish: Neuman.

P14.23. †P14.23. King does not eat much during years of famine in order not to forget the hungry. Jewish: *Neuman.

P15. †P15. Adventures of kings.

P15.1. †P15.1. Disguised king punished by peasant. Beaten because he does not get up early enough. (King Alfred and the cakes.) *BP III 451 n. 1.

P15.1.1. †P15.1.1. Disguised king taught courtesy by peasant. English: Wells 94 (The Taill of Rauf Coilyear).

P15.1.2. †P15.1.2. King pardons person who has made mistake of addressing one of his courtiers as king. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P15.2. †P15.2. King demands subject's wife for himself. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

P15.2.1. †P15.2.1. King carries off subject's wife and makes her his own. India: Thompson-Balys.

P15.3. †P15.3. King loses his kingdom to impostor. (Cf. †K1934.1.) Jewish: Neuman.

P15.4. †P15.4. King is cursed by disguised dwarf-smiths whose work he criticised. Icelandic: Ásmundar saga Kappabana 466.

P15.5. †P15.5. King frees man sent by rival king to kill him. He sees bravery in the would-be assassin. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P15.6. †P15.6. King descends to bottom of sea in glass barrel to study ways of fishes. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P15.7. †P15.7. King himself works at brick building so that subjects cannot complain of enforced labor. Jewish: *Neuman.

P15.8. †P15.8. Subjects drive their ruler away after he has made them do forced labor. India: Thompson-Balys.

P16. †P16. End of king's reign.

P16.1. †P16.1. King (prince) retires from the world (becomes hermit, swineherd). *Chauvin VI 194 No. 363; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P16.1.1. †P16.1.1. King on retiring orders funeral obsequies given him. Chauvin VIII 115 No. 98.

P16.1.2. †P16.1.2. King learning of queen's adultery abdicates. India: Thompson-Balys.

P16.1.3. †P16.1.3. The higher the office held in this world, the heavier the judgment of God: Cuchulinn's reason for abjuring kingship. Irish myth: Cross.

P16.1.4. †P16.1.4. Father abdicates in favor of son. India: Thompson-Balys.

P16.2. †P16.2. King must resign if maimed (disfigured). Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 25, Cross.

P16.2.1. †P16.2.1. King must resign if he begets natural son. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P16.3. †P16.3. King killed when old. Hawaii: Beckwith 409f.; Tonga: Gifford 31.

P16.3.0.1. †P16.3.0.1. King commits suicide. Irish myth: Cross.

P16.3.1. †P16.3.1. Old king attacked. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P16.3.1.1. †P16.3.1.1. Attempt to kill old king by suffocating him in bathroom. Icelandic: Boberg.

P16.3.2. †P16.3.2. King too old to fight goes himself into his grave mound. Icelandic: Boberg.

P16.4. †P16.4. Persons buried with dead king. *Wesselski Märchen 230; Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 303, *Boberg.

P16.4.1. †P16.4.1. Suttee. Wife burned with dead king. *Penzer IV 255 ff., 264; **Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 198ff., 302ff., 395ff., XV 74ff.; Chauvin VII 20; Mansikka FFC XLIII 330ff.; Hert Die Indogermanen II 440, 490ff.; Grimm Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer I 622; Hoops' Reallexikon IV 556ff.; Schreuer Zs. f. Vgl. Rechtswissenschaft XXXIV 19ff. --Icelandic: *Boberg; Slavic: Máchal 233; India: *Thompson-Balys; Melanesia: Codrington 288ff.; Africa: Frobenius Atlantis VII 106, 227.

P16.5. †P16.5. Shavings of spear which killed king cast into cataract. Irish myth: Cross.

P16.6. †P16.6. Kings worshipped after their death. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P16.7. †P16.7. King slain by "his own household" in revenge for deposing his father. Irish myth: Cross.

P16.8. †P16.8. Land where every raja dies; if he rules for a day he dies that night; if he rules for a night, he dies that day. India: Thompson-Balys.

P16.9. †P16.9. King's coffin sunk into river. Jewish: *Neuman.

P17. †P17. Succession to the throne. Missouri French: Carrière.

P17.0.1. †P17.0.1. No sons left to rule after father. Lawmaker's sons slain in rebellion against him. Irish myth: Cross.

P17.0.2. †P17.0.2. Son succeeds father as king. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P17.0.2.1. †P17.0.2.1. At son's wedding king names him as successor. Icelandic: Boberg.

P17.0.3. †P17.0.3. Vengeance for destruction of fairy-mound pursues king's descendants. Irish myth: Cross.

P17.1. †P17.1. First man to arrive after king's death to be heir. (Cf. †N683.) Hdwb. d. Märchens I 605a n. 62; India: *Thompson-Balys.

P17.2. †P17.2. Queen chosen to live rather than king so that she can bear an heir to the throne. Serpents alleged to tell by their death which shall die first: male serpent predicts king's death; female, queen's. King has male serpent killed. BP IV 139; Gesta Romanorum No. 92.

P17.3. †P17.3. Dying king names successor. Icelandic: Boberg.

P17.3.1. †P17.3.1. Second-born son declared as successor because message about the birth of first son was slower traveling. Emperor will not change proclamation. India: Thompson-Balys.

P17.4. †P17.4. Kingship rotates among brothers. Irish myth: Cross.

P17.5. †P17.5. Brothers rule jointly. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

P17.6. †P17.6. Succession by mother-right. Irish myth: Cross.

P17.7. †P17.7. Succession will fall to line that has been wronged. Irish myth: Cross.

P17.8. †P17.8. Kingship given to younger brother. (Cf. †P17.10.) Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

P17.9. †P17.9. Natural son succeeds to the throne. Irish myth: Cross.

P17.9.1. †P17.9.1. Natural son is refused kingship and half heritage. Icelandic: Hervarar saga 86--88, Boberg.

P17.10. †P17.10. Three sons each get a kingship, but the youngest the most important in the home country. (Cf. †P17.8.) Icelandic: Boberg.

P17.11. †P17.11. Slayer of king marries widow and inherits kingdom. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P17.12. †P17.12. King to be succeeded by whoever can carry his dead body a certain distance. Irish myth: Cross.

P17.13. †P17.13. What the princes most desire: king asks each of three sons separately. Answers: to study, to make pilgrimages, to build a great kingdom. Last chosen. India: Thompson-Balys.

P18. †P18. Marriage of kings. Irish myth: Cross.

P18.1. †P18.1. After highly mourned wife's death the king marries another who turns out to be an evil witch. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P18.2. †P18.2. Limited number of wives for polygamous king. Jewish: *Neuman.

P19. †P19. Other motifs connected with kings. Irish myth: Cross.

P19.1. †P19.1. King's presence necessary for army's victory. English romance: Malory passim.

P19.2. †P19.2. King may have any woman as paramour if he makes her a settlement. Irish myth: Cross.

P19.2.1. †P19.2.1. King abducts woman to be his paramour. Irish myth: Cross.

P19.3. †P19.3. King must procure whatever visiting poets ask, or suffer from their satire. Irish myth: Cross.

P19.4. †P19.4. Kingly powers (rights). Irish myth: Cross.

P19.4.0.1. †P19.4.0.1. King's wand (rod). Irish myth: Cross.

P19.4.1. †P19.4.1. King may judge against all save one of highest rank in religion or learning. Irish myth: Cross.

P19.5. †P19.5. King raised from dead (by saint). Irish myth: Cross.

P20. †P20. Queens. Irish myth: Cross.

P20.1. †P20.1. Clever queen. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P21. †P21. Queen intervenes for condemned courtiers. *Chauvin II 104 No. 65.

P21.1. †P21.1. Queen as intercessor with king. Greek: Odyssey VI 313; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

P22. †P22. Queen marries murderer of her fiancée. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P22.1. †P22.1. Queen leaves country with her son, having killed her husband in revenge for his killing of her father and brother. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P23. †P23. Queen persuades king to make war without cause that her sons may have territory. Irish myth: Cross.

P23.1. †P23.1. Queen persuades husband to riot against his superior. Icelandic: Boberg.

P23.2. †P23.2. Queen persuades husband to claim her father's kingdom after his death. Icelandic: Boberg.

P23.3. †P23.3. Queen persuades husband to avenge her father. Icelandic: Boberg

P23.4. †P23.4. Queen offers son to be killed in order to spur to fight and avenge her first husband. (Cf. †S12.3.) Icelandic: Boberg.

P24. †P24. Queen must pay tribute to victorious queen to the amount paid by king to victorious king. Irish myth: Cross.

P25. †P25. Queen meddles in state affairs. India: Thompson-Balys.

P26. †P26. Captured queen commits suicide. (Cf. †P16.3.0.1.) Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

P26.1. †P26.1. Queen commits suicide, as her husband vanquishes and kills her father and her brother. Icelandic: Boberg.

P27. †P27. Grief at queen's death. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P27.1. †P27.1. King sits mourning on his wife's grave mound. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P27.2. †P27.2. King mourns so much at wife's death that he goes on piracy, (every summer afterward). Icelandic: *Boberg.

P27.3. †P27.3. King calls daughter in second marriage by the name of his first queen. Icelandic: Boberg.

P28. †P28. Marriage of queen.

P28.1. †P28.1. Chieftainess of such rank that none of her countrymen can woo her. Maori: Clark 2.

P29. †P29. Queens -- miscellaneous.

P29.1. †P29.1. No king to rule who is not husband of certain queen. Irish myth: Cross.

P29.2. †P29.2. Queen commits adultery with husband's foster son. Irish myth: Cross.

P29.3. †P29.3. Queen (princess) pours liquor for battle champions. Irish myth: Cross.

P30. †P30. Princes. Irish myth: Cross.

P30.1. †P30.1. King's sons called kings. Icelandic: Boberg.

P31. †P31. Prince must learn a trade. (Cf. †P51.) *Chauvin VI 74 No. 239.

P31.1. †P31.1. Princes as smiths. Irish myth: Cross.

P32. †P32. Friendship of prince and commoner. India: Thompson-Balys.

P32.1. †P32.1. All children born in realm on same day as chief's son are brought to palace to be the boy's companions. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 441.

P34. †P34. Prince imprisoned as hostage for safety from king. Irish myth: Cross.

P35. †P35. Unknown prince chosen chief of children in play. *Type 920; *DeVries FFC LXXIII 40ff.

P36. †P36. Dispossessed prince taunted by usurper's son. West Africa: Frobenius Atlantis VI 182ff. No. 4.

P37. †P37. Birth rites confer royalty on infant prince. Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 59.

P38. †P38. Prince forfeits father's and God's blessing if he fails to claim throne. English romance: Malory I 4.

P40. †P40. Princesses.

P41. †P41. Princess cannot be married to someone of low caste, though he passes suitor test. India: Thompson-Balys.

P41.1. †P41.1. Great warrior destroyed by king when he asks for princess in marriage. India: Thompson-Balys.

P50. †P50. Noblemen (knights).

P50.0.1. †P50.0.1. King and vassals: obligations of vassals to king. Irish myth: Cross.

P50.0.1.1. †P50.0.1.1. King demands open gate to vassals' castle (city). Irish myth: Cross.

P50.1. †P50.1. Earl. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P50.1.1. †P50.1.1. Earl's name preferred to king's. Icelandic: Boberg.

P50.2. †P50.2. Marshall.

P51. †P51. Noble person saves self from difficulties by knowledge of a trade. (Cf. †P31.) Chauvin VIII 111 No. 90.

P52. †P52. Knight jousts with all comers. (Cf. †P561.) English romance: Malory passim.

P52.1. †P52.1. Knight's duty to perform as lady bids. English romance: Malory VI 5.

P55. †P55. Wild man of noble birth. (Cf. †F567.) Dickson 135 n. 117; Irish myth: Cross.

P60. †P60. Noble (gentle) ladies.

P61. †P61. Noble woman given to foreigners on condition that thereafter their land be held by female right. Irish myth: Cross.

P90. †P90. Royalty and nobility -- miscellaneous.

P92. †P92. Bathing pool reserved for royalty. Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 608.

P93. †P93. Certain foods, ornaments, feathers, etc. reserved for royalty. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 376.

P94. †P94. Garment must be removed in presence of certain high chiefs. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 376.

P95. †P95. Impossible to refuse the request of a troubled nobleman. Greek: Odyssey IV 653.

†P100-†P199. Other social orders.

P110. †P110. Royal ministers. Missouri French: Carrière.

P111. †P111. Banished minister found indispensable and recalled. *Chauvin VI 38 No. 207 n. 5; India: Thompson-Balys.

P116. †P116. Minister acts as stepping-stone in midst of flame-filled trench so that king can step across from one side to the other. India: Thompson-Balys.

P120. †P120. Church dignitaries. Irish myth: Cross.

P150. †P150. Rich men. Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière.

P151. †P151. Man so rich that people prefer the dung from his mules over king's gold and silver. Jewish: Neuman.

P160. †P160. Beggars. Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Jewish: Neuman.

P161. †P161. Beggars' many children. *Wesselski Bebel II 131 No. 97, 136 No. 107.

P162. †P162. Lepers. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

P162.1. †P162.1. Naked leper. Irish myth: Cross.

P163. †P163. Beggar rewarded by king for poem (song). India: *Thompson-Balys.

P170. †P170. Slaves. Irish myth: Cross.

P170.0.1. †P170.0.1. Female slaves. (Cf. †P173.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

P170.0.1.1. †P170.0.1.1. Female slaves as medium of exchange (unit of value). Irish myth: Cross.

P171. †P171. Branding person makes him one's slave for life. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 198 No. 391.

P171.1. †P171.1. Slave's ear bored. Jewish: *Neuman.

P171.2. †P171.2. Bond woman with rope girding her loins. Jewish: Neuman.

P172. †P172. Requirement that slaves given as tribute should not know Irish. Irish myth: Cross.

P173. †P173. Captive king's sons made slaves. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

P173.1. †P173.1. Captive king's daughter as slave. Icelandic: Boberg.

P173.2. †P173.2. Killed enemy's son as slave. Icelandic: Boberg.

P173.3. †P173.3. Captives from battle sold as slaves. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P173.4. †P173.4. Futile attempt to get rid of man by selling him to merchants as slave. Icelandic: Boberg.

P174. †P174. Children of slave and free person become slaves. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 300.

P175. †P175. Slave killed. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P175.1. †P175.1. Slave hanged. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P176. †P176. Murder by slaves. Icelandic: Boberg.

P177. †P177. Origin of thralls. Icelandic: Boberg.

P178. †P178. Slaves freed. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P178.1. †P178.1. Knocking out a slave's tooth entitles him to freedom. Jewish: Neuman.

P178.2. †P178.2. Slaves released after definite term. Jewish: Neuman (seven years).

P190. †P190. Other social orders -- miscellaneous. Irish myth: Cross.

P191. †P191. Social status of foreigners. Irish myth: Cross.

P192. †P192. Madmen (fools, professional fools). Irish myth: Cross.

P192.1. †P192.1. Professional fool. Irish myth: Cross.

P192.2. †P192.2. Fool as clever judge. Irish myth: Cross.

P192.3. †P192.3. Fool can walk on water. Irish myth: Cross.

P192.4. †P192.4. Fool can live under water. Irish myth: Cross.

P192.5. †P192.5. Fool makes friends with birds and beasts. Irish myth: Cross.

P192.6. †P192.6. Customary to shave heads of demented so that they may be recognized as such. Irish myth: Cross.

P192.7. †P192.7. Fool recognized by lump on his forehead. Irish myth: Cross.

†P200-†P299. The family.

P200. †P200. The family.

P201. †P201. Inherent enmity between members of a family. Dickson 100 n. 5.

P201.1. †P201.1. Feud between two branches of family. Irish myth: Cross.

P202. †P202. Person reproached for having no relatives. Irish myth: Cross; Koryak: *Jochelson JE VI 372.

P203. †P203. Game with ancestors' bones. A boy interrupts a game played with the bones of his father or other murdered relative. N. Am. Indian: Kroeber JAFL XXI 225.

P205. †P205. Refusal to fight relatives. Hindu: Tawney I 175; Icelandic: Boberg.

P210. †P210. Husband and wife.

P211. †P211. Wife chooses father's side in feud. Must choose between husband and father. S. Am. Indian (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 266.

P211.1. †P211.1. Wife chooses father rather than husband or son. (Cf. †P253.3.) Only one can be saved; he alone is irreplaceable. Spanish: Childers.

P211.2. †P211.2. Mother kills husband for murdering their daughter. Africa (Kamerun): Mansfield 228.

P212. †P212. Wife more merciful than blood relations. They refuse to ransom condemned man; wife does so. Child II 349f., III 516, IV 481, V 231ff., 296.

P213. †P213. Husband more merciful than blood relations. They refuse to ransom condemned woman; husband does so. Child II 346--53, III 511, IV 481f., V 231ff., 296.

P214. †P214. Wife drinks blood of slain husband. Irish myth: Cross.

P214.1. †P214.1. Wife commits suicide (dies) on death of husband. (Cf. †P16.4.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

P216. †P216. Wife only one able to persuade her husband. Icelandic: Boberg.

P230. †P230. Parents and children. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 527a s. v. "Eltern und Kinder"; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P230.1. †P230.1. Mother prefers son, father daughter. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P230.2. †P230.2. Mother dislikes her children in forced marriage. Icelandic: Boberg.

P230.3. †P230.3. Queen dislikes son who is unlike her and loves a poor girl: plots against him. Icelandic: Boberg.

P231. †P231. Mother and son.

P231.1. †P231.1. Boy sickens from grief at mother's death. Irish myth: Cross.

P231.2. †P231.2. Son warns mother. (Hamlet.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

P231.3. †P231.3. Mother-love. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P231.4. †P231.4. Mother kills sons who lack courage to help her revenge her father and brothers, and are likely to betray the plot. Icelandic: Boberg.

P231.5. †P231.5. Mother reveals fact that son is offspring of supernatural father. Irish myth: Cross.

P231.6. †P231.6. Mother (eagle) casts out dull, stupid changeling; rears bold, energetic son. Irish myth: Cross.

P231.7. †P231.7. Mother commits suicide when son wants to marry foreigner according to foreign rites. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 267.

P232. †P232. Mother and daughter.

P232.1. †P232.1. Wicked mother and her sons do everything to prevent daughter's marriage with beloved. Icelandic: Boberg.

P232.2. †P232.2. Mother lets daughter unwittingly marry own father in order to avenge his raping. Icelandic: Boberg.

P233. †P233. Father and son. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P233.1. †P233.1. Son as pledge for father who has committed murder. Irish myth: Cross.

P233.2. †P233.2. Young hero rebuked by his father. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P233.2.1. †P233.2.1. Father drives away bad son whom the mother prefers. Icelandic: Boberg.

P233.3. †P233.3. Berserks scold their father who apparently without reason called their adversary invincible. Icelandic: Boberg.

P233.3.1. †P233.3.1. Hero's son by giantess scorns his father's feebleness: still it is the son who is slain. Icelandic: Boberg.

P233.4. †P233.4. Natural son preferred to legitimate. Icelandic: Boberg.

P233.5. †P233.5. Oldest son responsible to father for welfare of others. Jewish: Neuman.

P233.6. †P233.6. Son avenges father. English romance: Malory X 21, 34, 36; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa: Bouveignes 163.

P233.7. †P233.7. Son must threaten father before he will recognize him as son, even though he brings ring from his mother. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P233.8. †P233.8. Prodigal son returns. India: Thompson-Balys.

P233.9. †P233.9. Son chastizes father for scorning mother. India: Thompson-Balys.

P233.10. †P233.10. Father in vision reproves son about to succumb to temptation. Jewish: Neuman.

P233.11. †P233.11. Birthright transferred by father from the oldest son to another. (Cf. †P251.7.) Jewish: Neuman.

P234. †P234. Father and daughter. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P234.1. †P234.1. Daughter marries her husband's slayer in order to save her old father from war. Icelandic: Boberg.

P234.2. †P234.2. Father and daughter die at same time. Icelandic: Boberg.

P236. †P236. Undutiful children. Irish myth: Cross.

P236.1. †P236.1. Folly of father's giving all property to children before his death. They abandon him. *Oesterley No. 273; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 116 No. 980A. Cf. Shakespeare's King Lear.

P236.2. †P236.2. Supposed chest of gold induces children to care for aged father. They think that the chest of stones contains the inheritance. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 435; Scala Celi 98b No. 528; Dunlop-Wilson II 185f.; von der Hagen II lviii No. 49; Hdwb. d. Abergl. IV 1290. --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2452*; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 116 No. 980A; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Palestine: Schmidt-Kahle Volkserzählungen aus Palästina II No. 123; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: Jeynball Catalogus Maleische en Sundaneesche Hss. 173, ibid. Supplement Catalogus Javaansche en Madoereesche Hss. 22.

P236.3. †P236.3. Not daring to curse father directly, son does so indirectly. Nouvelles Récréations No. 50.

P236.4. †P236.4. Son deposes father and usurps throne. Irish myth: Cross.

P236.5. †P236.5. Undutiful children ridicule father while he is drunk and naked. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P236.6. †P236.6. Undutiful son overawes his father by threats. India: Thompson-Balys.

P236.7. †P236.7. Undutiful son taught lesson showing his mother has suffered from him. India: Thompson-Balys.

P237. †P237. Daughters flogged by parents. Child I 192, II 435, V237a.

P241. †P241. Parents descend to hell instead of sons. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 53.

P241.1. †P241.1. Pious children save their parents from hell. Jewish: Neuman.

P242. †P242. Children punished for fathers' sins. Jewish: Neuman.

P250. †P250. Brothers and sisters.

P250.1. †P250.1. Elder children to protect younger. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "aînés".

P251. †P251. Brothers. *Penzer III 272 n. 1; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P251.1. †P251.1. Friend unfaithful but brother faithful. Brought to test by actions at apparent death of hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

P251.2. †P251.2. Warrior will not fight where his brother was slain. Place considered defiled. Irish myth: Cross.

P251.3. †P251.3. Brothers follow each other in exile. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P251.3.1. †P251.3.1. Brothers strive to avenge each other. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P251.4. †P251.4. Brothers scorn brother's wise counsel. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P251.4.1. †P251.4.1. Brothers kill brother because they fail to understand his wise answer. Icelandic: Boberg.

P251.5. †P251.5. Two brothers. Type 303; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P251.5.1. †P251.5.1. Two brothers follow and help each other on piracy, etc. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P251.5.2. †P251.5.2. Two brothers are confusingly like each other. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P251.5.3. †P251.5.3. Hostile brothers. Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

P251.5.4. †P251.5.4. Two brothers as contrasts. Hdwb. d. Märchens II "Formel"; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P251.5.5. †P251.5.5. Brother unjustly imprisoned by brother. Irish myth: Cross.

P251.5.6. †P251.5.6. Man's descendants shall serve those of his brother. Irish myth: Cross.

P251.6. †P251.6. Several brothers.

P251.6.1. †P251.6.1. Three brothers. Types 654, 655; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P251.6.2. †P251.6.2. Four brothers. Types 653, 655.

P251.6.3. †P251.6.3. Six or seven brothers. Type 451.

P251.6.4. †P251.6.4. Eight brothers. Icelandic: Boberg.

P251.6.5. †P251.6.5. Nine brothers. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P251.6.6. †P251.6.6. Eleven brothers. Type 451; Icelandic: Boberg.

P251.6.7. †P251.6.7. Twelve brothers. Type 451.

P251.7. †P251.7. Older brother has birthright, entitling him to a double share. (Cf. †P233.11.) Jewish: *Neuman.

P251.8. †P251.8. Repudiation of relationship of birth between man and his bad brother. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 92f.

P252. †P252. Sisters.

P252.1. †P252.1. Two sisters. Type 480, 711, 426.

P252.1.1. †P252.1.1. Sister kills sister. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

P252.2. †P252.2. Three sisters. Types 311--12, 510, 511.

P252.3. †P252.3. Seven sisters. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P252.4. †P252.4. Eight sisters. Icelandic: Boberg.

P252.5. †P252.5. Nine sisters. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P252.6. †P252.6. Ten sisters. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P252.7. †P252.7. Eighteen sisters kill one another. Icelandic: Boberg.

P253. †P253. Sister and brother. Type 450; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P253.0.1. †P253.0.1. Sister's son. Irish myth: Cross.

P253.0.2. †P253.0.2. One sister and two brothers. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P253.0.3. †P253.0.3. One sister and three (four) brothers. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P253.0.4. †P253.0.4. One sister and ten brothers. Icelandic: Boberg.

P253.0.5. †P253.0.5. One sister and six (seven, eleven, twelve) brothers. Type 451.

P253.1. †P253.1. Brother about to drink blood of seemingly guilty sister. Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 61.

P253.2. †P253.2. Sister faithful to transformed brother. *Types 450, 451; Child I 315f.

P253.2.1. †P253.2.1. Brother faithful to persecuted sister. East Africa: Zuure L'Ame du Murundi (Paris, 1932) 331ff. No. 2.

P253.3. †P253.3. Brother chosen rather than husband or son. Only one can be saved; he alone is irreplaceable. Chauvin II 190 No. 2; Tawney Journal of Philology XII 121; Aly Volksmärchen bei Herodot 35, 109; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 257 No. 31.

P253.4. †P253.4. Girl comes to brother's aid when he is attacked. She slays the assailant and is eventually acquitted. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P253.5. †P253.5. Sister avenges brother's death. India: Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P253.6. †P253.6. Sister warns brothers. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P253.7. †P253.7. Brothers persecute sister's lover and are in return killed by him. Icelandic: Boberg.

P253.8. †P253.8. Clever sister saves life of brother. Irish myth: Cross.

P253.9. †P253.9. Woman dies of sorrow for death of brother. Irish myth: Cross.

P260. †P260. Relations by law.

P261. †P261. Father-in-law. India: Thompson-Balys.

P262. †P262. Mother-in-law. Irish myth: Cross.

P262.1. †P262.1. Bad relations between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law. India: Thompson-Balys.

P263. †P263. Brother-in-law. (Cf. †K2211.1.)

P263.1. †P263.1. Widower marries wife's sister. Jewish: *Neuman.

P264. †P264. Sister-in-law. (Cf. †K2212.2.)

P265. †P265. Son-in-law.

P265.1. †P265.1. Idle sons-in-law driven away by gradually reducing their food. India: Thompson-Balys.

P270. †P270. Foster relatives. Irish myth: Cross.

P270.1. †P270.1. Foster parents fined for blemish on child. Irish myth: Cross.

P270.2. †P270.2. Peasant and his wife as foster parents of exposed king's son. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P270.3. †P270.3. Parents kill son for slaying their foster son. Irish myth: Cross.

P271. †P271. Foster father. **C. Schubert Der Pflegesohn (Nourri) im Heldenepos (Marburg, 1906); Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière.

P271.1. †P271.1. Magician as foster father. (Cf. †N845.) English romance: Malory, Book 1; Icelandic: Boberg.

P271.2. †P271.2. Fisherman as foster father. Icelandic: Boberg.

P271.3. †P271.3. Dwarf as foster father. (Cf. †F451.5.1.) Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 267, *Boberg.

P271.4. †P271.4. Living king's or nobleman's son as foster son of father's friend: considered an honor for the foster father. Weinhold Altnordisches Leben (1856) 285ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P271.5. †P271.5. Foster father as constant helper. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P271.6. †P271.6. Foster children return foster father's love: avenge him, etc. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P271.7. †P271.7. King's son named after his father's foster father. Icelandic: Boberg.

P271.8. †P271.8. Thor slays his foster father and takes himself the realm of Thrace. Icelandic: Snorra Edda Prol. III, MacCulloch Eddic. 314.

P272. †P272. Foster mother. Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière.

P272.1. †P272.1. Witch foster mother. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P272.2. †P272.2. Foster mother as helper. (Cf. all items under †P272.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

P272.3. †P272.3. Former mistress as sons' foster mother. Icelandic: Bosa saga 6ff.

P273. †P273. Foster brother. *Valtyr Gudmundsson "Fóstbrædralag" in prjár Ritgjörethir (Kaupmannahöfn, 1892) 29--55; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P273.1. †P273.1. Faithful foster brother. *Type 516; *BP I 46; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 96; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P273.1.1. †P273.1.1. Foster brothers avenge each other. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P273.1.2. †P273.1.2. King's son begs pardon for treacherous foster brother. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P273.1.3. †P273.1.3. Foster brother as constant adviser. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P273.2. †P273.2. Faithless foster brother.

P273.2.1. †P273.2.1. Promise of marriage to king's daughter induces warrior to fight foster brother. Irish myth: Cross.

P273.2.2. †P273.2.2. Earl's son seduces foster brother's sister and betrays himself. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P273.2.3. †P273.2.3. King's son falsely accuses foster brother of attempt to seduce his sister. Icelandic: Lagerholm 161--63, introd. lxxviii, *Boberg.

P273.2.4. †P273.2.4. Magic writing makes foster brothers enemies. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P273.3. †P273.3. Unable to hit man himself, enemy kills his foster brother. Icelandic: Boberg.

P273.4. †P273.4. Children of Tuatha De Danann fostered by Milesians. Irish myth: Cross.

P274. †P274. Foster sister.

P274.1. †P274.1. Love between foster sister and foster brother. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 80, *Boberg.

P275. †P275. Foster son. Irish myth: Cross.

P275.1. †P275.1. Foster son commits adultery with foster father's wife. Irish myth: Cross.

P280. †P280. Steprelatives.

P281. †P281. Stepfather.

P281.1. †P281.1. Stepfather as foster father. Icelandic: Boberg.

P281.2. †P281.2. Stepfather murdered. Icelandic: Boberg.

P282. †P282. Stepmother. Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière.

P282.1. †P282.1. Realm ruled by stepmother, while king is absent. Icelandic: Boberg.

P282.2. †P282.2. Stepmother mourns her stepsons' death, not her own son's. Icelandic: Boberg.

P282.3. †P282.3. Stepmother in love with stepson. (Cf. †T418.) Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Euripides Hippolytus; Chinese-Persian: *Coyajee JPASB XXIV 192.

P282.3.1. †P282.3.1. Love of stepmother who has killed her husband refused. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P283. †P283. Stepbrother.

P283.1. †P283.1. Stepbrothers kill devastating monsters. India: Thompson-Balys.

P284. †P284. Stepsister. (Cf. †K2212.1.) Icelandic: Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière.

P290. †P290. Other relatives.

P291. †P291. Grandfather. Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière.

P291.1. †P291.1. Grandfather as foster father. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P292. †P292. Grandmother. Missouri French: Carrière.

P292.1. †P292.1. Grandmother as foster mother. Icelandic: Boberg.

P293. †P293. Uncle. **W. O. Farnsworth Uncle and Nephew in the Old French Chansons de Geste (New York, 1913); Irish myth: Cross.

P293.1. †P293.1. Mother's brother as foster father. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P293.2. †P293.2. Mother's brother as helper. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P293.2.1. †P293.2.1. Children take after their mother's brothers. Jewish: *Neuman.

P293.3. †P293.3. Hero killed in fighting with father's brother. Icelandic: Boberg.

P293.4. †P293.4. Young prince sent to his father's mother's brother. Icelandic: Boberg.

P293.5. †P293.5. Father's brother avenged. Icelandic: Boberg.

P294. †P294. Aunt. *Rivers "The Father's Sister in Oceania" FL XXI 42.

P294.1. †P294.1. Paternal aunt as aid. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 82.

P295. †P295. Cousins.

P296. †P296. Godparents.

P296.1. †P296.1. Godfather. Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 803; Missouri French: Carrière. See also †N811 and all references and cross-references.

P296.2. †P296.2. Godmother.

P297. †P297. Nephew. *F. B. Gummere The Sister's Son (Oxford, 1901); C. H. Bell The Sister's Son in the Mediaeval German Epic (Berkeley, 1922); Irish myth: Cross.

P298. †P298. Niece.

†P300-†P399. Other social relationships.

P310. †P310. Friendship. *Type 516; *BP I 46; **Rösch FFC LXXVII 96; India: *Thompson-Balys.

P310.1. †P310.1. Friends want to divide good and evil. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P310.2. †P310.2. Friends avenge each other. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P310.3. †P310.3. Dying hero sends greetings to friends. Icelandic: Boberg.

P310.4. †P310.4. Friends want their children to be friends too. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P310.4.1. †P310.4.1. Dying man asks friends to let his son inherit his friendship together with his father's weapons. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga II 358, Boberg.

P310.4.2. †P310.4.2. Friends' children become enemies. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P310.5. †P310.5. Defeated enemy turns true friend. (Cf. †P311.1.) Icelandic: Lagerholm 108ff., *Boberg.

P310.6. †P310.6. One friend dies shortly after the other. Icelandic: Boberg.

P310.7. †P310.7. Man wins wife for his friend. India: Thompson-Balys.

P310.8. †P310.8. Friendship possible only between equals. India: Thompson-Balys.

P310.9. †P310.9. Friends given the power of reading each other's secret thoughts. India: Thompson-Balys.

P311. †P311. Sworn brethren. Friends take an oath of lasting brotherhood. *Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 98; *Hibbard 68 n. 7, 145 n. 3; Child IV 146f.; Wesselski Märchen 187 No. 2; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 17; *Abeles "Die Burgschaft als Motif in der jüdischen Literatur" Monatsch. f. Geschichte u. Wissenschaft der Juden LX 213ff., 263ff. --English: Wells 158 (Amis and Amiloun); Icelandic: Olrik Sakses Oldhistorie I (1892) 59ff., *Boberg; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman, bin Gorion Born Judas@2 IV 14, 20, 274; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 63 No. 35.

P311.0.1. †P311.0.1. Friends exchange names. Irish myth: Cross.

P311.1. †P311.1. Combatants become sworn brethren. Dickson 123 n. 73; Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

P311.2. †P311.2. Flower-friendship. Friends take oath of brotherhood by exchanging flowers. India: Thompson-Balys.

P311.3. †P311.3. Human sons of animal companions go together on adventures Africa. (Lamba): Doke MAFLS XX 14 No. 11.

P311.4. †P311.4. Friends born at same moment. India: Thompson-Balys.

P311.5. †P311.5. Covenant of friendship. Irish myth: Cross.

P311.6. †P311.6. Ceremonial friendship. India: Thompson-Balys.

P311.7. †P311.7. Saints exchange bachalls as mark of affection. Irish myth: Cross.

P311.7.1. †P311.7.1. Saints exchange bells. Irish myth: Cross.

P311.8. †P311.8. Friendship between a prince and common man. India: *Thompson-Balys.

P312. †P312. Blood-brotherhood. Friends take oath of brotherhood by means of mixing their blood. *Type 1364; **Encyc. Rel. Ethics II 717a, 857ff.; **H. C. Trumbull The Blood Covenant (London, 1887); *Chauvin VII 20 No. 373D; *Hibbard 145 n. 3; Fb "blod" IV 46b; Nitze MPh IX 291; DeVries Acta Philologica Scandinavica III 106; *Basset RTP VI 577--XXV 438 passim; *Julian Revue d'Ethnographie et de Trad. Pop. II 1ff.; **H. Tegnæus Blood-Brothers (Stockholm, 1952). --Irish myth: Cross: Icelandic: *Boberg; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 13/203); Africa: Stanley 274.

P312.0.1. †P312.0.1. Saint makes blood covenant with animals. (Cf. †B279.) Irish myth: Cross.

P312.1. †P312.1. Drinking mixture of blood, milk, and wine as pledge of covenant. Irish myth: Cross.

P312.2. †P312.2. Sworn brethren and blood brethren avenge each other. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P312.3. †P312.3. Surviving blood brother to watch three nights in grave-mound. Icelandic: Egils saga ok Asm., Lagerholm 28 (cf. introd. xxiv--xxix).

P313. †P313. Milk-brotherhood. Friends bound in brotherhood through partaking of milk from the same woman. *Cosquin Études 247ff.; Wiedemann Am Urquell III 259ff.

P313.1. †P313.1. Friendship starts at babyhood: two babies exchanged. Jewish: *Neuman.

P314. †P314. Combat of disguised friends. Brown Iwain 17 and passim.

P315. †P315. Friends offer to die for each other. (Bürgschaft.) Each falsely confesses crime so as to save the other. Neither guilty. Often combined with †P325. **Abeles "Die Bürgschaft als Motif in der jüdischen Literatur" Monatschr. f. Geschichte u. Wissenschaft der Juden LX 213ff., 263ff.; **K. Kelling Das Bürgschaftsmotiv in der französischen Literatur (Leipzig diss., 1915); *Chauvin III 124 No. 113, V 215f., VIII 194ff. IX 16f.; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 350a s. v. "Bürgschaft"; Köhler-Bolte II 557, 580f.; Gaster Exempla Nos. 362, 419; Basset 1001 Contes II 293ff.; Boccaccio Decameron X No. 8 (*Lee 330); Fischer Zs. f. deutsche Morgenländische Ges. LXXII 290; Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXI 193 n. 4, 194; Scala Celi 10a, 11b Nos. 62, 68; bin Gorion Born Judas IV 20, 274; Alphabet Nos. 53, 57. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

P315.1. †P315.1. Competition in friendship: prisoner and jailor. Officer in charge of prison offers to let his friend escape, though his own life will be forfeited. The friend refuses; tells officer to let king think he has escaped and if the king demands his life the officer can produce the prisoner. King hears of the generosity and forgives the prisoner. Chauvin V I No. 1.

P315.2. †P315.2. Friend gives false witness to set free his accused friend. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 99f.

P316. †P316. Friend sacrifices his life for the other. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1369.

P316.1. †P316.1. Man knowing of murder plot against his friend disguises and is killed in his place. (Cf. †P361.1.) Scala Celi 9b No. 61; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P317. †P317. Refusal to believe that a friend has spoken ill of one. Alphabet No. 220; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P317.1. †P317.1. Refusal to believe that a friend will harm one. Alexander drinks cup said to have been poisoned by his friend. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P318. †P318. Man refuses to follow friend in wicked conduct. Scala Celi 11a No. 66; Alphabet No. 56; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P319. †P319. Deeds of friendship -- miscellaneous.

P319.1. †P319.1. Two friends captured by Moors have money to ransom only one. The ransomed one returns home, gets money and buys the other's freedom. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P319.2. †P319.2. Man who has counseled friend in assassination asks to be killed on the other's body. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P319.3. †P319.3. Friend's intercession saves man from execution. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P319.4. †P319.4. The sacred partnership. Man is abducted by pirates and kept in slavery forty years. Upon his return his friend divides his earnings with him. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

P319.5. †P319.5. Hands of friends extend through sides of tombs and clasp in death. Irish myth: Cross.

P319.6. †P319.6. Successful rival gives his lady to unsuccessful friend. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

P319.7. †P319.7. "Friendship without refusal." Friends bind themselves each to grant every desire of the other. Irish myth: Cross.

P319.8. †P319.8. Danger of one saint voluntarily incurred by another. Irish myth: Cross.

P320. †P320. Hospitality. Relation of host and guest. Irish myth: Cross.

P320.1. †P320.1. Hospitality for a whole winter. Icelandic: Lagerholm 10 n., *Boberg.

P320.2. †P320.2. Hospitality for (three) years. Irish myth: *Cross.

P321. †P321. Salt of hospitality. Eating a man's salt creates mutual obligation. *Chauvin VI 196 No. 368.

P322. †P322. Guest given refuge. Murderer of a man's father takes refuge in his house and is saved by him. *Chauvin II 198 No. 31.

P322.1. †P322.1. Nobleman forces escaping prisoner to accept his hospitality. Intercedes for his pardon. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P322.2. †P322.2. Guest in disguise or under false name. (Cf. †K1831.) *Boberg.

P322.3. †P322.3. Refugee entertained in holy place (church, monastery, etc.). Irish myth: Cross.

P323. †P323. Hosts refrain from telling guest of death in household. Wesselski Archiv Orientální II 431; Greek: Euripides Alcestis.

P324. †P324. Host greets guest with gifts. English romance: Malory passim; Icelandic: Boberg.

P324.1. †P324.1. Host treats guest with food and everything possible. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P324.2. †P324.2. Guests fed before being questioned. Greek: Odyssey III 70 and passim.

P324.3. †P324.3. Guests' life inviolable. Greek: Odyssey XIV 403 and passim.

P325. †P325. Host surrenders his wife to his guest. The guest unwittingly falls in love with the wife. The host, on being informed, out of pure generosity repudiates the wife and has her marry the guest. (Often joined with †P315.) Chauvin V 136 No. 64; also references to †P315; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P325.1. †P325.1. Guest begets son with his host's daughter. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P326. †P326. If host does not return, the house shall belong to the guest. So declares the host as he departs on a mission for the guest. *Chauvin V 209 No. 120 n. 1; Japanese: Ikeda.

P327. †P327. Barmecide feast. Host places imaginary feast before guest, who accepts it in the same spirit. Guest's courtesy is rewarded by real feast. *Chauvin V 163 No. 86; Arabian: Burton Nights I 317.

P328. †P328. Strangers entertained by family to whose hitching-ring they happen to tie their horses. Thus confusion avoided as to where strangers are to be entertained. Italian: L. de Francia Novellino (Torino, 1930), Rotunda.

P331. †P331. Refusal to receive preferred help until series of stories has been told. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 5.

P332. †P332. Selfish guest expels host. Porcupine asks rabbit for hospitality. When rabbit complains of being pricked, porcupine tells him to leave if he does not like it. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P334. †P334. Shabby hospitality forces guests to leave. Italian Novella: Rotunda (†P329).

P334.1. †P334.1. Guests accused of greediness. India: Thompson-Balys.

P336. †P336. Poor person makes great effort to entertain guests.

P336.1. †P336.1. Poor host and his wife kill themselves because they are unable to entertain expected guests. India: Thompson-Balys.

P336.2. †P336.2. Wife scolds husband's hospitality, as he really has nothing to give. Icelandic: Boberg.

P336.3. †P336.3. Poor peasant closes the eyes in order not to see guest eat: later suicide. Icelandic: Boberg.

P337. †P337. King demands work, sport or entertainment from winter guests. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P337.1. †P337.1. Christian king makes baptism a condition for hospitality during the winter. Icelandic: Boberg.

P338. †P338. Sitting in a circle of feasts. Irish myth: Cross.

P340. †P340. Teacher and pupil. Irish myth: Cross.

P340.0.1. †P340.0.1. Druids as teachers. Irish myth: Cross.

P341. †P341. Teacher dies of pride over success of pupil. Alphabet No. 341.

P342. †P342. Student enters competition with his master. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P342.1. †P342.1. Student challenges his fencing master. Is overcome by the latter's tricks. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

P343. †P343. Teacher threatens to curse pupils if they disobey. Irish myth: Cross.

P360. †P360. Master and servant. **Hdwb. d. Märchens I 389ff.

P361. †P361. Faithful servant. *Types 516; *BP I 46; **Rösch FFC LXXVII 95f.; **Hdwb. d. Märchens I 389 (and cross references there given); Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 154ff. No. 68.

P361.1. †P361.1. Faithful servant dies for his master. Puts on his master's clothes so as to be slain in his place. (Cf. †P316.) Alphabet No. 327; Japanese: Ikeda.

P361.1.1. †P361.1.1. Faithful servant kills his master's murderer and is killed in turn. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P361.1.2. †P361.1.2. Faithful servant wants to follow on dangerous quest, where he alone is killed. Icelandic: Boberg.

P361.1.3. †P361.1.3. Hero's charioteer faithful to master till death. Irish myth: Cross.

P361.2. †P361.2. Faithful servant remains at home and fights for exiled hero. *Boje 82ff.

P361.3. †P361.3. Faithful servant sacrifices sons to save life of king. Sons resuscitated and servant enriched. Penzer IV 177f., VI 272f.; India: Thompson-Balys.

P361.4. †P361.4. Faithful nurse tries to save tyrant's daughter by exposing her own in her place. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P361.5. †P361.5. Abandoned maiden helped by her faithful nurse. India: Thompson-Balys.

P361.6. †P361.6. Faithful servant dies avenging master's death. Irish myth: Cross.

P361.7. †P361.7. Captain will not betray king's secret. He refuses to betray where recruits are being raised. Spanish: Childers.

P361.8. †P361.8. Faithful servant undergoes torture for sake of his master. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P361.9. †P361.9. Crow lets itself be caught so as to save king of crows. India: Thompson-Balys.

P362. †P362. Faithful servant entrusted with care and education of crown prince. India: *Thompson-Balys.

P365. †P365. Faithless servant. *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 391; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

P365.1. †P365.1. Faithless men-servants corrupt the maids in the household. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 209; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P365.2. †P365.2. Servant planning to possess his master's goods. Has already possessed his wife. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 613.

P366. †P366. Master demands that servant tell him of his faults as well as of his good qualities. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 42.

†P400-†P499. Trades and professions.

P400. †P400. Trades and professions. **Sébillot Légendes et Curiosités des Métiers (Paris, n.d.); Jewish: Neuman.

P401. †P401. Son insists on following father's trade. This has been kept secret at request of dying father who was unsuccessful. Son learns from mother. *Cosquin Contes indiens 395ff.

P410. †P410. Laborers.

P411. †P411. Peasant. **Hdwb. d. Märchens I 184a.

P411.1. †P411.1. Peasant refuses to sell possessions to king. (Miller of Sanssouci.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 309 No. 13.

P411.1.1. †P411.1.1. Peasant and his wife in hut near castle as contrasts to king and queen. Icelandic: Lagerholm lvi, *Boberg.

P411.2. †P411.2. Peasant is cutting wood in front of his house as guests arrive. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P411.3. †P411.3. Wounded hero finds shelter and is cured in peasant's house. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P411.4. †P411.4. Hero stays overnight in peasant's house, to which he accidentally comes, and where he gets advice and direction. (Cf. †H1232.4.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

P412. †P412. Shepherd.

P412.1. †P412.1. Shepherd as hero. *Type 300.

P412.1.1. †P412.1.1. Life of shepherd proper preparation for ruler. Jewish: Neuman.

P412.2. †P412.2. Swineherd. (Cf. †L113.1.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

P412.3. †P412.3. Hero as rabbit-herd. Type 570.

P413. †P413. Ferryman.

P413.1. †P413.1. Eternal ferryman. Always transports passengers and when the ruler is in danger takes his place. (Cf. †Q25.) Cosquin Lorraine I 215.

P413.1.1. †P413.1.1. Ferryman puts oar into king's hand and he must remain ferryman. *Type 461; Japanese: Ikeda.

P414. †P414. Hunter. Types 246, 304; Von Sydow Våra folksagor (1941) 39.

P415. †P415. Collier. (Cf. †K2262.)

P415.1. †P415.1. Hero as collier. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 308f., Boberg.

P420. †P420. Learned professions.

P421. †P421. Judge. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P421.1. †P421.1. Jackals as judges. India: Thompson-Balys.

P422. †P422. Lawyer. Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 202.

P422.1. †P422.1. Lawyers punished in hell. Alphabet Nos. 42, 43.

P422.1.1. †P422.1.1. Tongue of dead lawyer found to be lacking. Scala Celi 7b No. 44; Etienne de Bourbon No. 440.

P424. †P424. Physician. Penzer X 263a s. v. "Physician"; Irish myth: Cross.

P424.1. †P424.1. Physician hides eyes as he passes graveyard. He does not want to see those who have died from his medicine. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 259 No. 204.

P424.2. †P424.2. Doctor who can cure can also poison. This reflection brings the doctor under the king's suspicion. *Chauvin V 276 No. 156.

P424.3. †P424.3. Physician killed for fatal diagnosis. Irish myth: Cross.

P424.3.1. †P424.3.1. "Skillful" physician compelled to help carry away the bier of his dead patient. India: Thompson-Balys.

P424.4. †P424.4. Fairy as physician. Irish myth: Cross.

P424.5. †P424.5. Female physician. Irish myth: Cross.

P425. †P425. Scribe.

P425.1. †P425.1. Scribe who cannot read his own writing. India: Thompson-Balys.

P426. †P426. Clergy.

P426.0.1. †P426.0.1. In fear of clerics pagans flee into fairy mounds. Irish myth: Cross.

P426.1. †P426.1. Parson (priest). Jewish: Neuman (†P426.1, †V452).

P426.1.1. †P426.1.1. First of animals and fruits belong to priest. Jewish: Neuman.

P426.2. †P426.2. Hermit. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 507b; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Espinosa II No. 75, Espinosa Jr. No. 186.

P426.3. †P426.3. Monks. Irish myth: Cross.

P426.3.1. †P426.3.1. Untrained monk becomes skillful wright (smith) through power of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

P426.3.2. †P426.3.2. Monks as converted druids. Irish myth: Cross.

P426.3.3. †P426.3.3. Woman disguised as monk enters monastery. Irish myth: Cross.

P427. †P427. Druid (poet, learned man). Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 311.

P427.0.1. †P427.0.1. Druid inspires great respect and fear. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.0.2. †P427.0.2. Person assailed by druid loses treasure. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.0.3. †P427.0.3. Women druids. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.0.4. †P427.0.4. Simon Magus as druid. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.1. †P427.1. Druid performs sacrifices. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.1.1. †P427.1.1. Druids perform human sacrifice. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.1.2. †P427.1.2. Druids as priests. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.1.3. †P427.1.3. Druidic (heathen) baptism. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.1.4. †P427.1.4. Druidic tonsure. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.2. †P427.2. Druid as emissary of peace. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.3. †P427.3. Advice (instruction) from druid. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.4. †P427.4. Poet (druid) as satirist. (Cf. †M402.) Irish myth: Cross.

P427.4.1. †P427.4.1. Fear of druidic lampoon as activating power. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.5. †P427.5. Druid as physician. (Cf. †P424.) Irish myth: Cross.

P427.5.1. †P427.5.1. Wounded soldiers healed by bath in pool of milk through power of druid. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.6. †P427.6. Druid as judge. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7. †P427.7. Poet. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P427.7.1. †P427.7.1. Extemporaneous composition by poets. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.2. †P427.7.2. Extensive repertory of poets. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.2.1. †P427.7.2.1. Difficult language used by poets. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.2.1.1. †P427.7.2.1.1. Poets and fools closely allied. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.3. †P427.7.3. Blind poets. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.4. †P427.7.4. Women poets. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.5. †P427.7.5. Bard. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.6. †P427.7.6. Poet's rod. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.7. †P427.7.7. Poet as judge. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.8. †P427.7.8. Poet rewarded for poem. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P427.7.9. †P427.7.9. Poets banished. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.9.1. †P427.7.9.1. Excessive demands of poets. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.7.10. †P427.7.10. Rivaling poets. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P427.8. †P427.8. Druids as rath-builders. Irish myth: Cross.

P427.9. †P427.9. Druids (poets) boil spell. Irish myth: Cross.

P428. †P428. Musician. Icelandic: Boberg.

P428.1. †P428.1. Harper. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

P429. †P429. Miscellaneous learned professions.

P429.1. †P429.1. Astronomers. Jewish: *Neuman.

P430. †P430. Financiers and merchants.

P431. †P431. Merchant. Jewish: *Neuman.

P431.1. †P431.1. Merchants as spreaders of news. *Dickson 174 n. 35.

P435. †P435. Usurer.

P435.1. †P435.1. Wealthy usurer prays that the sons of the rich will become mad. That will benefit his business. His own sons lose their minds. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P435.2. †P435.2. Usurer stops lending money. He does so, not because it is wrong, but because he is losing money. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P440. †P440. Artisans. Jewish: *Neuman.

P441. †P441. Tailor. *Fb "skrædder"; *Chauvin IX 29 No. 18; *Sébillot Métiers No. 7; *Feilberg Dania I 165ff., III 184ff.; Paludan Danske Studier (1925) 19ff.; Missouri French: Carrière.

P441.1. †P441.1. Tailor occupies God's throne for a day. *Type 800; *BP I 342.

P441.2. †P441.2. Tailoring only trade devil cannot learn. He fails to knot thread because it would make sign of the cross. Scotch: Campbell Superstitions 304.

P441.3. †P441.3. Tailor punished in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

P441.4. †P441.4. Busy tailor asks soldier to mount watch in his place. Missouri French: Carrière 177f. No. 36, 261 No. 59.

P442. †P442. Baker. *Sébillot Métiers Nos. 2, 3; *Nyrop Dania VIII 174ff.

P442.1. †P442.1. Baker and devil walking together. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "boulanger".

P443. †P443. Miller. Type 461 (Danish); Von Sydow Våra folksagor (1941) 38; *Sébillot Métiers No. 1; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 137, 141, 198.

P443.0.1. †P443.0.1. Water-miller. Icelandic: Boberg.

P443.1. †P443.1. Why millers are thieves. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 84 No. 27e.

P444. †P444. Cabinet-maker. *Sébillot Métiers No. 14.

P444.1. †P444.1. Brave soldier and timid cabinet-maker as companions. German: Grimm No. 130a; BP III 67.

P445. †P445. Weaver. Sébillot Métiers No. 6.

P445.1. †P445.1. Why weavers are the most unhappy of men. They gave a nail for the Crucifixion. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 84 No. 27C.

P445.2. †P445.2. Why weavers have patience. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 84 No. 27d.

P446. †P446. Barber. Sébillot Métiers No. 11; Penzer III 100 n. 1.

P446.1. †P446.1. Barbers as bunglers of plans. Chauvin V 154ff. Nos. 78ff. and n. 1.

P446.2. †P446.2. Barbers cunning and greedy. India: Thompson-Balys.

P447. †P447. Smith. *Sébillot Métiers Nos. 17, 18; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 257--67; Andree (1878) 153; *Nyrop Dania IX 186ff.; Von Sydow Våra folksagor (1941) 39ff. --Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Jewish: *Neuman.

P447.0.1. †P447.0.1. Smith from Lochlann (Scandinavia, otherworld [?]) Irish myth: Cross.

P447.1. †P447.1. Smith as grandfather of king. Irish myth: Cross.

P447.2. †P447.2. Smith as rath-builder. Irish myth: Cross.

P447.3. †P447.3. Smith as lord of hall of hospitality. Irish myth: Cross.

P447.4. †P447.4. Smith punished in hell. Irish myth: *Cross.

P447.5. †P447.5. Smith honored by king as indispensable. Invited to festival. England: *Baughman.

P447.6. †P447.6. Rivaling smiths. Icelandic: Boberg.

P447.7. †P447.7. Goldsmith as lover. Icelandic: Boberg.

P447.8. †P447.8. Covetous goldsmith. India: Thompson-Balys.

P448. †P448. Butcher. Sébillot Métiers No. 4.

P451. †P451. Spinner. Sébillot Métiers No. 5; *Von Sydow Spinnsagor.

P452. †P452. Dressmaker (milliner, etc.). Type 326; German Grimm No. 4; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 269f.; Sébillot Métiers No. 8.

P453. †P453. Shoemaker. **C. Nyrop Dania VIII 195ff.; *Sébillot Métiers No. 10; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 151, 155--157, 185.

P453.1. †P453.1. Why shoemakers are indolent. A shoemaker spits at Christ on way to be crucified. Christ tells him, "A poor slobbering fellow thou shalt be, and all shoemakers after thee, for what thou has done to me." (Cf. †A2231.2, †P445.1.) England; Baughman.

P454. †P454. Hatter. Sébillot Métiers No. 10 pp. 52ff.

P455. †P455. Mason (bricklayer). Sébillot Métiers No. 12.

P456. †P456. Carpenter. Sébillot Métiers No. 13; Panchatantra (tr. Ryder) 62ff., 89ff., 260ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

P457. †P457. House-painter. Sébillot Métiers No. 15.

P458. †P458. Woodsman. Types 327, 700; Köhler Aufsätze 49; Sébillot Métiers No. 16; Missouri French: Carrière.

P459. †P459. Other artisans.

P459.1. †P459.1. Printer. Sébillot Métiers No. 19.

P460. †P460. Other trades and professions.

P461. †P461. Soldier. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 485ff.; Missouri French: Carrière.

P461.1. †P461.1. Soldier who has had both hands severed fights with his teeth until he is killed. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P461.2. †P461.2. Soldier dies happy on learning of enemy's rout. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P461.3. †P461.3. Soldier is ordered to set fire to enemy's armada. Is caught and sawed in two. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P461.4. †P461.4. Woman instructs in art of arms. (Cf. †F565.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

P471. †P471. Actor.

P471.1. †P471.1. Actors banished along with vagabonds. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 537.

P475. †P475. Robber. Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Jewish: *Neuman.

P475.1. †P475.1. Twelve robbers. Fb III 132a "røver".

P475.2. †P475.2. Robbers defeated and killed. Icelandic: *Boberg.

P481. †P481. Astrologer. Penzer X 77a s. v. "Astrologer"; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

P482. †P482. Painter (artist).

P482.1. †P482.1. Devil pulls painter from chair. Scala Celi 120b No. 660.

P483. †P483. Juggler (conjurer). Irish myth: Cross.

P485. †P485. Philosopher.

P485.1. †P485.1. Treacherous philosophers. India: Thompson-Balys.

†P500-†P599. Government.

P500. †P500. Government.

P510. †P510. Law courts. *E. v. Künssberg Rechtliche Volkskunde (Halle, 1936); **Spargo Juridicial Folklore in England (Durham N.C., 1944); Irish myth: Cross.

P511. †P511. Criminal allowed to choose his method of execution. *Wesselski Märchen 199.

P511.1. †P511.1. Chooses to die of old age. Criminal given choice of deaths. (Cf. †J1181.) Hdwb. d. Märchens s. v. "Friedrich der Grosse" n. 58.

P511.2. †P511.2. Man condemned to lose his eye is allowed to choose the instrument. Herbert III 71; Hervieux IV 310 No. 117; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P512. †P512. Condemned woman may be freed by marrying a rogue. *Fb "gifte" I 432; Zs. f. Vksk. XXIII 108, XXV 286, XXVII 236; Sehreuer Zs. f. vgl. Rechtswiss. XXXIV 201; Blätter f. pommersche Volkskunde VII 63.

P512.1. †P512.1. Release from execution at a woman's request (by marriage to her). *Taylor JAFL LX 185.

P513. †P513. Criminal may fight against odds rather than be judicially executed. Child IV 497a.

P515. †P515. Pardoning of criminal comes too late. Icelandic: Boberg.

P516. †P516. Youngest of judges first to give decision. Jewish: *Neuman.

P517. †P517. Crime less serious if committed at request of a lady. English romance: Malory VII 18.

P518. †P518. Cities of refuge. Jewish: *Neuman.

P521. †P521. Complacent judge disregards the confession. He has put the criminal to torture without success. When he releases him, the criminal says, "In a moment I should have confessed all." The judge lets him go nevertheless. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 266 No. 247.

P522. †P522. Laws.

P522.1. †P522.1. Lex talionis. One life for one life. Equal number must be given up by each feuding side. (Cf. †P535.) Irish myth: Cross (†P548.2); India: Thompson-Balys; New Guinea: Ker 61.

P522.1.1. †P522.1.1. A nose for a nose. India: Thompson-Balys.

P523. †P523. Bringing suit in law courts. Irish myth: Cross.

P523.1. †P523.1. Foreigner may not bring suit. (Cf. †P191.) Irish myth: Cross.

P523.2. †P523.2. Madman may not bring suit. Irish myth: Cross.

P523.2.1. †P523.2.1. Fool not to be punished for his crime. Irish myth: Cross.

P523.3. †P523.3. Slave may not bring suit. (Cf. †P170.) Irish myth: Cross.

P524. †P524. Legal security. Irish myth: Cross.

P524.1. †P524.1. Poet may not act as security. (Cf. †P427.) Irish myth: Cross.

P524.2. †P524.2. Foreigner may not act as security. (Cf. †P191.) Irish myth: Cross.

P525. †P525. Contracts. Irish myth: Cross.

P525.0.1. †P525.0.1. "It is a debt if it is promised." Irish myth: Cross.

P525.1. †P525.1. Contract made by madman void. (Cf. †P192.) Irish myth: Cross.

P525.2. †P525.2. Contract made by woman without her husband void. Irish myth: Cross.

P525.3. †P525.3. He nearest to blood of slain man must avenge his death. Irish myth: Cross.

P526. †P526. Legal principles.

P526.1. †P526.1. "To every cow belongs its calf," a legal principle applied to question of ownership of copy of manuscript. Irish myth: Cross.

P526.2. †P526.2. "To every son belongs his mother": in case of suspected illegitimacy, child is not guilty. Irish myth: Cross.

P531. †P531. Taxation and payment of fines or tribute. Irish myth: *Cross.

P531.1. †P531.1. Tribe failing to attend yearly feast to send gift as sign of submission. Irish myth: Cross.

P531.1.1. †P531.1.1. Tribute required of conquered foreigners. Irish myth: *Cross.

P531.2. †P531.2. Tax on treasure trove. (Cf. †N500.) Irish myth: Cross.

P532. †P532. Payment of tax (tribute). Irish myth: *Cross.

P533. †P533. Feudal tribute. Specified interchange of aid and gifts. Irish myth: Cross.

P533.1. †P533.1. Hostages. Irish myth: Cross.

P533.1.1. †P533.1.1. Boys as hostages. Irish myth: Cross.

P535. †P535. Eric fines (imposed for personal injury, etc.). (Cf. †P522.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

P536. †P536. Punishment for failure to pay tax. Irish myth: Cross.

P536.1. †P536.1. Nose cut off for failure to pay tax. (Cf. †Q451.5.) Irish myth: Cross.

P537. †P537. Payment of stipend. Irish myth: Cross.

P541. †P541. Law-making. Irish myth: Cross.

P541.1. †P541.1. Heptads. Laws made in groups of seven. (Cf. †Z71.5.) Irish myth: Cross.

P541.2. †P541.2. Laws made at yearly feast. Irish myth: Cross.

P541.2.1. †P541.2.1. Laws made at feast every seven years. Irish myth: Cross.

P548. †P548. Miscellaneous legal customs. Irish myth: Cross.

P550. †P550. Military affairs. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 181--254; Jewish: Neuman.

P551. †P551. Army.

P551.0.1. †P551.0.1. Band of professional warriors. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

P551.1. †P551.1. Army of young men. Old men excluded. *Chauvin VII 84 No. 373bis.

P551.2. †P551.2. Soldiers chained (tied) together to prevent flight from battle. Irish myth: Cross.

P551.3. †P551.3. Clerics exempted from military service. Irish myth: Cross.

P551.4. †P551.4. Hero drives retreating warriors back into battle. Irish myth: Cross.

P551.5. †P551.5. Boy corps. Irish myth: Cross.

P551.6. †P551.6. Law requiring military service of women revoked through influence of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

P551.7. †P551.7. Conflicts with the recruiting officers. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3743.

P551.8. †P551.8. Retainers not required to go to battle under overlord except for pay. Irish myth: Cross.

P551.8.1. †P551.8.1. Only 700 subjects of under-king required to serve under overlord on any one hosting. Irish myth: Cross.

P551.9. †P551.9. "Battle seeds" (semen bellicosum). Irish myth: Cross.

P552. †P552. Battle formations. Irish myth: Cross.

P552.1. †P552.1. Battle-pen. Warriors fight in circle around leader. Irish myth: Cross.

P552.2. †P552.2. Superior troops distributed throughout army to prevent their soldierly qualities from being too obvious. Irish myth: Cross.

P552.3. †P552.3. Phalanx. Irish myth: Cross.

P552.3.1. †P552.3.1. Roof of shields. Testudo. Irish myth: Cross.

P552.4. †P552.4. War-machines. Irish myth: Cross.

P552.5. †P552.5. Haircut as preparation for war. Maori: Beckwith Myth 250.

P553. †P553. Weapons. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

P553.1. †P553.1. Poisoned weapons. Irish myth: Cross.

P554. †P554. Battle-cairn. Losses reckoned by number of stones remaining in pile after each survivor has removed one. Irish myth: Cross.

P555. †P555. Defeat in battle. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

P555.1. †P555.1. Submission indicated by defeated lying with conqueror's sword between teeth. Irish myth: Cross.

P555.2. †P555.2. Corpses of dead foes dismembered. Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 93.

P555.2.1. †P555.2.1. Heads of fallen enemies piled up after battle. Irish myth: Cross.

P555.2.1.1. †P555.2.1.1. "Publication of slaying." Heads of slain enemies displayed. Irish myth: Cross; *Icelandic: Boberg.

P555.2.1.2. †P555.2.1.2. Jawbone cut from slain opponent. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 422.

P555.3. †P555.3. Gate of captured town (castle) to be widened until overlord's spear can pass through crosswise. Irish myth: Cross.

P556. †P556. Challenge to battle. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

P556.1. †P556.1. Challenge by turning left side of shield toward enemy. Irish myth: Cross.

P556.2. †P556.2. Challenge to battle by hurling javelin skyward. Virgil Aeneid IX 53.

P557. †P557. Military customs. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.1. †P557.1. Warrior not entitled to ransom if captured without arms. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.2. †P557.2. Pledge with enemy to be kept. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.3. †P557.3. Stones erected where enemy falls. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.4. †P557.4. Customs concerning single combat. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.4.1. †P557.4.1. First to reach field of combat has choice of weapons. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.4.2. †P557.4.2. Warrior who begins combat has right to desist. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.4.3. †P557.4.3. Choice of weapons alternates each succeeding day. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.4.4. †P557.4.4. "Men's truth" (fir fer). Challenger to single combat must submit to same conditions as person challenged. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.4.4.1. †P557.4.4.1. Warrior engaged in combat with one-armed opponent allows one hand to be bound to his side. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.5. †P557.5. Warrior disgraced by slaying of those under his protection. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.6. †P557.6. Warrior dies with face toward foe. Irish myth: Cross.

P557.7. †P557.7. Divorce given to wives before leaving for battle. Jewish: Neuman.

P561. †P561. Tournaments. **R. C. Clephan The Tournament (London, 1919); *O. Mueller Turnier und Kampf in den altfrz. Artusromanen (Erfurt, 1907); Jewish: Neuman.

P561.1. †P561.1. King is persuaded to rescind ban on tournaments. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P561.2. †P561.2. Tournament: to avenge death of king. India: Thompson-Balys.

†P600-†P699. Customs.

P600. †P600. Customs.†1 Jewish: *Neuman.

P611. †P611. Women meet when bathing. Icelandic: Snorra Edda Skaldsk. XLI (Nibel), *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

P612. †P612. Trumpet blown before house of one sentenced to death. *Crane Vitry 151 No. 42; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P613. †P613. Charon's fee: putting coin in dead person's mouth to pay for ferry across Styx. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

P616. †P616. Newcomers forced to pass the night with ruling princess. Given sleeping potion. Goods confiscated for failure to consummate marriage. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P617. †P617. People weep when child is born. They sing and laugh at burials. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P621. †P621. Bridle goes with horse when horse is bought. *Wesselski Märchen 245f. No. 55.

P622. †P622. Servant must keep horns and hide of his cattle that are slain. Wesselski Märchen 200.

P623. †P623. Fasting (as a means of distraint). Irish myth: Cross.

P623.0.1. †P623.0.1. Fasting against God. Irish myth: Cross.

P623.0.1.1. †P623.0.1.1. Clerics fast against God for revelation. Irish myth: Cross.

P623.0.2. †P623.0.2. Fasting against the Devil. Irish myth: Cross.

P623.0.3. †P623.0.3. Fasting against fairies. Irish myth: Cross.

P623.0.4. †P623.0.4. Fasting against saints. Irish myth: Cross.

P623.0.5. †P623.0.5. Fasting by saints causes tree worshipped by pagans to fall. Irish myth: Cross.

P623.0.6. †P623.0.6. Fasting to enforce saint's dues. Irish myth: Cross.

P623.0.7. †P623.0.7. Calves not let to cows during fast. Irish myth: Cross.

P631. †P631. Strangers to be given precedence over man at home. Duke permits visiting duke to go through narrow path first. This sets custom. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 515.

P632. †P632. Customs concerning recognition of rank. Irish myth: Cross.

P632.1. †P632.1. Couches provided for men of high rank. Irish myth: Cross.

P632.2. †P632.2. Cuts of meat distributed according to rank. Irish myth: Cross.

P632.2.1. †P632.2.1. "The champion's portion." The choicest portion assigned to the bravest at feasts. Irish myth: Cross.

P632.3. †P632.3. Rank among children recognized by quality of appointments and food. Irish myth: Cross.

P632.4. †P632.4. Color worn signifies rank. Irish myth: Cross.

P632.4.1. †P632.4.1. Precedence shown by position of shield (flag). Irish myth: Cross.

P632.5. †P632.5. Long hair prized by Irish heroes. Irish myth: Cross.

P633. †P633. Young not to precede old. Irish myth: Cross.

P634. †P634. Feasts. Irish myth: Cross.

P634.0.1. †P634.0.1. Customs connected with eating and food. Jewish: Neuman.

P634.1. †P634.1. Feast (hospitality) endures for three days and three nights. Irish myth: Cross.

P634.2. †P634.2. Feast (hospitality) endures for seven days and seven nights. Irish myth: Cross.

P641. †P641. Injured husband will not kill a naked man. Child V 489 s. v. "naked".

P642. †P642. Only the brave to wear beards. Irish myth: Cross.

P643. †P643. With only opponent's arms. Hero goes to encounter unarmed except for the arms he wrests from his opponent. Irish myth: Cross.

P644. †P644. Hero unwilling to answer questions before he is dressed. Icelandic: Boberg.

P651. †P651. Customs concerning bells.

P651.1. †P651.1. Bells hung at every corner of ship. Child IV 462a.

P651.2. †P651.2. Bells on horse's mane. Child I 323, II 183--191, 344, IV 410, 413.

P651.3. †P651.3. Bells rung backward as alarm. Child III 26.

P661. †P661. Hut for invalid to prevent noxious odor. *Schoepperle 367ff.

P665. †P665. Custom: boasting of sexual prowess. India: Thompson-Balys.

P671. †P671. Woman veils self as expression of surprise. Chauvin V 149 No. 73 n. 1.

P672. †P672. Pulling a man's beard as an insult. E. Hinojosa Homenaje a Menéndez y Pelayo I 568ff.; R. Menéndez Pidal Cantar del Mio Cid II 498; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

P672.1. †P672.1. Fur made of beards of conquered kings. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 185.

P672.2. †P672.2. Cutting off a man's (woman's) hair as an insult. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

P672.3. †P672.3. Rubbing shaved head of hero with cow dung as insult. Irish myth: Cross.

P672.4. †P672.4. Insult: lighting lamp with king's moustache. India: Thompson-Balys.

P673. †P673. Footwashing as sign of reconciliation. India: Thompson-Balys.

P674. †P674. Old person commits suicide when strength fails. Irish myth: Cross.

P675. †P675. Touching head as sign of acceptance of bargain. India: Thompson-Balys.

P676. †P676. Feet (legs) seized in supplication. Greek: Iliad XXII 337 and passim; India: Thompson-Balys.

P677. †P677. Customs connected with dueling.

P677.1. †P677.1. Duel: shooting and catching arrows in turn. India: Thompson-Balys.

P678. †P678. Pulling out hair as sign of grief. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†P673.1).

P678.1. †P678.1. Tearing garments as sign of grief. Jewish: *Neuman.

P681. †P681. Mourning customs. Jewish: *Neuman.

P682. †P682. Greeting customs. Jewish: *Neuman.

P682.1. †P682.1. Greeting in God's name. Jewish: Neuman.

P682.2. †P682.2. Voyagers have right to ask landsman first question. Marquesas: Handy 56, 72.

†P700-†P799. Society -- miscellaneous motifs.

P710. †P710. Nations.

P711. †P711. Patriotism. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P711.1. †P711.1. Wolves of his own country dearer than dogs of another. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 420.

P711.2. †P711.2. Mother of invalided soldier says of his limping: "Every step will remind you of your virtue." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P711.3. †P711.3. Common citizen saves the honor of his country. Gives his own funds. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P711.4. †P711.4. Scipio plunges into burning pit to save Rome from destruction. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P711.5. †P711.5. Roman undertakes to kill Hannibal. Kills another by mistake. Burns off his hand for having failed. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

P711.6. †P711.6. National unity preserved by expulsion of all foreign elements. Jewish: Moreno Esdras, Neuman.

P711.7. †P711.7. Aristotle rises from sick bed to rush into battle for his country. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P711.8. †P711.8. Aversion to burial in foreign soil. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

P711.9. †P711.9. Patriotism: king learning that nation will triumph whose king dies in battle, allows self to be killed. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

P715. †P715. Particular nations (races).

P715.1. †P715.1. Jews. **Goebel Jüdische Motive in märchenhafte Erzählungsgut (Gleiwitz, 1932) 281--288; Jewish: *Neuman.

P720. †P720. Population. Irish myth: Cross.

P721. †P721. Diseases (plague) invoked to combat overpopulation. Irish myth: Cross.