S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958. • Main page


Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, ÐÔÔÈ #06-06-80-420a, ÐÔÔÈ #07-06-00441-à



L. REVERSAL OF FORTUNE

DETAILED SYNOPSIS

†L0.--L99. Victorious youngest child

†L0. Victorious youngest child

†L10. Victorious youngest son

†L50. Victorious youngest daughter>/p>

†L100.--L199. Unpromising hero (heroine)

†L100. Unpromising hero (heroine)

†L110. Types of unpromising heroes (heroines)

†L130. Abode of unpromising hero (heroine)

†L140. The unpromising surpasses the promising

†L160. Success of the unpromising hero (heroine)

†L200.--L299. Modesty brings reward

†L200. Modesty brings reward

†L210. Modest choice best

†L220. Modest request best

†L250. Modest business plans best

†L300.--L399. Triumph of the weak

†L300. Triumph of the weak

†L310. Weak overcomes strong in conflict

†L330. Easy escape of weak (small)

†L350. Mildness triumphs over violence

†L390. Triumph of the weak -- miscellaneous

†L400.--L499. Pride brought low

†L400. Pride brought low

†L410. Proud ruler (deity) humbled

†L420. Overweening ambition punished

†L430. Arrogance repaid

†L450. Proud animal less fortunate than humble

†L460. Pride brought low -- miscellaneous

L. REVERSAL OF FORTUNE

†L0-†L99. Victorious youngest child.

L0. †L0. Victorious youngest child. *Fb "yngst" III 1132a; *Saintyves Perrault 128ff.; *Jacobs's list s. v. "Youngest best"; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "cadet"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 13; India: Thompson-Balys.

L10. †L10. Victorious youngest son. *Types 326, 402, 471, 513, 550, 551, 554, 569, 570, 571, 577, 580, 610, 935, 1650. See also references under each of these type entries in FFC LXXIV. *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 186a; Malone PMLA XLIII 398f.; *A. Christensen Danske Studier (1916) 46ff.; Chauvin II 115 No. 88. --Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 491; Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 614; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/403, 615); Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 383; Polynesian: Dixon 41; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327 n. 185, (California): Gayton and Newman 74; Africa (Jaunde): Heepe 262, (Fang): Tessman 107, (Zanzibar): Bateman 155ff. No. 8, (Ekoi): Talbot 207, 259, 355, (Fjort): Dennett 65 No. 13, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 171 No. 34; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 110f. No. 39.

L10.1. †L10.1. Name of victorious youngest son. Fb "Esben" I 256.

L10.1.1. †L10.1.1. "Thirteen" as name of victorious youngest son. (Youngest of thirteen brothers.) BP III 34; *Köhler-Bolte I 383; India: Thompson-Balys.

L10.2. †L10.2. Abused son of younger co-wife becomes hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

L11. †L11. Fortunate youngest son. Always has good luck. *Type 1650; BP II 69ff.; MacCulloch Childhood 365; India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 93, 281, 434, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 630, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 265, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 309, (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XVI 16.

L11.1. †L11.1. Seal of humiliation put by youngest brother-in-law on the back of his rivals. India: *Thompson-Balys.

L12. †L12. Favorite youngest son. India: Thompson-Balys.

L13. †L13. Compassionate youngest son. Kind to people or animals: rewarded. *Types 513, 550, 551, 570, 571, 577, 610; Missouri French: Carrière; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Klikitat): Jacobs U Wash II 10.

L13.1. †L13.1. Youngest wife's son restores eyesight to blinded six wives of raja and reinstates his mother. India: Thompson-Balys.

L21. †L21. Stupid youngest son becomes clever. Panzer Beowulf passim; N. Am. Indian (Micmac, Shuswap): Thompson CColl II 416ff.

L31. †L31. Youngest brother helps elder. Types 516, 550; Rösch FFC LXXVII 96; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 130; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

L32. †L32. Only the youngest brother helps his sister perform dangerous task. India: Thompson-Balys.

L41. †L41. Younger brother given birthright of elder. Jewish: *Neuman.

L50. †L50. Victorious youngest daughter. *Types 361, 425, 431, 440, 480, 510, 511, 707, 901, 923; **Cox Cinderella passim; *BP I 185; Nutt FL IV 133; Jacobs FL IV 269; Lang FL IV 413; Cox FL XVIII 191; *Roberts 110; Tegethoff 10; *MacCulloch Childhood 357; *Saintyves Perrault 113. --Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 65 No. 471B*; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I Nos. 2, 8, II Nos. 2, 3, III No. 4, V No. 9, Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 248 No. 193; Indonesia: Dixon 210; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 382ff., 390, (Maliseet): Mechling GSCan IV No. 9, (Chinook): Boas BBAE XX 77ff. No. 4, (Kwakiutl): Boas and Hunt JE III 371, (Gros Ventre): Kroeber PaAM I 80ff. No. 19, (Wichita): Dorsey CI XXI No. 33.

L51. †L51. Favorite youngest daughter. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 85.

L52. †L52. Abused youngest daughter. *Types 425, 510, 511, 709; *Cox 492ff.; Böklen 78ff.; *Roberts 110; Tegethoff 10; Icelandic: Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 248 No. 193; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 170 n. 5; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/346). Most references to †L50 apply to this motif.

L54. †L54. Compassionate youngest daughter. *Types 361, 431. (C.f. most references to †Q2.)

L54.1. †L54.1. Youngest daughter agrees to marry a monster; later the sisters are jealous. *Type 425; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 199 No. 76.

L55. †L55. Stepdaughter heroine. *Types 403, 425, 432, 450, 480, 510, 709; BP I 226; *Roberts 109; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 481*; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6.

L55.1. †L55.1. Abused stepdaughter. See references to †L52 and †L55. *Roberts 137; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 142--145; Greek: Grote I 103.

L61. †L61. Clever youngest daughter. Type 923; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 123.

L62. †L62. Youngest daughter suspects impostor. Elder have been deceived. N. Am. Indian (Pawnee): Dorsey CI LIX 166 No. 44, (Kwakiut): Boas and Hunt JE X 196ff.; (Takelma): Sapir U Pa II (1) 64 No. 4, (Modoc): Curtin Myths of the Modocs (Boston, 1912) 27ff., (Yana): Curtin Creation Myths (Boston, 1898) 353ff.

L63. †L63. Youngest daughter avoids seducer. Elder sisters have been deceived. Type 883B; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 4; India: Thompson-Balys.

L70. †L70. Youngest of group victorious.

L71. †L71. Only the youngest of group of imprisoned women refuses to eat her newborn child. India: *Thompson-Balys.

L72. †L72. Youngest animal in group overcomes adversary. N. Am. Indian (Klikitat): Jacobs U Wash II 7--9.

†L100-†L199. Unpromising hero (heroine).

L100. †L100. Unpromising hero (heroine). Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

L101. †L101. Unpromising hero (male Cinderella). Usually, but not always, the unpromising hero is also the youngest son. *BP I 183ff.; *Rank Mythus v. d. Geburt d. Helden; *Cosquin Contes indiens 494ff.; Cox 437--462, 519; M. Bloomfield in Penzer VII x; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 184b nn. 13ff.; Chauvin II 83 No. 9. --Icelandic: *Boberg; English: Wells 25 (The Tale of Gamelyn); Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 52 No. 32; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 408; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327 n. 185; Africa (Fang): Trilles 251f.

L101.1. †L101.1. Unpromising hero: aged man. Irish myth: Cross; N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict II 336.

L102. †L102. Unpromising heroine. Usually, but not always, the youngest daughter. See references to †L50. *BP I 165ff.; **Cox passim; Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "merle"; Missouri French: Carrière: Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/346); N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict II 336.

L103. †L103. Unpromising hero given great powers by deity. India: Thompson-Balys.

L110. †L110. Types of unpromising heroes (heroines).

L111. †L111. Hero (heroine) of unpromising origin. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

L111.1. †L111.1. Exile returns and succeeds. **A. Nutt FLR IV 1ff.; *Hibbard 111 n. 6; Boccaccio Decameron II No. 8 (Lee 39); v. Hahn Sagenwissenschaftliche Studien 341ff.; *Dickson 42 n. 42; Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

L111.1.1. †L111.1.1. Banished youth becomes mighty king. Icelandic: Völsunga saga ch. 1, Boberg.

L111.1.2. †L111.1.2. Fugitive bull-calf returns when grown and defeats his father. West Indies: Flowers 557--9.

L111.2. †L111.2. Foundling hero. *Dickson 144ff. n. 147; Hdwb. d. Märchens II 120b; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri-French: Carrière; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Tonga: Gifford 130; N. Am. Indian: Lowie JAFL XXI 27.

L111.2.1. †L111.2.1. Future hero found in boat (basket, bushes). Legends of Moses, Cyrus, Beowulf and others. *Usener Die Sintfluthsagen (Bonn, 1899) 80ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchens I s. v. "Aussetzung in Boot"; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

L111.2.1.1. †L111.2.1.1. Future heroine found in hollow tree (calfshed, house "without door but only window and skylight"). Irish myth: *Cross.

L111.2.2. †L111.2.2. Future hero found on shore. Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Tonga: Gifford 122.

L111.2.3. †L111.2.3. Future hero found on top of a tree. Chinese: Graham.

L111.2.4. †L111.2.4. Future hero found in wolf den. Irish myth: *Cross.

L111.2.5. †L111.2.5. Heroine found in harp. Icelandic: Boberg.

L111.3. †L111.3. Widow's son as hero. *Jacobs's list s. v. "Widow's son"; *Krappe Balor 126ff.; Garnett FL III 265; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

L111.4. †L111.4. Orphan hero. Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; New Hebrides: Codrington 283ff.; Buin: Wheeler No. 8; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/818); Africa (Wakweli): Bender 81.

L111.4.1. †L111.4.1. Orphan hero lives with grandmother. Avenges slaughtered kin. N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 320 n. 156 (most of the references).

L111.4.2. †L111.4.2. Orphan heroine. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Mossi): Frobenius Atlantis VIII 274ff. No. 120.

L111.4.3. †L111.4.3. Orphan brothers as heroes. Chinese: Graham.

L111.4.4. †L111.4.4. Mistreated orphan hero. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 93, Rasmussen I 123, 230, 238, II 34, 38, III 90, 295, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 188, (West Hudson Bay): ibid. 309, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 265, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 630.

L111.5. †L111.5. Bastard hero. Icelandic: Boberg; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 957; Africa (Nuba): Reinisch Sprachen von Nord-Ost-Africa (Wien, 1879) II 224ff. No. 9.

L111.6. †L111.6. Anchorite's son as hero. Icelandic: Boberg.

L111.7. †L111.7. Future hero (heroine) raised by animal. India: Thompson-Balys.

L111.8. †L111.8. Heroes sons of wife not favorite of king. India: Thompson-Balys.

L111.8.1. †L111.8.1. Heroine daughter of wife not favorite of king. India: Thompson-Balys.

L111.9. †L111.9. Hero of story neglected grandson of raja. India: Thompson-Balys.

L111.10. †L111.10. Unpromising fourth son succeeds. Africa (Luba): DeClerq ZsKS IV 200.

L112. †L112. Hero (heroine) of unpromising appearance. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

L112.1. †L112.1. Monster as hero. *Type 708; *BP II 236; Cosquin Lorraine II 224; India: Thompson-Balys.

L112.1.1. †L112.1.1. Loathly man father of supernaturally born boy. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux MAFLS XL 159.

L112.2. †L112.2. Very small hero. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Hrólfssaga Gautrekssonar passim; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 133--135; Korean: Zong in-Sob 78 No. 44; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 24.

L112.3. †L112.3. Deformed child as hero. Penzer I 184ff.

L112.3.1. †L112.3.1. Hero with deformed head. India: Thompson-Balys.

L112.4. †L112.4. Dirty boy as hero. Type 301; Missouri French: Carrière; Chinese: Graham; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327 n. 183.

L112.5. †L112.5. "Burnt-belly" as hero. N. Am. Indian (Pawnee): Dorsey CI LIX Nos. 42, 44, 47, Grinnell 87ff., (Skidi Pawnee): Dorsey MAFLS VIII No. 9, (Arikara): Dorsey CI XVII Nos. 17--19, (Hidatsa): Curtis N. Am. Indian IV 165.

L112.6. †L112.6. "Scar-face" as hero. N. Am. Indian (Blackfoot): Grinnell Blackfoot Lodge Tales (New York, 1892) 93, McClintock Old North Trail (London, 1910) 491.

L112.7. †L112.7. Skin-sore as hero. Africa (Basuto): Kidd The Bull of the Kraal and the Heavenly Maidens (London, 1908) 51ff. No. 1.

L112.7.1. †L112.7.1. Leper hero. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/45).

L112.8. †L112.8. Lame child as hero. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Wakweli): Bender 79.

L112.9. †L112.9. Ugly child becomes great poet. Irish myth: *Cross.

L112.10. †L112.10. One-armed hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

L112.11. †L112.11. Heroine born with pigeon's head. Tonga: Gifford 31, 61--65.

L113. †L113. Hero (heroine) of unpromising occupation.

L113.1. †L113.1. Menial hero. Type 594*; *Cox xl, 437--446; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Micmac): Rand 440 No. 85, (Zuñi): Parsons MAFL XXXI 245.

L113.1.0.1. †L113.1.0.1. Heroine endures hardships with menial husband. Rewarded by his success. BP I 443ff.; cf. Type 900; Cosquin Lorraine I 138ff.; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl 348ff., (Blackfoot): Wissler and Duvall PaAM II 81, (Wichita): Dorsey JAFL XVI 160ff., (Teton): Curtis N. Am. Indian III 111, cf. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XVI 16.

L113.1.1. †L113.1.1. Swineherd as hero. (Cf. †P412.2.) Hdwb. d. Märchens I 186b n. 109; Irish myth: *Cross:

L113.1.2. †L113.1.2. Stable-boy as hero. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "garçon"; Missouri French: Carrière.

L113.1.3. †L113.1.3. Mad fisherman as hero. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

L113.1.4. †L113.1.4. Shepherd as hero. Type 922; Jewish: *Neuman.

L113.1.5. †L113.1.5. Goatherd as hero. Icelandic: *Boberg.

L113.1.6. †L113.1.6. Cowherd hero. India: *Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: Boberg.

L113.1.6.1. †L113.1.6.1. Cowherd's daughter (foster child) as heroine. Irish myth: *Cross.

L113.1.7. †L113.1.7. Slave as hero. Jewish: Neuman.

L113.2. †L113.2. Menial heroine. Cox 1-121 passim; BP I 183; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 119; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

L113.2.1. †L113.2.1. Heroine has been goatherd. Icelandic: Ragnars saga Loðbr. 127, 198, Boberg.

L113.3. †L113.3. Poor weaver as hero. India: *Thompson-Balys.

L113.4. †L113.4. Peasant as hero. Africa (Dschagga): Stamberg ZsES XXIII 296ff., (Ganda): Baskerville 1ff.

L113.5. †L113.5. Woodcutter hero. Africa (Nubian): Rochemonteix Quelques Contes Nubiens (Cairo, 1888) 48ff. No. 4, (Suaheli): Steere 13ff.

L113.6. †L113.6. Smith as hero. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 73ff., 114--34 (Velent), Boberg.

L113.7. †L113.7. Quack-doctor as hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

L113.8. †L113.8. Barber becomes king. India: Thompson-Balys.

L113.9. †L113.9. Tailor as hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

L113.10. †L113.10. Flute player as hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

L114. †L114. Hero (heroine) of unpromising habits. Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

L114.1. †L114.1. Lazy hero. *Type 675; *Fb "doven" IV 102b; *Chauvin VI 64 No. 233 n. 1, 202; Oesterley No. 91; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 416.

L114.2. †L114.2. Spendthrift hero. Type 969; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

L114.3. †L114.3. Unruly hero. Types 301, 650; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 95.

L114.4. †L114.4. Cheater as hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

L114.5. †L114.5. Hero with disgusting habits. Korean: Zong in-Sob 66 No. 36.

L115. †L115. Successful foolish son. India: *Thompson-Balys.

L116. †L116. Insane hero (heroine). Irish myth: Cross (†L125).

L121. †L121. Stupid hero. (Cf. †Z253.) Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 131; India: *Thompson-Balys.

L121.1. †L121.1. Half-wit successful. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XXII 23.

L122. †L122. Unsophisticated hero. *Dickson 128ff. nn. 94--99; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

L123. †L123. Pauper hero. Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

L123.1. †L123.1. Penniless hero. Loved by a courtesan, he proves later to be a great man. M. Bloomfield in Penzer VII xxiii.

L124. †L124. Dumb hero. Dickson 185; Irish myth: *Cross.

L124.1. †L124.1. Child silent till seventh year. Icelandic: *Boberg.

L124.1.1. †L124.1.1. Famous poet does not speak until he is fourteen (four, seven) years old. Irish myth: Cross.

L124.2. †L124.2. Silent hero. Icelandic: *Boberg.

L130. †L130. Abode of unpromising hero (heroine).

L131. †L131. Hearth abode of unpromising hero (heroine). *Cox 1--52, 87--121, 437, 446, 493; *Fb "askefis" IV 17b; Saintyves Perrault 124ff.; *Cosquin Contes indiens 494ff.; Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 115; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 119; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6; Chinese: Graham; N. Am. Indian (Micmac): Michelson JAFL XXXVIII 45ff.

L131.1. †L131.1. Ashes abode of unpromising hero. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

L132. †L132. Pig-sty abode for unpromising hero (heroine). *Type 314; Cox Nos. 1, 33, 77, 79, and passim; Chinese: Graham; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 351.

L133. †L133. Unpromising son leaves his home and goes into the world. Icelandic: *Boberg.

L134. †L134. Unpromising hero must live in hut. India: Thompson-Balys.

L140. †L140. The unpromising surpasses the promising.

L141. †L141. Stupid person surpasses clever. Missouri French: Carrière; Chinese: Graham; West Indies: Flowers 559.

L141.1. †L141.1. The stupid monk recovers the stolen flocks. A nobleman steals the abbot's flocks, saying that the monks have no use for them since they eat no meat. The most learned of the monks tries to recover them, but without success. The most stupid is then sent. Asked to dinner, he eats till he can hold no more. He tells the nobleman that he ate as much as possible since he could take back with him only what he had in his stomach. The nobleman pleased with the reply returns the flocks. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 61; Alphabet No. 718; Mensa Philosophica No. 187.

L141.2. †L141.2. Simpleton's naive answer to robbers makes them think he knows their secret. They share their loot with him. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

L141.3. †L141.3. Hero stupid at games but fleet of foot. Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 214.

L141.4. †L141.4. Inept child eventually surpasses others. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1122).

L142. †L142. Pupil surpasses master. *Fb "mester" II 584a; Alphabet No. 38; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

L142.1. †L142.1. Pupil surpasses thieves in stealing. *Type 1525E; *BP III 393 n. 1.

L142.2. †L142.2. Pupil surpasses magician. *Type 325; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

L142.3. †L142.3. Son surpasses father in skill. Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

L143. †L143. Poor man surpasses rich. *Types 676, 1535; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 187b; Irish: Beal XXI 336, O'Suilleabhain 122; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 181, 201; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 256f.

L143.1. †L143.1. Poor girl chosen as wife in preference to rich. India: Thompson-Balys.

L143.2. †L143.2. Poor suitor makes good husband; rich suitor cruel. Africa: Weeks Jungle 443f.

L144. †L144. Ignorant surpasses learned man.

L144.1. †L144.1. Ignorant steward straightens his master's accounts. The educated stewards have always cheated. The ignorant puts his belongings in one box, his master's in another. Both master and steward gain. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 355.

L144.2. †L144.2. Farmer surpasses astronomer and doctor in predicting weather and choosing food. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2448*; Russian: Andrejev No. 2132; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 921 II*.

L145. †L145. Ugly preferred to pretty sister. Type (4032); Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "laide".

L145.1. †L145.1. Ugly sister helps pretty one. *Type 711.

L146. †L146. Neglected surpasses favorite child.

L146.1. †L146.1. Ape tries to flee with favorite child; neglected child saves himself. The favorite child is killed through the mother's overanxiety. Wienert FFC LVI 62 (ET 253), 146 (ST 510); Halm Aesop No. 366.

L147. †L147. Tardy surpasses punctual.

L147.1. †L147.1. Tardy bird alone succeeds at bird convocation. Chauvin V 38 No. 365 n. 1.

L148. †L148. Slowness surpasses haste.

L148.1. †L148.1. If you hasten you will not get there. In spite of the saint's advice the teamster hastens and breaks his wagon. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 255; Alphabet No. 324.

L151. †L151. Peasant girl outwits prince. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 3.

L152. †L152. Daughter succeeds on quest where son fails. Africa (Rozwi): Posselt Fables of the Veld (Oxford, 1929) 30ff.

L154. †L154. Scorning stops when it turns out that the scorned has saved the king by fighting alone against four. Icelandic: *Boberg.

L155. †L155. Disagreeable and disliked child surpasses the likeable one. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

L156. †L156. Unpromising hero kills those who scorn him. Icelandic: *Boberg.

L156.1. †L156.1. Lowly hero overcomes proud rivals. Korean: Zong in-Sob 120 No. 58.

L160. †L160. Success of the unpromising hero (heroine). Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 27, Beal XXI 309; India: Thompson-Balys.

L161. †L161. Lowly hero marries princess. *Types 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308*, 314, 325, 329, 400, 434, 502, 506, 507, 508, 513, 514, 530, 545B, 552, 553, 559, 560, 561, 570, 571, 575, 577, 580, 590, 594*, 725, 853, 854, 930, 935; Child V 488 s. v. "marriages". --Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 614.

L161.1. †L161.1. Marriage of poor boy and rich girl. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 81 No. 44; N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): *Benedict II 336.

L161.2. †L161.2. Fool wins beautiful woman as wife. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 530B*; India: Thompson-Balys.

L161.3. †L161.3. Mercenary soldier (exile) accepted lover of princess. Irish myth: *Cross.

L162. †L162. Lowly heroine marries prince (king). *Types 310, 403, 428, 431, 440, 442, 450, 451, 501, 510, 511, 545A, 585, 652, 705, 706, 707, 708, 711, 870A, 873, 875, 883A, 887; Hibbard 190ff.; *Roberts 196. --Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 107f., 154, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 80, 142; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 5 and passim, *Rotunda; India: Cowell Jataka I 27f., *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 147, 423, II 103, 455, 1366; Japanese: Ikeda.

L165. †L165. Lowly boy becomes king. (Most references to †L161 apply here). Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 51; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 249; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/45).

L175. †L175. Lowly successful hero invites king and humbles him. *Type 675; India: Thompson-Balys.

L175.1. †L175.1. Lowly successful soldier invites general and humbles him. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

L176. †L176. Despised boy wins race. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327f. nn. 185f. (many references), (Zuñi): *Benedict II 336.

L177. †L177. Despised boy wins gambling game. N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict II 336.

†L200-†L299. Modesty brings reward.

L200. †L200. Modesty brings reward.

L210. †L210. Modest choice best. Types 480, 580. See also references to †L211 and †L221. Scala Celi 26a No. 171; *Roberts 177, 198; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 71, 74, 139, 191; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 10; Icelandic: Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda; N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict II 340; Africa: Werner African 196, 205; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 277 No. 91; West Indies: Flowers 559.

L211. †L211. Modest choice: three caskets type. Objects from which choice is to be made are hidden in caskets (or the like). The worst looking casket proves to be the best choice. Type 480; *Cox 501ff.; Cosquin Lorraine No. 17; *Chauvin III 99 No. 4; *Crane Vitry 153 No. 47; *Oesterley No. 251; *Roberts 200; *Cosquin Contes indiens 527; Boccaccio Decameron X No. 1 (Lee 294); *Ward II 122; Herbert III 196; *Wesselski Märchen 213 No. 18; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 836; *Fb "skål" III 352a. --North Carolina: Brown Collection I 633; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Anesaki 320; N. Am. Indian (Arikara): Dorsey CI XVII No. 16, (Nez Percé): Spinden JAFL XXI 156, (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 264; Malay: V. Ronkel Catalogus der Maleische Handschriften te Batavia (Den Haag, 1909) 48; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 121 No. 10, 229 No. 41, (Benga): Nassau 225 No. 33.

L212. †L212. Choice among several gifts. The worst horse, armor, or the like proves best. *Fb "hest" I 598b; Child II 444f., 450, 453f.; German: Grimm No. 57; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 62, 64; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 341, (Arikara): Dorsey CI XVII No. 16; West Indies: Flowers 559.

L212.1. †L212.1. Saint, offered any gift from God, chooses (virginity and) wisdom. Irish myth: *Cross.

L212.2. †L212.2. Solomon, offered any gift from God, chooses wisdom. Granted wisdom and wealth. Irish myth: Cross.

L212.3. †L212.3. Hero prefers fame to long life. Irish myth: Cross.

L212.3.1. †L212.3.1. "Fame (honor) is more enduring than life." Irish myth: *Cross.

L212.4. †L212.4. Modest choice proves good (simple unique privilege). Girl offered reward of five villages chooses rather to be only one on certain night to be allowed to have light in her house and to keep all animals who enter as hers. All kinds of livestock come. India: Thompson-Balys.

L213. †L213. Poor girl chosen rather than the rich. Treasure follows. Chauvin III 103 No. 13; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L213.1. †L213.1. Modest choice best: wife chosen from crowd of women -- only one poorly dressed. Chinese: Graham.

L213.2. †L213.2. Choice of ugliest girl as bride. Chinese: Graham.

L214. †L214. Old chosen rather than new. Fortunate choice. Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 142 No. 20.

L215. †L215. Unpromising magic object chosen. Hero refuses to take one that cries out "take me!" Roberts 204; Tonga: Beckwith Myth 25, Gifford 20; Africa (Benga): Nassau 114 No. 11; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 269 No. 81.

L216. †L216. Poor game proves rich. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 83.

L217. †L217. Accustomed rags preferred to new garments. A Brahmin returns home to find a palace instead of a cottage; he recognizes his wife only after she throws off her jewels and ornaments to stand before him in her old rags. India: Thompson-Balys.

L217.1. †L217.1. Former poverty chosen over new riches. Weaver laments loss of water vessel. Offered many new, but prefers old and modest life. India: Thompson-Balys.

L220. †L220. Modest request best. *Cox 480; *BP II 232; *MacCulloch Childhood 191; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 276 n. 18a.

L221. †L221. Modest request: present from the journey. Asked what her father shall bring her as a present, the heroine chooses a modest gift. It is usually a flower but sometimes does not turn out to be such a simple gift after all (golden cloak, golden apple). *Type 425; *Fb "rose" III 80a, "guldæble" I 515b, "guldrok" I 514b; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 206b; Tegethoff 11; Italian Basile Pentamerone II No. 8; India: Thompson-Balys.

L221.1. †L221.1. Present from the journey: what you first see. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 606a nn. 80--89.

L222. †L222. Modest choice: parting gift. Small gift with blessing preferred to large gift with parent's curse. *Köhler-Bolte I 188; BP I 214 n. 1; Gunkel Das Märchen im alten Testament (Tübingen, 1921) 100f.; Campbell Tales I 220 No. 13; Lang English Fairy Tales 136 No. 23; Gipsy: Aichele Zigeunermärchen 289 No. 69; Jewish: Neuman; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 110, 122.

L222.1. †L222.1. Modest choice for parting gift -- money or counsels. Counsels chosen. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 100, 304.

L222.2. †L222.2. Modest parting gift best -- meat or bones. Bones thrown to pursuing dogs delay them and allow escape; not so with meat. India: Thompson-Balys.

L222.3. †L222.3. Modest choice for parting gift: when offered money man takes magic stick. Chinese: Graham.

L222.4. †L222.4. Modest choice of parting gift: magic iron measure chosen. Korean: Zong in-Sob 27 No. 12.

L225. †L225. Hero refuses reward. Rides away without it. *Types 300, 303; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 7; Icelandic: Boberg.

L250. †L250. Modest business plans best.

L251. †L251. Beggar with small bag surpasses the one with the large. Latter refuses all but large donations; gets none. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 607; *Crane Vitry 168 No. 77; Alphabet No. 607.

L290. †L290. Modesty brings reward -- miscellaneous.

L291. †L291. Prosperity forever or for a day? King asks prince whether he has secret of prosperity forever or a day. Prince says "forever" and is captured. Later his wife, asked same question, says "for a day" and is honored. India: Thompson-Balys.

†L300-†L399. Triumph of the weak.

L300. †L300. Triumph of the weak. Chauvin II 204 No. 59; Irish myth: Cross.

L301. †L301. Hermes distributes wit. Gives everyone the same measure of wit, so that the smaller are more clever than the large. Wienert FFC LVI 35; Halm Aesop No. 150.

L310. †L310. Weak overcomes strong in conflict.

L311. †L311. Weak (small) hero overcomes large fighter. *Type 328; A. Stender-Petersen Acta Jutlandica VI (1934) 166ff.; Irish myth: Cross; English: Child II 35ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Japanese: Anesaki 311; Jewish: Neuman, I Samuel 17:23 (David and Goliath); N. Am. Indian (Southern Paiute, Shivwits): Lowie JAFL XXXVII 150 No. 17; Guatamala Indian (Quiche): Alexander Lat. Am. 168ff.; Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 476.

L311.1. †L311.1. Sick hero overcomes antagonist. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

L311.2. †L311.2. Poorly-armed hero overcomes well-armed by strategy. India: Thompson-Balys.

L311.3. †L311.3. Poor prince overcomes king. India: Thompson-Balys.

L311.4. †L311.4. Little innocent girl is able to drive giant out of land. India: Thompson-Balys.

L311.5. †L311.5. Small boy overcomes enraged gorilla. Africa: Stanley 281ff.

L312. †L312. Little strong man defeats giant in race. Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 150.

L315. †L315. Small animal overcomes large. *BP II 437.

L315.1. †L315.1. Bird flies into large animal's ear and kills him. *Type 228; *BP II 437; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 115.

L315.1.1. †L315.1.1. Mouse runs into buffalo's ear and overcomes him. Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 393f.

L315.2. †L315.2. Mouse torments bull who cannot catch him. Wienert FFC LVI 48 (ET 74), 113 (ST 236).

L315.3. †L315.3. Fox burns tree in which eagle has nest. Revenges theft of cub. Herbert III 12; *Crane Vitry 194 No. 144.

L315.4. †L315.4. Mother ape burns bear. Revenges theft of her young. *Crane Vitry 194 No. 143.

L315.5. †L315.5. Lark causes elephant to fall over precipice. Chauvin II 81 No. 1; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 771; Japanese: Ikeda.

L315.5.1. †L315.5.1. Elephant killed by mouse who runs up open end of trunk to head and there smears poison over his brain. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 393f.

L315.6. †L315.6. Insects worry large animal to despair or death. Wienert FFC LVI *48 (ET 76), 120 (ST 301); Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 187, 209; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: DeVries's list Nos. 132, 137.

L315.7. †L315.7. Dungbeetle keeps destroying eagle's eggs. Eagle at last goes to the sky and lays eggs in Zeus's lap. The dungbeetle causes Zeus to shake his apron and break the eggs. Wienert FFC LVI *51 (ET 106), 77 (ET 432), 113 (ST 237), 114 (ST 249); Halm Aesop No. 7.

L315.8. †L315.8. Fish pricks monster with fins and defeats him. India: Thompson-Balys.

L315.9. †L315.9. Falcon attacks eagle repeatedly and defeats him. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L315.10. †L315.10. Mice overcome camel. India: Thompson-Balys.

L315.11. †L315.11. Lizard defeats leopard. India: Thompson-Balys.

L315.12. †L315.12. Rabbit slays rhinoceros. India: Thompson-Balys.

L315.13. †L315.13. Hedgehog defeats tiger by jumping into tiger's mouth and tormenting him. India: Thompson-Balys.

L315.14. †L315.14. Ants overcome serpent. Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 386.

L315.15. †L315.15. Small animals dupe larger into trap. Africa (Bankon): Ittman 85, (Wachaga): Gutmann 190, (Cameroon): Lederbogen 19.

L316. †L316. Offended rats gnaw saddle girths of king's horses so that he is defeated in battle. India: Thompson-Balys.

L318. †L318. Mice win war with woodcutters. India: Thompson-Balys.

L330. †L330. Easy escape of weak (small).

L331. †L331. Little fishes escape from the net. The large are caught. *Type 253; *BP III 355; Wienert FFC LVI 66 (ET 299), 113 (ST 240); Halm Aesop No. 26.

L332. †L332. Mice escape into their holes; weasels cannot follow them. Wienert FFC LVI 48 (ET 65), *113 (ST 241); Halm Aesop No. 291.

L333. †L333. Hummingbird can see fowler's net; eagle is caught in spite of his boasts of good eyesight. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 290; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 254*.

L350. †L350. Mildness triumphs over violence.

L350.1. †L350.1. Mildness triumphs over violence: queen advises husband to use kindness to enemies. This wins them over where war failed. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L350.2. †L350.2. Saint uses kind words to pagan priest who has just smitten a Christian. This causes pagan to repent. Conversion follows. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L351. †L351. Contest of wind and sun. Sun by warmth causes traveler to remove coat, while wind by violent blowing causes him to pull it closer around him. Wienert FFC LVI 43 (ET 7), 80 (ET 457), 136 (ST 419); Halm Aesop No. 82; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3900; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 381ff.; Russian: Andrejev No. 298*; Indonesia: DeVries's list Nos. 95, 140. Cf. Halm No. 414.

L351.1. †L351.1. Contest between wind (rain) and sun. Rain also tries unsuccessfully like wind. India: Thompson-Balys.

L351.2. †L351.2. Sun cursed by man for its burning rays, wind for its hot breath, but moon is blessed for its soft, cool, and beautiful light. India: Thompson-Balys.

L353. †L353. Mild brother triumphs over warlike. Survives him and inherits property. Africa (Fang): Tessman 191ff.

L361. †L361. Priest who gives mild penances succeeds where others fail. Scala Celi 48a No. 272; Alphabet No. 183; Herbert III 505, 570; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L363. †L363. Goldsmith gives money to one who addressed him as friend (the goldsmith had no friends because he has cheated everybody). India: Thompson-Balys.

L390. †L390. Triumph of the weak-miscellaneous.

L391. †L391. Needle kills an elk. Slips into his stomach. Type 90.

L391.1. †L391.1. Reed pricks and drives away dog that urinates on it. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L392. †L392. Mouse stronger than wall, wind, mountain. *DeCock Volkssage 31ff.; BP I 148 n. 2; Wesselski Mönchslatein 82 No. 75; Chauvin II 97 No. 55; Archiv f. d. Studium d. neueren Sprachen LXXXI 265; Germania II 481; Basset RTP VII 394ff.; Basset Contes Berbères 95f; *Bødker Exempler 297 No. 60. --Spanish: Keller, Espinosa III Nos. 275--277; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

L392.1. †L392.1. Mosquitoes sting King Pharaoh and show they are stronger than the man who cannot escape them. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L393. †L393. Only love to offer. Bride asks suitors what they have to offer her. Poor youth who has nothing but love to offer gets her. India: Thompson-Balys.

L394. †L394. Slow flying swan lasts longer than speedy crow in flying. India: Thompson-Balys.

L395. †L395. Frog, tortoise, fish each tell of how long they expect to live. Frog alone does not expect to live to a hundred and ten years and alone escapes fisherman's net. India: Thompson-Balys.

†L400-†L499. Pride brought low.

L400. †L400. Pride brought low. Jewish: *Neuman.

L410. †L410. Proud ruler (deity) humbled.

L410.1. †L410.1. Proud king humbled: realizes that pomp, possessions, power are all of short duration. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L410.2. †L410.2. King, defeated in battle, obliged to flee without money. India: Thompson-Balys.

L410.3. †L410.3. Boasting king insulted by crow dropping filth on him. India: Thompson-Balys.

L410.4. †L410.4. Defeated king must be peddler or beggar. India: *Thompson-Balys.

L410.5. †L410.5. King overthrown and made servant. India: *Thompson-Balys.

L410.6. †L410.6. Ruler enslaved. India: *Thompson-Balys.

L410.7. †L410.7. Queen forced to become a courtesan. India: Thompson-Balys.

L411. †L411. Proud king displaced by angel. (King in the bath.) While the king is in the bath (or hunting) an angel in his form takes his place. The king is repulsed on all sides until he repents of his haughtiness. *Type 757; **Varnhagen Ein indisches Märchen auf seine Wanderung durch die asiatischen und europäischen Literaturen (Berlin, 1882); Chauvin II 161 No. 51; *Wesselski Märchen 237 No. 49; Hibbard 58ff.; *Herbert III 202; *Oesterley No. 59; *Andraea Anglia Beiblatt XIII 302; *von der Hagen III cxv; bin Gorion Born Judas III 47ff., 299f.; *Goebel Jüdische Motive im Märchenhafte Erzählungsgut (Gleiwitz, 1932) 89ff. --Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

L412. †L412. Rich man made poor to punish pride. He boasts that God has no power to make him poor. While he is at church, his property burns and he returns home poor. Type 836; Irish: Beal XXI 336, O'Suilleabhain 122; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas II 249; India: Thompson-Balys.

L412.1. †L412.1. Woman casts ring into sea boasting that it is as impossible for her to become poor as for the ring to be found. Ring is found in fish: she becomes poor. W. Jones Finger-Ring Lore (London, 1898) 440; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 19 No. 178.

L413. †L413. Proud inscriptions sole remains of powerful king. *Chauvin V 33 No. 16; Spanish Exempla: Keller. Cf. Shelley's "Ozymandias".

L414. †L414. King vainly forbids tide to rise. (Canute.) Herbert III 62; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L414.1. †L414.1. King vainly attempts to measure the height of the sky and the depth of the sea. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 920A*.

L415. †L415. God punishes David for his pride in the number of his subjects. An angel is sent to kill his people. Desists only when David repents. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

L416. †L416. King commanded to wear enemy's shoes on his shoulders as sign of submission. Irish myth: Cross.

L416.1. †L416.1. Proud king humbled when imprisoned by enemies. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L417. †L417. God finds that his statue sells at low price. He prices it in a statue shop and finds that his price is lower than other gods. Wienert FFC LVI 80 (ET 455), 94 (ST 77); Halm Aesop No. 137.

L418. †L418. King shown he is less powerful than God. In spite of all his plans, his servant recovers the lost (exchanged) treasure. Type 841.

L419. †L419. Proud ruler (deity) humbled -- miscellaneous.

L419.1. †L419.1. Goose boasts superiority to mushroom. Both served up at same meal. India: Thompson-Balys.

L419.2. †L419.2. King (prince) becomes beggar. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

L420. †L420. Overweening ambition punished. Chinese: Graham.

L420.0.1. †L420.0.1. Overweening ambition punished. Man sets self up as a god. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L421. †L421. Attempt to fly to heaven punished. Car supported by eagles. Persian: Carnoy 336.

L421.1. †L421.1. Attempt to climb to heaven punished. India: Thompson-Balys.

L423. †L423. Peter acts as God for a day: tires of bargain. A girl takes her goat to pasture and leaves him: "My God care for you!" Peter must run everywhere after the goat. *Dh II 188.

L424. †L424. Man who has never known unhappiness or want is swallowed up by earth with all his household. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L425. †L425. Dream (prophecy) of future greatness causes banishment (imprisonment). *Type 671, 725; *BP I 322ff., 324; Japanese: Ikeda.

L427. †L427. Poor man aspires to high office: made a cook. India: Thompson-Balys.

L430. †L430. Arrogance repaid. Icelandic *Boberg.

L431. †L431. Arrogant mistress repaid in kind by her lover. *Type 900; *BP I 443ff.; **Philippson König Drosselbart FFC L; Krappe Études ital. II 141ff.; *Gigas "Et eventyrs vandring" Litteratur og Historie (København, 1902); *Fb "bejler" IV 31b; Icelandic: Boberg; West Indies: Flowers 560.

L431.1. †L431.1. Haughty mistress makes extravagant demands of lover: repaid. (Glove and the Lion.) *Shearin MLN XXVI 113; *Buchanan Modern Language Review IV 183 n. 1; Krappe MLN XXXIV 16; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 349 n. 256.

L431.2. †L431.2. Scorned lover poses as rich man and cheats his scornful mistress. Boccaccio Decameron VIII No. 10 (Lee 266); Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

L431.3. †L431.3. Sneering princess is impregnated by magic. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

L432. †L432. Impoverished husband begs from wife's new husband. He has formerly refused this man charity. *Chauvin II 174 No. 16, VIII 180 No. 212; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 263 N. 232; *Basset 1001 Contes II 305.

L432.1. †L432.1. Cruel brothers brought to beg charity from abused sister. India: *Thompson-Balys.

L432.2. †L432.2. Impoverished father begs from daughter he has banished: recognized. India: Thompson-Balys.

L432.2.1. †L432.2.1. Impoverished father begs from his prosperous daughter whom he has made to marry a poor man. Chinese: Graham.

L432.3. †L432.3. Impoverished husband begs from wife he has formerly expelled. Chinese: Graham.

L432.4. †L432.4. Impoverished youngest brother comes to elders in search of work. India: Thompson-Balys.

L434. †L434. Arrogant farmer allows none to ride his precious horse without permission. He kills the man who does it, but is in revenge deprived of most of his goods. Icelandic: Hrafnkels saga Freysgods ch. 2ff. (ed. F. S. Cawley) (Cambridge, Mass., 1932).

L435. †L435. Self-righteousness punished.

L435.1. †L435.1. Self-righteous hermit must do penance. He has said of a condemned man that he deserves his punishment. *Types 756A, 756B; BP III 463ff.; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 160ff., 250ff.; Wesselski Mönchslatein 21 No. 16; Alphabet No. 206; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 99, Beal XXI 332; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos 79f.

L435.1.1. †L435.1.1. Self-righteous monk rebuked by abbot. Abbot tells him to search his own heart to see if he is free of sin before attacking others. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L435.2. †L435.2. Self-righteous woman punished. She has passed judgment on a girl who has a bastard. Köhler-Bolte I 147f., *578, 581.

L435.2.1. †L435.2.1. Woman with three hundred sixty-five children. Punished for self-righteous condemnation of unchaste girl. *Taylor Notes and Queries No. 251 (Feb., 1923) 96; *K. Nyrop Grevinden med de 365 Born (København, 1909); Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 469; Child II 67f., IV 463b.; *Köhler Lais der Marie de France@2 xc; *DeCock Volkssage 9ff.

L435.3. †L435.3. Self-righteous tailor in heaven expelled. Throws God's footstool at an old woman thief on earth. *Type 800; BP I 342; Wesselski Bebel I 126 No. 19.

L435.4. †L435.4. The beggar on the cross in place of Christ. Is made to leave the cross for his impatience concerning the sinners. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 800A*.

L450. †L450. Proud animal less fortunate than humble.

L451. †L451. Wild animal finds his liberty better than tame animal's ease.

L451.1. †L451.1. Tame bird and wild bird. The tame bird tells the wild one to look about him. He is shot. Type 245; Japanese: Ikeda.

L451.2. †L451.2. Wild ass envies tame ass until he sees his burdens. Wienert FFC LVI 59 (ST 198), 124 (ST 328); Halm Aesop No. 321.

L451.3. †L451.3. Wolf prefers liberty and hunger to dog's servitude and plenty. *Type 201; Crane Vitry 221 No. 217; Wienert FFC LVI 61 (ET 238), 124 (ST 326); Halm Aesop No. 278; Jacobs Aesop 206 No. 28; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 433; Scala Celi 76b No. 435; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L451.4. †L451.4. Parrot prefers cold wet nest in freedom to luxury in royal palace. India: Thompson-Balys.

L452. †L452. Ass is jealous of the horse until he learns better.

L452.1. †L452.1. Ass jealous of horse, but sees horse later working in a mill. *Chauvin III 50 No. 2; Wienert FFC LVI *56 (ET 171), 94 (ST 78).

L452.2. †L452.2. Ass jealous of war-horse until he sees him wounded. Wienert FFC LVI 58 (ET 191), 124 (ST 327); Halm Aesop No. 328; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

L453. †L453. Mule carrying corn escapes while one carrying gold is robbed. Wienert FFC LVI 56 (ET 169), 94 (ST 75).

L455. †L455. Lean dogs envy arena-dog his fatness. Later see their error. Wienert FFC LVI 56 (ET 169), 94 (ST 75).

L456. †L456. Calf pities draft ox: is taken to slaughter, ox spared. Wienert FFC LVI 61 (ET 230), 57 (ET 185), *92 (ST 44), 124 (ST 331); Halm Aesop No. 113.

L460. †L460. Pride brought low -- miscellaneous.

L461. †L461. Stag scorns his legs but is proud of his horns. Caught by his horns in trees. *Type 77; Wienert FFC LVI 65 (ET 285), 140 (ST 465); Halm Aesop No. 128; *Crane Vitry 254 No. 274; Herbert III 23; Jacobs Aesop 206 No. 25.

L462. †L462. Fox destroys nest of bird who boasts of nest's warmth. India: Thompson-Balys.

L465. †L465. The mule's double ancestry. When well fed says, "My mother was a thoroughbred horse." Later, hard worked, says, "My father was a miserable ass." Wienert FFC LVI 64 (ET 275), 94 (ST 80); Halm Aesop No. 157.

L471. †L471. The man scorns the storm: killed by it. Type 933*.

L472. †L472. Zeus smites Capaneus while he is climbing a ladder. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 367 n. 3.

L473. †L473. Pride or wealth of man brought low by actions of gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

L475. †L475. Oil lamp blown out: had thought that it outshone stars. Wienert FFC LVI 75 (ET 409), 93 (ST 64); Halm Aesop No. 285.

L476. †L476. Jackal singing about his deeds falls down from tree and is eaten by alligator. India: Thompson-Balys.

L478. †L478. Gnats having overcome lion are in turn killed by spider. Wienert FFC LVI 48 (ET 75), 92 (ST 57); Halm Aesop No. 234.

L482. †L482. Men too prosperous (happy): things are made more difficult.

L482.1. †L482.1. Men are too rich: greedy gods created to impoverish them. India: Thompson-Balys.

L482.1.1. †L482.1.1. Men are too rich: gold sent below ground. India: Thompson-Balys.

L482.2. †L482.2. Men are too rich: weeds created to spoil their harvests. India: Thompson-Balys.

L482.3. †L482.3. Men are too proud: snakes created. India: Thompson-Balys.

L482.4. †L482.4. Men are fearless: tiger made to frighten them. India: Thompson-Balys.

L482.5. †L482.5. Men enjoy themselves too much: disease created. India: Thompson-Balys.