S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958. • Main page


Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, ÐÔÔÈ #06-06-80-420a, ÐÔÔÈ #07-06-00441-à



J. THE WISE AND THE FOOLISH

DETAILED SYNOPSIS

†J0.--J199. Acquisition and possession of wisdom (knowledge)

†J10. Wisdom (knowledge) acquired from experience

†J30. Wisdom (knowledge) acquired from inference

†J50. Wisdom (knowledge) acquired from observation

†J80. Wisdom (knowledge) taught by parable

†J100. Wisdom (knowledge) taught by necessity

†J120. Wisdom learned from children

†J130. Wisdom (knowledge) acquired from animals

†J140. Wisdom (knowledge) through education

†J150. Other means of acquiring wisdom (knowledge)

†J180. Possession of wisdom

†J200.--J1099. WISE AND UNWISE CONDUCT

†J200.--J499. Choices

†J200. Choices

†J210. Choice between evils

†J230.--J299. Real and apparent values

†J230. Choice: real and apparent values

†J240. Choice between useful and ornamental

†J260. Choice between worth and appearance

†J280. Quality preferred to quantity

†J300.--J329. Present values chosen

†J310. The present preferred to the past

†J320. Present values preferred to future

†J330.--J399. Gains and losses

†J340. Choices: little gain, big loss

†J350. Choices: small inconvenience, large gain

†J370. Choices: Important and unimportant work

†J390. Choices: kind strangers, unkind relatives

†J400.--J459. Choice of associates

†J400. Choice of associates

†J410. Association of equals and of unequals

†J420. Association of strong and weak

†J440. Association of young and old

†J450. Association of the good and the evil

†J460. Unnecessary choices

†J480. Other choices

†J500.--J599. Prudence and discretion

†J510. Prudence in ambition

†J530. Prudence in demands

†J550. Zeal -- temperate and intemperate

†J570. Wisdom of deliberation

†J580. Wisdom of caution

†J600.--J799. Forethought

†J610.--J679. Forethought in conflict with others

†J620. Forethought in prevention of others' plans

†J640. Avoidance of others' power

†J670. Forethought in defences against others

†J680. Forethought in alliances

†J700.--J749. Forethought in provision for life

†J700. Forethought in provision for life (general)

†J710. Forethought in provision for food

†J730. Forethought in provision for clothing

†J740. Forethought in provision for shelter

†J750.--J799. Forethought -- miscellaneous

†J800.--J849. Adaptability

†J810. Policy in dealing with the great

†J830. Adaptability to overpowering force

†J850.--J899. Consolation in misfortune

†J860. Consolation by a trifle

†J870. Consolation by pretending that one does not want the thing he cannot have

†J880. Consolation by thought of others worse placed

†J890. Consolation in misfortune -- miscellaneous

†J900.--J999. Humility

†J910. Humility of the great

†J950. Presumption of the lowly

†J1000.--J1099. Other aspects of wisdom

†J1010. Value of industry

†J1020. Strength in unity

†J1030. Self-dependence

†J1040. Decisiveness of conduct

†J1050. Attention to warnings

†J1060. Miscellaneous aspects of wisdom

†J1100.--J1699. CLEVERNESS

†J1100.--J1249. Clever persons and acts

†J1110. Clever persons

†J1130.--J1199. Cleverness in the law court

†J1130. Cleverness in law court -- general

†J1140. Cleverness in detection of truth

†J1150. Cleverness connected with the giving of evidence

†J1160. Clever pleading

†J1170. Clever judicial decisions

†J1180. Clever means of avoiding legal punishment

†J1190. Cleverness in the law court -- miscellaneous

†J1210.--J1229. Clever man puts another out of countenance

†J1230.--J1249. Clever dividing

†J1250.--J1499. Clever verbal retorts (repartee)

†J1250. Clever verbal retorts -- general

†J1260. Repartee based on church or clergy

†J1270. Repartee concerning the parentage of children

†J1280. Repartee with ruler (judge, etc.)

†J1290. Reductio ad absurdum of question or proposal

†J1300. Officiousness or foolish questions rebuked

†J1310. Repartee concerning wine

†J1320. Repartee concerning drunkenness

†J1330. Repartee concerning beggars

†J1340. Retorts from hungry persons

†J1350. Rude retorts

†J1370. Cynical retorts concerning honesty

†J1380. Retorts concerning debts

†J1390. Retorts concerning thefts

†J1400. Repartee concerning false reform

†J1410. Repartee concerning fatness

†J1420. Animals retort concerning their dangers

†J1430. Repartee concerning doctors and patients

†J1440. Repartee -- miscellaneous

†J1500.--J1649. Clever practical retorts

†J1500. Clever practical retort

†J1510. The cheater cheated

†J1530. One absurdity rebukes another

†J1540. Retorts between husband and wife

†J1550. Practical retorts: borrowers and lenders

†J1560. Practical retorts: hosts and guests

†J1580. Practical retorts connected with almsgiving

†J1600. Practical retorts -- miscellaneous

†J1650.--J1699. Miscellaneous clever acts

†J1700.--J2749. FOOLS (AND OTHER UNWISE PERSONS)

†J1700.--J1729. Fools

†J1710.--J1729. Association with fools

†J1730.--J1749. Absurd ignorance

†J1750.--J1849. Absurd misunderstandings

†J1750.--J1809. One thing mistaken for another

†J1750. One animal mistaken for another

†J1760. Animal or person mistaken for something else

†J1770. Objects with mistaken identity

†J1780. Things thought to be devils, ghosts, etc.

†J1790. Shadow mistaken for substance

†J1800. One thing mistaken for another -- miscellaneous

†J1810. Physical phenomena misunderstood

†J1820. Inappropriate action from misunderstanding

†J1850.--J1999. Absurd disregard of facts

†J1850.--J1899. Animals or objects treated as if human

†J1850. Gift or sale to animal (or object)

†J1860. Animal or object absurdly punished

†J1870. Absurd sympathy for animals or objects

†J1880. Animals or objects treated as if human -- miscellaneous

†J1900. Absurd disregard or ignorance of animal's nature or habits

†J1910. Fatal disregard of anatomy

†J1920. Absurd searches for the lost

†J1930. Absurd disregard of natural laws

†J1960. Other absurd disregard of facts

†J2000.--J2049. Absurd absent-mindedness

†J2010. Uncertainty about own identity

†J2020. Inability to find own members, etc.

†J2030. Absurd inability to count

†J2040. Absurd absent-mindedness -- miscellaneous

†J2050.--J2199. Absurd short-sightedness

†J2050. Absurd short-sightedness

†J2060. Absurd plans: air castles

†J2070. Absurd wishes

†J2080. Foolish bargains

†J2100. Remedies worse than the disease

†J2120. Disregard of danger to objects (or animals)

†J2130. Foolish disregard of personal danger

†J2160. Other short-sighted acts

†J2200.--J2259. Absurd lack of logic

†J2200. Absurd lack of logic -- general

†J2210. Logical absurdity based upon certain false assumptions

†J2220. Other logical absurdities

†J2260.--J2299. Absurd scientific theories

†J2260. Absurd scientific theories -- general

†J2270. Absurd astronomical theories

†J2280. Other absurd scientific theories

†J2300.--J2349. Gullible fools

†J2310. Nature of gullibility

†J2350.--J2369. Talkative fools

†J2370.--J2399. Inquisitive fools

†J2400.--J2499. Foolish imitation

†J2450. Literal fool

†J2460. Literal obedience

†J2470. Metaphors literally interpreted

†J2490. Literal fool -- miscellaneous

†J2500.--J2549. Foolish extremes

†J2550.--J2599. Thankful fools

†J2600.--J2649. Cowardly fools

†J2650.--J2699. Bungling fools

†J2700.--J2749. The easy problem made hard

†J2750.--J2799. Other aspects of wisdom or foolishness

J. THE WISE AND THE FOOLISH.

†J0-†J199. Acquisition and possession of wisdom (knowledge).

J0. †J0. Acquisition and possession of wisdom. Jewish: *Neuman.

J10. †J10. Wisdom (knowledge) acquired from experience.

J11. †J11. Shipwrecked shepherd distrusts the sea. He had formerly envied sailors. Wienert FFC LVI 75 (ET 407), 110 (ST 219); Halm Aesop No. 370.

J11.1. †J11.1. Man bitten by snake fears snake-like rope. Jewish: Neuman.

J12. †J12. Young ass avoids food eaten by animals before being slaughtered. Runs to his mother and asks to have all remains of the hog's food taken out. Wienert FFC LVI 72 (ET 374), 110 (ST 221); Chauvin III 51 No. 7.

J13. †J13. Young sparrows have learned to avoid men. Sparrow quizzes his four young as to how to avoid danger from men. Their year of experience has taught them enough. BP III 239 (Gr. No. 157); Hervieux Fabulistes latins II 546 No. 70.

J14. †J14. Old racehorse in mill laments vanity of youth. Wienert FFC LVI *72 (ET 365), 140 (ST 466); Babrius No. 29; Halm Aesop No. 174.

J15. †J15. Serpent (bird) having injured man refuses reconciliation. He knows that neither can forget their injuries. Chauvin II 94 No. 43, 102 No. 62; Bødker Exempler 291 No. 47, 301 No. 67; Wienert FFC LVI *69 (ET 331), *127 (ST 352); Babrius No. 167; Jacobs Aesop 201 No. 6; Halm Aesop Nos. 96, 251, 350; cf. BP II 459; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J16. †J16. Dove disregards experience and loses brood. Rebuilds her nest in the place where she has lost former brood. Chauvin II 83 No. 6; Bødker Exempler 274 No. 7, 306 No. 82; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J17. †J17. Animal learns through experience to fear men. In spite of the warning of another animal he approaches man and is shot. *Type 157; BP II 96; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 47 No. 23; American Negro: Harris Nights 33 No. 7, 330 No. 57; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 262 No. 62.

J17.1. †J17.1. Tiger, jackal, and bear each learn to fear man. They report him as head-thumper (he has beaten the tiger), turn-twister (he has swung jackal by tail), and top-tumbler (he has fallen out of tree on bear). India: *Thompson-Balys.

J18. †J18. Wisdom acquired from beating. Incognito prince, beaten for his courtesy, realizes his folly and returns home. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21. †J21. Counsels proved wise by experience. *Types 910A, 910B, 910C, 910D; *Cosquin Études 85ff., 100ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.1. †J21.1. "Consider the end": counsel proved wise by experience. Barber hired to cut king's throat sees on the bottom of the basin the words "Whatever you do, do wisely and think of the consequences." He drops the razor and confesses. *Type 910C; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 20 No. 69; Alphabet No. 156; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 172, 283; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.2. †J21.2. "Do not act when angry": counsel proved wise by experience. Man returns home and sees someone sleeping with his wife. Though he thinks it is a paramour, he restrains himself and finds that it is a newborn son. *Type 910B; Chauvin II 157; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys. Cf. Wienert FFC LVI 37; Phaedrus III No. 10.

J21.2.1. †J21.2.1. "Never attack anyone before unsheathing and returning sword three times": counsel proved wise by experience. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21.2.2. †J21.2.2. Sleep before committing suicide. After sleeping you will feel differently about suicide. Spanish: Childers.

J21.2.3. †J21.2.3. "Do not draw your sword against the innocent": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.2.4. †J21.2.4. "Do not uncover weapon in an assembly": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.2.5. †J21.2.5. "Do not shed the blood of women": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.2.6. †J21.2.6. "Control your anger at the beginning": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.3. †J21.3. "Do not go where an old man has a young wife": counsel proved wise by experience. Discovers a murder in an inn. *Type 910B; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 115; Irish myth: *Cross.

J21.4. †J21.4. "Do not marry a girl from abroad": counsel proved wise by experience. *Type 910A; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 115; Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 52; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J21.5. †J21.5. "Do not leave the highway": counsel proved wise by experience. Robbers encountered. *Type 910B; Scala Celi No. 788; Herbert III 99; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J21.5.1. †J21.5.1. "Do not prefer a new road to an old one." Those who take the new one are killed by robbers. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21.5.2. †J21.5.2. "Take side road rather than main one where three roads meet": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.5.3. †J21.5.3. "A way short yet long": counsel proved wise by experience. (Cf. †J266.) Jewish: Neuman.

J21.6. †J21.6. "Do not ask questions about extraordinary things": counsel proved wise by experience. Those who ask question killed. Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 169ff. (Gonzenbach No. 81); Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J21.7. †J21.7. "Do not cross a bridge without dismounting from your horse"; counsel proved wise by experience. Man breaks leg. Type 910B; Wesselski Märchen 219 No. 32.

J21.8. †J21.8. "Never wager more than a groat": counsel proved wise by experience. Man loses wife on wager. Wesselski Märchen 219 No. 32.

J21.8.1. †J21.8.1. "Do not bet": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.9. †J21.9. "Do not visit your friends often": counsel proved wise by experience. At last the man is treated shamefully. *Type 910A; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 115.

J21.9.1. †J21.9.1. "Do not prolong a friendly visit." Guest stays so long that host gives him black bread instead of white. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 52; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J21.10. †J21.10. "Do not lend out your horse": counsel proved wise by experience. Type 910A; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 115.

J21.11. †J21.11. "Do not walk half a mile with a man without asking his name": counsel proved wise by experience. Man runs race unwittingly with his wife's paramour and loses his wife on the wager. (Cf. †J21.8.) *Type 910B; Wesselski Märchen 219 No. 32.

J21.12. †J21.12. "Rue not a thing that is past": counsel proved wise by experience. Man lets bird go and then, having listened to bird's false declaration that she had a precious gem in her body, he tries to climb a tree after her and falls. *BP IV 149 n. 2; Gaster Exempla 256 No. 390; *Paris Légendes du moyen âge 225ff.; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 24; Alphabet No. 191; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 167.

J21.13. †J21.13. "Never believe what is beyond belief": counsel proved wise by experience. Man believes when bird tells him that she has a precious gem in her body. (Cf. †J21.12, †K604.) *BP IV 149 n. 2; Alphabet No. 191; Gaster Exempla 256 No. 390; Paris Légendes du moyen âge 225ff.; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 167; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J21.14. †J21.14. "Never try to reach the unattainable": counsel proved wise by experience. (Cf. †K604.) *BP IV 149 n. 2; Alphabet No. 191; Gaster Exempla 256 No. 390; *G. Paris Légendes du moyen âge 225ff.

J21.15. †J21.15. "If you wish to hang yourself, do so by the stone which I point out": counsel proved wise by experience. Father has left money which will fall out when the spendthrift son goes to hang himself in despair. "The Heir of Linne." *Type 910D; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 709; Chauvin V 133 No. 63, *VIII 94 No. 65; Child V 12f.; Clouston Tales II 53; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 2, Rotunda; Japanese: Ikeda.

J21.16. †J21.16. "Go to Goosebridge": counsel proved wise by experience. Man with disobedient wife finds mules beaten there and made to cross bridge. Boccaccio Decameron IX No. 9 (*Lee 289); Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J21.17. †J21.17. "Stay at church till mass is finished": counsel proved wise by experience. Delay saves youth from death. *Cosquin Études 73ff.; Irish: Beal XXI 314, O'Suilleabhain 38; Icelandic: Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda.

J21.18. †J21.18. "Do not trust the over-holy": counsel proved wise by experience. Wife so modest she will not travel with husband (adulteress); priest so pious he will not tread on worm (thief). Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 22, 275, Neuman.

J21.19. †J21.19. "Start your journey early in the day": counsel proved wise by experience. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 100, 304, Neuman.

J21.20. †J21.20. "Prepare for night camp while it is still day": counsel proved wise by experience. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 100, 304, Neuman.

J21.21. †J21.21. "Do not cross a swollen stream until it has run down": counsel proved wise by experience. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 100, 304, Neuman.

J21.22. †J21.22. "Do not tell a secret to a woman": counsel proved wise by experience. Nouvelles de Sens No. 7; Irish myth: *Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *911; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 100, 304, *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.23. †J21.23. "Rise earlier": counsel proved wise by experience. Man seeking explanation for being in debt arises earlier and catches his servants stealing. (Cf. †H588.1.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21.24. †J21.24. "Do not make a horse run down hill": counsel proved wise by experience. Horse breaks its neck. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 52; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J21.25. †J21.25. "Do not keep bad company": counsel proved wise by experience. Breaking of father's first counsel causes the breaking of all the others. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21.26. †J21.26. "Don't be too greedy in making a trade": counsel proved wise by experience. Man refuses fifty ducats for horse. Horse suddenly dies. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21.27. †J21.27. "Do not adopt a child": counsel proved wise by experience. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *911; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21.28. †J21.28. "Do not trust a ruler who rules by reason alone": counsel proved wise by experience. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *911; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21.29. †J21.29. "Keep head dry, feet warm, and eat meat": counsel proved wise by experience. King recovers from illness. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21.30. †J21.30. "Never have to do with a woman unless wed to her": counsel proved wise by experience. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21.31. †J21.31. "Do not marry a woman before seeing her and finding her to be your equal": counsel proved wise by experience. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J21.32. †J21.32. "Do not marry more than one woman". Man who wanted three, marries one and is weakened greatly. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J21.33. †J21.33. "Bathe by yourself and not in the common bathing place": counsel proved wise by experience. Man forgets purse in bath house. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.34. †J21.34. "Move stool before sitting on it": counsel proved wise by experience. Man thus saves self from falling into well. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.34.1. †J21.34.1. "When in a strange place look about you": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.34.2. †J21.34.2. "Do not sit on a bed without touching it first": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.35. †J21.35. "Ruler should follow advice of majority" (not his own fancy): counsel proved wise by experience. Thus finds money on body of dead traveler. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.35.1. †J21.35.1. "Neglect not what four or five people say": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.36. †J21.36. "Do not go alone on journey": counsel proved wise by experience. Helpful crab saves from attack by crocodile. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.37. †J21.37. "Do not take a woman's advice": counsel proved wise by experience. (Cf. †J21.22.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.38. †J21.38. "May God spare you from an evil man or evil woman." To teach a friend the wisdom of this greeting a man borrows money and then his creditor's coat from him. In court the lender is discredited. Spanish: Childers.

J21.39. †J21.39. "Do not travel without money": counsel proved wise by experience. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.40. †J21.40. Don't require honor from a strange country": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.41. †J21.41. "Be cautious before allowing yourself to fall asleep in a strange place": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.41.1. †J21.41.1. "Sleep not in an inn": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.41.2. †J21.41.2. "A stranger does not close his eyes in sleep lest he close them in death": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.41.3. †J21.41.3. "He who lies awake gains; he who sleeps loses": counsel proved wise by experience. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.42. †J21.42. "Before eating food at a strange place throw some at an animal and watch": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.43. †J21.43. "A country not examined in disguise will always be ruined": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.44. †J21.44. "Lean upon no relation in the hour of distress": counsel proved wise by experience. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.45. †J21.45. "Do not undertake to be an arbitrator without being asked": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.46. †J21.46. "Do not make friends with a policeman (soldier)": counsel proved wise by experience. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.47. †J21.47. "You can only call your wife your own so long as she is with you": counsel proved wise by experience. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.47.1. †J21.47.1. "Do not send your wife for a long visit to her parents": counsel proved wise by experience. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J21.48. †J21.48. "Don't do anything without investigation": counsel proved wise by experience. A purse full of money was found in dead man's pocket by gravedigger. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.49. †J21.49. "Never give a cup made of a single ruby as a present to the king": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.50. †J21.50. "Idleness begets woe; work brings happiness": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.51. †J21.51. "Do not stand and watch two people fighting": counsel proved wise by experience. Man does so and is called by both parties to depose in favor of both or he will be beheaded. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.52. †J21.52. Counsels proved wise by experience -- miscellaneous.

J21.52.1. †J21.52.1. Disciple who stays in a city where everything is sold at one price finds justice is not even there. (Cf. †F769.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.52.2. †J21.52.2. "Never be rude to a self-made man of low birth": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.52.3. †J21.52.3. "Hardened clay is hard to mold": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.52.4. †J21.52.4. "Never publish a man's sin if you can help it": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.52.5. †J21.52.5. "Never dismiss and old servant for his first fault": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.52.6. †J21.52.6. "When a man attacks you, kill him whether he be king or prince": counsel proved wise by experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.52.7. †J21.52.7. Boy who says "I know" gets into all sort of difficulties; now says "I don't know." India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.52.8. †J21.52.8. "Nothing happens that does not work for one's good": counsel proved wise is experience. India: Thompson-Balys.

J21.52.9. †J21.52.9. "He who throws himself against a wave is overthrown by it": proved true. Jewish: *Neuman.

J22. †J22. Precepts of the lion to his sons. Only the younger keeps them and is successful. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 20.

J22.1. †J22.1. Precept of the lion to his sons: beware of man. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 20; India: Thompson-Balys.

J22.2. †J22.2. Precept of the lion to his sons: honor the woods. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 20.

J22.3. †J22.3. Precept of the lion to his sons: keep peace with the neighbors. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 20.

J23. †J23. Merchants try honesty for a year and find that it pays. So advised by priest when they said that they could not do business without dishonesty. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 394; Irish: Beal XXI 307, O'Suilleabhain 25.

J24. †J24. Fools learn to be peaceable. Two fools in the habit of striking people are brought together when they strike each other until they appreciate the value of peace. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 38.

J25. †J25. Why great man plays with children. This is to be learned only when one has children himself. Anecdote of Agesilaus. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 738.

J26. †J26. Enemies can be won more by kindness than cruelty. Romans learn this by experience. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J27. †J27. Man learns the fear of Death by meeting Life. Life (old woman) beheads him and replaces his head backwards. Simpleton left in fear for hours before head is readjusted. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J30. †J30. Wisdom (knowledge) acquired from inference.

J31. †J31. Encounter with clever children (woman) dissuades man from visit. On way to a city meets children and they are so clever that he turns back home, fearing how clever their parents must be. *Wesselski Gonnella 118 No. 15, *Hodscha Nasreddin II 227 No. 481; Japanese: Ikeda.

J31.1. †J31.1. Cleverness of men disguised as peasants dissuades rivals from dispute. Wise men of two rival cities engage in dispute. One delegation disguises as peasants and debates with their adversaries. Latter withdraw fearing how clever the educated must be if their peasants are so learned. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J32. †J32. Arrow as man's message shows lion how terrible man himself must be. Wienert FFC LVI 67 (ET 316), 122 (ST 312); Babrius No. 1; Halm Aesop No. 403; BP II 99.

J33. †J33. Blind man who feels young wolf recognises his savage nature. Wienert FFC LVI 69 (ET 329), 122 (ST 314); Halm Aesop 57.

J34. †J34. Odor of the wine cask. How fine wine must been been to leave so good an odor. Wienert FFC LVI 76 (ET 416), 122 (ST 313); Phaedrus III No. 1; Jacobs Aesop 220 No. 81.

J50. †J50. Wisdom (knowledge) acquired from observation.

J51. †J51. Sight of deformed witches causes man to release wife from spinning duty. They tell him that their deformity has come from too much spinning. *Type 501; *BP I 109ff. (Gr. No. 14); **Von Sydow Två Spinnsagor.

J52. †J52. King observes retaliation among animals: becomes just. Dog breaks fox's foot; man breaks dog's; horse breaks man's leg; horse steps in hole and breaks his. Chauvin II, 116 No. 93.

J52.1. †J52.1. Understanding of universality of death from watching animals prey on one another. India: Thompson-Balys.

J52.2. †J52.2. King descends to bottom of sea in glass barrel to learn wisdom from observing fish. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J53. †J53. Army saved from ambush by observation of birds' movements. Birds fly from part of woods in which ambushed men lie. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 541; Japanese: Ikeda.

J55. †J55. Ruler learns lesson from the example of an exiled king. Rewards the exile rather than a successful merchant. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J56. †J56. Unscrupulous conduct of business learned from observation of usurer's own practices and used against him. India: Thompson-Balys.

J56.1. †J56.1. Ruler learns lesson from seeing city governed by king as uncharitable as he. India: Thompson-Balys.

J61. †J61. Hare instructs his sons to use their eyes to advantage. Type 72*.

J62. †J62. Observation of dying people for a year takes man's thoughts from lust. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 265.

J64. †J64. Ducklings take to water from instinct. Bridegroom thus brought to understand bride's expertness in lovemaking. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J65. †J65. Birds having learned their possible dangers are forced from nest by mother. Nouvelles Récréations No. 87.

J67. †J67. Drops of water make hollow in stone: thus repeated impressions penetrate mind. Jewish: Neuman.

J67.1. †J67.1. Lazy pupil determines to be more diligent by watching man building home one wattle at a time, and seeing how water fills hole one drop at a time. Irish myth: Cross.

J80. †J80. Wisdom (knowledge) taught by parable. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Bødker Exempler 272 No. 1; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J80.1. †J80.1. Three thousand parables of Solomon. Jewish: *Neuman.

J80.1.1. †J80.1.1. Solomon proves to his mother the inferiority of woman's wisdom. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *920B.

J80.2. †J80.2. Minister taught by parable to make obeisance to the new king. India: Thompson-Balys.

J81. †J81. The dishes of the same flavor. Man thus shown that one woman is like another and dissuaded from his amorous purpose. *Basset 1001 Contes II 25; *Wesselski Märchen 209; Boccaccio Decameron I No. 5 (Lee 17), Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *981; Russian: Andrejev No. *981 (II); Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J81.0.1. †J81.0.1. Monotony of restriction to one's favorite food. Counselor refuses to arrange extramarital pleasures for his lord. Ruler feeds him only his favorite food until the counselor protests the monotony. Ruler drives home his point. Italian Novella: Rotunda, Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 10.

J81.1. †J81.1. Society is like a dish: must be properly mixed. Plates having salt, pepper, fish, etc. not edible without mixing. India: Thompson-Balys.

J81.2. †J81.2. To each his appropriate food. Woman gives morsel of various foods to each guest, with explanation. India: Thompson-Balys.

J81.3. †J81.3. Parable comparing canons to a stew made of their individual meals. Nouvelles Récréations No. 3.

J82. †J82. Priest walks in the mud. Congregation follows evil ways of priest. He walks in mud but they will not follow him. He thus shows them the folly of following his evil ways. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 68.

J83. †J83. The gray and the black hairs: enemies reconciled. Duke summons two inveterate enemies. Has them tear out one of his hairs, one a gray, the other a black. Both pain him equally. He shows how their quarrels hurt him. They are reconciled. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 401.

J84. †J84. Picking up water thrown on ground no harder than the undoing of slander. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 98 No. 836G*.

J85. †J85. Chair over fiery pit as figure of precariousness of life. Wesselski Mönchslatein 94 No. 78; Alphabet No. 685.

J86. †J86. Rocks falling together and thread entering needle's eye suggest sexual intercourse: hence its beginning. Chinese: Graham.

J87. †J87. Men shamed for their cowardice by woman standing naked before them. (Usually connected with Jus Primae Noctis [T161]). Wesselski Archiv Orientální I 83f.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *2429.

J88. †J88. Wisdom taught by parable: cloud which gives rain to thirsting crops or drops it in ocean. India: Thompson-Balys.

J91. †J91. Monk shames accuser by telling parable. Wind, Water, and Modesty (Sense of Shame). The first two give their addresses but the third says she has no address as no one wants her. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J92. †J92. Boy saves life by showing father foolishness of plowing up his crop. Father has been persuaded to kill child. India: Thompson-Balys.

J94. †J94. Difficulty of thinking of God when occupied with worldly affairs. Shown by test: holy man made to carry milk without spilling. So occupied he forgets to think of God. India: Thompson-Balys.

J95. †J95. Fool digs holes in edge of road. Only those departing from straight path will fall in. Truth of principle later seen. India: Thompson-Balys.

J96. †J96. Man kills nest of ants: so God punishes man. (Cf. †J225.0.4.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J97. †J97. Lotus flower flourishes as long as it is in water: king should not leave castle. India: Thompson-Balys.

J98. †J98. Stones shaken in jar: difficulty in learning many dialects. India: Thompson-Balys.

J99. †J99. Wisdom (knowledge) taught by parable.

J99.1. †J99.1. Relative pleasures of sexes in love taught by parable. India: Thompson-Balys.

J99.2. †J99.2. Father bequeathes four pots to sons: eldest finds earth in his; second, bones; third, rice husks; youngest, rupees (eldest to get land; second, cattle; third, grain; youngest to keep money). India: Thompson-Balys.

J100. †J100. Wisdom (knowledge) taught by necessity.

J101. †J101. Crow drops pebbles into water jug so as to be able to drink. Wienert FFC LVI 64 (ET 272), 106 (ST 186, 246); Jacobs Aesop 213 No. 55.

J102. †J102. Bear learns how to catch crabs with his hairy claws. Wienert FFC LVI 63 (ET 263), 106 (ST 185).

J120. †J120. Wisdom learned from children. *Chauvin VIII 62 No. 27; Penzer I 186.

J121. †J121. Ungrateful son reproved by naïve action of his own son: preparing for old age. Man gives his old father half a carpet to keep him warm. Child keeps the other half and tells his father that he is keeping it for him when he grows old. *Bédier Fabliaux 463f.; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 436, 760; Crane Vitry 260 No. 288; Herbert III 25; *BP II 135, IV 172 n. 14; Scala Celi No. 530; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 41. --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *996; Russian: Andrejev No. *982; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 256f. No. 201; Japanese: Ikeda.

J121.1. †J121.1. Ungrateful son reproved by naïve action of his own son: preparing for old age (wooden drinking cup or bowl). Spanish: Childers; India: Thompson-Balys.

J121.2. †J121.2. Undutiful son rebuked by father. Father tells son not to drag him past the threshold, because he had dragged his own father only up to that point when he had thought of putting him out of his house. Spanish: Childers.

J122. †J122. Naïve remark of child: "You forgot to strike mother." A father in habit of beating his wife remarks that he has forgot something. The child says, "I know. You forgot to strike mother." Wesselski Mönchslatein 170 No. 133.

J122.1. †J122.1. Seducer about to seduce mother of child refrains when child wisely remarks that he is sad because his father has left his mother exposed to such dangers. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J123. †J123. Wisdom of child decides lawsuit. King in disguise sees child's game which represents the case. *Wesselski "Der Knabenkönig und das kluge Mädchen" (Sudetendeutsche Zs. f. Vksk. [1930] Beiheft 1) passim; *Chauvin V 86 No. 26 n. 1; DeVries FFC LXXIII 323ff.; Scala Celi No. 895; Japanese: Ikeda.

J123.1. †J123.1. Clever prince overrules seemingly just decisions of king. Jewish: Neuman.

J124. †J124. Learning the virtue of patience from children. When their meals are stolen, they quietly search for them. India: Thompson-Balys.

J125. †J125. Parents's misdeeds innocently betrayed by children. Italian Novella: Rotunda; West Indies: Flowers 474.

J125.1. †J125.1. The wine needs no further water. Guests asks small daughter of innkeeper for water to put into his wine. She says, "You will not have to do that for mother poured a whole tubful into the cask today." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 374.

J125.2. †J125.2. Adulteress betrayed by little child's remark. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

J125.2.1. †J125.2.1. Child unwittingly betrays his mother's adultery. Tells father not to step across chalk line drawn around secretary; if he does secretary may do to him what he did to Mother the other day. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 23.

J130. †J130. Wisdom (knowledge) acquired from animals.

J132. †J132. Mouse teaches her child to fear quiet cats but not noisy cocks. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 530.

J133. †J133. Animal gives wise example to man. Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

J133.1. †J133.1. One wild goat steps over another. They thus pass each other uninjured on a cliff. This shows advantage of peaceableness. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 403.

J133.2. †J133.2. Ass refuses to drink after it has had enough. Thus teaches lesson to master. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 239.

J133.3. †J133.3. Trained deer drinks wine till he breaks his leg but thereafter abstains. Thus teaches lesson to master. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 240.

J133.4. †J133.4. Woman will not follow donkey on safe path: attacked by robbers. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 630.

J133.5. †J133.5. Squirrel tries to dip out lake with his tail: difficulty of reforming the world. India: Thompson-Balys.

J133.6. †J133.6. Big fish eat little: robber will plunder weak neighbors. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 12.

J134. †J134. Animal behavior teaches man what to avoid.

J134.1. †J134.1. Cock's second mate lets her stepchildren starve: woman warns husband accordingly. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J135. †J135. Departing animal gives man counsels. India: Thompson-Balys.

J136. †J136. Crow inspects the three worlds in search of happiness. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J137. †J137. Wisdom learned from example of insects. India: Thompson-Balys.

J140. †J140. Wisdom (knowledge) through education.

J141. †J141. Youth educated by seven sages. **Campbell Sages.

J142. †J142. Lack of proper education regretted.

J142.1. †J142.1. House dog blames master for teaching him lazy habits. Wienert FFC LVI 60 (ET 229), 145 (ST 502); Halm Aesop No. 217.

J142.2. †J142.2. Man blames master for not correcting him in youth. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 315.

J143. †J143. Untrained colt result of master's neglect. Wienert FFC LVI 71 (ET 361), 129 (ST 371); Halm Aesop No. 51.

J144. †J144. Well-trained kid does not open to wolf. *Type 123; Wienert FFC LVI 63 (ET 262), 145 (ST 506, 535); *BP I 37; Dh IV 277f.

J145. †J145. Hostile dogs made friendly by having them fight common enemy, the wolf. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 400; Jewish: Neuman.

J146. †J146. Educated men as choice company.

J146.1. †J146.1. King prefers educated men as company. Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 95, 98, 106.

J147. †J147. Child confined to keep him in ignorance of life. Useless. *Chauvin III 97 No. 1; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J150. †J150. Other means of acquiring wisdom (knowledge).

J151. †J151. Wisdom from old person. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

J151.1. †J151.1. Wisdom of hidden old man saves kingdom. In famine all old men are ordered killed. One man hides his father. When all goes wrong in the hands of the young rulers, the old man comes forth, performs assigned tasks, and aids with his wisdom. Type 981*; *Anderson FFC XLII 182 n. 1; *DeVries FFC LXXIII 220ff.; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 446, cf. No. 538; Fb "gammel" IV 174a; Scala Celi No. 281; *Paudler FFC CXXI. --Irish myth: *Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *995; Russian: Andrejev No. 981*; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV No. 995*; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 910F*; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 115ff. No. 71.

J151.2. †J151.2. Old men preferred as councillors. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 538.

J151.3. †J151.3. Wisdom from god as old (one-eyed) man. Icelandic: Olrik Sakses Oldhistorie I (1892) 30, *Boberg.

J151.4. †J151.4. Wisdom from old man: always say, "if it pleases God." Spanish: Childers.

J152. †J152. Wisdom (knowledge) from sage (teacher). Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

J152.1. †J152.1. Cynical philosopher lives in tub. Chauvin IX 35 No. 27; Scala Celi No. 103; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J152.2. †J152.2. Advice from dervish. Malone PMLA XLIII 400.

J152.3. †J152.3. Philosopher instructs youth regarding conduct. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J152.4. †J152.4. Philosopher consoles woman for loss of son. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J152.5. †J152.5. Wisdom from philosopher: give separate greetings to infants, youths, and old people. Spanish: Childers.

J152.6. †J152.6. Wisdom from philosopher: worldly honor like shadow. If one goes toward it, it flees; if one turns his back on it, it follows and at times catches up with one. Spanish: Childers.

J153. †J153. Wisdom from holy man. Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J153.1. †J153.1. Holy man's prayer reforms rich man. Holy man prays, "May God bless everything here that is good but cause to disappear all that is bad." Everything disappears. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 199; India: Thompson-Balys.

J153.2. †J153.2. Hermit explains why anger is sin. Nouvelles de Sens No. 20.

J154. †J154. Wise words of dying father. Counsel proved wise by experience. *Cosquin Études 85ff.; Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 52; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Völsunga saga ch. 11, Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *911; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: DeVries's list No. 230.

J154.0.1. †J154.0.1. Wise words of father. Irish myth: Cross.

J154.1. †J154.1. Dying saint leaves wise message to followers. Message is cryptic, but is finally made clear. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J155. †J155. Wisdom (knowledge) from women. Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J155.1. †J155.1. Hero directed on journey by princess. Malone PMLA XLIII 401. Icelandic: *Boberg.

J155.1.1. †J155.1.1. Serpent directed on journey by his beautiful wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

J155.2. †J155.2. King has amours with great men's wives so as to learn secrets from them. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 505.

J155.3. †J155.3. Caesar's scorn of his wife's advice leads to disaster. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 445.

J155.4. †J155.4. Wife as adviser. (Cf. †J21.37.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J155.5. †J155.5. Wife of usurer saves husband through her prayers. Nouvelles de Sens No. 26.

J155.6. †J155.6. Wise words of dying woman (queen). (Cf. †J154.) Icelandic: Völsunga saga ch. 33 (31); Þiðriks saga II 254--56, Boberg.

J155.7. †J155.7. Knowledge from mysterious women met in the forest. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 218ff.; *Boberg.

J155.8. †J155.8. Wisdom from harlot to a king. India: Thompson-Balys.

J156. †J156. Wisdom from fools. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 610; Irish myth: Cross.

J156.1. †J156.1. Wisdom from fool: make peace before rather than after the war. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 39.

J156.2. †J156.2. Wisdom from fool: absurdity of tight-rope walker's performance. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 40.

J156.3. †J156.3. Wisdom from fool: the present returned. Nobleman gives fool a present; he is to give it to no one who is not a greater fool. Master is dying; doctor tells fool that master is going to take long journey. Since master is making no preparation, fool gives him the present. Master thus brought to repentance. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 45.

J156.4. †J156.4. Wisdom from fool: heaven refused. Fool says he does not want to go to heaven for he wants to stay with his master, who everyone says is going to hell. Master repents. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 46.

J157. †J157. Wisdom (knowledge) from dream. Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J157.0.1. †J157.0.1. Deity appears in dream and gives instructions or advice. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J157.1. †J157.1. Wisdom from dream: the leper with the cup of water. Man in dream willing to receive sacrament from unworthy priest. Wesselski Mönchslatein 98 No. 80; Alphabet No. 687.

J157.2. †J157.2. Fate of parents revealed in dream. Mother shown in Hell; father in Heaven. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J157.3. †J157.3. Dream advises against the popularizing of science. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J158. †J158. Wisdom from angel. Jewish: *Neuman.

J158.1. †J158.1. Solomon pays heed to angel's warning. Rules wisely. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J161. †J161. Trial rehearsed before stick in the ground as judge. Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 62 (Gonzenbach No. 8).

J162. †J162. Wisdom acquired by hanging in a tree. *BP III 192. Icelandic: *Boberg.

J163. †J163. Wisdom purchased.

J163.1. †J163.1. Man buys a pennyworth of wit. Nouvelles de Sens No. 6; English: Wells 179 (A Peniworth of Witte); West Indies: Flowers 474.

J163.2. †J163.2. Man to bring wife a purseful of sense. *Bédier Fabliaux 451.

J163.2.1. †J163.2.1. Fool is told to get a pottle of brains. He tries to buy them. He finally learns that advice was to marry a clever girl. England: Baughman.

J163.3. †J163.3. One eye exchanged for wisdom. (Odin.) Icelandic: Boberg.

J163.4. †J163.4. Good counsels bought. *Types 910A, 910B; *Fb "råd"; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 229.

J164. †J164. Wisdom from God. Jewish: *Neuman.

J165. †J165. Tree of knowledge. Dh I 212ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

J166. †J166. Wisdom from books. Jewish: Neuman.

J166.1. †J166.1. Wisdom from books bought at great price. (Sibylline). Nine books first offered at certain price. Finally after this is refused and the owner throws six of them into the fire, the king pays the same price for three of them. Finds them filled with wisdom. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 588.

J166.2. †J166.2. Wisdom from books of the antediluvians. Jewish: Neuman.

J167. †J167. Wisdom from continual reminder of foolishness in the past. Unjust judge skinned and his skin stretched over a footstool kept in the presence of judges, so as to remind them to be just. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 118; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J168. †J168. Inscription on walls for condensed education. Chauvin VIII 34 No 1.

J171. †J171. Proverbial wisdom: counsels. (Cf. †B82.6.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 213f., 216ff., 248f.; Jewish: *Neuman.

J171.1. †J171.1. Counsel: if you take it you will be sorry; if you don't you will also be sorry. This advice given hero by helpful horse. *Köhler-Bolte I 468f., 542.

J171.2. †J171.2. King questions six doctors.

J171.2.1. †J171.2.1. King questions six doctors: what do you like best of all on earth? That man has not what he wishes to have. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 107.

J171.2.2. †J171.2.2. King questions six doctors: what do you like best of all on earth? That all joys are mixed with sorrow. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 107.

J171.2.3. †J171.2.3. King questions six doctors: what do you like best of all on earth? That all evil and hypocrisy will have an end. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 107.

J171.2.4. †J171.2.4. King questions six doctors: what must you most marvel at on earth? That those who are most respected are the biggest fools. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 107.

J171.2.5. †J171.2.5. King questions six doctors: what must you most marvel at on earth? That those who speak of spiritual matters are usually the most depraved. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 107.

J171.2.6. †J171.2.6. King questions six doctors: what must you most marvel at on earth? That man lives in a state in which he cannot die. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 107.

J171.3. †J171.3. Other maxims.

J171.3.1. †J171.3.1. Crow flying away says, "A wise man remains not in the place of calamity; but a fool stays there, and sups fear and sorrow." India: Thompson-Balys.

J171.3.2. †J171.3.2. Proverbial wisdom: "Seek to win over the accuser, so that he causes you no annoyance." Jewish: Neuman.

J172. †J172. Account of punishments prepared in hell brings about repentance. Type 756B; Andrejev FFC LXIX 120ff.; Irish: Beal XXI 324, 330, 332, O'Suilleabhain 63, 95, 100; India: Thompson-Balys.

J173. †J173. Wisdom taught by suicidal example. Man is ordered by Senate to make tyrant stop bloodshed. He kills himself and family to satiate tyrant of blood. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J174. †J174. Good and bad in all books. Author says that a prudent man notes only the good in a vain book; a malicious person, only the bad in a good book. Spanish: Childers.

J175. †J175. Wisdom from young man. Irish myth: *Cross.

J176. †J176. Wisdom from evil spirits. Icelandic: Hjálmthèrs saga ok Ölvis 491.

J177. †J177. Wisdom from brother-in-law. India: Thompson-Balys.

J178. †J178. Wisdom from robbers (thugs) who disguise selves and show cruel princess how she should treat her husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

J179. †J179. Other means of acquiring wisdom (knowledge) -- miscellaneous.

J179.1. †J179.1. Humble Brahmin teaches king the difference between "mine" and "thine." India: Thompson-Balys.

J179.2. †J179.2. Wisdom learned in underground kingdom: the passions of a human being could not be satisfied on earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

J179.3. †J179.3. Wisdom from neighbors. India: Thompson-Balys.

J179.4. †J179.4. Wisdom from fasting. Jewish: Neuman.

J180. †J180. Possession of wisdom.

J181. †J181. The years not counted. Man says that he is the youngest present, for he does not count the years before he became monk (or the like). *Chauvin III 108.

J182. †J182. Varieties of wisdom.

J182.1. †J182.1. "Forty-nine gates of wisdom" open to Moses (and Solomon). Jewish: *Neuman.

J182.2. †J182.2. Seventy-two kinds of wisdom. Jewish: Neuman.

J185. †J185. Wisdom wins contest of wisdom and wealth. India: Thompson-Balys.

J185.1. †J185.1. Minister's clever daughter-in-law uses wisdom to defeat Brahmin's wealth. India: Thompson-Balys.

J186. †J186. Wisdom lost by accepting bribes and gifts. Jewish: Neuman.

J190. †J190. Acquisition and possession of wisdom -- miscellaneous. Icelandic: *Boberg.

J191. †J191. Wise men. Jewish: *Neuman.

J191.1. †J191.1. Solomon as wise man. Jewish: *Neuman.

J191.2. †J191.2. Other biblical heroes as wise men. Jewish: *Neuman.

J192. †J192. Wise nations. Jewish: Neuman.

J192.1. †J192.1. Wisdom from "Children of the East." Jewish: *Neuman.

J192.2. †J192.2. Wisdom from Egypt. Jewish: *Neuman.

J192.3. †J192.3. Wisdom from the Greeks. Jewish: Neuman.

J192.4. †J192.4. Wisdom from the Hebrews. Jewish: Neuman.

†J200-†J1099. WISE AND UNWISE CONDUCT.

†J200-†J499. Choices.

J200. †J200. Choices.

J201. †J201. Hobson's choice: choose what is put before you or nothing.

J201.1. †J201.1. Choice between eggs: one egg or none. Nouvelles Récréations No. 50.

J210. †J210. Choice between evils.

J210.1. †J210.1. Four choices, all of which are evil; man to make one choice only. India: Thompson-Balys.

J211. †J211. Choice: free poverty or enslaved wealth.

J211.1. †J211.1. Philosopher chooses poverty with freedom. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 382.

J211.1.1. †J211.1.1. Man gives all his wealth away, for it is better to die than to give up virtue. India: Thompson-Balys.

J211.2. †J211.2. Town mouse and country mouse. Latter prefers poverty with safety. *Type 112; Crane Vitry 199 No. 157; Wienert FFC LVI *59 (ET 208), 124 (ST 325); Halm Aesop No. 297; Jacobs Aesop 202 No. 7; Albini Atene e Roma VI 175. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 15 No. 5; Japanese: Ikeda.

J211.2.1. †J211.2.1. Fly jeers at king's elephant for his lack of freedom. India: Thompson-Balys.

J212. †J212. Choice: plainness with safety or grandeur with danger.

J212.1. †J212.1. Ass envies horse in fine trappings. Horse killed in battle; ass content. Jacobs Aesop 220 No. 78; Scala Celi 135a No. 744; India: Thompson-Balys.

J213. †J213. Choice: loss of beauty or speech. Latter chosen. Type 710; BP I 13ff.

J214. †J214. Choice: suffering in youth or old age. *Wesselski Märchen 236; Fb "rig" III 55a; Irish myth: Cross; English: Wells 114 (Sir Isumbras); Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *937; Russian: Andrejev No. *931 I; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 948*.

J215. †J215. Present evil preferred to change for worse.

J215.1. †J215.1. Don't drive away the flies. Wounded animal (man) refuses to have the flies driven away since they are now sated and their places will be taken by fierce and hungry flies. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 186; Wienert FFC LVI 60 (ET 228), 115 (ST 255); Halm Aesop No. 36; Jacobs Aesop 215 No. 64; Scala Celi 21a No. 132; Alphabet No. 97; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 51; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 32; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J215.1.1. †J215.1.1. Don't set a hungry guard over food. Parrot set to guard figs eats his fill. When replaced he calls attention to the fact that he is now full and therefore safer than another hungry parrot. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J215.1.2. †J215.1.2. King refuses to exile gossipers. They would defame him among strangers. At home they serve to test the king's patience and to reform his life. Spanish: Childers.

J215.1.3. †J215.1.3. Do not pluck off the well-fed leeches. Wolf told not to do so lest hungrier ones take their places as he swims. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J215.1.4. †J215.1.4. Old man chooses to be annoyed by occasional and loud chirp of swallows than by never-ending but soft chirp of sandpipers. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J215.2. †J215.2. Oxen decide not to kill butchers, since inexpert killers might replace them. Wienert FFC LVI 65 (ET 289), 115 (ST 254).

J215.2.1. †J215.2.1. Old woman prays for safety of cruel tyrant for fear a worse one will succeed him. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J215.3. †J215.3. Heathcock prefers home with hardships to travel in foreign lands. *Type 232.

J215.4. †J215.4. Monk goes to wilderness to escape work on material things. Finds that he must work to live and returns to monastery. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J216. †J216. Choice of deaths.

J216.1. †J216.1. Army faces enemy rather than the anger of their king who would kill them if they returned in flight. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 529.

J216.2. †J216.2. Lamb prefers to be sacrificed in temple rather than to be eaten by a wolf. Wienert FFC LVI 51 (ET 107), 115 (ST 253); Halm Aesop No. 273.

J216.3. †J216.3. Crab would rather be killed outright than imprisoned and starved. India: Thompson-Balys.

J216.4. †J216.4. Soldier asks to be stabbed in chest. Prostrate soldier asks enemy to stab him in chest instead of back in order to save his honor. Captor frees him and the two become friends. Spanish: Childers.

J216.5. †J216.5. Early death with fame preferred. Irish myth: *Cross.

J216.6. †J216.6. Saint chooses to die "after pride of youth" and before "misery of old age." Irish myth: Cross.

J217. †J217. Captivity preferred to death.

J217.0.1. †J217.0.1. Unsatisfactory life preferred to death.

J217.0.1.1. †J217.0.1.1. Trickster overhears man praying for death to take him; the trickster appears at man's house, usually in disguise, says he is God (or the devil). The man tells him to take his wife (or he runs away). (Compare †C11 for a similar situation in which Death appears.) U.S.: *Baughman.

J217.1. †J217.1. Escaped lamb delivers himself to shepherd rather than to slaughter. Wienert FFC LVI 71 (ET 354), 115 (ST 252); Halm Aesop No. 377.

J217.2. †J217.2. Discontented ass longs for death but changes mind when he sees skins of dead asses at a fair. Scala Celi 53b No. 299.

J218. †J218. Enemies make peace rather than slay each other.

J218.1. †J218.1. Lion and wild boar make peace rather than slay each other for benefit of vulture. Wienert FFC LVI 48 (ET 72), 108 (ST 202); Halm Aesop No. 253.

J221. †J221. Choice: small injustice permitted rather than to cause troubles of state.

J221.1. †J221.1. King overlooks wife's unfaithfulness rather than to cause troubles of state. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 207.

J221.1.1. †J221.1.1. Senator overlooks wife's adultery rather than impair his reputation. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J221.1.2. †J221.1.2. Man rebukes servants for telling him of his wife's unfaithfulness. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J221.2. †J221.2. King chooses small inconvenience of personal troubles to great troubles for his kingdom. He suffers to help realm. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J221.3. †J221.3. Man would rather pay 500 florins he did not owe than have it said he did not pay debts. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J222. †J222. Rescue alone from shipwreck chosen over drowning with goods. Wienert FFC LVI 81 (ET 472), 142 (ST 486).

J223. †J223. Choice between evils: pay tribute or lose both money and life. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J225. †J225. Choice: apparent injustice over greater wrong.

J225.0.1. †J225.0.1. Angel and hermit. Angel takes hermit with him and does many seemingly unjust things. Later shows why each of these was just. *Type 759; *BP IV 326 No. 3; **DeCock Studien en Essays 178ff.; *Crane Vitry 179 No. 109; Herbert III 8; Fb "uskyldig"; Alphabet Nos. 68, 411; Scala Celi 15a No. 85; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 508b nn. 9--11; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 32; **O. Rohde Die Erzählung vom Einsiedler und dem Engel (Leipzig, 1894); *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 682. --Irish: Beal XXI 336; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 23, *296, Goebel Jüdische Motive in märchenhaften Erzählungsgut (Gleiwitz, 1932) 116ff., *Neuman.

J225.0.1.1. †J225.0.1.1. Angel explains to hermit why God lets a sinner die in peace and have big funeral while holy hermit is slain by a wild beast. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J225.0.2. †J225.0.2. God punishes many men because of one sinner, like a man who kills hive of bees for stinging of one. Irish myth: Cross.

J225.0.3. †J225.0.3. Angel in form of young man shows skeptical hermit that ways of providence are inscrutable. Irish myth: Cross.

J225.1. †J225.1. Youth made lame: had kicked his mother. *Type 759; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 682.

J225.2. †J225.2. Lion sent to kill a man: frees him from possibility of sinning and sojourn in purgatory. *Type 759; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 682.

J225.3. †J225.3. Angel takes cup from old man. Done lest he love the cup too much. *Type 759; Wesselski Mönchslatein No. 79.

J225.4. †J225.4. Angel (Jesus) kills man. Done because man is plotting a murder. *Type 759; Wesselski Mönchslatein No. 79; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J225.5. †J225.5. Angel kills man because he loves his child too much. Type 759; Wesselski Mönchslatein No. 79.

J225.6. †J225.6. Saint gives liberally to gambler, little to beggar. Gambler is generous, beggar hoards. Irish myth: Cross.

J225.7. †J225.7. Forestman who longs to do evil is sent to hell: writer, who repents, is sent to heaven. God justifies this to his sage. India: Thompson-Balys.

J225.8. †J225.8. Evil mother has fine funeral, good father poor. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 50.

J226. †J226. Difficult choice between relatives.

J226.1. †J226.1. Choice of freeing one son: adopted son or long-missing son. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J226.2. †J226.2. Choice: blind son with long life or healthy son with short. Latter chosen. India: Thompson-Balys.

J226.3. †J226.3. Choice: foolish son always with him or four wise daughters who will leave him. Latter chosen. India: Thompson-Balys.

J227. †J227. Death preferred to other evils.

J227.1. †J227.1. Death preferred to captivity. Irish myth: Cross (†J229.13).

J227.2. †J227.2. Death preferred to dishonor. Irish myth: Cross (†J229.9).

J229. †J229. Choice between evils -- miscellaneous.

J229.1. †J229.1. Choice: staying at home with loving wife or going to tavern and having unfaithful wife. Man chooses latter. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 205.

J229.2. †J229.2. Sheep and ignorant shearer. Had rather die than suffer longer from him. Wienert FFC LVI 72 (ET 366), 115 (ST 251); Halm Aesop No. 382.

J229.3. †J229.3. Choice: a big piece of cake with my curse or a small piece with my blessing. Type 480; *Roberts 138; BP I 214.

J229.4. †J229.4. Better send an ugly woman to the devil than a pretty one. Man chooses ugly mistress. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 404.

J229.5. †J229.5. Choice between bad master, bad official, or bad neighbor. Bad master can do evil if he desires to do so; bad official can harm a poor person and complain against him to his master; bad neighbor can betray secret things about his neighbors. Bad neighbor worst. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 586.

J229.6. †J229.6. Bad choice between poor and miserly man. Neither makes good leader. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 571.

J229.7. †J229.7. Rower prefers to be stoned by his master rather than remain out in the storm. Wienert FFC LVI *83 (ET 498), 115 (ST 258).

J229.8. †J229.8. Contentment with evil master for fear of worse successor. Scala Celi 21a No. 128; Herbert III 35ff.; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 45; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J229.8.1. †J229.8.1. Weaver prefers master with one hedgehog. Insists on his master putting hedgehog out of house. When master refuses, weaver leaves. Next master has two hedgehogs, and next has three. Weaver returns to first master. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 603.

J229.9. †J229.9. Man retains questionable bride for fear of getting one who is worse. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J229.10. †J229.10. The smaller the evil the better. Therefore choose the smallest woman possible for a bride. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J229.11. †J229.11. Take money instead of revenge. Fool advises uncle, in letter which he did not send, to take money from wife's paramour instead of revenge. Spanish: Childers.

J229.12. †J229.12. Prisoners given choice between emasculation and blinding. Irish myth: Cross.

J229.13. †J229.13. God's punishment: the sinner may have twelve years of famine or twelve hours of heavy rainfall. India: Thompson-Balys.

J229.14. †J229.14. Physical pain preferred to poverty. Jewish: Neuman.

†J230-†J299. REAL AND APPARENT VALUES.

J230. †J230. Choice: real and apparent values.

J231. †J231. Wisdom chosen above all else. Jewish: *Neuman.

J231.1. †J231.1. Solomon, permitted by God to make any request, asks wisdom. Granted wisdom and wealth. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

J231.2. †J231.2. Choice between love and wisdom. Greek: Fox 76 (Herakles).

J232. †J232. Health chosen as the most precious thing. India: Thompson-Balys.

J233. †J233. Choice between desire and duty. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 235, Boberg.

J240. †J240. Choice between useful and ornamental.

J241. †J241. Fruitful tree chosen.

J241.1. †J241.1. Athena chooses olive tree because of fruitfulness. Wienert FFC LVI 76 (ET 417), 143 (ST 488).

J241.2. †J241.2. Peasant leaves honey tree standing. Sparrows and crickets ask peasant to leave tree standing. He refuses, but when he finds honey in the tree he consents. Wienert FFC LVI 71 (ET 350), 143 (ST 494); Halm Aesop No. 102.

J242. †J242. Useful wins contest over beautiful.

J242.1. †J242.1. Contest between rose and amaranth: worth lies not in beauty. Wienert FFC LVI 43 (ET 4), *142 (ST 484); Halm Aesop No. 384.

J242.2. †J242.2. Pine and thornbush dispute as to their usefulness. Beauty of form does not give worth; pine grows slowly but it will withstand storms. Wienert FFC LVI 44 (ET 15), 74 (ET 398), *142 (ST 483); Halm Aesop No. 125.

J242.3. †J242.3. Fox and panther contest in beauty. Fox's spirit worth more than panther's skin. Wienert FFC LVI *43 (ET 1), 142 (ST 482); Halm Aesop No. 42.

J242.4. †J242.4. Peacock proved to be bad king. Chosen because of beauty; too weak to defend his flock. Wienert FFC LVI 47 (ET 63), 90 (ST 22), 142 (ST 480); Halm Aesop No. 398; Dh IV 185ff.

J242.5. †J242.5. Peacock and crane in beauty contest. Better be able to soar like crane than to strut about like peacock. Wienert FFC LVI 43 (ET 3), 142 (ST 479); Halm Aesop No. 397.

J242.6. †J242.6. Contest in beauty between swallows and crows (ants and flies): worth lies not in beauty. Wienert FFC LVI 43 (ET 5, 9), 124 (ST 330), 142 (ST 482); Halm Aesop No. 415.

J242.7. †J242.7. Choice of a learned crow: a dead cat better than a golden crown. India: Thompson-Balys.

J242.8. †J242.8. In dividing property clever younger brother takes hind part of buffalo, upper part of tree, and use of curtain during night. India: Thompson-Balys.

J243. †J243. Usefulness better than speed.

J243.1. †J243.1. Dog and hog dispute over their children: worth lies not in speed. Wienert FFC LVI 44 (ET 19), 142 (ST 478); Halm Aesop No. 409.

J244. †J244. Goodness preferred to beauty.

J244.1. †J244.1. Father with handsome son and hideous daughter. Advises both to look in mirror daily lest son exchange handsome face for bad character; daughter to triumph over face by good manners. Wienert FFC LVI 83 (ET 494), 149 (ST 536).

J245. †J245. Useful and ugly preferred to expensive and beautiful.

J245.1. †J245.1. Millstone preferred to jewels. Man shown jewels that cost much money; he replies that he has better stones (millstones) that earn that much. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 164; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J245.2. †J245.2. King who experiences the cultural civilization of an empire in dream would rather be poor and primitive. India: Thompson-Balys.

J246. †J246. Strength preferred to cleverness.

J246.1. †J246.1. Man criticizes the devil because his deeds are not fair. Devil says that they are strong nevertheless. Hence strong speakers rather than clever are to be preferred. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 609.

J246.2. †J246.2. Hero, despising weapons, fights with fists alone. Irish myth: *Cross.

J247. †J247. Goodness preferred to wealth. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

J247.1. †J247.1. Man advised to choose good poor man for his daughter's husband rather than rich man. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J251. †J251. Practical knowledge more vital than theoretical. Jewish: Neuman.

J251.1. †J251.1. The bookman and the boatman: each ignorant of other's work. Bookman's swimming saves their lives. India: Thompson-Balys.

J252. †J252. Learned person worth two unlearned. Latter wastes time, former not. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *2445.

J260. †J260. Choice between worth and appearance.

J261. †J261. Loudest mourners not greatest sorrowers. Wienert FFC LVI 83 (ET 496), 142 (ST 485); Halm Aesop No. 369.

J262. †J262. Noisy things often empty.

J262.1. †J262.1. Fox and noisy but empty drum. Chauvin II 86 No. 21; Bødker Exempler 278 No. 20; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J262.2. †J262.2. Little coin in empty bottle noisy. Jewish: Neuman.

J263. †J263. Among many vain words may be found some of wisdom. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J264. †J264. Apparent beauty may be of the least importance. Ruler admires jewels's beauty but neglects to inquire about their marvelous virtues. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J266. †J266. Choice between short and dangerous or long and sure way. (Cf. †J21.5.3.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

J267. †J267. Choice between flattering lies and unflattering truths.

J267.1. †J267.1. Raven drowns his young who promise to aid him when he becomes old. He saves one who admits he will not help, because he will have to carry his own young. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *244; Finnish: Aarne FFC V No. 33*.

J280. †J280. Quality preferred to quantity.

J281. †J281. Quality of offspring preferred to quantity.

J281.1. †J281.1. "Only one, but a lion". Lioness thus answers fox (hog) who twits her that she has only one cub. Wienert FFC LVI 44 (ET 20), 142 (ST 477); Halm Aesop No. 240.

†J300-†J329. PRESENT VALUES CHOSEN.

J310. †J310. The present preferred to the past.

J311. †J311. Heed not the past.

J311.1. †J311.1. Count only the waves before you. Fox sees man trying to count the waves. Advises him to count only those immediately before him and to pay no attention to those which have already passed. Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 340), 144 (ST 496); Halm Aesop No. 60.

J311.2. †J311.2. Do not ask: "Why were the former days better than the present ones?" Jewish: Neuman.

J312. †J312. Not what you were but what you are counts.

J312.1. †J312.1. Wasp twits butterfly with coming from ugly chrysalis: unimportant where you come from. Wienert FFC LVI 43 (ET 14), 144 (ST 497).

J320. †J320. Present values preferred to future.

J321. †J321. Present possessions preferred to future possibilities.

J321.1. †J321.1. A bird in the hand foolishly given away in hope of greater gain. Wienert FFC LVI 50 (ET 94), 105, 147 (ST 175, 525); Halm Aesop No. 9.

J321.1.1. †J321.1.1. Today's catch of fish traded for prospective larger catch tomorrow. Africa (Akan-Ashanti): Rattray 252 No. 67.

J321.2. †J321.2. Little fish in the net kept rather than wait for uncertainty of greater catch. Wienert FFC LVI 66 (ET 308), 105 (ST 176); Halm Aesop No. 28; Jacobs Aesop 212 No. 53; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J321.3. †J321.3. Lion leaves sleeping hare to follow the shepherd. Loses both victims. Wienert FFC LVI 51 (ET 105), 106 (ST 180); Halm Aesop No. 254.

J321.4. †J321.4. Present possessions preferred to future. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J322. †J322. Don't injure yourself to insure your family's future.

J322.1. †J322.1. Man wagers he can run with his head off. Asked what it will profit him, he says that it will profit his family. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 567.

J323. †J323. Man to be reforged chooses present unhappiness. He is in heaven and God is to reforge him, but he chooses not to change. Indonesian: *DeVries's list No. 239.

J325. †J325. Children choose father they know rather than real father they do not yet know. Woman confesses that child is not by her husband. Child, however, chooses to keep the father he knows. (Cf. †J391, †J1279.1.) Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 809.

J326. †J326. Man prefers servant girl who is present to her absent mistress. Nouvelles Récréations No. 1.

J327. †J327. Soldier prefers to live rather than die and be avenged on enemy. Nouvelles Récréations No. 44.

†J330-†J369. GAINS AND LOSSES.

J340. †J340. Choices: little gain, big loss.

J341. †J341. Weight of bodily member chosen rather than its loss. (Cf. †J351.)

J341.1. †J341.1. Fox prefers to bear weight of his tail rather than give part of it to ape. *Crane Vitry 204 No. 171; Herbert III 15.

J342. †J342. High wages bring expensive living. West Indies: Flowers 475.

J342.1. †J342.1. Barber leaves inexpensive village for high wages in city. Finds cost of living more than enough to take all his profit. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 602; Scala Celi 60a No. 332; Alphabet No. 448.

J342.1.1. †J342.1.1. In spite of master's advice disciple stays in country where everything has cheap price. Gets into trouble. India: Thompson-Balys.

J342.2. †J342.2. Wise man refuses income of half a kingdom since expenses will outweigh gain. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J343. †J343. Man refuses cure which brings greater inconvenience.

J343.1. †J343.1. Drunkard refuses cure of fever if it is to take away his thirst. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 236.

J344. †J344. What one has is neglected in search for other things.

J344.1. †J344.1. The monkey and the lost lentil. Lets all others he has in his hand fall in order to search for it. *Chauvin II 104 No. 67; Bødker Exempler 302 No. 70; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J344.2. †J344.2. Host wants to learn Hebrew even at risk of forgetting his own language. Chauvin II 106 No. 69; Bødker Exempler 303 No. 72.

J345. †J345. The valuable neglected for the interesting.

J345.1. †J345.1. Herdsman neglects his she-goats in favor of wild-goats. She-goats die; wild-goats run off. Wienert FFC LVI 72 (ET 368), 106 (ST 181); Halm Aesop No. 12.

J345.2. †J345.2. Man leaves farming for fishing. When water dries up he goes hungry. India: Thompson-Balys.

J346. †J346. Better be content with what you have, than try to get more and lose everything. Icelandic: [A]ns saga bogsv. 361, Boberg.

J347. †J347. Wealth and glory sacrificed for freedom and virtue.

J347.1. †J347.1. Man refuses vast wealth because with it will come covetousness. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J347.2. †J347.2. King lays aside crown since it brings too many cares. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J347.3. †J347.3. Prince chooses exile and honor to foul life at his father's court. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J347.4. †J347.4. Rich merchant is poorer in happiness than poor man. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J347.5. †J347.5. Man refuses rich marriage with house filled with dangerous wild animals. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J350. †J350. Choices: small inconvenience, large gain.

J351. †J351. Bodily member(s) sacrificed to save life. (Cf. †J341.) Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J351.1. †J351.1. Beaver sacrifices scrotum to save life. Cuts it off and leaves it for pursuers. Wienert FFC LVI 63 (ET 264), 141 (ST 475); Halm Aesop No. 189.

J352. †J352. Inconvenience disregarded when booty is in sight.

J352.1. †J352.1. Wolf does not mind the dust. Told that dust from flock of sheep will annoy him; he finds it useful. Chauvin III 41 No. 7.

J352.2. †J352.2. Snake is willing to suffer the indignity of serving frog king as mount because frog king gives him frogs to eat. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J355. †J355. Slight inconvenience in weather, large gain.

J355.1. †J355.1. The widow's meal. King upbraids wind for blowing away a poor widow's last cup of meal. Finds that the wind has saved a ship full of people by that very act. The king is humbled. **Schiller Anthropos XII--XIII 513; DeVries FFC LXXIII 324ff.; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 67, *301, *Neuman.

J356. †J356. Less inconvenience in fighting though tired than in losing all for a little rest. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J357. †J357. Priest sells his donkey because worry for its safety distracts him from prayer. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J369. †J369. Small inconvenience, large gain -- miscellaneous.

J369.1. †J369.1. Solomon refuses water of immortality for himself when he cannot have it for his possessions also. Chauvin II 126 No. 129.

J369.2. †J369.2. Ape throws away nut because of its bitter rind. *Crane Vitry 188 No. 127; Herbert III 11, 36ff.; Hervieux Fabulistes latins I 218 No. 47.

J370. †J370. Choices: important and unimportant work.

J371. †J371. No time for minor fights when life is in danger.

J371.1. †J371.1. Bull refuses to fight goat. Bull being pursued by lion tries to go into cave. Goat refuses to let him in. Bull must go on, for with lion pursuing he has no time to fight goat. Wienert FFC LVI 56 (ET 168), 112 (ST 234); Halm Aesop 396.

J372. †J372. King ridiculed for inventing trifle of musical instrument but praised for constructing a great mosque. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J390. †J390. Choices: kind strangers, unkind relatives.

J391. †J391. Kind foster-parents chosen rather than cruel parents. (Cf. †J325.)

J391.1. †J391.1. Lamb chooses her foster-mother, the she-goat. Owes more to her than to her own mother, who has deserted her. Wienert FFC LVI 63 (ET 259), 145 (ST 507).

†J400-†J459. CHOICE OF ASSOCIATES.

J400. †J400. Choice of associates.

J401. †J401. Scarcity of real friends.

J401.0.1. †J401.0.1. "A friend is known in need." Irish myth: Cross.

J401.1. †J401.1. Socrates builds himself a little house. Criticized for its smallness he says, "I wish I had true friends enough to fill it." Wienert FFC LVI 39; Phaedrus III 9.

J410. †J410. Association of equals and unequals.

J411. †J411. Great refuse to associate with lowly. Missouri French: Carrière.

J411.1. †J411.1. Boar refuses to fight with lowly ass. Wienert FFC LVI *76 (ET 158), 120 (ST 298).

J411.2. †J411.2. Zeus refuses wedding present from snake. Presents to be received only from equals. Wienert FFC LVI 76 (ET 423), 120 (ST 297); Halm Aesop No. 153.

J411.3. †J411.3. Prince refuses to play with common children. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 165.

J411.3.1. †J411.3.1. Noble poets refuse to associate with truly good poet because of his lowly birth. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J411.4. †J411.4. Peasant ashamed of being thrown off by ass. Shameful to be thrown by such a creature. Wienert FFC LVI 73 (ET 378), 120 (ST 299); Halm Aesop No. 3.

J411.5. †J411.5. Wolf tries to make friends with lion: killed. Wienert FFC LVI 49 (ET 82), 92 (ST 54); Halm Aesop No. 280.

J411.6. †J411.6. Dolphin and whale scorn crab as peacemaker. Wienert FFC LVI 48 (ET 69), 92 (ST 45); Halm Aesop No. 116.

J411.7. †J411.7. Laurel and olive tree scorn thornbush as umpire in their dispute as to who is most useful. Wienert FFC LVI 43 (ET 12), 74 (ET 392), 92 (ST 46).

J411.8. †J411.8. Mouse on lion's mane. Lion angry at impudence of mouse. Wienert FFC LVI *56 (ET 167), 113 (ST 238); Halm Aesop No. 257.

J411.9. †J411.9. Knight disregards insult by servant. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J411.9.1. †J411.9.1. King refuses to quarrel with bird. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J411.10. †J411.10. Leopard ashamed of having been bitten by lizard. India: Thompson-Balys.

J411.11. †J411.11. Rich man refuses to associate with poor sister. India: Thompson-Balys.

J412. †J412. Profitable association of great and lowly.

J412.1. †J412.1. Prince of democratic tastes chosen. King asks three sons what kind of bird they would prefer to be. First: an eagle, because it is ruler of birds; second: a falcon; because it is beloved by the nobles; third: a bird which flies with many others, so as to receive advice. King chooses third. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 677.

J413. †J413. Unprofitable association of unequals.

J413.1. †J413.1. Lion licks sick man, who is thereby disgusted. India: Thompson-Balys.

J414. †J414. Marriage with equal or with unequal.

J414.1. †J414.1. Wife chosen instead of fairy mistress. They let man choose between them. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 88.

J414.2. †J414.2. Prince prefers first love to princess he later marries. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 61 No. 445A.

J414.3. †J414.3. Unsuccessful marriage of jackals and turtles (different abits). India: Thompson-Balys.

J416. †J416. One's own kind preferred to strangers.

J416.1. †J416.1. Bird refuses to maintain friendship with bird of different habits. India: Thompson-Balys.

J417. †J417. Man prefers to live with ordinary rather than with pious man. He will be virtuous by comparison. Jewish: *Neuman.

J420. †J420. Association of strong and weak.

J421. †J421. Subordination of weak to strong.

J421.1. †J421.1. Lion as king makes ass his lieutenant. *Basset RTP VI 244.

J421.2. †J421.2. Lion makes lame goat his lieutenant. India: Thompson-Balys.

J423. †J423. Stupid fear company of clever.

J423.1. †J423.1. Jackal realizes that the partridge was too clever for him and leaves. India: Thompson-Balys.

J425. †J425. Weak fear company of strong.

J425.1. †J425.1. Earthen and brazen pots in river. Brazen pot thinks that they should stay together for company. Earthen pot, however, fears approach of brazen pot. Wienert FFC LVI 76 (ET 414), *136 (ST 415); Halm Aesop No. 422; Jacobs Aesop 212 No. 51; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

J425.2. †J425.2. Buffalo refuses tiger's invitation to dinner. He sees fire prepared to cook him. India: Thompson-Balys.

J426. †J426. Association of rat with cat ceases as soon as mutual danger has passed. The rat threatened by the weasel and the owl allies himself with a cat caught in a net. Saved by the cat, he rescues the cat with precaution and then prudently renounces further relations with her. Chauvin II 101 No. 61; Bødker Exempler No. 66; India: Thompson-Balys.

J426.1. †J426.1. Association of mouse with cat ceases as soon as mutual danger has passed. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J426.2. †J426.2. Friendship of snake and frog ceases when snake wants to eat frog. India: Thompson-Balys.

J427. †J427. Association of cow and tiger: tiger eats cow as soon as she is hungry. India: Thompson-Balys.

J428. †J428. Association of tiger and crane. They soon quarrel. India: Thompson-Balys.

J429. †J429. Association of strong and weak -- miscellaneous.

J429.1. †J429.1. Association of swan and swallow: swan unable to fly away from danger. Type 246*.

J429.2. †J429.2. Associating with a bad friend is fatal: swan and crow. Swan is blamed when crow drops filth. India: Thompson-Balys.

J440. †J440. Association of young and old.

J441. †J441. Profitable association of young and old.

J441.1. †J441.1. Old ox yoked with young ox. Thus kept in order. Wienert FFC LVI 85 (ET 516), 146 (ST 511).

J445. †J445. Foolish association of young and old.

J445.1. †J445.1. Foolish youth in love with ugly old mistress. Herbert III 39ff.; Hervieux I 188 No. 14a; Heptameron No. 27; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J445.2. †J445.2. Foolish marriage of old man and young girl. Nouvelles Recreations No. 16; Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 99; Panchatantra (tr. Ryder) 341; Icelandic: *Boberg.

J450. †J450. Association of the good and the evil.

J451. †J451. Contagiousness of bad company.

J451.1. †J451.1. Ass buyer returns ass which has associated with lazy companions. Wienert FFC LVI 72 (ET 376), 120 (ST 294); Halm Aesop No. 320; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J451.2. †J451.2. Stork killed along with cranes. Ill-advised associations end fatally. Wienert FFC LVI 67 (ET 309), 120 (ST 296); Halm Aesop No. 100.

J451.3. †J451.3. God of wealth in bad company. Heracles on his arrival in heaven fails to greet Plutus, the god of wealth: he has seen him in too bad company. Wienert FFC LVI 76 (ET 418), 120 (ST 295); Halm Aesop No 160.

J451.4. †J451.4. Mirror begrimed by snail. Wienert FFC LVI 75 (ET 412), 120 (ST 300).

J452. †J452. Bad associates bring death to bishop. Doctor loses his life for him and lawyer his soul. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J455. †J455. Harm of association with flatterers. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 739.

J460. †J460. Unnecessary choices.

J461. †J461. Senseless debate of the mutually useful.

J461.1. †J461.1. The belly and the members. Debate as to their usefulness. All mutually useful. *Prato Archivio per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari IV (1885) 25ff.; Penzer V 135 n.; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 399; Wienert FFC LVI *43 (ET 6), 92 (ST 59); Halm Aesop No. 197; Jacobs Aesop 206 No. 29; *Crane Vitry 167 No. 73; *H. Gombel Die Fabel vom Magen und den Gliedern (Beihefte zur Zs. f. romanische Philologie LXXX [Halle, 1934]). --Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 71, *301f., *Neuman; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 139; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 393.

J461.1.1. †J461.1.1. Tail and head of serpent quarrel as to usefulness. Wienert FFC LVI 58 (ET 187), 93 (ST 60); Halm Aesop No. 344; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

J461.1.2. †J461.1.2. Fortune, Intellect, Knowledge, and Health dispute as to which is the greatest. India: Thompson-Balys.

J461.1.3. †J461.1.3. Debate of tongue and other bodily members. Jewish: *Neuman.

J461.2. †J461.2. Common wives of man debate as to which has helped him most. Help of each was indispensable. Africa (Vai): Ellis 235 No. 56, 255 No. 52.

J461.3. †J461.3. Tobacco, pipe, and match debate usefulness to smoker. Africa (Vai): Ellis 196 No. 13.

J461.4. †J461.4. Deer, opossum, and snake each render indispensable aid to man. Foolishly debate their usefulness. Africa (Vai): Ellis 230 No. 39.

J461.5. †J461.5. Rice, wheat, and dal dispute as to which is the best. India: Thompson-Balys.

J461.6. †J461.6. Dispute of hammer and anvil. India: Thompson-Balys.

J461.7. †J461.7. Wealth and wisdom dispute as to who is greater. India: Thompson-Balys.

J461.8. †J461.8. Elephant and ape debate about superiority. Owl gives them task neither can perform and ends futile debate. India: Thompson-Balys

J462. †J462. Unnecessary choices of belief.

J462.1. †J462.1. Unnecessary choice of gods. King's sons each choose a god: Jupiter for power, Saturn for wisdom, etc. Father says that a god of all combined would be better. Oesterley No. 243; Herbert III 204. Cf. Wienert FFC LVI 44 (ET 23), 135 (ST 410); Babrius No. 15.

J462.2. †J462.2. Unnecessary choice of philosophies. Aristotle drinks both red and white wine to show that all philosophies are good. Scala Celi 35b No. 197.

J462.3. †J462.3. Unnecessary choice of religion.

J462.3.1. †J462.3.1. Father leaves sons three jewels -- Christianity, Judaism, Mohammedanism. All to be used. (Cf. †J1262.9.) *Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII--XXXIV 70; Boccaccio Decameron I No. 3 (*Lee 6); Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 150, 281.

J462.3.1.1. †J462.3.1.1. Father gives son three rings. Only one is good although they all look the same. Same with religions. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J463. †J463. Unnecessary choice: to go uphill or downhill. Camel prefers the level. Wienert FFC LVI 71 (ET 353), 111 (ST 223).

J465. †J465. Unnecessary choice: praying or reading. Both are good. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 105.

J466. †J466. Senseless debates about usefulness.

J466.1. †J466.1. Pomegranate and apple tree dispute as to which is worth most. Blackberry reproves them for useless jangling. Wienert FFC LVI 43 (ET 11), 74 (ET 390), 92 (ST 47); Halm Aesop No. 385.

J466.2. †J466.2. Senseless debate: which is the greater, St. John the Baptist or St. John the Evangelist? Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J480. †J480. Other choices.

J481. †J481. Inflicters rather than receivers of wounds chosen. Men with many wounds recommended as soldiers. King had rather have those who gave the wounds. Wesselski Bebel I 69 No. 48.

J482. †J482. King advised to marry maid rather than widow. Widow would have things her own way. *Stiefel Zs. f. Vksk. VIII 278.

J482.1. †J482.1. Woman refuses second marriage. If husband is good she will fear to lose him; if bad she will repent. Alphabet No. 565; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J482.1.1. †J482.1.1. Woman refuses second marriage. Her husband abides in her heart. Spanish: Childers.

J482.1.2. †J482.1.2. Widow refuses second marriage so her brother cannot kill a second husband. Heptameron No. 40.

J482.2. †J482.2. Better to marry ugly than fair wife. Less hard to satisfy. Alphabet No. 798.

J482.2.1. †J482.2.1. Better to marry a man lacking money than money lacking a man. Spanish: Childers, Keller.

J482.3. †J482.3. Young man advised to choose as wife a girl whose mother was chaste. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J483. †J483. Choice: to do that which one knows or to learn something. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 104.

J484. †J484. Enjoyment preferred to wealth. Penzer IV 198.

J485. †J485. Three sins of the hermit. Choice of three sins given him: adultery, murder (theft), drunkenness. He chooses drunkenness; the others follow. (Cf. †J21.25.) *Type 839; **Taylor MPh XX 61ff.; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 243; Chauvin VIII 129 No. 118; Herbert III *131; Köhler-Bolte I 583; Nouvelles de Sens No. 25; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 24; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 159, 282, Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys. Cf. Wesselski Mönchslatein 22 No. 17.

J486. †J486. Death preferred above God and Justice. *Type 332; BP I 381ff.; *Fb "Vorherre" III 1087b.

J487. †J487. Tame dog prefers food basin to fleeing hare. Wienert FFC LVI *85 (ET 522), 145 (ST 503); Halm Aesop No. 390.

J488. †J488. Fox had rather meet one hen than fifty women. English: Wells 184 (The Fox and the Wolf).

J491. †J491. Old sweetheart chosen in preference to new. Type 886.

J493. †J493. Little men preferred to big men. Preacher prefers small men because the intellect has difficulty in reaching to one's heels. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J494. †J494. Choice: death and revenge preferred to life. Irish myth: *Cross.

J495. †J495. Monk chooses solitude and loneliness to company and temptation. By living alone he escapes sin. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J496. †J496. Choice of friend over mistress. Given the choice of his friend or his mistress, man chooses his friend. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J497. †J497. Eagle prefers own offspring to changeling. Irish myth: Cross.

†J500-†J599; Prudence and Discretion.

J510. †J510. Prudence in ambition.

J511. †J511. One should not attempt to change his color.

J511.1. †J511.1. Negro tries in vain to be washed white. Wienert FFC LVI *46 (ET 48), *87 (ST 5); Halm Aesop No. 13; India: Thompson-Balys.

J512. †J512. Animal should not try to change his nature.

J512.1. †J512.1. Crab comes ashore: killed by fox. Wienert FFC LVI 50 (ET 91), 90 (ST 28); Halm Aesop No. 186.

J512.2. †J512.2. Kite tries to neigh like a horse. Loses his voice and gains nothing. Wienert FFC LVI *46 (ET 52), 90 (ST 27); Halm Aesop No. 170.

J512.3. †J512.3. Camel tries in vain to dance. Wienert FFC LVI 46 (ET 46, 47), *88, 90 (ST 10, 20); Halm Aesop No. 182, 365.

J512.4. †J512.4. Ass tries in vain to play lyre. *Wienert FFC LVI 45 (ET 26), 130 (ST 373).

J512.5. †J512.5. Wolf tries in vain to be doctor. Only increases patient's suffering. Wienert FFC LVI 46 (ET 40), 122 (ST 309).

J512.6. †J512.6. Crow tries to imitate partridge's walk. Only spoils his own. Chauvin II 106 No. 70; Bødker Exempler 303 No. 73; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J512.7. †J512.7. Mouse, bird, and sausage keep house together. When they exchange duties all goes wrong. *Type 85; *BP I 206, III 558; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 135.

J512.7.1. †J512.7.1. Elephant, giraffe, snake, and ant try keeping house together: requirements different. India: Thompson-Balys.

J512.8. †J512.8. Ass tries to get a cricket's voice. Asks crickets what they eat to get such a voice. They answer, "dew." He tries it and starves. Wienert FFC LVI 46 (ET 43), 90 (ST 24); Halm Aesop No. 337.

J512.9. †J512.9. Lizard tries to make himself as long as snake. Kills himself. Wienert FFC LVI 58 (ET 189), 93 (ST 62); Halm Aesop No. 388.

J512.10. †J512.10. Fox tries to mask as dove, but loses all thoughts of murder. India: Thompson-Balys.

J512.11. †J512.11. Camel and jackal exchange food: camel is led by his good friend to thorny fruit and thorn sticks in his throat. India: Thompson-Balys.

J512.12. †J512.12. Frog wants to be shod like a horse. India: Thompson-Balys.

J512.13. †J512.13. Jackal accidentally made king but joins other jackals in howling at night. Killed. India: Thompson-Balys.

J512.14. †J512.14. Snake wants to act as pet like parrot: killed. India: Thompson-Balys.

J512.15. †J512.15. Frogs want to collect honey like bees. India: Thompson-Balys.

J513. †J513. One should let well enough alone.

J513.1. †J513.1. Birds seeking richer lands are nearly all killed. Survivors advise their friends to let well enough alone. *Wesselski Arlotto I 201 No. 31.

J513.2. †J513.2. Barber tries unsuccessfully to become a trader. India: Thompson-Balys.

J514. †J514. One should not be too greedy. Type 555.

J514.1. †J514.1. Kite tries to carry off so many partridges that he drops them all. Herbert III 40ff.; Hervieux IV 211 No. 38; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J514.2. †J514.2. Wolf tries to eat bowstring. Finds hunter, gazelle, and wild boar dead. Tries first to eat the bowstring, and is mortally wounded. Chauvin II 95 No. 47; Bødker Exempler 292 No. 51; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys.

J514.3. †J514.3. Greedy man keeps demanding one more thing from complacent man; at last is magically blinded. Campbell-McKay No. 21.

J514.4. †J514.4. Greedy pig looks up into tree for figs. This causes his death. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J514.5. †J514.5. Greedy man dissatisfied with gold looks for jewels; finds only iron and eventually nothing. India: Thompson-Balys.

J514.6. †J514.6. Fowler wants two rubies as ransom for a caught goose; loses goose and both rubies. India: Thompson-Balys.

J515. †J515. Peacock spends so much time preening for coronation that birds become impatient and make the owl king instead. India: Thompson-Balys.

J530. †J530. Prudence in demands.

J531. †J531. Good shepherd shears his sheep; does not skin them. Emperor thus replies to suggestion of a new tax to be laid on the people. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 742.

J550. †J550. Zeal -- temperate and intemperate.

J551. †J551. Intemperate zeal in truth-telling.

J551.1. †J551.1. Cocks who crow about mistress's adultery killed. Discreet cock saves his life. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 9; Oesterley No. 68; Herbert III 206.

J551.1.1. †J551.1.1. Bird warns mistress against committing adultery: gets neck wrung. India: Thompson-Balys.

J551.2. †J551.2. Fool given the truth on his back. He tells his master what the servants have done during his absence. The servants whip him on his bare back, saying at each blow, "That is the truth." When the master returns and tells the fool to tell the truth, the latter replies, "There is nothing worse on earth than the truth." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 1.

J551.3. †J551.3. Doctor loses a horse for the sake of the truth. Overlord asks two doctors whether he is entitled to all the possessions of his retainers. One doctor unrighteously answers yes and receives a horse. The other who tells the truth receives nothing. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 123.

J551.4. †J551.4. Man asked to tell truth says that his host, his hostess, and the cat have but three eyes between them. He is driven off for his truth telling. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 3.

J551.5. †J551.5. Magpie tells a man that his wife has eaten an eel, which she said was eaten by the otter. The woman plucks his feathers out. When the magpie sees a bald man, she says, "You too must have tattled about the eel." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 6.

J551.6. †J551.6. Only youngest son tells king truth when asked where they got their food: banished. India: Thompson-Balys.

J551.7. †J551.7. Honest servant tells people that shop does not have many customers: dismissed. India: Thompson-Balys.

J552. †J552. Intemperate pugnacity.

J552.1. †J552.1. Noblemen who quarreled over a device. Wiser of the two shows foolishness of such a fight. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 168.

J552.2. †J552.2. Noblemen being ruined by long lawsuit decide wisely to join their families in marriage and save their fortunes. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 402.

J552.2.1. †J552.2.1. Bishop fond of lawsuits is ordered by king to settle them: bishop pleads for a few to be left so that he will have something to live for. Nouvelles Récréations No. 34.

J552.3. †J552.3. Serpent (weasel) tries to bite a file. Wienert FFC LVI 75 (ET 401, 402), 98 (ST 119, 120); Halm Aesop Nos. 86, 126; Jacobs Aesop 206 No. 26.

J552.4. †J552.4. Helmet left for woman to quarrel with. Woman insists upon quarreling with a nobleman. He says, "If you wish to quarrel, I shall leave my helmet here. You can talk to it." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 641.

J552.5. †J552.5. Brothers compose quarrel and save umpire's fee. India: Thompson-Balys.

J552.6. †J552.6. Boast at home. In Castile a Spaniard maintains to a Portuguese that the Spanish king is best of all. In Portugal, that the Portuguese king is best. "Each cock crows in his own barnyard." Spanish: Childers (†J500).

J553. †J553. Intemperance in work.

J553.1. †J553.1. Aesop with the unbent bow. Upbraided when found playing with children, he unstrings a bow and shows how good relaxation is. Wienert FFC LVI 40; Phaedrus III No. 14; Thiele Hermes XLI 585; Alphabet Nos. 6, 671.

J553.2. †J553.2. Ruler interrupts meeting of Senate to amuse his small son. When rebuked for making him a whistle he says: "I would have blown it for him had he asked me to do so." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J554. †J554. Intemperance in service. Emperor rebukes overzealous servant as being a nuisance. Wienert FFC LVI 85 (ET 523), 143 (ST 491).

J555. †J555. Intemperance in obedience.

J555.1. †J555.1. Cum grano salis. Instructions of mother followed literally by one daughter when she marries. All goes wrong. Second daughter follows them in conformity with her father's explanations and all is well. *Type 915.

J556. †J556. Intemperance in honesty. Irish: Beal XXI 335, O'Suilleabhain 118.

J556.1. †J556.1. St. George teaches the poor man, "Who steals somewhat and lies somewhat will be rich." Type 790*.

J556.2. †J556.2. Forget God for five years and you will become wealthy. Nouvelles Récréations No. 53.

J557. †J557. Intemperance in undertaking labor.

J557.1. †J557.1. Monk discouraged by large amount of work to be done persuaded to undertake but a small amount each day. The small task will be done; the large one will merely discourage. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 262; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J557.1.1. †J557.1.1. True penance for even a day is effective. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J558. †J558. Intemperance in sacrificing. Wienert FFC LVI 80 (ET 462), 138 (ST 431); Halm Aesop No. 161; Jewish: Neuman.

J561. †J561. Intemperance in pursuit.

J561.1. †J561.1. Man tracking gorilla sees animal's strength. Wisely refrains. Africa (Fjort): Dennett 69 No. 14.

J561.2. †J561.2. Cow-herd looking for cattle thief recognizes him in the lion. Desists. Wienert FFC LVI 67 (ET 318), 109 (ST 213); Halm Aesop No. 83.

J562. †J562. Intemperance in charity. A waste of time to make a bed for a dog who lies down wherever he happens to be tired. Likewise a waste of time to help unappreciative people. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 429.

J563. †J563. Man resuscitates a lion which devours him. *Krappe Papers and Trans. of Jubilee Congress of Folk Lore Society (London, 1930) 277ff.; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas II 270, *357, *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

J564. †J564. Intemperance in worship. Irish myth: Cross.

J565. †J565. Intemperance in fasting.

J565.1. †J565.1. Fool fasts on roof till he becomes so weak he falls off. India: Thompson-Balys.

J570. †J570. Wisdom of deliberation.

J571. †J571. Avoid hasty judgment. Jewish: Neuman.

J571.1. †J571.1. When in anger say the alphabet. Man thus restrained from hasty judgment. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 257.

J571.2. †J571.2. King given three wheels to control his anger. *Chauvin II 127 No. 130.

J571.3. †J571.3. King in anger punishes misdeed on Easter day. Is almost killed himself in retaliation. He submits and says that he deserves this punishment for hasty action. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 256.

J571.4. †J571.4. Avoid hasty punishment.

J571.4.1. †J571.4.1. Man has disinterested party punish servant for him lest he himself be unfair in his anger. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J571.4.2. †J571.4.2. Master when angry will not punish servant who has ruined him. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J571.5. †J571.5. King restrained from hasty judgment by being told story. India: Thompson-Balys.

J571.6. †J571.6. Judge not that you be not judged: thus judge upbraided when he is later accused in court and claims mercy. India: Thompson-Balys.

J571.7. †J571.7. Answer questions of a fool the next day. India: Thompson-Balys.

J571.8. †J571.8. Unpaid servant refuses to blame master: later rewarded. Jewish: Neuman.

J572. †J572. Wisdom of deliberation in fight. West Indies: Flowers 476.

J572.1. †J572.1. Bravest know how to wait. Three men are pursued in battle. First throws himself on enemies; second waits a little; third does not fight until the enemy begins. Latter is bravest. *Chauvin II 152 No. 15; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J580. †J580. Wisdom of caution.

J581. †J581. Foolishness of noise-making when enemies overhear.

J581.1. †J581.1. Wolf as dog's guest sings. He has drunk too much and sings in spite of the dog's warning. He is killed. *Type 100; *BP II 111.

J581.2. †J581.2. Paramour who insists on quarreling with mistress about escape caught by her husband. He finds the escape different from that which had been described to him. Chauvin II 84 No. 12; Bødker Exempler 275 No. 11; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J581.3. †J581.3. Monk's enemies quarrel and thus save him. Robber who wants to steal monk's cow and devil who wants to steal his soul quarrel as to which shall begin first; they thus awaken him and the neighbors. Chauvin II 97 No. 53; Bødker Exempler 296 No. 58; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J581.4. †J581.4. Drones dispute possession of honey. Ordered to make honey. Dispossessed. Wienert FFC LVI 54 (ET 140), 100 (ST 138).

J581.5. †J581.5. Kites and crows quarrel over division of wounded fox. Meantime fox escapes. India: Thompson-Balys.

J582. †J582. Foolishness of premature coming out of hiding.

J582.1. †J582.1. Hidden goat discovered by his horn protruding above ground. Phaedrus II No. 8; West Indies: Flowers 476.

J582.2. †J582.2. Hidden stag discovered when he begins to eat grapevine too soon after hunters have passed. Wienert FFC LVI 65 (ET 286), *109 (ST 209, 521); Halm Aesop No. 127.

J585. †J585. Caution in eating.

J585.1. †J585.1. Clever girl refrains from eating figs which would bring on magic sleep. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 116 No. 970.

†J600-†J799. Forethought.

†J610-†J679. FORETHOUGHT IN CONFLICTS WITH OTHERS.

J610. †J610. Forethought in conflict with others -- general.

J611. †J611. Wise man before entering a quarrel considers how it will end. Wesselski Bebel II 110 No. 35; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 765.

J612. †J612. Wise man considers whom he is attacking.

J612.1. †J612.1. Flea and fever exchange night-lodgings. Flea had attacked abbess and been chased all night; fever, a washerwoman who nearly froze it to death by going to the river and washing clothes. They exchange and succeed. *Crane Vitry 159 No. 59; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XV 105; Wesselski Mönchslatein 87 No. 75; Alphabet No. 15; Scala Celi No. 430.

J613. †J613. Wise fear of the weak for the strong.

J613.1. †J613.1. Frogs fear increase of sun's power which will dry up all their puddles. Wienert FFC LVI *76 (ET 421), 136 (ST 418); Halm Aesop No. 77; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3189; Legends Nos. 288f.

J613.2. †J613.2. Frogs fear defeated bull. See two bulls fighting; know that the loser will take refuge in their marsh. Wienert FFC LVI 55 (ET 151), *148 (ST 531).

J620. †J620. Forethought in prevention of others's plans. Icelandic: *Boberg.

J621. †J621. Destruction of enemy's weapons.

J621.1. †J621.1. The swallow and the hemp-seeds. Swallow in vain urges other birds to eat seed as fast as it is sowed. Ridiculed, he builds his nest among the dwellings of men. Later, birds are caught in nets made from the hemp. Wienert FFC LVI 62 (ET 248), 118 (ST 277); Halm Aesop Nos. 105, 106; Dähnhardt IV 275; Herbert III 8; *Crane Vitry 176 No. 101; Jacobs Aesop 203 No. 12; Africa (Fang): Tessman 27ff., (Pangwe): ibid. 362ff.

J621.1.1. †J621.1.1. Snake gives away magic pills later used to kill him. India: Thompson-Balys.

J622. †J622. Preventing the birth of enemies.

J622.1. †J622.1. Wise man destroys serpent's eggs. *Fb "hugorm"; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J622.1.1. †J622.1.1. Swallow advises hen against hatching out serpent's eggs. She is hatching her own destruction. Wienert FFC LVI 63 (ET 255), 147 (ST 516); Halm Aesop No. 342.

J623. †J623. Prevention of hostility by inspiring fear in enemy.

J623.1. †J623.1. Snake complains to Zeus that people step on him. Zeus: "If you had bitten the first foot that stepped on you it would not be done now." Wienert FFC LVI 77 (ET 430), 128 (ST 364); Halm Aesop No. 347.

J624. †J624. Uniting against a common enemy.

J624.1. †J624.1. Two sheep kill a fox who has licked up the blood they have spilled in a fight. Chauvin II 87 No. 22; Bødker Exempler 279 No. 22; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: Neuman.

J624.2. †J624.2. Sheep-dogs stop quarreling to hunt wolf who has raided the flock. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J624.3. †J624.3. Enemy brothers unite to fight a common enemy. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J625. †J625. Prevention of hostilities by agreeing to demands while in danger. Barber makes heavy demands of customer while the razor is at his throat. Customer agrees but after the shave throws the barber out. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J626. †J626. Prevention of hostilities by disarming the suspect. Later learned that he is a fugitive murderer. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J628. †J628. Dissuasion from suicide. Man dissuades simpleton from hanging himself by telling him that hell is a place of pain and torments. Spanish: Childers.

J631. †J631. Crab takes hold of heron's neck and fearing attack cuts neck and kills him. India: Thompson-Balys.

J634. †J634. King takes measures against assassination.

J634.1. †J634.1. King to avoid possible assassination singes his beard rather than have barber shave him. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J634.2. †J634.2. King to avoid possible assassination has queen's quarters searched before he enters. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J640. †J640. Avoidance of others' power.

J641. †J641. Escaping before enemy can strike.

J641.1. †J641.1. One bird escapes as hunter bends his bow; other remains and is shot. (Told also of fish.) *Type 246; Wienert FFC LVI 61 (ET 233), 108 (ST 205); Halm Aesop No. 85; Chauvin II 88.

J642. †J642. Foolishness of surrendering weapons.

J642.1. †J642.1. Lion suitor allows his teeth to be pulled and his claws to be cut. He is then killed. Wienert FFC LVI 45 (ET 32), 70 (ET 344), 107 (ST 198); Halm Aesop No. 249; *Basset RTP XXVI 126; Africa: Weeks Jungle 450.

J642.2. †J642.2. Robbers persuaded to give hero sword with which they are afterwards killed. Africa (Somali): Tiling ZsES XVIII 139ff. No. 6.

J643. †J643. Care against future tyranny.

J643.1. †J643.1. Frogs demand a live king. King Log. Zeus has given them a log as king, but they find him too quiet. He then gives them a stork who eats them. Wienert FFC LVI *78 (ET 436), 110 (ST 217); Halm Aesop No. 76; *Crane Vitry 143 No. 24; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *277; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV No. *277; Russian: Andrejev No. 277; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J643.2. †J643.2. Kite as king of chickens. Herbert III 35.

J643.3. †J643.3. Lion as king of animals reinstated after elephant is tired. India: Thompson-Balys.

J644. †J644. Avoiding places which have been fatal to others.

J644.1. †J644.1. Fox sees all tracks going into lion's den but none coming out. He saves himself. Wienert FFC LVI *53 (ET 131), 96 (ST 92); Halm Aesop No. 246, cf. No. 262; Jacobs Aesop 217 No. 73; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *50A; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Tuxtapec): Mechling JAFL XXV 203; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 189, (Hottentot): Bleek 19 No. 10; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 243 No. 18.

J645. †J645. Avoiding power of future enemy.

J645.1. †J645.1. Birds flee from cuckoo who, they believe, will later become a hawk. Wienert FFC LVI 55 (ET 149), 119 (ST 290); Halm Aesop No. 198.

J646. †J646. Disregard advice of your enemy.

J646.1. †J646.1. Palamides, having injured Ulysses, seeks advice from him. Following the advice proves fatal. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No 441.

J646.2. †J646.2. Bird hears voices from within unhatched eggs and flies away: voices plot to dine on their bird-mother when they are born. India: Thompson-Balys.

J647. †J647. Avoiding enemy's revenge.

J647.1. †J647.1. Avoid enemies' revenge either by making peace and friendship or by killing them all. So says old man to conqueror. Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 544, 545.

J647.2. †J647.2. Advice not to rob women while they are alone, for fear of returning husbands' revenge. Icelandic: Örvar-Odds saga 24--27, Boberg.

J648. †J648. Care against future imprisonment.

J648.1. †J648.1. Monkeys planning to found a city desist lest with walls up it will be easier to catch them than before. Wienert FFC LVI *61 (ET 240), 108 (ST 200); Halm Aesop No. 361.

J651. †J651. Inattention to danger.

J651.1. †J651.1. Throstle giving all attention to sweet fruits is caught by bird catcher. Wienert FFC LVI 66 (ET 298), 107 (ST 195); Halm Aesop No. 194.

J651.2. †J651.2. Man inattentive to the danger of drowning enters water to save treasure and is drowned. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J652. †J652. Inattention to warnings. Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; West Indies: Flowers 477.

J652.1. †J652.1. Frog persists in living in puddle on road. Disregards advice of another frog and is run over. Wienert FFC LVI 59 (ET 203), 118 (ST 279); Halm Aesop No. 75; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 704.

J652.2. †J652.2. Swallows warn other birds against roosting in tree with glue. They disregard and are caught. Wienert FFC LVI 62 (ET 249), 118 (ST 277); Halm Aesop No. 417; Dh IV 274ff.

J652.3. †J652.3. Man disregards priest's warning that he will seduce his wife. Adultery committed. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J652.4. †J652.4. Warnings against certain peoples.

J652.4.1. †J652.4.1. Hector warns Trojans against attacking the stronger Greeks. Warning disregarded. Disastrous defeat. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J652.4.2. †J652.4.2. Don't play tricks on Gascons. Heptameron No. 28.

J655. †J655. Approaching danger too familiarly.

J655.1. †J655.1. Birds discuss the trap. One of them is caught in it. Type 245*; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 110.

J655.2. †J655.2. Fox jeers at fox-trap. Is caught. Type 68*.

J656. †J656. Avoiding things which are harmful by nature.

J656.1. †J656.1. Thornbush blamed by fox for wounding him. He should have known better than to lay hold of something whose nature is to lay hold of others. Wienert FFC LVI 73 (ET 386), 122 (ST 310); Halm Aesop No. 32.

J657. †J657. Care in selecting the creature to carry one.

J657.1. †J657.1. Youth trusts self to horse over which he has no control. Thrown off. Wienert FFC LVI *71 (ET 358), 109 (ST 210; cf. 533); Halm Aesop No. 302.

J657.2. †J657.2. Tortoise lets self be carried by eagle. Dropped and eaten. *Wienert FFC LVI 46, 50 Nos. 51, 98; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J657.3. †J657.3. Crane persuades fish to let him change him from one lake into another: he eats fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

J670. †J670. Forethought in defences against others.

J671. †J671. Practical and impractical defences.

J671.1. †J671.1. Belling the cat. Mice decide that a bell should be put on the cat but can find no one to tie it on her. *Type 110; Wienert FFC LVI 53 (ET 128), 96 (ST 97); Halm Aesop No. 15; Jacobs Aesop 216 No. 67; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 260 No. 213, *Arlotto II 226 No. 93; *Baum MLN XXXIV (1919) 462; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 634; Dh IV 145ff.; Herbert III 36ff. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; American Negro: Harris Nights 311 No. 53.

J672. †J672. Defences by strengthening one's own weakest spots.

J672.1. †J672.1. Ears stopped with wax to avoid enchanting song. Odysseus and the Sirens. Chauvin VII 98 No. 375 n. 4; Köhler-Bolte I 125; Irish myth: *Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Fox 137, 263; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J672.2. †J672.2. Cotton put in ears so as not to hear abusive words. India: Thompson-Balys.

J673. †J673. Defence when one needs it most. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J673.1. †J673.1. Armor ordered thin in front and thick in back, since it would be most needed in flight. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 543.

J674. †J674. Defences in and out of season.

J674.1. †J674.1. Wild-boar sharpens tusks when no enemy is in sight. Tells fox that when enemy comes there are other things to do. Wienert FFC LVI 61 (ET 237), 108 (ST 203); Halm Aesop No. 407.

J674.2. †J674.2. Man decides to make himself strong in peaceful times rather than wait until attacked. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J675. †J675. Man slays another in order not to be slain himself. Icelandic: Boberg.

J675.1. †J675.1. Son slays father in order not to be slain himself. Icelandic: Boberg.

J676. †J676. Youthful fencer yields to infuriated opponent who has picked up a pestle. "Two against me. I surrender." Spanish: Childers.

J677. †J677. Foolishness of king's taking a washerman for chief minister; washerman makes no preparation for war and kingdom is conquered. India: Thompson-Balys.

J680. †J680. Forethought in alliances. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J681. †J681. Alliances which make both parties more vulnerable.

J681.1. †J681.1. Rat and frog tie paws together to cross marsh. Carried off by falcon. *Chauvin II 123 No. 117; Scala Celi 73a No. 416; *Crane Vitry 135 No. 3; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 124 (cf. No. 125).

J681.1.1. †J681.1.1. Jackal and leopard tie tails together for mutual protection. Frightened, they run apart and injure each other. India: Thompson-Balys.

J682. †J682. Foolishness of alliances with the weak.

J682.1. †J682.1. Foxes desert their allies, the hares, when they foresee defeat by the eagle. Wienert FFC LVI 48 (ET 64), 106 (ST 187); Halm Aesop No. 236.

J683. †J683. Foolishness of attacking real allies.

J683.1. †J683.1. Ass turns on his driver who would save him from falling over the precipice. Wienert FFC LVI 72 (ET 375), 118 (ST 283); Halm Aesop No. 335.

J683.2. †J683.2. Tame doves close wild ones in trap and thus help common enemies. Wienert FFC LVI 52 (ET 112, 310), 143 (ST 493).

J683.3. †J683.3. Tame fox helps dogs against wild foxes. Is no longer trusted by latter. Nouvelles Récréations No. 29.

J684. †J684. Alliances with the strong.

J684.1. †J684.1. Fox with lion protector goes hunting alone and is killed. Wienert FFC LVI *59 (ET 214), 92 (ST 58); Halm Aesop No. 41.

J684.2. †J684.2. Foolishness of taking on too strong a partner: crow crowds sparrow out of its nest. India: Thompson-Balys.

J684.3. †J684.3. Tortoise joins peacock in dance. Cannot escape hunter; peacock flies off. India: Thompson-Balys.

J684.4. †J684.4. Victorious ally feared by others. Jewish: Neuman.

J685. †J685. Alliances with the intelligent.

J685.1. †J685.1. Man, lion, and bear in pit. Bear tells lion not to eat the man, since he would grow hungry again. Rather they should have the man use his intelligence to get them out. Chauvin III 64 No. 29.

J689. †J689. Forethought in alliances -- miscellaneous. Wienert FFC LVI 48, 59, 60, 66 (ET 77, 205, 218, 302), 101, 102, 114 (ST 142, 153, 242); Halm Aesop Nos. 147, 421.

†J700-†J749. FORETHOUGHT IN PROVISION FOR LIFE.

J700. †J700. Forethought in provision for life (general).

J701. †J701. Provision for the future.

J701.1. †J701.1. Planting for the next generation. Man who is planting tree told that it will never mature in his day. He is planting for the next generation. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 235 No. 516; Chauvin II 208 No. 75; Jewish: *Neuman.

J701.2. †J701.2. King improves kingdom before leaving it to his sons. He leaves it smaller but much stronger and richer. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J702. †J702. Necessity of work.

J702.1. †J702.1. Dervish who stops work. Sees bird feed its young and decides that God takes care of everyone without work. He is shown his mistake. Chauvin II 115 No. 89.

J702.2. †J702.2. King (queen) teaches children to work at all tasks to prepare them for life's possible hazards. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J703. †J703. Planning for the greater office.

J703.1. †J703.1. Looking for the keys of the abbey. Monk goes about with downcast eyes until he is made abbot; then lives in luxury. He explains that he was looking for the keys of the abbey. Now he has them. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 500.

J703.2. †J703.2. "Eat small fish now if you wish larger ones later." Bishop refuses to eat small fish as he used to when an abbot. "Then I used small fish to catch big ones I have now!" Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J705. †J705. Safe provision for life not to be lightly surrendered.

J705.1. †J705.1. Priest must give up his charge or his mistress. Gives up his parish and immediately loses his fickle mistress. Wesselski Mönchslatein No. 41; *Crane Vitry 234 No. 241; Herbert III 19.

J706. †J706. Acquisition of wealth.

J706.1. †J706.1. Be diligent and spend little: how to become wealthy. Advice of a self-made man. Nouvelles Récréations No. 53.

J707. †J707. Wealth is most important. India: Thompson-Balys.

J710. †J710. Forethought in provision for food.

J711. †J711. In time of plenty provide for want.

J711.1. †J711.1. Ant and lazy cricket (grasshopper). Lazy bird is put to shame by thrift of industrious bird. In winter he is in distress. *Type 249; *Chauvin III 58 No. 19; Wienert FFC LVI 55 (ET 156, 157), 126 (ST 347); Halm Aesop No. 295, 401; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 845; Jacobs Aesop 208 No. 36. --Italian Novella: Rotunda; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 451.

J711.2. †J711.2. Improvident mouse eats grain stored for famine. Loss is discovered and grain placed elsewhere. Mouse, who has saved nothing, starves. *Chauvin II 115 No. 90.

J711.3. †J711.3. King for a year provides for future. Knowing that the custom is that he is to be deposed in a year, he sends provisions to a safe place out of the kingdom. *Crane Vitry 137 No. 9; Herbert III 63, 191; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 224; *Chauvin II 160 No. 49, 192 No. 9, III 101 No. 8; Scala Celi No. 134; Alphabet No. 655. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 36, 275f.

J711.4. †J711.4. Wise man stores grain against coming famine. Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

J711.5. †J711.5. Industrious ant works always at his harvest to keep it dry. Ant brings stored grain out into sun to keep it safe. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J712. †J712. Food alone keeps off hunger.

J712.1. †J712.1. City without provisions but with much money starves. Chauvin V 34 No. 16; Jewish: Neuman.

J713. †J713. Make use of proper seasons for crops.

J713.1. †J713.1. Lazy boy vainly asks God of the Seasons to delay the plowing season. India: Thompson-Balys.

J715. †J715. Kindness unwise when it imperils one's food supply.

J715.1. †J715.1. Eagle warns shepherds that wolf is eating sheep. Crow rebukes eagle for thus imperiling his own food supply. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 36 No. 229*.

J730. †J730. Forethought in provision for clothing.

J731. †J731. Do not discard clothing till cold weather is over.

J731.1. †J731.1. More than one swallow to make a summer. Spendthrift youth seeing swallow concludes that summer has come and sells his clothes. There is frost the next day and he is cold. Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 348), 122 (ST 316); Halm Aesop No. 304.

J740. †J740. Forethought in provision for shelter.

J741. †J741. Build shelter for the whole year.

J741.1. †J741.1. Bear builds house of wood; fox of ice. Fox's house fails him in summer. *Type 43; Missouri French: Carrière.

†J750-†J799. FORETHOUGHT -- MISCELLANEOUS.

J751. †J751. Consider difficulties of course you are about to undertake.

J751.1. †J751.1. Truth the best policy. Servant about to be caught for theft rehearses the lie he is to tell his master. He finds lies so transparent that he decides to tell the truth. Wesselski Märchen 200.

J751.1.1. †J751.1.1. Lady answers queen so straightforwardly she gets light punishment. Heptameron No. 21.

J752. †J752. In planning future, profit by the past.

J752.1. †J752.1. Frogs decide not to jump into the well. Their spring having dried up, they consider jumping into a well. They decide that the well may also dry up. Wienert FFC LVI 59 (ET 202), 108 (ST 201); Halm Aesop No. 74; Italian Novella: Rotunda (†J742).

J753. †J753. Remove obstacles from path.

J753.1. †J753.1. The only person in the bath. Servant reports to master that there is but one person in the public bath Master finds three hundred. Only one person had removed stone from his path; rest had stubbed toes. He was only one worthy of the name of man. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 604.

J755. †J755. All aspects of a plan must be foreseen.

J755.1. †J755.1. The forgotten wind. Man allowed to manage the weather forgets to ask help of the wind. All goes wrong and he must give up management. *Type 752B; *Fb "vind" III 1059a.

J756. †J756. Advice after the event valueless.

J756.1. †J756.1. Doctor gives advice after patient dies. Scorned for lack of foresight. Wienert FFC LVI *84 (ET 509), 108 (ST 204); Halm Aesop No. 169.

J758. †J758. Beware of following an interested adviser. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J758.1. †J758.1. Tailless fox tries in vain to induce foxes to cut off tails. *Basset RTP XXVI 267; Jacobs Aesop 215 No. 65.

J758.1.1. †J758.1.1. Noseless man persuades fools to cut off noses. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J758.1.2. †J758.1.2. Tailless jackal persuades other jackals to cut off tails. India: Thompson-Balys.

J758.2. †J758.2. Crane advises fool to empty reservoir so he can reap all grain. Crane eats fish left at bottom. India: Thompson-Balys.

J758.3. †J758.3. Fish refuse fox's invitation to live on dry land and thus escape danger of fishermen. Jewish: *Neuman.

J761. †J761. Old age must be planned for.

J761.1. †J761.1. Child finds gray hair in wicked father's head. Father sees that it is time for him to reform. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 292.

J761.2. †J761.2. Fourth horse must carry all. Miller has four horses to carry grain. He uses only one, so that it soon dies. Four horses are childhood, youth, manhood, and old age. Don't heap all burden of securing salvation on the fourth horse, old age. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 291.

J761.3. †J761.3. Adulteress prepares for old age. Charges a pair of shoes to consort with men. When old she pays with shoes the men who will consort with her. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J762. †J762. Leave a loophole for escape.

J762.1. †J762.1. Priest keeps in container relic which when kissed renders people immune from pestilence. They only kiss container, so that if they die he will not be held responsible. Wesselski Bebel I 144 No. 62.

J765. †J765. Mark the way one is going in an unfamiliar country. Icelandic: Boberg.

J766. †J766. Do not work yourself out of employment.

J766.1. †J766.1. Cat only drives rats away; if she killed them she would no longer have employment. India: Thompson-Balys.

†J800-†J849. Adaptability.

J810. †J810. Policy in dealing with the great.

J811. †J811. Wisdom of concessions to power.

J811.1. †J811.1. The lion's share. Ass divides booty equally between himself, fox, and lion. Lion eats ass. Fox then divides: gives lion meat and he takes bones. *Type 51; Wienert FFC LVI 59 (ET 213), 110 (ST 220); Halm Aesop No. 260; Jacobs Aesop 200 No. 4; Herbert III *14, 39ff.; *Crane Vitry 199 No. 158. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; American Negro: Harris Nights 334 No. 58.

J811.1.1. †J811.1.1. Lion divides the booty. Best part goes to himself as king of beasts; second, as strongest; third, as most valiant; fourth -- "touch it if you dare." Wienert FFC LVI *59 (ET 216), *148 (ST 530); Halm Aesop No 258; *K. Gorski Die Fabel vom Löwenanteil in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung (Berlin, 1888).

J811.2. †J811.2. Fox refuses to mediate between lion and lioness. Lion decides to abandon lioness because of her bad odor. Ass, hog, and fox as judges. Ass says she has bad odor: lioness slaps him. Hog says she has not: lion slaps him. Fox says that he has a bad cold and cannot smell. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 29 No. 52*.

J811.3. †J811.3. King honors poet and critic: the first so that he will honor the king; the second, so that he will not dishonor him. Spanish: Childers.

J811.4. †J811.4. Ruler angered by evil spoken of him is placated by soft words of speakers. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J811.5. †J811.5. Prime minister bribes priest to persuade king that ocean of milk he wishes sought for had curdled. India: Thompson-Balys.

J811.6. †J811.6. Fox with three hundred fables ready to tell against lion conveniently forgets them. Jewish: Neuman.

J814. †J814. Flattery of the great.

J814.1. †J814.1. Imprisoned musician defends himself. Has been imprisoned because the king did not like the way the musician looked at him. After a year the king returns as a conqueror and sees musician. The latter says that he saw the king's conquests in a vision and was blessing him when he looked at him. The musician is honored. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 255 No. 188.

J814.2. †J814.2. Flatterer always agrees with king even in opposite opinions; defense: he is king's servant. India: Thompson-Balys.

J814.3. †J814.3. "High-born alone recognizes one of equal rank with himself." Jackal sees man with instrument he is unfamiliar with, comes up to him and salutes him "Lord of Delhi." Man calls him Lord of Jungle and tells above. India: Thompson-Balys.

J814.4. †J814.4. Flattery of the wicked to escape death at his hands: "This is an offering to my lord Esau from his slave Jacob". Jewish: Neuman.

J814.5. †J814.5. Dissenting minister to king: "Let the king do as seems good in his eyes". Jewish: Neuman.

J815. †J815. Unpleasant truths must be withheld from the great.

J815.1. †J815.1. Liar rewarded by the apes. King of apes asks visitors how they like his children (courtiers). Truthful visitor tells that they are very ugly, and is punished. Liar praises their beauty and receives reward. *Types 48*, 68**; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 381; *Gerber MLN IV (1889) 479; Wienert FFC LVI 47 (ET 53), 104 (ST 168); Alphabet No. 33; Scala Celi No. 36.

J815.2. †J815.2. Brother who conforms to naked people's customs honored. Two brothers go to the land of Naked People. One of the brothers wears clothes and is punished. Wesselski Archiv Orientální I 80.

J815.3. †J815.3. Muddy bath prepared for blemished king. Irish myth: Cross.

J816. †J816. Tact in reproving the great.

J816.1. †J816.1. King brought to sense of duty by feigned conversation of birds. Philosopher pretends to know bird's language and to be translating what they tell him. *Basset 1001 Contes II 452; Chauvin II 153 No. 21, *VIII 129f. No. 119; Wesselski Märchen 220 No. 34; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J816.1.1. †J816.1.1. King living apart from wife brought to sense of duty by philosopher. Asks if there is harmony among the cities and republics of Greece: philosopher tells him to ask it of his own house. Spanish: Childers.

J816.2. †J816.2. King called baker's son: he has given the poet only loaves of bread. King sees jest and rewards poet. Nouvelles Récréations No. 4.

J816.3. †J816.3. King brought to sense of duty by woman's words. Drunken king sentences unjustly. Woman asks to appear before the king before he has dined. Her case is retried. Spanish: Childers.

J816.4. †J816.4. Woman tactfully restrains amorous king. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J817. †J817. A soft answer turneth away wrath. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J817.1. †J817.1. Man called a rogue by a nobleman makes a joke of the insult. He thus avoids trouble. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 476.

J817.2. †J817.2. Physician willing to believe in four persons. Angers a theologian by disputing doctrine of the Trinity. "Don't get angry," he says; "rather than have you condemn me to hell, I would believe in four persons." Wesselski Bebel I 163 No. 98.

J817.2.1. †J817.2.1. King makes absurd statement about flowers. Flatterer agrees: it is the king he serves, not the wretched flowers. India: Thompson-Balys.

J817.3. †J817.3. With a silent person one is alone. Angered bishop will not answer when addressed. Relents when priest says, "Since there is no one here I may heed the call of Nature." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J818. †J818. Care in advising a king.

J818.1. †J818.1. Yogi advises yogi blood for making king's leaky tank hold water: king cuts off yogi's head. India: Thompson-Balys.

J821. †J821. Keeping on good terms with hostile gods.

J821.1. †J821.1. Dog asks raven why he sacrifices to Athene, since she hates raven because of his powers of augury. "The more reason to sacrifice. She will keep on good terms with me." Wienert FFC LVI 61 (ET 231), 143 (ST 490); Halm Aesop No. 213.

J822. †J822. Man plays fool to protect himself in dealing with king.

J822.1. †J822.1. Man pretends idiocy so as to avoid compromising himself when summoned to testify by two rival queens before the king. India: Thompson-Balys.

J823. †J823. Man recounts unpleasant happening to king when in good humor and draws laugh; rest draw punishment. India: Thompson-Balys.

J829. †J829. Dealing with the great -- miscellaneous.

J829.1. †J829.1. The king and the cheap slippers. Steward buys the king a pair of slippers. King thinks not enough has been paid for them and refuses them. Steward buys another like the first and charges a good price. Learns that this is the way to deal with kings. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 162.

J829.2. †J829.2. Devil decides to leave of own accord. It is decided to drive the devil out of a man who is possessed. Devil sees the inevitable and flees so that they cannot say that he has been driven off. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 159.

J829.3. †J829.3. Vanquished ruler in disguise gets audience with victor. "What would you do if your enemy were to kneel before you and beg forgiveness?" "I would forgive him." Reveals identity and is pardoned. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J830. †J830. Adaptability to overpowering force.

J831. †J831. Mohammed goes to the mountain (tree) when the mountain will not come to him. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin *II 190 No. 372.

J832. †J832. Reeds bend before wind (flood). Save themselves while oak is uprooted. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 174; Wienert FFC LVI 73 (ET 387), 107 (ST 190, 243); Halm Aesop No. 179; **E. Grawi Die Fabel vom Baum und dem Schilfrohr in der Weltliteratur (Rostock Diss., 1911). --India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.

J833. †J833. Ass foolish to kick against the pricks. Wienert FFC LVI 71 (ET 357), 140 (ST 468).

J834. †J834. Fire burns man who doesn't understand it. Useful when one knows how to use it. Wienert FFC LVI *80 (ET 467), 121 (ST 306).

J835. †J835. Wit interprets unfavorable decision of court as doing him great honor. Nouvelles Récréations No. 37.

†J850-†J899. CONSOLATION IN MISFORTUNE.

J860. †J860. Consolation by a trifle.

J861. †J861. Consolation for misfortune found in food.

J861.1. †J861.1. Consoled by a drop of honey. Man in pit surrounded by perils thus comforts himself. **Kuhn Der Mann in Brunnen (Stuttgart, 1888); *Chauvin II 85 No. 17, III 100 No. 6; Bødker Exempler 276 No. 16; Herbert Catalogue of Romances III 12; *Crane Vitry 191 No. 134; Alphabet No. 623. --Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J861.2. †J861.2. Man on sinking ship eats salt. Otherwise he will not enjoy the large amount of water that he must drink. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 235; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J861.3. †J861.3. Mouse (fly) dying in meat tub is happy that he has eaten to satisfaction. Wienert FFC LVI *64 (ET 274), *143 (ST 495); Halm Aesop No. 292.

J864. †J864. Comfort in the contemplation of impossible pleasure.

J864.1. †J864.1. Fox stumbles over violin. Chased from chicken coop by dogs. When he stumbles he says, "What a fine opportunity to dance if I had time!" Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 33 No. 135A, Espinosa Jr. No. 24.

J864.2. †J864.2. Fox about to be hanged asks to be allowed to see geese. (Cf. †J2174.) Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 29.

J865. †J865. Consolation by thinking of some good aspect of a situation.

J865.1. †J865.1. "But by a fine fellow!" Dying toad thus comforts his paramour, the frog, whom he is leaving neither married nor widow nor maiden and pregnant. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 38 No. 288A*.

J866. †J866. Consolation by thinking of the past.

J866.1. †J866.1. Unsuccessful fishermen console themselves that their earlier high hopes balance up their disappointment. Wienert FFC LVI 66 (ET 300), 133 (ST 324); Halm Aesop No. 23.

J867. †J867. Mutual and undeserved compliments: donkey to camel, "What a beauty you are"; latter answers, "What a sweet voice you have." India: Thompson-Balys.

J869. †J869. Consolation by a trifle -- miscellaneous.

J869.1. †J869.1. Doves in net console themselves because they think trapper's tears are from pity for them. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J870. †J870. Consolation by pretending that one does not want the thing he cannot have.

J871. †J871. The fox and the sour grapes. Pretends that the grapes he cannot reach are sour. Wienert FFC LVI 63 (ET 267), 125 (ST 336); Halm Aesop No. 33; Scala Celi 52b No. 292; Jacobs Aesop 207 No. 31; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 30 No. 66a*; Jewish: Neuman.

J871.1. †J871.1. Fox asking for favor set on by dogs. Thankful to have saved life. India: Thompson-Balys.

J873. †J873. Fox in swollen river claims to be swimming to distant town. Wienert FFC LVI 62 (ET 244), 125 (ST 339); Halm Aesop No. 30; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 30 No. 66B*.

J873.1. †J873.1. Jackal covers up his inability to cross stream by saying he is looking for shallowest part. India: Thompson-Balys.

J873.2. †J873.2. Clever jackal covers up his clumsiness in catching cows by saying he was running to and fro because he was looking for the fattest calf. India: Thompson-Balys.

J874. †J874. Dog driven out of dining room claims to be drunk. Says that he has drunk so much that he does not know how he got out of the house. Wienert FFC LVI 68 (ET 322), 125 (ST 338); Halm Aesop No. 62.

J875. †J875. Warrior having lost a city claims that he did not wish to sell it for a higher price. Wesselski Bebel I 118 No. 1.

J876. †J876. Headless king and tailless tiger, each afraid of other, agree to be friends. India: Thompson-Balys.

J877. †J877. Scorned suitor consoles himself by realization that a wife who did not love him would be constant source of trouble. Nouvelles de Sens No. 3.

J880. †J880. Consolation by thought of others worse placed.

J881. †J881. Timid animal consoled when he sees others more timid.

J881.1. †J881.1. More timid than the hare. Hares take heart when they see that frogs are more timid than they. *Type 70; *Dh IV 97ff.; Wienert FFC LVI *62 (ET 245), 116 (ST 266); Halm Aesop No. 237; Jacobs Aesop 204 No. 15.

J881.2. †J881.2. Lion comforted for his fear of the cock. Finds that elephant is afraid of the gnat. Wienert FFC LVI 77 (ET 428), 116 (ST 267); Halm Aesop No. 261.

J882. †J882. Man with unfaithful wife comforted.

J882.1. †J882.1. Man with unfaithful wife comforted when he sees the queen's unfaithfulness. Wesselski Märchen 185 No. 1; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J882.2. †J882.2. Man with unfaithful wife comforted when he sees jealous husband who carefully guards wife cuckolded. *Wesselski Märchen 185 No. 1; Köhler-Bolte II 625; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

J882.3. †J882.3. Man whose wife gives him bath only once a week comforted by one who does so once a year. India: Thompson-Balys.

J883. †J883. Poor man consoles self by thinking of misfortunes of rich.

J883.1. †J883.1. Man compelled to live on peas takes comfort when he sees a man once rich eating the hulls. Chauvin II 150 No. 10; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J883.2. †J883.2. Man in cold consoles himself thinking of rich men in hell or prison. Herbert III 8; Crane Vitry 179 No. 108.

J885. †J885. Clever person's defeat pleases inferior.

J885.1. †J885.1. Hare upbraided by sparrow for letting self be carried off by eagle rejoices when sparrow is carried off by hawk. Wienert FFC LVI 56 (ET 164), 103 (ST 160).

J890. †J890. Consolation in misfortune -- miscellaneous.

J891. †J891. Enemy horses captured by lion join forces and become friends. Chauvin II 150 No. 9; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J893. †J893. Consolation: spiritual recompense for temporal misfortune.

J893.1. †J893.1. Consolation: priest tells blind man that even flies have eyes but only man has the inner eyes of the soul. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

†J900-†J999. Humility.

J900. †J900. Humility.

J901. †J901. The seven daughters of Humility. Irish myth: *Cross.

J902. †J902. Humility of angels. Jewish: *Neuman.

J903. †J903. Humility one of the qualifications of a prophet. Jewish: Neuman.

J904. †J904. Judge should possess humility and modesty. Jewish: Neuman.

J905. †J905. Humility of the wise "Sons of the East". (Cf. †J191.) Jewish: Neuman.

J910. †J910. Humility of the great.

J911. †J911. Wise man acknowledges his ignorance.

J911.1. †J911.1. Men not chosen for their ignorance; else he should have reached heaven. Upbraided for not knowing answer to question, man answers that he was chosen for his position because of what he knew, not of what he did not know. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 224 No. 462.

J912. †J912. Wise man humble in death.

J912.1. †J912.1. King orders piece of cloth shown after his death. The measure of all that he has taken with him to the grave. Herbert III 10; *Crane Vitry 185 No. 119; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 24; Wesselski Mönchslatein 67 No. 54; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J912.2. †J912.2. King refuses to have fine tomb erected for him since his stay on earth is so unimportant. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J912.3. †J912.3. Rich man humbled by realization that he cannot take his wealth with him. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J913. †J913. King has earthen vessels placed on table among the golden ones. He had formerly been a potter and prefers the vessels which he had made to the ones now molding him. Spanish: Childers.

J914. †J914. King shows humility by mingling with common people.

J914.1. †J914.1. King David dances with common youths before the Ark of the Covenant. He humbles self to please God. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J915. †J915. King of humble lineage cannot be flattered. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J916. †J916. Abbot to avoid vainglory receives judge in rags. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J917. †J917. Opposing wise men humble themselves and become friends. Jewish: Neuman.

J918. †J918. Empress sews and shows she is not too noble to work. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J921. †J921. Noble and ugly holy man embraces man who calls him ugly, saying he loves those who see him as he really is. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J950. †J950. Presumption of the lowly.

J951. †J951. Lowly masks as great.

J951.1. †J951.1. Ass in lion's skin unmasked when he raises his voice. **DeCock Volkssage 184ff.; Wienert FFC LVI 57 (ET 175, 176), *91 (ST 38), 93 (ST 69); Halm Aesop Nos. 333, 336; Jacobs Aesop 211 No. 49; *Chauvin II 224 No. 22. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys, Penzer V 99 n. 3.

J951.2. †J951.2. Jay in peacock's (pigeon's) skin unmasked. Type 244; Wienert FFC LVI 47, 57 (ET 61, 173), *93 (ST 66, 67, 68); Halm Aesop Nos. 200, 201, 201b; Jacobs Aesop 205 No. 21; Scala Celi 80b No. 461; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J951.3. †J951.3. Crow tries to prophesy like raven: detected by his voice. Wienert FFC LVI 73, (ET 387), 92 (ST 42); Halm Aesop No. 212.

J951.4. †J951.4. Weasel paints self to deceive mice. Detected. Wienert FFC LVI *53 (ET 133), 87 (ST 7); Halm Aesop No. 87.

J951.4.1. †J951.4.1. Painted jackal admitted neither to the peacocks nor to the jackals. India: Thompson-Balys.

J951.5. †J951.5. King of jackals captured because of his large banner. India: Thompson-Balys.

J952. †J952. Lowly animal tries to move among his superiors. Detected.

J952.1. †J952.1. Presumptuous wolf among lions. Large wolf, called by his companions "Lion". Presumes to mix with lions but is only a wolf. Wienert FFC LVI 58 (ET 188), 91 (ST 36); Halm Aesop No. 272.

J952.2. †J952.2. Ass follows after lion and is punished. Ass and cock are surprised by lion. Cock crows and scares lion, who runs. Ass thinks that he has scared lion and pursues. Wienert FFC LVI 57 (ET 174), 92 (ST 53); Halm Aesop No. 323.

J952.3. †J952.3. Dog follows lion. Flees at lion's roar. Wienert FFC LVI 57 (ET 184), 91 (ST 35); Halm Aesop No. 226.

J952.4. †J952.4. Ass who has worked with ox thinks himself equal to ox. Wienert FFC LVI 57 (ET 178), 91 (ST 39); Halm Aesop No. 104.

J952.5. †J952.5. Frog heaps abuse on bullock, who scorns him. India: Thompson-Balys.

J953. †J953. Self-deception of the lowly.

J953.1. †J953.1. Dog proud of his clog. Thinks that the clog on his neck is a decoration. Wienert FFC LVI 57 (ET 183), 91 (ST 34); Halm Aesop No. 224.

J953.2. †J953.2. Bad singer thinks he is talented: driven from theatre. Wienert FFC LVI 82 (ET 481), 93 (ST 72); Halm Aesop No. 193.

J953.2.1. †J953.2.1. Bad writer who praises himself reprimanded. Wienert FFC LVI 85 (ET 515), 91 ST 41).

J953.3. †J953.3. Flute-player thinks song meant for the prince is sung to him. Punished for presumption. Wienert FFC LVI 81 (ET 478), 93 (ST 71).

J953.4. †J953.4. Ass who carried divine image thinks people bow before him. Wienert FFC LVI 57 (ET 177), 94 (ST 74); Halm Aesop No. 324.

J953.5. †J953.5. Disdain of the wolf for the dog. Is fleeing from dog's master not from him. Wienert FFC LVI *55 (ET 150), 91 (ST 33); Halm Aesop No. 230.

J953.6. †J953.6. Gnats think they have thrown horse down. He has only rolled over. *Type 281; Russian: Andrejev No. 281; India: Thompson-Balys.

J953.7. †J953.7. Crow thinks harvesters are stealing his grain. *Type 243.

J953.8. †J953.8. Woman in finery in church thinks people are standing up to see her when they rise at gospel reading. Wesselski Bebel II 138 No. 119.

J953.9. †J953.9. Spider thinks that it has held back the wind. Indonesian: DeVries's list No. 138.

J953.10. †J953.10. Gnats apologize for lighting on bull's horn. He had not felt their weight. Wienert FFC LVI *57 (ET 186), 92 (ST 49); Halm Aesop No. 235; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 136.

J953.10.1. †J953.10.1. Raven riding on bull's horns thinks he has brought bull home. India: Thompson-Balys.

J953.11. †J953.11. Crow alighting on falling tree thinks his weight made it fall. Penzer III 70 n. 1; Bloomfield Am Journ. Philol. XL 1.

J953.12. †J953.12. Glowworm thinks he shines like stars. India: Thompson-Balys.

J953.13. †J953.13. Fox thinks his elongated shadow at sunrise makes him as large as elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

J953.14. †J953.14. Jackal falls into dye vat, tries to pose as peacock: detected. India: Thompson-Balys.

J953.15. †J953.15. Animals each think moon shines for his benefit. India: Thompson-Balys.

J953.16. †J953.16. Owl thinks echoes of his hoots are sounds of praise. India: Thompson-Balys.

J953.17. †J953.17. Rat imagines himself owner of camel. He is attached to camel by string. India: Thompson-Balys.

J953.18. †J953.18. Rag accidentally in king's wardrobe thinks it is a ribbon. India: Thompson-Balys.

J954. †J954. Foolish boast of ancestry by lowly.

J954.1. †J954.1. Mule as descendant of king's war-horse. Fails to mention his mother. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 170; *Crane Vitry 147 No. 33; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 30; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J954.2. †J954.2. Fox claims that certain statues are of his ancestors. Ape shows that he is a liar. Wienert FFC LVI *44 (ET 17), 100 (ST 140); Halm Aesop No. 43.

J955. †J955. Lowly tries in vain to be greater than he is.

J955.1. †J955.1. Frog tries in vain to be as big as ox. Bursts. Jacobs Aesop 205 No. 22; Wienert FFC LVI 58 (ET 192), 93 (ST 61); Halm Aesop No. 84; *Crane Vitry 145 No. 29; India: Thompson-Balys.

J955.1.1. †J955.1.1. Fish swells with pride until it bursts. India: Thompson-Balys.

J955.1.2. †J955.1.2. Bird tries to puff itself up to look like peacock. Kills itself. India: Thompson-Balys.

J955.1.2.1. †J955.1.2.1. Titmouse ruffles feathers to seem big as a bear. Her young ones know her. Type 228; Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 32 No. 16.

J955.2. †J955.2. Servant plays at being emperor. Master sees him and says, "Now that you are emperor remember your humble master." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J955.2.1. †J955.2.1. Page dreams of being king. Master asks: "What would you do for me if you were king?" Answer: "Give you 100 ducats." Master beats him for insufficient consideration. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J955.3. †J955.3. Servant asks master for arms of knighthood. Is given a stalk of garlic. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J955.3.1. †J955.3.1. Peasant asks to be knighted. Is told that he can be made rich but not noble. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J955.4. †J955.4. Old simpleton resolves to become a senator. He is made to believe that he is wanted as an archer and is so frightened that he dies. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J956. †J956. Ambitious branch chosen king of trees. Vine and fig tree have refused. Scala Celi 8b No. 55; Judges 9: 8.

J957. †J957. Presumptuous man before the works of Michelangelo says: "I too am a master". Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J958. †J958. Mole pretends that he sees, smells, and hears. His mother tells him to claim no more senses than he has. Wienert FFC LVI 63 (ET 260), 101 (ST 146); Halm Aesop No. 71.

J971. †J971. Flies try to drink water from elephant's ears. He kills them. *Chauvin II 89 n. 1.

J972. †J972. One cock takes glory of another's valor. Victor in cock fight crows over his victory. He is taken off by eagle. A second cock then comes out from hiding and struts about among the hens. Wienert FFC LVI 57 (ET 180), 92 (ST 56); Halm Aesop No. 21.

J973. †J973. Ass in the potter's shop. (Bull in china shop.) Only breaks the pots *Wienert FFC LVI 40; Halm Aesop No. 190.

J974. †J974. Kid perched on house jeers at wolf. (Cf. †J978.) Jacobs Aesop 204 No. 16; Wienert FFC LVI 56 (ET 162), 112 (ST 231); Halm Aesop No. 135.

J975. †J975. Hare demands equal rights for all animals. Reprimanded for presumption. Wienert FFC LVI 57 (ET 181), 92 (ST 43); Halm Aesop No. 241.

J976. †J976. Day after Feast Day disputes importance with Feast Day. Former reprimanded. Wienert FFC LVI 43 (ET 10), 92 (ST 52); Halm Aesop No. 133.

J977. †J977. After one day of schooling children are ordered by their father to cease associating with the unlearned. Wesselski Bebel I 170 No. 5.

J978. †J978. Boaster of victory over a weaker person reprimanded. Wienert FFC LVI 85 (ET 517), 91 (ST 40).

J981. †J981. Presumptuous smith chants the Divine Comedy. Dante throws his tools in the street. Blacksmith: "You ruin my work!" Dante: "You ruin mine!" Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J981.1. †J981.1. Dante beats a mule driver who chants the Divine Comedy. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J982. †J982. Presumptuous officials disregarded by council. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

†J1000-†J1099. Other aspects of wisdom.

J1010. †J1010. Value of industry.

J1011. †J1011. Lazy woman resumes her work. She sees how a little bird by persistence pecks a hole in a stone. Type 843.

J1020. †J1020. Strength in unity.

J1021. †J1021. The quarreling sons and the bundle of twigs. Peasant puts twigs together and cannot break them. Separately they are easily broken. His sons apply the lesson. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 861; Wienert FFC LVI 83 (ET 491), 111 (ST 228); Halm Aesop No. 103 Jacobs Aesop 217 No. 72. --Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1021.1. †J1021.1. Sons united make living; separated fail. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1021.2. †J1021.2. Preacher teaches beaten Genoese the strength of unity. They are like donkeys -- when one is beaten the rest scatter. The enemy are like pigs -- stick together in trouble. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1022. †J1022. Fight of lions and bulls. Lion succeeds only when bulls separate. Wienert FFC LVI *48 (ET 73), *112 (ST 229); Halm Aesop No. 394.

J1023. †J1023. Dog leader fears defeat because his forces are of different breeds. Wolves are all of one kind. Wienert FFC LVI 47 (ET 57), *48 (ET 68), 112 (ST 230); Halm Aesop No. 267; BP III 545f.; Dh IV 104f., 290; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 107*.

J1024. †J1024. Quails caught in net rise up in a body with net and escape. As soon as they quarrel they are caught. Cowell J[a]taka I 85 No. 33; Benfey Panchatantra II 156ff., 304f.; Bødker Exempler 290 Nos. 45--46; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1024.1. †J1024.1. Captured elephants pull all at once and escape from net. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1025. †J1025. United cocks defeat partridge. When they quarrel they are defeated. Wienert FFC LVI 48 (ET 70), 135 (ST 409); Halm Aesop No. 22.

J1025.1. †J1025.1. Cranes fighting as allies defeat all enemies. If they quarrel they are doomed. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1025.2. †J1025.2. Cats unite in battle against a wolf. They destroy wolf. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1030. †J1030. Self-dependence.

J1031. †J1031. Grain will be cut when farmer attends to it himself. Lark leaves her young in the cornfield. They hear farmer tell sons to go to neighbors for help in harvesting. Lark tells young not to worry. Same when he sends for relatives. Farmer decides to harvest it himself. Larks move, for they now know that it will be done Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 867; Wienert FFC LVI *70 (ET 341), 126 (ST 351); Halm Aesop No. 210; Roumania: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 93*.

J1032. †J1032. Stag found by master when overlooked by servants. Hides under hay and escapes until master himself comes. *Type 162**; Jacobs Aesop 207 No. 30.

J1033. †J1033. Gardener who plants vegetable tends it best. Wienert FFC LVI 74 (ET 391), 145 (ST 508); Halm Aesop No. 191.

J1034. †J1034. Gods help those who help themselves. Ox driver must put his shoulder to the wheel before Hercules will help him. Wienert FFC LVI *78 (ET 440), 138 (ST 436); Halm Aesop No. 81; Jacobs Aesop 214 No 61. Cf. also Halm Aesop No. 300.

J1040. †J1040. Decisiveness of conduct.

J1041. †J1041. Impossibility of pleasing everyone. One must act therefore without awaiting everyone's approval.

J1041.1. †J1041.1. Weather to please one only. Attempt to please everyone with weather unavailing. Weather given therefore without regard to men's desires. Type 1830; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 218 No. 51; Wienert FFC LVI 83 (ET 495), 121 (ST 304); Halm Aesop No. 166.

J1041.2. †J1041.2. Miller, his son, and the ass: trying to please everyone. Miller blamed when he follows his son on foot; when he takes the son's place on the ass; when he takes the son behind him; and when he puts the son in front of him. *Chauvin II 148 No 2, III 70, 145, VIII 140; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 244 No. 541; Herbert III 420; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 577; Scala Celi 135a No. 745; Alphabet No. 765. --England: Baughman; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1050. †J1050. Attention to warnings.

J1051. †J1051. Death's three messengers. Warns man by loss of appetite, loss of desire for drink, and sickness. Man does not recognize the messengers. *Type 335; *BP III 293; Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 267, 268.

J1052. †J1052. Cranes disregard warnings and are killed. Wienert FFC LVI 67 (ET 315), 117 (ST 276).

J1053. †J1053. Snake disregards warnings to improve his manners: eaten by crab. Wienert FFC LVI 50 (ET 99), 60 (ET 219), 89 (ST 13, 281); Halm Aesop No. 346.

J1054. †J1054. Man disregards mother's warning and is punished. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

J1055. †J1055. Man disregards priest's warning and is punished. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

J1060. †J1060. Miscellaneous aspects of wisdom.

J1061. †J1061. Value depends upon real use.

J1061.1. †J1061.1. The cock and the pearl: prefers a single corn to a peck of pearls. Wienert FFC LVI 45 (ET 28), 130 (ST 375); Jacobs Aesop 198 No. 1; Crane Vitry 157 No. 54; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1061.2. †J1061.2. Baldheaded man finds the comb: it is useless. Wienert FFC LVI 45 (ET 29), 130 (ST 374).

J1061.3. †J1061.3. Foolish dog finds treasure and dies rather than leave it. Wienert FFC LVI 57 (ET 182), 93 (ST 70, 434).

J1061.4. †J1061.4. Miser's treasure stolen. Advised to imagine that his treasure is still there: he will be as well off as before. Wienert FFC LVI 84 (ET 503), 133 (ST 392); Halm Aesop No. 412; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 259 No. 201; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1062. †J1062. Cure yourself before doctoring others.

J1062.1. †J1062.1. Frog as beauty doctor unable to cure his own ugliness. Wienert FFC LVI 45 (ET 27), 57 (ET 179), 101 (ST 134); Halm Aesop No. 78.

J1062.2. †J1062.2. Doctor unable to cure himself scorned. Chauvin II 227 No. 8; Wienert FFC LVI 73, (ET 384), 136, 138 (ST 424, 432); Halm Aesop No. 312; Babrius No. 2.

J1062.2.1. †J1062.2.1. Bald man tries to sell hair restorer. Scorned. Penzer V 83f.

J1063. †J1063. Pot calls kettle black.

J1063.1. †J1063.1. Mother crab blames her children for not walking straight. Jacobs Aesop 211 No. 48; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1063.2. †J1063.2. Drunk man makes sport of another man for being drunk. Wesselski Bebel I 184 No. 38.

J1064. †J1064. Futility of trying to teach the stupid.

J1064.1. †J1064.1. Raven killed by apes who will not receive his teaching that a shining stone is not fire. Wienert FFC LVI 50 (ET 95), 118 (ST 284); Bødker Exempler 286 No. 34; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1071. †J1071. Results of labor lost in a moment of procrastination.

J1071.1. †J1071.1. After laboring to make a brazen head, artist loses labor in moment of procrastination. Dickson 211 n. 137.

J1072. †J1072. Man to be judged by his own qualities, not his clothes.

J1072.1. †J1072.1. Guests strike man who tries to interfere in their quarrel. It is their host in old clothes. Guests are humiliated but forgiven. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 415.

J1072.2. †J1072.2. Rich Brahmin wearing poor clothing is treated as a beggar. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1073. †J1073. Never use your entire resources.

J1073.1. †J1073.1. Man who never does any piece of work so well that he cannot improve it. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 310.

J1074. †J1074. Value of silence.

J1074.1. †J1074.1. Parson's apology for not answering challenge: I have never regretted silence but have often regretted speech. *Wesselski Arlotto II 265 No. 208; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 478.

J1074.1.1. †J1074.1.1. Philosopher does not join in with gossipers. He is silent because he fears that some day he may talk too much and not be able to keep silent. Spanish: Childers.

J1074.2. †J1074.2. Man does not court ugly woman: she might say yes. Therefore he keeps silent. Spanish: Childers.

J1075. †J1075. Time renders all things commonplace.

J1075.1. †J1075.1. Woman tests enduring power of gossip by having a servant ride through streets on a flayed ass. By the third day he has ceased to attract attention. She concludes that it will be the same way in connection with her intended marriage. Köhler-Bolte II 571 No. 4; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1075.2. †J1075.2. Fox is terrified on first seeing lion. The third time she meets him she has no fear. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1076. †J1076. Futility of distant travel.

J1076.1. †J1076.1. Man desirous of traveling sent six miles to deliver a letter. Told that he has now seen the world, for he will never see more than valleys, hills, fields, meadows, water, streets, cities, and villages. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 590.

J1081. †J1081. Preciousness of untroubled sleep.

J1081.1. †J1081.1. King buys spendthrift's bed. It must have been an extraordinary bed to permit a man with so many debts to sleep on it. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 503; Herbert III 128 No. 79, 170 No. 35; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1082. †J1082. Futility of trying to hide an obvious deed.

J1082.1. †J1082.1. Horn will tell the tale. Thus answers goat to herdsman who begs her not to tell master that he has broken off her horn. Wienert FFC LVI 72 (ET 367), 102 (ST 154); Halm Aesop No. 17.

J1085. †J1085. Money does not always bring happiness.

J1085.1. †J1085.1. The happy friar becomes unhappier as he receives ever more and more money. Gets rid of money and is happy as before. *Type 754; *Toldo Zs. f. Vksk. XIII 420; *Crane Vitry 162 No. 66; Herbert III 281; Alphabet No. 276; Scala Celi 80b No. 459; Nouvelles Récréations No. 19; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 258 No. 204.

J1085.2. †J1085.2. Possession of gold turns humble servant into arrogant one. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1085.3. †J1085.3. King sees poor man far happier than himself. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1085.4. †J1085.4. Poor man returns to the emperor all save enough for comfort: wealth would take happiness from his simple life. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1086. †J1086. Ignoring the unpleasant. Wise man refuses to react to unpleasantness. "I don't hear the unpleasant." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1087. †J1087. Futility of expecting stranger to have one's interest at heart. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1088. †J1088. When the sweet fails try the bitter. Man pleads with thief who is stealing his figs. When pleading fails he brings him down from tree with stones. (Cf. †J1581.2, †T251.5.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

†J1100-†J1699. CLEVERNESS.

†J1100-†J1249. Clever persons and acts.

J1100. †J1100. Cleverness.

J1110. †J1110. Clever persons. Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière.

J1111. †J1111. Clever girl. **DeVries FFC LXXIII; *Chauvin VII 118 No. 387; Köhler-Bolte II 602 No. 1; *BP III 202; Bloomfield JAOS XXXVI 65. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

J1111.1. †J1111.1. Princess skillful in argument. Penzer VI 73 n. 3, 74f.

J1111.1.1. †J1111.1.1. Princess skillful in pleading. Malone PMLA XLIII 408; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1111.2. †J1111.2. Illegitimate daughter of trickster inherits father's ability to dupe others. Pierre Faifeu No. 43; Nouvelles de Sens No. 8.

J1111.3. †J1111.3. Clever daughter-in-law. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1111.4. †J1111.4. Clever peasant daughter. *Type 875, *BP II 349; **DeVries FFC LXXIII; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1111.5. †J1111.5. Clever minister's daughter. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1111.6. †J1111.6. Clever maidservant. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1111.6.1. †J1111.6.1. Clever slave girl. Jewish: Neuman.

J1112. †J1112. Clever wife. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1112.1. †J1112.1. Wife reforms wayward husband. Makes gift to husband's mistress so that she may receive him fittingly. Husband is shamed into reforming. Heptameron No. 38; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1112.1.1. †J1112.1.1. Disguised real wife orders motley wear for her husband when he goes to fetch new bride-to-be: prospective father-in-law takes him for a fool and real wife reveals herself to husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1112.2. †J1112.2. Wife dismisses maid who is husband's mistress and tells him she has fled. Husband understands and reforms. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1112.3. †J1112.3. Clever wife advises husband how to succeed on adventures. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1112.4. †J1112.4. Wives prevent war by placing themselves and their children between two armies. Nouvelles de Sens No. 16.

J1112.5. †J1112.5. Clever wife obtains secrets from husband by questioning him. Irish myth: *Cross.

J1113. †J1113. Clever boy. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1114. †J1114. Clever servant. (Cf. †J1111.6, †J1341, †J1561.4, †N25, †P360, †W111.2.)

J1114.0.1. †J1114.0.1. Clever slave. (Cf. †J1111.6.1.) Jewish: *Neuman. Cf. Aesop.

J1114.1. †J1114.1. Man deceived by his hireling. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1855*.

J1115. †J1115. Clever professions.

J1115.1. †J1115.1. Clever gambler. Penzer IX 25 n. 1; Pierre Faifeu No. 10.

J1115.2. †J1115.2. Clever physician. Penzer II 2 n. 1; Irish myth: *Cross.

J1115.2.1. †J1115.2.1. Physician decides that there is no need of purging one who drinks so many liquids. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1115.2.2. †J1115.2.2. Physician removes pea from patient's ear. Knocks him down and pea rolls out. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1115.3. †J1115.3. Clever barber. Penzer III 99ff.

J1115.4. †J1115.4. Clever tailor. *Type 1640; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "tailleur".

J1115.5. †J1115.5. Clever minstrel. Thien Motive 28.

J1115.5.1. †J1115.5.1. Clever minstrel gets a new robe. Has tattered robe mended with scarlet. Ridiculed "I wish the rest of the robe were of the same material". Is given one. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1115.6. †J1115.6. Clever peasant. *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 187b.

J1115.7. †J1115.7. Clever merchant.

J1115.7.1. †J1115.7.1. Clever merchant profits by being robbed. Monkeys steal his caps. Traps monkeys and sells them. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1115.8. †J1115.8. Clever prostitute. Gives advice on many questions. Spanish: Childers.

J1115.9. †J1115.9. Clever shepherd. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1115.10. †J1115.10. Clever official.

J1115.10.1. †J1115.10.1. Clever governor. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1115.10.2. †J1115.10.2. Clever minister. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1116. †J1116. Foolish person becomes clever. *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 184ff. nn. 18, 95, 173--176; Irish myth: *Cross.

J1116.1. †J1116.1. Clever madman. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1117. †J1117. Animal as trickster. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 294.

J1117.1. †J1117.1. Jackal as trickster. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1117.2. †J1117.2. Coyote as trickster. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 294ff.

J1118. †J1118. Clever bird.

J1118.1. †J1118.1. Clever parrot. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1122. †J1122. Clever younger generation.

J1122.1. †J1122.1. Young crow's alertness. Crow advises young ones to fly away if they see man stooping for a stone to throw. Young crows: "What if he already has stone in hand?" India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1124. †J1124. Clever court jester. India: Thompson-Balys.

†J1130-†J1199. CLEVERNESS IN THE LAW COURT.

J1130. †J1130. Cleverness in law court -- general. Jewish: *Neuman.

J1131. †J1131. Maxims for use of law court. Jewish: *Neuman.

J1140. †J1140. Cleverness in detection of truth.

J1140.1. †J1140.1. Solomon able to detect truth without evidence of witnesses. Jewish: *Neuman.

J1141. †J1141. Confession obtained by a ruse. *Chauvin VIII 89 No. 58; Nouvelles Récréations No. 28.

J1141.1. †J1141.1. Guilty person deceived into gesture (act) which admits guilt.

J1141.1.1. †J1141.1.1. Largest part of a prize to go to the guilty man. In order to obtain the prize, he confesses the earlier crime. *Type 785; *BP II 149; *Chauvin VIII 101 No. 73; Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 65 No. 9. Cf. American Negro: Harris Friends 160 No. 22.

J1141.1.2. †J1141.1.2. "Thief has grease from stolen fowl on him": thief begins to feel his beard and is detected. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1141.1.3. †J1141.1.3. Creditor: "The destroyed bond was a cubit in size." Debtor: "That is a lie; it was only a span." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1141.1.3.1. †J1141.1.3.1. Stone as witness. Farmer will not pay servant wages due. Closing his bargain with the servant he had said: "May this stone be witness." Judge orders stone brought to court. The farmer: "Oh, but the stone is too big (or very far away)". Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1549.

J1141.1.4. †J1141.1.4. "Guilty man's stick will grow during night." Guilty man chops end off stick. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1141.1.5. †J1141.1.5. "Thief has the feathers sticking on his head": guilty woman immediately passes her hand over her head. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1141.1.6. †J1141.1.6. To decide which is master and which servant they are to put heads through window and servant's head is to be cut off. Servant draws back. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1141.1.7. †J1141.1.7. Which is man and which demon in man's shape? Decision to go to whichever can go through end of reed. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1141.1.8. †J1141.1.8. Accused woman to go three times around building naked: guilty one begins to strip off her clothes. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1141.1.9. †J1141.1.9. Thief persuaded detective can read thoughts: confesses. (Cf. †N275.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J1141.1.10. †J1141.1.10. Queen flogs suspects telling them to produce stolen gem: thief promises to do so. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1141.1.11. †J1141.1.11. Confession of debt secured by having defendant dispute as to whether cat was present when debt was made. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1141.1.12. †J1141.1.12. B warns A not to tie his horse near B's. Horses fight and A's is killed. In court B plays dumb. A says B could talk the day before, and repeats conversation. Judge blames A for not taking advice. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1141.2. †J1141.2. Magician assigned three places at a table. He confesses to carrying two persons in his body. Wesselski Märchen 186 No. 1; Chavannes 500 Contes I 378.

J1141.3. †J1141.3. Cheaters examined apart; first made to repeat paternoster. Others think that he has confessed and truth is discovered. *Herbert III 202; Oesterley No. 128.

J1141.4. †J1141.4. Confession induced by bringing an unjust action against accused. False message to thief's wife to send the stolen jewel case as bribe to the judge. She does. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 723, *Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII--XXXIV 78; Köhler-Bolte I 535; *Wesselski Arlotto I 222f. No. 67; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1141.5. †J1141.5. Detection of theft by finding bag-repairer. Two men are in a lawsuit and before witnesses seal the documents in a bag to await arrival of the king. One of the men cuts the bag open, changes the documents, and has a repairer sew it up again. On the king's arrival the change is discovered. By having a fine carpet repaired the expert repairer is discovered. Confession follows. *Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII--XXXIV 70.

J1141.6. †J1141.6. Thief's money scales borrowed. A man buries gold and a thief steals it. The owner detects the criminal. He takes some money to the thief and borrows money scales "to weigh so as to bury with the other". The thief decides that he is detected and hastens to return the stolen money. *Wesselski Morlini 294 No. 43.

J1141.7. †J1141.7. Thief suspected of crawling through hole must take off clothes. He is full of scratches and confesses. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 99, 280.

J1141.8. †J1141.8. Silence points to guilt. Important man quarrels with commoner. Asks bystanders: "Who is right?" Silence. Newcomer states that the important man is wrong. "Had he been right the others would have said so." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1141.9. †J1141.9. The guilty protests his innocence. Animals put to graze in man's garden. Owner greets everyone with: "I know about you!" No one pays any attention to him except the guilty one who says: "I did not do it." Confesses. (Cf. †N275.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1141.10. †J1141.10. Confession obtained by making thief fear for his life. (Told that crossbow would shoot guilty person as he passed before it.) Pierre Faifeu No. 22.

J1141.11. †J1141.11. Detection through ruse. Husbands ask suspected priest to talk to wives on tithing, and thus obtain sufficient evidence to convict him. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 32.

J1141.12. †J1141.12. Guilty man freed of murder charge is tricked into making a false accusation for which he is sentenced. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

J1141.13. †J1141.13. Witness always to answer "No." Thus gets self condemned. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1141.14. †J1141.14. Minister threatens divine punishment to thief in congregation. The thief confesses. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1141.15. †J1141.15. The thief is tricked into revealing himself in church. England: Baughman.

J1141.16. †J1141.16. The thief is tricked into betraying himself in supposed ordeal. Canada, England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1142. †J1142. Pseudo-scientific methods of detecting. *Penzer Poison-Damsels 75ff.

J1142.1. †J1142.1. Test of mother by weighing milk. The one with the heavier milk the mother of the boy; the other of the girl. *Chauvin VI 63 No. 231; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 155.

J1142.2. †J1142.2. Love detected by quickening pulse. A woman's adulterous love detected through her pulse quickening at mention of her lover. *Herbert III 268; Oesterley No. 40; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1142.2.1. †J1142.2.1. Guilt detected by quickening heartbeat. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1142.3. †J1142.3. Adultery detected by spit marks on the wall. Too high to have been made by husband. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1142.4. †J1142.4. Thief's corpse carried through street to see who will weep for him. *Type 950; *BP III 395ff.

J1142.4.1. †J1142.4.1. Mother's weeping for thief made to seem natural.

J1142.4.1.1. †J1142.4.1.1. Clever son falls from tree, so mother's tears over dead body of father being carried through street will seem natural. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1142.4.1.2. †J1142.4.1.2. Woman breaks milk jars so that weeping for thief will seem natural. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1143. †J1143. Thief detected by building straw fire so that smoke escapes through thief's entrance. The secret hole into the building is thus discovered and the thief caught. *Type 950; BP III 395ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 200ff.; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1144. †J1144. Eaters of stolen food detected.

J1144.1. †J1144.1. Eaters of stolen food detected by the giving of an emetic. Italian Novella: Rotunda (†J1142.4.); French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 24.

J1144.2. †J1144.2. Animal thief of eggs detected when he comes to a spring to drink. All animals must tell why they are thirsty. Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 27 n. 1.

J1145. †J1145. Detection through aid of animal. Icelandic: Boberg.

J1145.1. †J1145.1. Murderer detected by actions of murdered man's dog. Attacks murderer whenever possible. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 434.

J1146. †J1146. Detection by strewing ashes (sand). Trespasser (lover, mistress, ghost, fairy, etc.) leaves footprints in the ashes. *Schoepperle Tristan and Isolt I 117ff., 221ff.; *Gaster Germania XXV 290f.; Fb "mel" II 570; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 510 No. 109, 526 No. 111, 810 n. 410.

J1146.1. †J1146.1. Detection by pitch-trap. Pitch is spread so that footprints are left in it, or that shoe is left behind as clue. *Type 510; Cox 1-80, 87-104 passim.

J1147. †J1147. Detection through feigned dream.

J1147.1. †J1147.1. Husband relates his wife's adultery in pretended dream. She dies from fright. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1149. †J1149. Miscellaneous means of detecting.

J1149.1. †J1149.1. Feigned madness unmasked by threatening man's child. Greek: Fox 123 (Odysseus).

J1149.2. †J1149.2. Cheater discovered by fishing in the street. Man arouses the curiosity of the rascal who has swindled his wife. Type 1382.

J1149.3. †J1149.3. Detection by disrobing in a dance. A man masking as a maiden has committed adultery with the queen. A clever girl by challenging him to disrobe in a dance exposes the imposture. *Wesselski Märchen 197 No. 7; Nouvelles de Sens No. 8; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1149.4. †J1149.4. Urinalysis reveals coition as cure for illness. Treatment successful. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1149.5. †J1149.5. Detection of guilt by smile. Buried money is stolen from blind man. Latter has boy watch and notify him when passerby smiles at him. The smiler is the thief. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1149.6. †J1149.6. Thief detected by his answer to question. "How would you treat a woman who came into your possession?" Answer: "I would use her and then give her to the servants." This reveals his true character. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1149.7. †J1149.7. Thief posing as corpse detected by pricking soles of his feet. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1149.8. †J1149.8. Magistrate detects thief's complicity by associating cut hand with companion's severed head. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1149.9. †J1149.9. Magistrate finds thieving innkeepers guilty of arson. Silver buckles are not melted by the fire. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1149.10. †J1149.10. Truth detected by spies listening to reactions of defendants at night. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1149.11. †J1149.11. Washing test: defendants given basin of water. Guilty one wastes it uselessly. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1149.12. †J1149.12. Ninety-nine wise men and one fool ordered to pour milk into a tank all at one time: only the fool obeys. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1150. †J1150. Cleverness connected with the giving of evidence.

J1151. †J1151. Testimony of witness cleverly discredited.

J1151.1. †J1151.1. Testimony discredited by inducing witness to talk foolishly.

J1151.1.1. †J1151.1.1. Talkative wife discredited. Husband tells his talkative wife about treasure he has discovered. To discredit her report he tells her also of impossible things (woodcock in the fish net, fish in the bird trap, etc.). She repeats it all and whole story is disbelieved. Husband may keep his treasure. *Type 1381; BP I 527; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1151.1.2. †J1151.1.2. Husband discredited by absurd truth. Wife puts fish in furrow where husband plows them up (or like absurdity). At mealtime the husband says, "Where are the fish?" -- "What fish?" -- "Those I plowed up." He is laughed to scorn. Bédier Fabliaux 196, 436; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1151.1.3. †J1151.1.3. The sausage rain. (Or rain of figs, fishes, or milk.) A mother in order to discredit testimony of her foolish son who has killed a man makes him believe that it has rained sausages. When he says that he killed the man on the night it rained sausages his testimony is discredited. Chauvin VI 126, VIII 35, 69; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 184, 195, 204 Nos. 347, 383, 407; *BP I 527; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No 4; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1151.2. †J1151.2. Witness claims the borrowed coat: discredited. Trickster summoned to court on Jew's complaint refuses to go unless he has a new coat: Jew lends him his. In court the trickster says that the Jew is a liar: "He will even claim that I am wearing his coat." The Jew does so and no one believes him. *Type 1642; *BP I 65; Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 220ff. No. 54; *Chauvin VI 126 No. 280; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1642A; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1151.3. †J1151.3. Testimony gradually weakened. Witness agrees to the following facts in succession: that the person relating the facts may have been in anger, that he may have misunderstood, that he may not have heard it at all. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1151.4. †J1151.4. Testimony of unsuccessful suitor discredited. Adulteress is surprised in intrigue by unsuccessful suitor. He threatens to tell her husband. She tells her husband that the scorned suitor has accused her falsely of indiscretion with many men. When the suitor tells the husband he does not believe him. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1152. †J1152. Witness cannot speak language of accusation: discredited. Two parrots taught accusation of mistress in a particular dialect. They know nothing more of the language. (Cf. †G1154.1.) Chauvin II 93 No. 41; Bødker Exempler 290 No. 44; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1153. †J1153. Separate examination of witnesses discredits testimony. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 114.

J1153.1. †J1153.1. Susanna and the elders: separate examination of witnesses. Testimony as to exact circumstances of her deed does not agree. Witnesses discredited. **W. Baumgartner Susanna, die Geschichte einer Legende (Archiv f. Religionswiss. XXIV 259--80); *Chauvin VI 193 No. 362; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 361f., Neuman.

J1153.2. †J1153.2. To which of two men does woman belong? Only one can answer questions just as she has. Other discredited. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1154. †J1154. Witness discredited by inability to tell details. (Cf. †J1153.1.)

J1154.1. †J1154.1. Parrot unable to tell husband details as to wife's infidelity. Wife has parrot describe a storm very realistically. Husband observes contrast in the two tales. (Cf. †J1152.) *Chauvin VIII 35f. No. 3; Bødker Exempler 286 No. 35; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1154.2. †J1154.2. Witnesses to make image of diamond they claim to have seen. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1154.3. †J1154.3. False witnesses cannot describe stolen jewel. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1155. †J1155. "Then I woke up": man discredits his confession by declaring it all a dream. *Type 1790; Wesselski Märchen 187 No. 2; *Toldo Zs. f. Vksk. XV 69f.; *Hilka and Soederhjelm Neuphilologische Mitteilungen (Helsingfors, 1913) 15ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1155.1. †J1155.1. Confession discredited by claim to be notorious liar. (Cf. †X905.) U.S.: *Baughman.

J1157. †J1157. Bribed witnesses nonplussed when judge asks wrong question. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1158. †J1158. Witness claims not to have seen crime.

J1158.1. †J1158.1. Witness says that dust storm blew and shut his eyes so that he did not see. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1160. †J1160. Clever pleading.

J1161. †J1161. Literal pleading: letter of law has been met.

J1161.1. †J1161.1. The three joint depositors may have their money back when all demand it. Money is left by three joint depositors subject to their joint order. It is stolen by one. When the banker is sued he agrees to give up the money when he receives joint order from all three. *Type 1591; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 113; Scala Celi 7b No. 46; Alphabet No. 139; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 21 No. 77; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1161.2. †J1161.2. Pound of flesh. (Fleischpfand.) Literal pleading frees man from pound of flesh contract. Contract does not give the right to shed blood. Impossible, therefore, to carry out. *Type 890; Köhler-Bolte I 211f.; Wesselski Mönchslatein 172 No. 138; *Wesselski Märchen 252 No. 61; *Chauvin VIII 200ff. No. 245; *Taylor Hdwb. d. Märchens s. v. "Fleischpfand"; Oesterley No. 195; Dunlop-Liebrecht 262; JEGPh. XXX (1931) 348--60; Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice; Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1161.3. †J1161.3. Trespasser's defense: standing on his own land. Man has earth from his own land in his shoes. *Type 1590; Herbert III 507 No. 62; *Anderson FFC XLII 362 n. 1; Fb "ed" I 234, "jord" II 45b; Künssberg Jahrbuch f. hist. Vksk. I 120f.; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 443ff., (1934) 324ff.; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1161.4. †J1161.4. Money in the stick. Before swearing, the cheater hands a stick containing the stolen money to the man he has stolen it from. He then swears that he has repaid it. *Köhler-Bolte I 137; *Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII--XXXIV 78; **Lewy ibid. XXXVII--XXXVIII 83; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman, *Gaster Exempla 210 No. 121a.

J1161.5. †J1161.5. Literal penance: boy outwits pope. For three years not to drink wine, not to lie in bed, nor sleep with a prostitute. He goes to a convent, sleeps on eider down, and sleeps with the nuns. (God's daughters). When the pope condemns him he says he will go to his brother-in-law (Christ: he has wedded God's daughters). (Cf. †J1764.5.) *Fb "nonne" II 693; Danish: Kristensen Jyske Folkeminder VII No. 36.

J1161.6. †J1161.6. Barber paid to change color of woman's face burns her with acid. He has fulfilled contract. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 414.

J1161.7. †J1161.7. Ruler forbids blacksmith to reveal solution of riddle unless he has seen him 100 times. Smith reveals the solution on receipt of 100 crowns bearing the ruler's likeness. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1161.8. †J1161.8. Ruler orders doctor to wear his hair and his robe "not too long and not too short". Has both his hair and his cloak cut half short and half long. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1161.8.1. †J1161.8.1. Bishop orders priest to wear his beard and his robe "not too long and not too short." Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 94.

J1161.9. †J1161.9. Drunk philosopher wagers that he can drink the ocean dry. Agrees to do so if the other will hold back streams emptying into the ocean. Agreed to drink only the ocean. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1161.10. †J1161.10. Man tells servant that he may have anything he can take with his teeth (eat). Servant takes master's cape with his teeth. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1161.11. †J1161.11. Thief makes it fall out that he has but taken what has been given him (he has followed literal instructions). India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1162. †J1162. Plea by admitting accusation and discomfiting accuser.

J1162.1. †J1162.1. Nurse's false plea admitted: child demanded. A nurse falsely demands pay for caring for a child which she says is the hero's. In court: "The child is indeed mine; give him to me." The child belongs to a peasant. Nurse confesses and is punished. Wesselski Märchen 229 No. 40.

J1162.2. †J1162.2. Robbers' false plea admitted: counteraccusation. Robbers claim a man's knife. In court: "The knife may indeed be theirs. I and my father were attacked yesterday by robbers. I fled. On returning I found my father killed and this knife in his body." Robbers condemned. *Wesselski Märchen 229 No. 40. Irish myth: Cross (†K448.1).

J1162.3. †J1162.3. Own name inscribed on a stolen object as sign of property. Irish myth: Cross.

J1162.4. †J1162.4. Clever pleading: youth in court for calling king a fool, proves truth of statement because king allowed self to be duped by alchemist. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1163. †J1163. Pleading for accused by means of parable. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1164. †J1164. Clever pleading: fighting for King of Kings. Knight hailed before king for fighting blasphemer, tells king that he would fight to protect the honor of the king's name so why not for the name of the King of Kings? Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1165. †J1165. Plea by showing great temptation to crime.

J1165.1. †J1165.1. Thieves tell judge walls of houses were so weak they could not resist temptation of breaking in. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1166. †J1166. Plea by shifting blame to another.

J1166.1. †J1166.1. Barber operating on child's skin kills it: blames mother for child's thin skin. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1166.2. †J1166.2. When royal mace-bearer is attacked he throws away mace: attackers accuse him of insult to king. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1169. †J1169. Clever pleading -- miscellaneous.

J1169.1. †J1169.1. The woman with bad eyes. Physician called to doctor woman's eyes bandages them and then steals things each day. She refuses to pay fee and is haled to court. She says that her sight is worse than ever for whereas she used to see many things in her house she now sees very little. Theft is thus revealed. Wesselski Mönchslatein 20 No. 15; Wienert FFC LVI 39; Halm Aesop No. 107. --India: Thompson-Balys.

J1169.2. †J1169.2. Bought behind the village. Lawyer declares unjustly that stolen horse has been bought and paid for. Angry farmer: "Yes, behind the village he bought and paid for it" (meaning that he stole it from the pasture). Lawyer pleads successfully that it is as well to buy a horse outside as inside the village. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 838.

J1169.3. †J1169.3. Their assistance not asked. Knight attacks enemy contrary to orders. Part of army helps him and is killed. He disclaims responsibility since he had not asked their aid. Wesselski Bebel I 157 No. 86.

J1169.4. †J1169.4. The ass beheaded. King vows to sacrifice first thing he meets. It is a miller driving an ass. Miller pleads that the ass preceded him. They behead the ass. Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 507, 733; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1169.5. †J1169.5. The laughing ass. King has trickster's horse's tail cut off. Trickster retaliates by cutting off part of upper lip of king's ass. At trial the animals are brought forth. Everyone laughs at the ass. Trickster: "If everyone laughs at the ass, how could the ass help laughing at her companion without a tail?" Freed. *Wesselski Gonnella 116 No. 12; U.S.: Baughman.

J1169.6. †J1169.6. Receiver of stolen goods. A tailor makes a Jew a coat of stolen goods. Accused of theft, he says that the Jew has the cloth. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 257 No. 191.

J1169.7. †J1169.7. Suit about the ass's shadow. Man hires ass and driver for trip across plain. In the heat the traveler sits down in the ass's shadow. The driver pushes him away. Plea: he didn't hire the ass's shadow. *Wienert FFC LVI 37; Halm Aesop No. 339.

J1169.8. †J1169.8. The prophet's first disciple. Judge demands that a pseudo-prophet show a miracle. Latter offers to cut off judge's head and resuscitate him. Judge agrees to be the first disciple. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 257 No. 197.

J1169.9. †J1169.9. Three unlawful acts in killing one sheep: two lambs were inside. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1170. †J1170. Clever judicial decisions.

J1170.1. †J1170.1. Series of wise judgments settles quarrels of village. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1170.2. †J1170.2. The Irish Solomon (Cormac mac Airt). Famed for his clever decisions. Irish myth: *Cross.

J1171. †J1171. Judgment by testing love.

J1171.1. †J1171.1. Solomon's judgment: the divided child. Two women claim a child. Judge offers to cut it in two. Real mother refuses. *Frazer Old Testament II 570; *Goebel Jüdische Motive im Märchenhaften Erzählungsgut (Gleiwitz, 1932) 21ff.; *Gaidoz Mélusine IV 313, 337, 366, 385, 414, 446, 457; *Köhler-Bolte I 531; *Chauvin VI 63 No. 231. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "partage"; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Menomini): Skinner and Satterlee PaAM XIII 397; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 348 n. 1; West Indies: Flowers 479. Cf. Cook Group: Dixon 37 (child actually cut in two to settle dispute).

J1171.1.1. †J1171.1.1. The ring to be cut in two and divided between quarreling persons: real owner laments the waste of the gold. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1171.2. †J1171.2. Solomon's judgment: the divided bride. Three suitors dispute over a woman. When it is proposed to divide her, true lover is discovered. *Type 653; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1171.3. †J1171.3. The woman with two husbands is to be killed. One of the husbands refuses to bury her. She is awarded to the other. Type 926*; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1171.3.1. †J1171.3.1. Clever judgment: man must belong to the third wife because the first had buried him and the second did not protect him. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1171.4. †J1171.4. Which mare is mother of colt: colt taken in boat to the middle of river; mother will swim to it. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1172. †J1172. Judgment as rebuke to unjust plaintiff.

J1172.1. †J1172.1. Not the same purse as was lost. Finder of a purse containing 800 gulden returns it to owner for reward. Latter says that purse had 900 gulden in it. In court. Decision: The rich man speaks truth. The purse found is not the one he lost. The finder may keep it. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 115; Chauvin IX 26 No. 15; Scala Celi 21b No. 135; Alphabet No. 650; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 44; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1172.2. †J1172.2. Payment with the clink of the money. Man sued for payment for enjoyment of the flavor of meat when roasting. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No 48; Nouvelles de Sens No. 9; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 297.

J1172.3. †J1172.3. Ungrateful animal returned to captivity. A man rescues a serpent (bear) who in return seeks to kill his rescuer. Fox as judge advises the man to put the serpent back into captivity. *Type 155; **Krohn Mann und Fuchs 38; **McKenzie MPh I 497ff.; Herbert III 14, 37, 54; *Köhler-Bolte I 50; *Chauvin II 121 No. 109; IX 18 No. 4; *Gaster Exempla 268 No. 441; *Crane Vitry 201 No. 160; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 745; Wienert FFC LVI 65 (ET 293), 147 (ST 515); Halm Aesop No. 97; *Fb "utak"; Scala Celi 86b No. 502; Alphabet No. 706; Oesterley No 174; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 39. -Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 27 No. 15; Indonesia: Dixon 197 n. 36; American Negro: Harris Nights 274 No. 46; Africa: Milligan Jungle 98f., (Cameroon): Lederbogen 63.

J1172.3.1. †J1172.3.1. Unjust claimant of woman duped into entering jar. Jackal as judge declares that real husband shall enter jar woman carries on her head. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1172.3.2. †J1172.3.2. Animals render unjust decision against man since man has always been unjust to them. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Bushman): Honey South African Folk Tales (New York, 1910) 101f., (Tumbuka-Kamanga): Young Customs and Folklore of the Tumbuka Kamanga (Livingstonia, 1931) 233ff., (Shilluk): Oyler Sudan Notes and Records II 221f., (Tschi): Bellon Mitt. d. Sem. f. Orient. Spr. XVII (3) 20ff. No. 4, (Saho): Reinisch Die Saho-Sprache (Wien, 1889) I (5) 205ff. No. 17, (Senegal): Colin RTP I 140f., Zeltner Contes du Senegal et du Niger (Paris, 1913) 81ff.

J1172.4. †J1172.4. Turtle released by man to carry him across stream. Threatens him midway. Fox to be judge. Feigns deafness and makes turtle come so near shore man jumps and saves self. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1173. †J1173. Series of clever unjust decisions: plaintiff voluntarily withdraws. (1) Man pulls off borrowed horse's tail: he shall keep horse till tail grows on. (2) Man falls out of bed and kills a baby (or causes a miscarriage): he shall beget a new baby for the mother. (3) Man falls from a bridge and kills boatsman's son: shall allow boatsman to fall from bridge and kill him *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 234 No. 515; *Köhler-Bolte II 578; Penzer VI 83f.; *Feilberg Danske Studier (1920) 2ff.; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 131 No. 1535A*; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1173.1. †J1173.1. Novel settlement of dispute. Judge orders woman's second husband to return her to the first in the same condition as he received her (with child). Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1173.1.1. †J1173.1.1. Novel settlement: snake's wife must wait to kill prince till princess bears as many sons as snake has. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1174. †J1174. Clever decisions concerning kissing and rape.

J1174.1. †J1174.1. Youth in court for kissing prince's daughter pleads his love for her. Prince allows plea: "If we kill those who love us, what shall we do to those who hate us?" Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 120, 733; Alphabet No. 60; Mensa Philosophica No. 16; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 20; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1174.2. †J1174.2. Complaint about the stolen kiss. Woman is allowed to take one in return. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 254 No. 173.

J1174.2.1. †J1174.2.1. Man breaks promise to sleep chastely with woman. Decision: deceived fiance is to sleep with seducer's wife, if he ever marries. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1174.3. †J1174.3. The girl screams when she is robbed. Accuses young man of raping her. When he tries to rob her of money she summons help. Decision: if she had shouted as loud before, the man could not have raped her. Youth acquitted. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 15; Herbert III 21; *Crane Vitry 242 No. 255.

J1174.4. †J1174.4. Girls must pay for young man's virginity. Girls repulsed by man climb in his window at night. Become pregnant and demand marriage. Branded as prostitutes and must pay the man. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 17.

J1174.5. †J1174.5. Man's torn garment as proof of his innocence of rape. If he were the assaulter, the torn garment would be woman's. Jewish: *Neuman.

J1175. †J1175. Judgments concerning arson.

J1175.1. †J1175.1. The cat in the warehouse. One of four companions is left in a warehouse to care for a cat which has a broken leg. Cat scratches self near flame and sets warehouse afire. The three must pay the one left behind. Broken leg could not walk and it was the three legs belonging to the three traders which caused the fire. *Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII--XXXIV 72; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1175.2. †J1175.2. Intentional and accidental fire. Rich man wishing to get rid of a neighbor's tree sets it afire. Neighbor's house catches and burns. Must pay four times value of tree since fire is intentional, but only actual value of house, since that fire was accidental. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 625.

J1176. †J1176. Decisions based on experimental tests. Icelandic: *Boberg.

J1176.1. †J1176.1. Pouring water into the inkwell. Soldier accused of stealing slavegirl from author. Girl told to pour water into an inkwell. She does it so skillfully that she must have learned it from the author. *Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII--XXXIV 72.

J1176.2. †J1176.2. Measuring the dregs. Some full and some half-full wine casks left with man by neighbor, who accuses him of theft. Fraud of accusation detected by measuring the dregs. Oesterley No. 246; Herbert III 237; Ward ibid. II 239; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 45; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1176.3. †J1176.3. Gold pieces in the honey-pot. Woman leaves honey-pot with neighbor to guard. It has gold below the honey. Neighbor steals the gold and substitutes honey. Theft proved by gold pieces sticking to sides of pot. (Cf. †J1192.2.) Alphabet No. 261; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 58ff., 300f., *Neuman.

J1176.4. †J1176.4. A two-headed man is only one man. Two-headed man claims double inheritance. Hot water poured over one head. Other head cries out with pain. He is declared to be one man and to merit only one share. Jewish: Gaster Exempla 206 No. 113, bin Gorion Born Judas III 73, 302, *Neuman.

J1176.5. †J1176.5. True husband of woman determined by assigning superhuman task. Thus god masking as husband is discovered. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 247b; Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XVI 139.

J1177. †J1177. Story told to discover thief. Judge tells story of the lady, her husband, her lover, and the robbers (†H1552.1). Which was the most generous? Witness says that robber was. This shows that he has robber's point of view. *Type 976; Jewish: Gaster Exempla 206 No. 111, bin Gorion Born Judas III 97, 303; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1177.0.1. †J1177.0.1. None should interrupt or leave the room while story is told: treachery revealed. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1177.1. †J1177.1. Story told to discover thief: sundry tales. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1179. †J1179. Clever judicial decisions -- miscellaneous. Africa (Angola): Chatelain Nos. 10, 42, 49.

J1179.1. †J1179.1. Damages for the field devastated by a flock. David says pay money damages. Solomon says let laborers have flock till milk and wool have paid the damages. *Chauvin VIII 99 No. 71; Irish myth: Cross.

J1179.2. †J1179.2. The hog belongs to whichever place he goes of his own accord. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 121.

J1179.3. †J1179.3. The short blanket must be patched. Weaver makes blanket shorter than ordered. Weaver ordered to add a piece to the blanket and then to receive full price. Bolte Frey's Gartengesellschaft 110, 256.

J1179.4. †J1179.4. Robber innocent because he is merely following traditions of his ancestors. Wesselski Bebel II 111 No. 39.

J1179.5. †J1179.5. Servants would not have left the coats. Merchants complain to nobleman that his servants have robbed them of money. Nobleman asks whether merchants had on those good coats when the robbery took place. When told yes, he said that the robbers were not his servants, for they would never have left good coats. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 490; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1179.6. †J1179.6. Thread awarded to disputant who knows what it was wound on. Zachariae Kleine Schriften 84; Alphabet No. 533.

J1179.7. †J1179.7. Stolen necklace does not have same scent as defendant uses. Zachariae Kleine Schriften 57.

J1179.8. †J1179.8. Tenant advised by landlord to steal in order to pay his taxes acquitted. Bolte Montanus' Gartengesellschaft 610 No. 67.

J1179.9. †J1179.9. The judge pays fine himself. Tires of the bickering of two men over a trifling sum. Italian Novella: Rotunda; Spanish: Childers.

J1179.10. †J1179.10. Enoch Arden decision. Man believing wife dead becomes a priest. Later finds her alive. Pope's decision: he may remain both a priest and husband but must not consort with any other woman. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 42; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1179.11. †J1179.11. Those who furnish equal number of animals for plow share equally in crop (in spite of amount of work done by each). India: Thompson-Balys.

J1179.12. †J1179.12. Actual rescuer gets woman. Watchers could never have got her merely by watching. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1179.13. †J1179.13. Cardinal's clever decision: that the monks who arise earliest may sound matins. There had been a great argument over this privilege. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1179.14. †J1179.14. Eye of king's foster-son damaged by sting of bee. Boy's friends demand eye of king's son in forfeit; king decrees instead destruction of swarm of bees so that guilty one may perish. Irish myth: *Cross.

J1180. †J1180. Clever means of avoiding legal punishment.

J1181. †J1181. Execution escaped by use of special permissions granted the condemned.

J1181.0.1. †J1181.0.1. Execution: man induced to kill self. King may not execute Brahmin, but gets him drunk and brings about his death. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1181.1. †J1181.1. Execution evaded by using three wishes. King ordains that guest who turns his plate shall be executed, but orders that anyone so condemned shall have three wishes granted. One of the wishes: to have all blinded who saw him turn the plate. He is freed. *Wesselski Märchen des Mittelalters 230 No. 40; Herbert III 197; Oesterley No. 194.

J1181.2. †J1181.2. Execution evaded by having three wishes granted: to be emperor, judge and the emperor's son-in-law during the last week of his life. As judge he frees himself and is in reality freed. Köhler-Bolte II 651--57; Zs. f. Vksk. XV 222; Icelandic: Boberg.

J1181.3. †J1181.3. Condemned man wins pardon by clever remark. Fool is allowed to jump off cliff (balcony) as punishment. Master expresses surprise that in three trials he has failed to hurl himself from the height. The jester offers the prince four trials. Amused prince pardons the jester. Spanish: Childers.

J1182. †J1182. Punishment escaped by discomfiting condemner.

J1182.1. †J1182.1. To be beaten by deceiver of husband. Lady has her women ready to give a trickster a beating. He is allowed to make one request. The one who has most often deceived her husband shall strike first. *Wesselski Gonnella 121 No. 16; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1183. †J1183. Execution escaped by invoking laws of hospitality.

J1183.1. †J1183.1. Prisoner has drunk water furnished by the king and thus becomes king's guest. Spared. *Chauvin VI 72 No. 238.

J1184. †J1184. No second punishment for same offense.

J1184.1. †J1184.1. Adulteress hurled from high rock escapes injury: she may not be punished again. Herbert III 211; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 3.

J1184.2. †J1184.2. Ears not to be cut off a second time. Executioner discovers that the prisoner's ears are of stucco, having been clipped for a previous offense. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1185. †J1185. Execution escaped by story-telling. Cf. Browning's "Balaustion's Adventure."

J1185.1. †J1185.1. Scheherazade: story with indefinite sequels told to stave off execution. *Chauvin V 190 No. 111.

J1189. †J1189. Clever means of avoiding legal punishment -- miscellaneous.

J1189.1. †J1189.1. Youth will answer question only when king places him on throne: then youth calls executioners to punish cruel king. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1189.2. †J1189.2. Execution escaped by threatening with malediction. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

J1189.3. †J1189.3. King substitutes for condemned man when he is told that whoever is executed that day is destined to become king in his next birth. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1190. †J1190. Cleverness in the lawcourt -- miscellaneous.

J1191. †J1191. Reductio ad absurdum of judgment. *Chauvin VI 63, 231; *Zachariae Zs f. Vksk. XXX--XXXII 50 n. 2; *Wesselski Arlotto II 215 No. 73; India: Thompson-Balys; Oceanic: *Dixon 199 n. 37; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 197 No. 26.

J1191.1. †J1191.1. Reductio ad absurdum: the decision about the colt. A man ties his mare to a second man's wagon. The mare bears a colt which the wagon-owner claims, saying that the wagon has borne a colt. Real owner of the colt shows the absurdity (1) by fishing in the street or (2) by telling that his wife is shooting fish in the garden. Neither of these things are so absurd as the decision. *Type 875; **DeVries FFC LXXIII; India: *Thompson-Balys; Köhler-Bolte I 460; *BP II 349ff., 371; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 212 No. 434; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1191.1.1. †J1191.1.1. "The sea is on fire" -- not more absurd than the decision about the colt. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1191.2. †J1191.2. Suit for chickens produced from boiled eggs. Countertask: harvesting crop produced from cooked seeds. *DeVries FFC LXXIII 244; Jewish: *Neuman.

J1191.3. †J1191.3. The funeral for the ineligible husband. A king awards a young woman to a gardener, who is already married. The young woman performs a funeral ceremony for him. The king is pleased with the jest and takes her into the harem. Chauvin V 245 No. 146.

J1191.4. †J1191.4. To return the dead elephant alive. Hired elephant dies. Owner demands the live elephant. The god causes the elephant's owner to break pots of the other. Is unable to make specific restitution. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1191.5. †J1191.5. Reductio ad absurdum of accusation: object-birth slander. (Later children tell toy animals to drink. No harder than for woman to bear objects.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1191.5.1. †J1191.5.1. Impossible to eat pearls: also impossible for woman to bear animals (objects). India: Thompson-Balys.

J1191.6. †J1191.6. Plaintiff in court beats thief since he had not warned him ahead of time to have witnesses to robbery. Judge has refused to inquire for lack of witnesses. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1191.7. †J1191.7. Rice pot on pole, fire far away. As easy to cook rice thus as to warm a man at a distance from a lamp on a balcony. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1192. †J1192. The bribed judge. *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 38; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1192.1. †J1192.1. Judge awards decision to the greater bribe. *DeVries FFC LXXIII 263; Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 125, 128, 852, 853; Scala Celi 20a No. 122; England: Baughman; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1192.1.1. †J1192.1.1. Buffalo has eaten up turban. Judge decides for greater bribe. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1192.1.2. †J1192.1.2. Judge favors poor defendant so he may obtain money from rich without begging. Jewish: Neuman.

J1192.2. †J1192.2. Error was in the honey. Trickster takes jar filled with earth but with honey on top as bribe to the judge. He takes the decision in writing. Cheat is discovered and judge sends message that an error has been made. Reply: the decision was right; the error is in the honey. (Cf. †J1176.3.) *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 252 No. 170.

J1192.3. †J1192.3. The bribed judge's ancestors. Clever animal says in court that she drops dung on ancestors of judges who take bribes (unless they confess). Judges confess. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1193. †J1193. Clever interpretation of judge's statement.

J1193.1. †J1193.1. Killing the fly on the judge's nose. The judge has told the boy that he should kill a fly wherever he sees one. Type 1586; *BP I 519; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 271 No. 280; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 673; Fansler MAFLS XII 390, 435; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII 69 No. 4.

J1193.2. †J1193.2. The value of a blow. A judge awards damages of a penny against a friend of his for giving a blow. The defendant goes to get the money and is gone long. Meanwhile the plaintiff gives the judge a blow and tells him to use the penny as damages. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 254 No. 172; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 718; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1193.2.1. †J1193.2.1. The Court keeps the change. Man is fined half-ducat. Judge has no change. Defendant strikes judge for the change. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1195. †J1195. Judge frightened into awarding decision. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1197. †J1197. Judge finds offense is not great when it is his own son who is guilty. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1198. †J1198. Pardon in return for confession.

J1198.1. †J1198.1. King promises thieves pardon for confession: pleased with their cleverness. India: Thompson-Balys.

†J1210-†J1229. CLEVER MAN PUTS ANOTHER OUT OF COUNTENANCE.

J1210. †J1210. Clever man puts another out of countenance.

J1211. †J1211. Putting out of countenance by telling evil stories.

J1211.1. †J1211.1. Peasant preaches about bishop's amour. Bishop has instructed him to tell the truth and spare no one when he preaches. *Type 1825A; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 711.

J1211.1.1. †J1211.1.1. Priest preaches about bishop's amour. Bishop has fined priest for incontinence. Priest hides and witnesses amorous intrigue between bishop and abbess, hearing bishop refer to the abbess's charms in biblical similes. Priest incorporates overheard references in his introduction to the Mass and is asked for an explanation. Bishop returns his fine. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1211.2. †J1211.2. Clever thief may keep booty. He has seen his victim in a disgraceful position and is allowed the booty as a price for his silence. *Köhler-Bolte II 594; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 263 No. 236; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1211.2.1. †J1211.2.1. The drunken officer's stolen mantle. Thief confronted by the officer tells all the circumstances of the drunkenness (with many shameful additions). The officer denies the ownership. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 239 No. 120.

J1211.3. †J1211.3. Courtier having observed king's amour shields him and gains pardon. Answers in clever proverbs when called on to say what he has seen. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1212. †J1212. Judge put out of countenance.

J1212.1. †J1212.1. The doubly-bribed judge. One of the disputants keeps the hens he is to give the judge in his hand and when the decision begins to go against him makes the hens cry out. *Wesselski Arlotto I 208 No. 48.

J1213. †J1213. Thief exposes owner's unjust claim.

J1213.1. †J1213.1. Complaint about the stolen ox. A thief steals a calf and keeps the hide. The owner makes a hue and cry about a stolen ox. The thief produces the calfhide: "You thief, to demand an ox for a calf!" Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 209 No. 16, cf. 254 No. 177.

J1214. †J1214. Absurd pretence, when allowed, puts pretender out of countenance.

J1214.1. †J1214.1. Claim that dog-head captured game. Two hunters, one with dog and other with dog-head, dispute. The claim that the dog-head captured the game is allowed and then the alarm is raised that the owner of the, game is coming to punish the theft. Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 243 No. 19.

J1216. †J1216. Cheater put out of countenance by raising alarm. Wine seller carries water into his cellar. Man raises alarm pretending that he thought the house must be afire. Wesselski Bebel II 109 No. 31.

J1217. †J1217. Worldly man puts religious man out of countenance.

J1217.1. †J1217.1. One dueller fights with God's help; the other with his brother's. First claims that the odds are unfair; second agrees that he will fight without his brother if the first will fight without God. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 312.

J1217.2. †J1217.2. Simple holy man puts philosopher out of countenance when he says to him that wisdom came before learning. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1218. †J1218. Thirty years old for twelve years. Man claims to be thirty; has been doing so for the last twelve years. Spanish, Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1221. †J1221. Old man in love with young woman puts his critics out of countenance. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1223. †J1223. Rebuke for telling a poor and long-winded story. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1224. †J1224. Poet puts others out of countenance.

J1224.1. †J1224.1. Poet is importuned by admirers. Vaults away from them saying: "You may tell me anything you wish -- in your own homes! Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1224.2. †J1224.2. Poet (Dante) puts ruler out of countenance. Ruler had instructed jesters to tease him. The poet cleverly answers his questioners pretending to have the impression that the questions are addressed to the ruler. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

†J1230-†J1249. CLEVER DIVIDING.

J1230. †J1230. Clever dividing.

J1241. †J1241. Clever dividing which favors the divider. India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; West Indies: Flowers 481.

J1241.1. †J1241.1. Dividing two sheep and a ram: trickster to divide with two friends. You two take one sheep; the ram and I will take the other. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 202 No. 399.

J1241.2. †J1241.2. Dividing four coins among three persons. Two coins apiece given to two; other is to wait till two more coins are found. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 181 No. 339.

J1241.3. †J1241.3. Dividing three fish among two men. Fools submit problem to trickster who solves problem by taking third fish himself. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 259.

J1241.4. †J1241.4. Division of the fat and lean fowls. Two fat fowls and one lean one at meal. Hero is lean, his two hosts fat. He is to divide. One lean fowl for the two fat people; two fat fowls for the one lean man. *Wesselski Märchen 229 No. 40.

J1241.5. †J1241.5. Dividing the eggs: one man's hand in the pot at a time. Trickster alternates hands so fast that the other man never gets to put his hand in. He finally puts his foot in the pan. Spanish: Childers.

J1242. †J1242. Dividing by scripture quoting.

J1242.1. †J1242.1. Hog's head divided according to scripture. To be divided among three students according to their skill in quoting. First: "And they cut one ear off" (takes ear). Second: "And they gave him a box on the ear" (takes other ear). Third: "And they took him away secretly" (takes whole hog away). BP II 361.

J1242.2. †J1242.2. Three men divide a large fish by quoting scripture. Spanish: Childers.

J1243. †J1243. Inherited gold ring divided between three by selling it and dividing the money. Icelandic: Boberg.

J1249. †J1249. Clever dividing -- miscellaneous.

J1249.1. †J1249.1. Dividing five eggs equally between two men and one woman. Three to the woman and one each to the men. Men already have two (testicles). *Fischer-Bolte 207.

†J1250-†J1499. Clever verbal retorts (repartee).

J1250. †J1250. Clever verbal retorts -- general. Boccaccio Decameron Day 6 (Lee 176ff.); Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1251. †J1251. Baffling malice with ready answers. English: Child I 20--22, 485, III 496, IV 440.

J1251.1. †J1251.1. Humiliated lover in repartee with disdainful mistress. (Cf. †K1225.1, †K1326.1.) Nouvelles Récréations No. 64.

J1252. †J1252. Quibbling answers. E.g., Where are you going? -- Forward. Where are you going to cut the tree? -- At the foot. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1254. †J1254. Evading a direct answer which may trap one. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1255. †J1255. Answering only "yes" and "no". India: Thompson-Balys.

J1260. †J1260. Repartee based on church or clergy.

J1261. †J1261. Repartee based on levity toward sacred persons and things.

J1261.1. †J1261.1. Levity toward name of God.

J1261.1.1. †J1261.1.1. God as a father-in-law. Nuns tell a man that they are daughters of God. "Come and marry me; I should like such a rich father-in-law." Wesselski Bebel II 120 No. 60.

J1261.1.2. †J1261.1.2. Why God has few friends. Priest consoles sick man by saying that God chastens those whom he loves. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 778.

J1261.1.3. †J1261.1.3. Man barks his shins on dark night. "By the great bugaboo! If I was the Almighty and had a moon, I'd hang it out on a night like this." U.S.: Baughman.

J1261.1.4. †J1261.1.4. Farmer looks at his hay on ground after a rain: "If I was a God, I'd be a God and not a damned fool!" U.S.: Baughman.

J1261.1.5. †J1261.1.5. Woman causes disturbance in church, is carried out forcibly. She remarks. "Well I am more favored than my Lord. He had but one ass to ride, while I have two." U.S.: *Baughman.

J1261.2. †J1261.2. Disrespect for the sacrament. (Cf. †J1269.5.)

J1261.2.1. †J1261.2.1. The sacrament for sale. Sick woman calls the parson but recovers meanwhile He insists on her taking the sacrament and charges for it. "Set it here on the table; perhaps I can sell it again." *Wesselski Bebel II 110 No. 36.

J1261.2.2. †J1261.2.2. Distrusts God when he can be brought by a man. Priest offers to help peasant with "the body of the Lord". -- "If God can be brought by a man, he is too weak to help me." Frey (ed. Bolte) *219 No. 10.

J1261.2.3. †J1261.2.3. Priest may eat communion supper. Thief about to be hanged is told that if he truly repents he will eat Lord's Supper in heaven. "If that is true, won't you eat the supper for me; I'll reward you well." *Wesselski Bebel I 186 No. 42.

J1261.2.4. †J1261.2.4. Sacrament too precious to be bought. If that were so, says the apprentice, no one would have given it to you or me. *Wesselski Bebel I 124 No. 12.

J1261.2.5. †J1261.2.5. Dante is accused of not kneeling before sacrament. Says that he had his mind on God and did not remember what his body did. If those who criticized him had had their minds on God they would not have noticed it. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1261.2.6. †J1261.2.6. Priest bringing Host to dying man sees thief on his fig tree. Shouts vituperations at him. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1261.2.7. †J1261.2.7. Priest throws Chalice at owl. Says that he thought that the owl had stolen the Host. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1261.2.8. †J1261.2.8. Priest carries the Host across a dangerous stream. Spectators tell him to thank God for not drowning. "I helped Him across!" Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1261.3. †J1261.3. Will lunch with Christ. Priest tells condemned man after confession that he will dine with Christ that evening. Mule that carries him to scaffold goes very fast and criminal says, "At this rate I shall lunch with Christ." Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 150 No. 1855*.

J1261.4. †J1261.4. Blessing not worth a penny. Beggar woman asks pope for shilling and, being refused, for a penny. Finally asks for his blessing, which he gives. Old woman: "If your blessing had been worth a penny, you wouldn't have given me that." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 344.

J1261.5. †J1261.5. Will spend the funeral money now. King asks how much his funeral will cost. "Give me the three hundred ducats now and when I am dead throw me into the Tiber." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 187.

J1261.6. †J1261.6. Priest may use his own mother's mass money. At his mother's funeral a boy takes the money laid on the altar for masses. When the priest objects, the boy says, "When your mother dies you may take the money too." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 703.

J1261.7. †J1261.7. Judgment Day a long way off. Thief told by monk that he must return stolen cloth on Judgment Day "If I have so long a period of grace, I should like to take the whole monastery." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 783; Irish: Beal XXI 327, O'Suilleabhain 76; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1261.8. †J1261.8. Monk's cordon cannot stand the strain. Franciscan claims that his cordon will save him from Hell. Benedictine answers that he once had a dream in which he saw St. Francis throw his cordon to save members of his order in Purgatory and so many clung to it that it snapped. (Cf. †Q291.1.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1261.9. †J1261.9. "Better a live confessor than a dead martyr." So answers a preacher when asked whether he preferred to stay at home and confess his flock or go to war against the infidels. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1261.10. †J1261.10. How does goddess with thousand faces blow her noses? India: Thompson-Balys.

J1262. †J1262. Repartee based on doctrinal discussions.

J1262.1. †J1262.1. Earthen cups replaced by golden. Emperor: "God is a thief; he threw Adam into a sleep and then stole a rib from him." Emperor's daughter: "Would you call a man a thief who stole two earthen cups from you and replaced them by golden ones?" Jewish: Gaster Exempla 196 No. 55, *Neuman.

J1262.2. †J1262.2. God in the puddle. A Jew objects to the doctrine that God could exist in the Virgin Mary. A disputant asks if he believes God is everywhere; then if God is in a mud puddle. The Jew agrees. The disputant condemns the Jew for believing that God could exist in a puddle and not in a pure virgin. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 154.

J1262.3. †J1262.3. Acting according to the note. A Jew slaps a Christian and tells him to turn the other cheek. The Christian beats the Jew, who says, "You do not act according to your Gospel." -- "I am acting in accordance with the note." -- "The note is worse than the text." *Wesselski Bebel II 118 No. 56.

J1262.4. †J1262.4. Levity regarding biblical passages. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1262.4.1. †J1262.4.1. Levity regarding the paternoster. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1262.5. †J1262.5. Parishioner hears preacher say that alms are returned "100 to 1". Chops down crucifix and takes money from box. Is told that such return would take place in other world. "I won't need money then, but I can use it now." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1262.5.1. †J1262.5.1. Whoever gives alms in God's name will receive tenfold: preacher's wife gives sweetmeats away. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1262.6. †J1262.6. "You don't blame a toolmaker for making all manner of tools, both harmful and helpful, so why blame God for making bad beasts as well as good ones?" Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1262.7. †J1262.7. Repartee: "If you can't see the soul in the living man, how can you expect to see it in the dead?" retorts wise man to atheist. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1262.8. †J1262.8. Skeleton has all his ribs. Indian examines skeleton of man at museum, finds there is no rib missing, concludes that ministers have deceived him in telling him the story of Adam. U.S.: Baughman.

J1262.9. †J1262.9. Three true faiths. Ruler trying to confiscate Jew's money asks him which is the true faith. "There are three, the one which the Lord knows is right and the two his children think are right." (Cf. †H659.5.1, †J462.3.1.) Italian Novella: Rotunda (†J462.3.1.2).

J1263. †J1263. Repartee concerning clerical abuses.

J1263.1. †J1263.1. Repartee based on clerical ignorance.

J1263.1.1. †J1263.1.1. Why ignorant priests are favored. They can always find patrons as ignorant as they are. *Wesselski Bebel II 100 No. 4.

J1263.1.2. †J1263.1.2. Consecration of the ignorant priest. A bishop disgusted with priest's ignorance says, "Who consecrated you as priest?" -- "You did, the time I gave you ten florins." Wesselski Bebel I 221 No 114.

J1263.1.3. †J1263.1.3. Priest who never reads mass. Peasants complain of his ignorance. He says that they stand so close to him that he is afraid they might memorize and then pay no attention to his reading of it. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 773.

J1263.1.3.1. †J1263.1.3.1. Rushing through the mass. Two priests apply for the position of chaplain and argue as to which one can say the mass more quickly. One clinches the argument saying: "You could not say it more quickly than I because I don't read half of it!" Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1263.1.4. †J1263.1.4. Christ's disciples did not pass the examination. Ignorant student unable to pass his examination thus consoles himself. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 856.

J1263.2. †J1263.2. Repartee concerning clerical venality. (Cf. †J1192, †J1263.1.2.)

J1263.2.1. †J1263.2.1. Price of consecration. Bishop is paid 100 ova (eggs) instead of 100 oves (sheep) for consecrating man as priest. To bishop's protests the man answers, "You should have refused to consecrate me. If I had been worthy I should not have had to promise oves or ova." *Wesselski Bebel I 221 No. 115.

J1263.2.2. †J1263.2.2. Rich man shakes ducats into pope's lap. Pope says, "Who could withstand such an armored army?" and decides for the rich man. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 346.

J1263.2.3. †J1263.2.3. Priest refuses small bribe: only for large sum will he sell himself to devil. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No 547.

J1263.3. †J1263.3. Christians have a merciful God. Jew so decides when he thinks of the scandalous life of the court of Rome. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 777; Boccaccio Decameron I No. 2 (Lee 2); Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1263.4. †J1263.4. Repartee concerning clerical luxury.

J1263.4.1. †J1263.4.1. The abbot's luxury and the cardinal's. Cardinal rebukes abbot for living in luxury beyond that of the founder of his order. Abbot asks cardinal if the cardinals of St. Peter traveled in the luxury he does. *Wesselski Bebel II 115 No. 48.

J1263.4.2. †J1263.4.2. Man calls Saints Peter and Paul fools for enduring poverty if rich abbots can reach heaven, too. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1263.5. †J1263.5. Clergy in no need of spectacles. Many do not pray at all, many know their prayers by heart, and the great prelates look through their fingers *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 514.

J1263.6. †J1263.6. Choosing his confessor. Ruler explains: "I want a lying priest so that if he repeats my confession he will not be believed." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1263.7. †J1263.7. Confession made easy. Peasant sees priest at work in the fields. Tells him he wishes to confess. He is told to put money in the box and take the same penance as the year before. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1264. †J1264. Repartee concerning clerical incontinence.

J1264.1. †J1264.1. The church his wife. Priest accused of being too intimate with parishioners' wives says that the church is his wife and that the men treat her far more shamefully than he treats any woman. Bolte Frey's Gartengesellschaft *253 No. 96.

J1264.2. †J1264.2. Celibacy at the altar. Monk says, "I vowed three things: poverty in the bath, obedience at the table, and celibacy at the altar." *Wesselski Bebel II 133 No. 100.

J1264.3. †J1264.3. Father wears a crown but is no king. Priest's son is thus taunted. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 161.

J1264.4. †J1264.4. During the silent period. Nun asked why she did not call for help when raped. She says, "It was during the silent period." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 716.

J1264.5. †J1264.5. Youth says he is associating with a pious person. He has nun as mistress. (Cf. †J1161.5.) Wesselski *Bebel I 191 No. 58.

J1264.6. †J1264.6. Nun claims her child is by the Holy Ghost. Defense accepted. Bolte Frey's Gartengesellschaft *218 No. 6.

J1264.7. †J1264.7. Multiplying his talents. Priest is entrusted with reforming five dissolute nuns. Gets all five with child. The priest is rebuked for not using his "talents" when tempted. He answers: "God gave me five talents and I have added five more!" (Pun on word talent.) Nouvelles Récréations No. 4; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1264.8. †J1264.8. Unequal returns. Man at his lady's funeral says to priest: "You enjoy them when they are young and then give them to us to bury. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1264.9. †J1264.9. Abbess has twenty-four nuns for twelve monks: twelve nuns therefore for the guests. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 65.

J1265. †J1265. Repartee based on church government.

J1265.1. †J1265.1. Like Christ on Palm Sunday. Bishop has parson to dinner in the seat of honor. The parson fears that the dinner precedes punishment. Parson: "Don't let me be like Christ on Palm Sunday in Jerusalem" *Wesselski Arlotto I 173 No. 2.

J1265.2. †J1265.2. Priest offers to exchange places with the bishop when he is told that he is unfit to care for his parish. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 78.

J1265.3. †J1265.3. The same company of fools. An abbot calls the monks together and asks, "Whom from all you fools can I appoint as steward?" A monk answers, "That should not be difficult since an abbot was found from the same company of fools." Wesselski Bebel II 119 No. 58.

J1269. †J1269. Repartee based on church or clergy -- miscellaneous.

J1269.1. †J1269.1. The parson's share and the sexton's. During the sermon the parson bids the sexton see if anyone is coming. The sexton: "A man is coming with a wheel on his shoulder" --Parson: "God gives it to you." --Sexton: "Now a man is coming with half a hog on his shoulder." --Parson: "God gives it to me." Type 1829*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1829*.

J1269.2. †J1269.2. Man absents self from church because he does not like to hear people slandered. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 797.

J1269.3. †J1269.3. Would be first in all things. Chaplain accused of being first to start all knavery thus defends himself. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 56.

J1269.4. †J1269.4. Scolding priest says he is merely trying to get even for all the scolding he must undergo. Wesselski Bebel I 161 No. 96.

J1269.5. †J1269.5. Transmutation of the quail. Bishop brought quail on Friday orders them cooked. Blamed. If he can turn bread into the body of the Lord why can he not turn quail into fish? Frey (ed. Bolte) 247 No. 85; Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 100; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1269.6. †J1269.6. The capon and the hen. Bishop refuses a favor to an abbess on the ground that he does not love her. Abbess: "I can well believe that. The capon never loves the hen." Wesselski Mönchslatein No. 59; Mensa Philosophica No. 115.

J1269.7. †J1269.7. Praying before the King of Kings. Man while praying refuses to salute superior. While standing before the King of Kings he could not show respect to inferiors. Gaster Exempla 194 No. 45; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 617.

J1269.8. †J1269.8. Robber's defense for stealing from rich. God will not permit them to enter heaven unless we take their ill-gotten goods from them. *Wesselski Bebel II 142 No. 131.

J1269.9. †J1269.9. Who bore the Savior on his back? (St. Christopher.) Parishioner: "The ass, for he bore both the son and his mother." Bolte Frey's Gartengesellschaft 245 No. 81.

J1269.10. †J1269.10. Mice die of hunger. Complaints against underpaid priest that he does not stay at home. Says he cannot stay at home for the mice are dying of hunger since he receives only forty florins a year. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 773.

J1269.11. †J1269.11. Their own quarters need it more. Such is the answer given monks who insist that quarters occupied by the king and his train be reconsecrated. Wesselski Bebel I 189 No. 53.

J1269.12. †J1269.12. Youth announces fire in imitation of priest's metaphorical language. The fire set by cat's tail gains headway. Nouvelles Récréations No. 21.

J1269.13. †J1269.13. Cannot leave court of God: reply of saint when king invites him to court. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1270. †J1270. Repartee concerning the parentage of children.

J1271. †J1271. Eunuch visits augurer to see whether he is to be a father. "When I look at the livers, you are to be a father. When I look at you, I see that you are not even a man." Wienert FFC LVI 40; Babrius No. 54.

J1272. †J1272. The gift of the fool. Of three brothers the shoemaker makes shoes for the queen and princess; the tailor, clothes; the fool -- children. Type 1548*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 654A.

J1273. †J1273. Children by day and by night. Artist paints beautiful children but his own are ugly. One kind, he says, are made by day, the other by night. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No 412; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1274. †J1274. His father has been in Rome. A young man comes to Rome who looks like the emperor. Latter asks him if he mother has ever been in Rome. No, but my father has been here often. (Not son but brother.) *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 502; Mensa Philosophica No. 3; Nouvelles Récréations No. 15; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1276. †J1276. The child born too soon.

J1276.1. †J1276.1. Child born one month after marriage. Father-in-law to son-in-law: "Do like my grandson and you will always be ahead of others." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1276.2. †J1276.2. Too much for his income. Child born two months after marriage. Husband returns wife to her father (uncle) saying: "I can't afford a child every two months." Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1276.2.1. †J1276.2.1. Child born on wedding night. Groom leaves. Can't afford a child every time he lies with his wife. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 29; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1279. †J1279. Repartee regarding the parentage of children -- miscellaneous.

J1279.1. †J1279.1. Plea for a good father. Mother of twelve on deathbed explains to family that not all her children are legitimate. Gives the paternity of each child. Youngest leaves his food to say: "Please, mother, give me a good father!" (Cf. †J325.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1279.2. †J1279.2. Even God can overdo it! Returning sailor finds his hovel transformed into a fine house. "Where does all this come from?" Wife: "God's bounty." Illegitimate child greets mother. Same question, same answer. Sailor: "I don't want God to help me so much!" Italian Novella: *Rotunda

J1279.3. †J1279.3. Suitor hesitates to marry girl as immature (or too delicate). Girl's father protests, saying that she has had three children. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1279.4. †J1279.4. In numbers there is strength. The children of the Genoese are strong because there is more help. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1280. †J1280. Repartee with ruler (judge, etc.).

J1281. †J1281. "If I were a tyrant you would not say so." Answer made by emperor to one who calls him a tyrant. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 733; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1282. †J1282. Trickster chooses his gift. To be rewarded by ruler with a coin, an ass, a sheep, or a vineyard. Answers that he will take the coin, mount the ass, drive the sheep into the vineyard, and there pray for the ruler. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 237 No. 523.

J1283. †J1283. Gifts from the brothers. A king gives a man a coin. "Is that all you give your brother?" "Are you my brother?" "Surely, we both pray, Our father, etc." "If all your brothers give you as much as I you will be rich." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 517.

J1284. †J1284. Do not leave it to your successor. A widow stops a ruler on his way to war. He may be killed and he should not leave the act of justice as a credit to his successor. *Chauvin VIII 204 No. 246; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1284.1. †J1284.1. Show me how it is done. Wronged woman thus addresses ruler, who is indifferent to insults directed at him. She wishes to be shown how to bear insults. This rebukes him. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1284.2. †J1284.2. Cease being a king. A widow asks justice of a king. The latter says that he is too busy to hear her. "Then cease being a king," replies the widow. Her bold reply wins an audience with the king. Spanish: Childers.

J1285. †J1285. Against his will. A thief condemned to the gallows tells the king, "I do what you do and it is against my will." King: "You shall also be hanged against your will." *Basset 1001 Contes I 507.

J1286. †J1286. His proper title. A peasant goes to a judge and thinking to gain his favor addresses him with high titles. The judge calls him a fool. "I was mistaken, you swine!" *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 262 No. 223.

J1289. †J1289. Repartee with ruler (judge, etc.) -- miscellaneous.

J1289.1. †J1289.1. Not a locksmith. A judge asks a pseudo-prophet to prove his powers by opening a difficult lock. "I am a prophet, not a locksmith." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 258 No. 198.

J1289.2. †J1289.2. Bishop and prince. Peasant tells bishop, who rides by with forty horses, that he wonders if St. Kilian at Würzburg is also riding with forty horses. Bishop excuses extravagance by saying that he is also a prince and that it is the prince, not the bishop, who is using the horses. "If the prince should become a fool, what would the bishop do then?" Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 158.

J1289.3. †J1289.3. Will not try to correct them. Pope calls persistent courtier a fool. Latter says that there are people who call the pope the same thing and that he for one will not try to correct them. Frey (ed. Bolte) 222 No. 17.

J1289.4. †J1289.4. The needy philosopher. Philosopher asks ruler for money Ruler says that philosophers do not need money. Philosopher: "If I am rewarded, I will say that you are right; I will no longer need money." Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1289.5. †J1289.5. Wearing all his clothes. Shivering king (rich man) to tattered peasant: "Aren't you cold?" Peasant: "No, if you wore all your clothes as I do, you wouldn't be cold either!" Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1289.6. †J1289.6. The prince's excuse. King to son who has been accused of rape: "I never did anything like that." Prince: "Your father was not king!" King: "Your son will never be one if you keep that up!" Spanish: Childers; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1289.7. †J1289.7. Shoemaker speaks ill of lord's rule. Lord takes his tools away from him. Shoemaker begs for them saying that he cannot carry on his business without them. Ruler: "I thought ruling was your business so I took your tools to learn shoemaking." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1289.8. †J1289.8. One ear saved for other litigant. Judge stops up one ear while first litigant presents his case. He is saving one ear for the second litigant. Spanish: Childers.

J1289.9. †J1289.9. Seek harmony in your own house. King brought to sense of duty by philosopher who tells him to seek harmony in his own house before inquiring about the harmony in his kingdom. Spanish: Childers.

J1289.10. †J1289.10. King cannot destroy the city. A philosopher of the city came to him asking mercy for it King said he would do nothing he asked. Philosopher then asked him to destroy the city. This saves the city. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1289.11. †J1289.11. Man, fined for sabbath-breaking, asks for receipt, explains that if God asks for it, he will not have to journey to hell to get it from the judge. U.S.: Baughman.

J1289.12. †J1289.12. Man is arrested for drunkenness; he is so drunk that trial must be postponed. When he is tried later, he is told how at the earlier trial he had kept repeating that the judge was a very wise judge. When he hears this he admits that he must have been very drunk. U.S.: Baughman.

J1289.13. †J1289.13. Weaver hearing of tax for every doorway of weavers takes his door to the khan: will not return for the sidewalls of his house. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1289.14. †J1289.14. Gem offered by monarch to one who can first go around the kingdom. Trickster goes around king and says king is kingdom. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1289.15. †J1289.15. Thief serves king buffaloes he has killed in hunt and lost; thus reproaches king's wastefulness. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1289.16. †J1289.16. Hairless palms from giving and receiving gold. Jester flatters prince for bounty. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1289.17. †J1289.17. Emperor: "What people have the biggest bellies?" Jester answers: "The landlords." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1289.18. †J1289.18. Holy man asked by king for the heart of religion answers: "You are sitting on your throne and I'm sitting on the ground, so how can I tell." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1289.19. †J1289.19. Tailor caught resting his head on royal robe while he rests tells king there is no better resting place for king's robe, for "the head is the king of the body." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1289.20. †J1289.20. King to smoker: "Even donkeys will have nothing to do with tobacco." Smoker: "Donkeys don't know how to enjoy themselves." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1290. †J1290. Reductio ad absurdum of question or proposal.

J1291. †J1291. Question answered by absurd counterquestion.

J1291.1. †J1291.1. Black beans, white soup. Question: How can black beans make a white soup? Answer: How can a white whip on the naked flesh make black welts. *Wesselski Arlotto II 252 No. 168.

J1291.1.1. †J1291.1.1. Why is it that black cow eats green grass, gives white milk and yellow butter? Answer: The same reason blackberries are red when they are green. U.S.: Baughman.

J1291.2. †J1291.2. Theological questions answered by propounding simple questions in science. Where was God before he made heaven and earth? and the like answered by "Why a louse bite raises a blister, a flee bite raises a swelling, and a gnat bite is unnoticeable?" If you cannot answer such simple questions how can you pry into God's secrets. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 97.

J1291.3. †J1291.3. How many priests should one have in one place? How many fox tails will reach to heaven? All depends on the length of the tails. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 96.

J1291.3.1. †J1291.3.1. How much cloth would it take to make God's coat? Just as much as for me, for what you have done for a poor person in my name you have done for me. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 325.

J1291.4. †J1291.4. "In this sesame flower where is the oil?" "When your mother conceived where were you?" India: Thompson-Balys.

J1292. †J1292. Tide inquires whether moon is up. Minnow seeing absurdity of question (since tide could not be up without the moon) tells the tide to wait till he gets a drink and he will tell. Africa (Vai): Ellis 200 No. 17.

J1293. †J1293. Reductio ad absurdum of proposal.

J1293.1. †J1293.1. Little bird as large bird's mate. A large bird wishes to mate with a little bird. The latter says that she is going to swallow a large eel. The large bird sees the absurdity of his proposal. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 104.

J1293.1.1. †J1293.1.1. Absurdity: sea (river) is on fire. Not more absurd than crow claiming swan as wife. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1293.2. †J1293.2. If his head is taken off other punishments do not matter. Judge shows criminal mercy: he will not punish him as he deserves, only take off his head. Nouvelles Récréations No. 82.

J1293.3. †J1293.3. Turning king into Brahmin like turning donkey into horse. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1293.4. †J1293.4. Pot full of milk as sign that city is full of fakirs; flower on top of milk not disturbing it as sign that one more will not matter. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1293.5. †J1293.5. All appurtenances included. Butcher buyer demands saddle and ornaments along with camel (or the like). Seller later buys all heads in butcher shop: demands heads of butcher's family. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1300. †J1300. Officiousness or foolish questions rebuked. Irish myth: Cross.

J1301. †J1301. How he shall be mourned. Women insist on knowing how a man wants to be mourned when he dies. "Mourn me as a man who was tormented by women talking foolishness." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 232 No. 86.

J1302. †J1302. The overloaded mule. Priest complains that miller's mule is overloaded. "No, he isn't; he can still carry all your and your brothers' patience." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 473.

J1303. †J1303. Aesop with the lantern. Aesop goes for fire to a neighbor's in the daytime and lights a lantern so as to bring the fire back. Fool asks him what he is hunting for with the lantern in the daytime. "I seek a man" (not a busybody). *Wienert FFC LVI 38, 40; Italian Novella: Rotunda (†J1442.11).

J1304. †J1304. Why the black clothes. A man goes forth in black clothes. People are curious as to the reason. "I am wearing mourning for the father of my son." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 211 No. 27.

J1305. †J1305. How the tail pointed. One who believes in auguries asks peasant woman if she has seen a bird. "Yes, a crow." And in what direction was his tail pointing?" Answer: "Toward the rear!"

J1306. †J1306. How marriage was consummated. Mother asks newly-wedded daughter if she approached her husband the first night. Answer: "He approached me." Spanish: Childers.

J1309. †J1309. Officiousness or foolish questions rebuked -- miscellaneous.

J1309.1. †J1309.1. Man asks naked Indian if he is not cold. Indian asks if man's face is cold. Man replies that it is not. Indian replies: "Me all face!" U.S.: *Baughman.

J1309.2. †J1309.2. "How often do you kill your ducks?" Answer: "Only once." England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1309.3. †J1309.3. "Where did dirt go when canal was dug?" Disgusted father-in-law: "I have eaten half and your father half, to have such a fool son-in-law." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1310. †J1310. Repartee concerning wine.

J1311. †J1311. What is wanted, not what is asked. A servant is so trained that when the host asks for wine from a good cask he brings it from a cheap one. When the guest objects, the host says that the servant brought not what was asked for but what was wanted. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 370.

J1312. †J1312. The watered wine.

J1312.1. †J1312.1. Serve the water and the wine separately. Server of diluted wine thus taunted. *Wesselski Bebel II 108 No. 29.

J1312.2. †J1312.2. Washed in the Rhine. Server of diluted Rhine wine thus taunted. Wesselski Bebel II 108 No. 29.

J1312.3. †J1312.3. Baptized wine. Christ's making wine from water has made all landlords try to do it too. Man prefers Jewish wine to the baptized kind. *Wesselski Bebel I 169 No 3.

J1313. †J1313. Old wine. Man given his choice of old or new wine says, "We must honor old age." Wesselski Bebel I 163 No. 100.

J1314. †J1314. The road to Heaven. To doctor: "If this is the way to get to Heaven (drinking) I don't want to know any other!" Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1315. †J1315. Points of view. Man to friend who drinks very little: "If everyone drank as you do, wine would be cheap." Answer: "On the contrary, it would be expensive because I drink all I want." Spanish: Childers; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1316. †J1316. Very small to be so old. Guest criticizes host's small serving of wine which he said was six years old. Spanish: Childers.

J1317. †J1317. Small jug preferred. Man asks that large jug be filled with wine. Is told to go to the river. Is accommodated when he presents small jug. (Cf. †L251.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1318. †J1318. Wine gives ambassador courage to address Pope. "Another drink and I could have slapped his face!" Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1319. †J1319. Repartee concerning wine -- miscellaneous.

J1319.1. †J1319.1. Man says: "I do love my enemies and I have great affection for them that hurt me." (Enemies are rum and hard cider.) U.S.: Baughman.

J1320. †J1320. Repartee concerning drunkenness.

J1321. †J1321. The unrepentant drunkard.

J1321.1. †J1321.1. Where did he get the wine? Father shows drunkard son a drunk man being mocked on the street. Instead of taking it as a warning the son says "Where does one get such good wine?" *Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 21, 814; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas II 115, 344, *Neuman.

J1321.2. †J1321.2. Though old woman is made to believe she is in hell she calls for drinking companions. *Wesselski Bebel I 230 No. 142.

J1322. †J1322. The great thirst.

J1322.1. †J1322.1. Will take care of the thirst. Doctors consult how to rid fever-stricken drunkard of his great thirst. "You take care of the fever; I shall take care of the thirst." *Wesselski Arlotto II 267 No. 217; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1322.2. †J1322.2. Sleeping on salt. Priest blamed for large amount of wine he drinks tells people to consider his great thirst. He has slept on a sack of salt and has enough thirst for a week. *Wesselski Arlotto I 208 No. 45.

J1323. †J1323. Should have brought him drink. Drunkard's wife takes him when he is drunk to a tomb and, masking as a ghost brings him food. "If you had known me better you would have brought me drink." Wienert FFC LVI 38; Halm Aesop No. 108.

J1324. †J1324. Stung by the goblet. Doctor tells drunkard, "The goblet has stung you." "If I had known that I would have drunk out of a glass." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 234.

J1330. †J1330. Repartee concerning beggars.

J1331. †J1331. Persistent beggar invited upstairs. A beggar will not come in but insists on the man coming down to the door. When he asks alms the man bids him come upstairs. Then he says he has nothing for him. "You made me come down for nothing; I make you come up for nothing." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 238 No. 113.

J1332. †J1332. Beggar wants bread. A numskull tells his mother that a beggar is below asking for bread. Mother: "Tell him I am not at home." Numskull: "He doesn't want you, he wants bread." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 239 No. 528.

J1333. †J1333. Prove me a liar. Beggar: "Good day, you stingy fellows." They: "We are not stingy fellows." Beggar: "Then give and prove me a liar." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 202 No. 397.

J1334. †J1334. Beggar tells stingy to go beg. They say they have no meat, no bread, no wine, etc. "Then go beg; you have more need than I." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 236 No. 519.

J1337. †J1337. Beggar claims to be emperor's brother. (All men are descended from Adam.) Emperor gives him small coin. Beggar protests. Emperor: "If all your brothers gave you that much you would be richer than I." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1338. †J1338. Asking costs nothing. So says beggar who asks goldsmith to plate his club with gold. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1340. †J1340. Retorts from hungry persons. Irish myth: Cross; U.S.: Baughman.

J1341. †J1341. Retort from underfed servant (child). India: Thompson-Balys.

J1341.1. †J1341.1. Softening bread-crusts. An avaricious master feeds bread-crusts to his servants. "The crusts are already getting soft." Type 1567.

J1341.2. †J1341.2. Asking the large fish. Parents serve boy a small fish and keep back a large one for themselves. Knowing this, the boy puts the fish to his ear. He says that he has asked the fish a question; the fish cannot answer but tells him to ask the large fish under the bed. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 247 No. 158; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 700; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1565; Italian Novella: Rotunda; L. Schmidt Oesterr. Zs. f. Vksk. 1954, 134.

J1341.3. †J1341.3. A dog to scent the rice. Given very thin rice soup, wit inquires about the master's dogs. "He should have one to scent the rice in this soup." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 259 No 206, Arlotto II 75 No. 105.

J1341.4. †J1341.4. Two eggs. Widow serves tailor one egg. He sings, "One egg, one egg." She decides one egg is not enough and serves him two next time. He then sings "Two eggs are two eggs." He is next given two eggs and a sausage, etc. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 142 No. 1715.

J1341.5. †J1341.5. Hungry apprentice attracts master's attention by telling lies on him. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 143 No. 1718, Keller.

J1341.6. †J1341.6. Hungry shepherd attracts attention. He tells of a cow with four teats who bore five calves. They ask what the fifth calf does while the other four are nursing. "It looks on just as I am doing now." Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 134 No. 1555.

J1341.7. †J1341.7. Stingy innkeeper cured of serving weak beer. She always gives the servants a pitcher of weak beer before meals so as to fill them up. One of them: "I wash out my insides so as to have more room for food." She changes her practice. Type 1566*.

J1341.8. †J1341.8. The little lumps of sugar are sweeter, says the hostess. The servant says that he doesn't like sweets and takes the large lumps. Type 1389*.

J1341.9. †J1341.9. Hungry son gets cherries. He slaps another son, and explains that the other boy was saying that he would not get any of the father's cherries. The father shares the cherries. Spanish: Childers.

J1341.10. †J1341.10. Hungry student gets meat. By telling a mewing cat that it could not yet have the bones because no meat has been served him, a collegian calls attention to an oversight on the part of a servant. Spanish: Childers.

J1341.11. †J1341.11. Hired men sing of displeasure with food; change song when food is improved (cante fable). The Westmoreland text follows:

(Mowers sing this very slowly, mow in tempo)

Curds and whey, Iv-ve-ry day

(After the food is improved they sing and work in tempo)

Ham and eggs, mind thy legs.

(Cf. †K1546.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1341.12. †J1341.12. Hired man shows in saying grace how better food has resulted from arrival of unexpected guests. Nebraska text:

O Lord of Love who art above

Thy blessings have descended:

Biscuits and tea for supper I see

When mush and milk was intended.

U.S.: *Baughman.

J1342. †J1342. Prayer over the underdone hen. A guest is seen uttering a prayer before an underdone hen at the table. "She must be a goddess turned into a hen, for she has been over the fire and spared." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 193 No. 378.

J1343. †J1343. The liking for food and drink.

J1343.1. †J1343.1. The best music. What music do you like best? The sound of plates and spoons. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 244 No. 133.

J1343.2. †J1343.2. Before, during, and after. A priest, asked when he would have certain choice wine served, before or after the meal, replies, "The holy Mary was Virgin before, during, and after the birth." *Wesselski Arlotto I 202 No. 33.

J1344. †J1344. Unwelcome guest tells about the hidden food. Having seen his hostess hide it, he tells about it in the form of a tale. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 10; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1345. †J1345. Why he did not eat the bread. When host inquires, he replies, "If thou be the son of God, command that these stones be made bread." Mensa Philosophica No. 171.

J1346. †J1346. Maid rebukes pilgrim for eating too much. "If both of us had been present at the miracle of the loaves and fishes you would have eaten me too!" Pilgrim: "I wouldn't have eaten you but I would have chewed on you a bit!" Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 83; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1350. †J1350. Rude retorts. Irish myth: *Cross.

J1351. †J1351. Women call each other prostitutes.

J1351.1. †J1351.1. Prostitutes wander. A woman having given her cook leave of absence for the next day asks her what day it is. "Saturday." "No, it is the day on which the prostitutes wander." The cook: "Yes, from one prostitute to another. Today I am with you, tomorrow with your sister." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 160.

J1351.2. †J1351.2. The envious accuser. A woman accuses another of being a harlot. The second: "You would like to be in my place but no one wants you." *Wesselski Bebel II 127 No. 83.

J1352. †J1352. Person calls another an ass.

J1352.1. †J1352.1. The burden of two asses. A king and his son hunting on a hot day put their fur coats on the fool's back. King: "You have an ass's load on you." Fool: "Rather the burdens of two asses." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 239 No. 527; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1352.2. †J1352.2. Age is relative. Young rival derides old one for his age. Oldster: "An ass of twenty is older than a man of seventy." Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1353. †J1353. Whom it concerns. There is someone carrying a goose. How does that concern me? He is carrying it to your house. How does that concern you? *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 231 No. 497.

J1354. †J1354. Not in his line of business. At market a man enquires of another: "How is the moon, three-quarters or full?" "I don't know. I have neither bought nor sold one." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 209 No. 17.

J1355. †J1355. The one exception. "You are a good man; there is not your equal on the earth. You have everything for yourself alone; only your wife is public property." Wesselski Bebel II 135 No. 104.

J1356. †J1356. The flatterer's retort. Two men meet a homely girl. One of them: "Who wouldn't call that girl pretty?" The girl overhears and says, "No one would say it of you." The man: "Anyone might say it who would lie as I have lied about you." *Wesselski Bebel II 148 No. 155; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1357. †J1357. Ancient and modern ancestors. To a prince who boasted that he was descended from the Trojans a doctor replies: "My people are of Nurenberg. Everyone knows who they are; but of the Trojans no one knows anything except that Aeneas was a traitor and Romulus a robber." *Wesselski Bebel II 114 No. 46.

J1358. †J1358. No thanks to the messenger. A messenger tells a man that he has a newborn son. "Thanks are to God, but I am not beholden to you for it." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 223 No. 59.

J1361. †J1361. Monk says that he is a stallion. In reply to women's taunts he boasts of his powers. A woman calls on the devil to come and ride him. Bolte Frey 253 No. 97.

J1363. †J1363. Too late for the same advice. Impoverished spendthrift sarcastically to thrifty person: "Stop spending so freely!" "It's too late to give you the same advice." Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1364. †J1364. To be rewarded by his kind. Unworthy person is rewarded. Asks worthy one: "Why is it that I am rewarded and you are not?" Answer: "Because you have found more of your kind that I have of mine." (Also told of Dante and a minstrel.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1369. †J1369. Rude retorts -- miscellaneous.

J1369.1. †J1369.1. Man decides to spend 100 florins to become known. Friend: "You had better spend 200 so as to not be found out." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1369.2. †J1369.2. The prodigy's retort. An old man says of a youthful prodigy: "He will be an idiot in old age because perfection before maturity brings on deterioration of the mind." Youth: "You must have been very wise in your youth!" Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1369.3. †J1369.3. Two men meet in narrow passage. One says: "I do not give every coxcomb the wall!" The other says: "I do, sir!" England: Baughman.

J1369.4. †J1369.4. Person asks: "Whose fool are you?" Answer: "I am the Bishop of Durham's fool; whose fool are you?" England: *Baughman.

J1369.5. †J1369.5. Why soldier is silent before king: is always so when questioned by stupid person. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1370. †J1370. Cynical retorts concerning honesty.

J1371. †J1371. The account-book of mistakes. A king, hearing that a man keeps an account-book of people's mistakes asks to see about his own record. He reads that the king has made a mistake in trusting a certain sum of money to a servant. King: "How if he comes back with it?" "I shall cross off your name and put him down for making a mistake." *Wesselski Arlotto I 181 No. 5; Chauvin II 153 No. 20; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1373. †J1373. Safe since no white man is near. White man asks Indian if he can safely leave some of his belongings inside the Indian's lodge. The Indian assures him that he can: "There is no white man within a hundred miles of here." (Cf. †X600.) U.S.: Baughman.

J1380. †J1380. Retorts concerning debts.

J1381. †J1381. Where you got it last year. Parson tells borrower to get the corn at the same place as he got it last year. There is none there. "Then you didn't return it as you said you would, and there is none to lend you this year." *Wesselski Arlotto II 259 No. 186; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1382. †J1382. Payers of cash favored.

J1382.1. †J1382.1. The one to blow the whistle. Many persons request a man on the way to market to buy them a whistle. Finally one hands him a coin with the request. "You are the one who shall blow the whistle." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 246 No. 146.

J1382.2. †J1382.2. The weighted order-cards. To a man going on a voyage, various people give commissions for purchases, which he writes down on cards. Some give him money; some promise it on his return. On ship he looks the cards over, placing the proper gold on the proper card. A wind blows into the sea those not weighted with gold. *Wesselski Arlotto II 234ff. No. 122.

J1383. †J1383. Unstable security. Stag tries to borrow grain from the sheep, using the wolf as security. Sheep says that they are both so swift that he does not know where they will be on the day of payment. Wienert FFC LVI 54 (ET 144), 98 (ST 118).

J1384. †J1384. A three thousand year old debt. Guests in inn discuss reincarnation. "Since we shall come back in three thousand years, the host might trust us till then." Host: "You still owe me what you didn't pay three thousand years ago." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 858.

J1390. †J1390. Retorts concerning thefts.

J1391. †J1391. Thief makes a lame excuse. India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesian Coster-Wijsman Uilspiegel Verhalen 35ff. Nos. 17--22.

J1391.1. †J1391.1. Thief's excuse: the big wind. Vegetable thief is caught in a garden. Owner: How did you get into the garden? A wind blew me in. How were the vegetables uprooted? If the wind is strong enough to blow me in, it can uproot them. How did they get into your bag? That is what I was just wondering. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 207 No. 7, cf. II 214 No. 441.

J1391.2. †J1391.2. The ladder market. A thief climbs over a wall by means of his ladder. When caught in the garden he says that he is a seller of ladders. Owner: "Is this a ladder market?" "Can't one sell ladders everywhere?" Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 210 No. 18.

J1391.3. †J1391.3. The sheep's teeth. Two thieves caught with stolen sheep. One says that he told the other than sheep have lower teeth but no upper, and that they caught the sheep to see. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Vai): Ellis 221 No. 34.

J1391.3.1. †J1391.3.1. Bitten by the sheep. Man caught just as he knocks sheep in the head: The sheep bit me (or: I'm not going to let sheep butt me to death). U.S.: *Baughman.

J1391.4. †J1391.4. How he would act if he were a hawk. A hawk steals a piece of liver from a trickster and flies away with it. The trickster likewise steals some liver from another man and escapes to a high place with it. He says that he is seeing how he would act if he were a hawk. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 214 No. 41.

J1391.5. †J1391.5. Fox pretends that he has been to the farmyard only to see if any of his kindred were there. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1391.6. †J1391.6. Lame excuse: one cannot drink because he has no teeth. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1391.7. †J1391.7. Were merely measuring cup. King demands that each subject bring small amount of milk to put in his new cup. They plan to cheat him by bringing him water. Accused, they say that they were merely measuring the cup to see how much it would take to fill it. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1391.8. †J1391.8. Needles and anchors. Fox leaving merchant's warehouse: "I had wanted a needle as big as an anchor and an anchor as small as a needle." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1392. †J1392. Owner assists thief.

J1392.1. †J1392.1. Thief followed home. A thief ransacks a man's house and departs. The man gathers together the rest of his belongings and tracks the thief. Comes to the thief's door. Thief: "What do you want with me?" "What, isn't this the house we set out for?" *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 212 No. 32.

J1392.2. †J1392.2. Robbers commiserated. A buffoon says to robbers in his house, "You can't find anything here in the dark, for I can find nothing in broad daylight." *Wesselski Bebel I 132 No. 32; Scala Celi 104b No. 567; Mensa Philosophica No. 62.

J1392.2.1. †J1392.2.1. Owner advises thieves to return later. He is not yet in bed Spanish: Childers.

J1392.3. †J1392.3. Cynic helps robber steal his money so he and robber can get sleep. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1392.4. †J1392.4. Owner laughs at thief who finds nothing in house. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1392.5. †J1392.5. Bridegroom promises thief spoils later if he will not interfere with wedding. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1393. †J1393. The double fool. A numskull caught changing meal from others' sacks into his own. Miller asks him what he is doing. "I am a fool." "Why then don't you put your meal into their sacks?" "I am only a simple fool. If I did that I should be a double fool." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 181 No. 342.

J1394. †J1394. Thieves' nocturnal habits.

J1394.1. †J1394.1. Night study. A thief having scorned Demosthenes for his constant study, the latter says, "I know that you have not failed to notice that I study much at night." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No 801.

J1394.2. †J1394.2. Man who rises too early. The king in order to correct the habit has him robbed. He says that robbers get up even earlier than he. Chauvin II 196 No. 26.

J1395. †J1395. Was going to give it to him any way. Thus a hunter answers a thief who steals his hare. Wienert FFC LVI 84 (ET 504), 125 (ST 337); Halm Aesop No. 163.

J1396. †J1396. Removing chance for worry. A king noticing that a student has stolen a capon, asks, "Does not the Bible say that you should not worry about tomorrow?" "Exactly. I was trying to remove all chance of worry tomorrow." Wesselski Mönchslatein 109 No. 92; Nouvelles Récréations No. 35.

J1397. †J1397. The cost price recovered. A man takes a shirt to market for a friend who has stolen it. At market it is stolen from the seller. He tells his friend that the market was bad and that he was able to get back only the cost price (nothing). *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 230 No. 491.

J1398. †J1398. Compliments from the hangman. A man complimented a hangman on the good job he had done in hanging a thief. The hangman takes off his hat: "One thief I hang, to the other I take off my hat." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 591.

J1399. †J1399. Retorts concerning thefts -- miscellaneous.

J1399.1. †J1399.1. The Lord has Risen. A parson hides his money in a holy place and leaves a sign, "The Lord is in this Place." A thief takes the money and leaves a sign, "He is risen and is no longer here" Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 74.

J1400. †J1400. Repartee concerning false reform.

J1401. †J1401. The tailor's dream. A tailor dreams that at Judgment Day he sees a flag made up of all the pieces of cloth he has stolen Upon waking he asks his servants to warn him if they ever see him tempted to steal again. This happens. He replies, "The piece I am about to steal does not fit into the flag." *BP I 343; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 256 No. 190.

J1410. †J1410. Repartee concerning fatness.

J1411. †J1411. The hay wagon and the gate. A parson arriving late at a city gate asks if he can get in. Guard sees that he is fat and in fun says that he doesn't know. The parson: "Why not; doesn't the hay wagon get in?" *Wesselski Arlotto II 265 No. 209; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1420. †J1420. Animals retort concerning their dangers.

J1421. †J1421. Peace among the animals. (Peace fable.) The fox tries to beguile the cock by reporting a new law establishing peace among the animals. Dogs appear; the fox flees. "The dogs have not heard of the new law." *Type 62; *BP II 207; Wienert FFC LVI 52 (ET 120), 98 (ST 125); Halm Aesop No. 225; Jacobs Aesop 214 No. 59; *Chauvin II 202 No. 51, V 241 No. 141; *Lancaster PMLA XXII 33; *Graf FFC XXXVIII 26; Fb "ræv" III 114a. --Spanish: Espinosa III No. 225; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1422. †J1422. Good bath. A cat seeing a mouse leave a bath says, "Good bath!" Mouse: "If I had not seen you!" Chauvin III 55 No. 11.

J1423. †J1423. Roast falcon. A falcon reproaches a cock for fleeing from the master who has fed him. The cock: "I have never seen a falcon roasted." *Chauvin II 117 No. 96.

J1424. †J1424. Where the foxes will meet. Two foxes in a trap converse: "Where shall we meet again?" "In three days at the furrier's." Chauvin III 77 No. 51.

J1430. †J1430. Repartee concerning doctors and patients.

J1431. †J1431. I know not how. Sick man: "I came to a place I know not where; something happened I know not how; I am sick I know not where." Doctor: "Go to the pharmacy and buy I know not what, and eat it I know not how, and you will become well I know not when." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 629; Scala Celi 47b No. 268.

J1432. †J1432. No physician at all. A bad physician having predicted the immediate death of a patient meets him recovered. "How go things down below?" "They put you at the head of the list of bad physicians, but I maintained that you were no physician at all." Wienert FFC LVI 39; Halm Aesop No. 168.

J1433. †J1433. "Do as I say and not as I do." Doctor forbids patient to drink wine. When patient reproves doctor for drinking wine the latter says: "Just now it is bad for you and good for me." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1434. †J1434. Strenuous cure for madness. Doctor throws patients into a pit of water. Servant warns queer-looking hunter to flee before master throws him into the pit. (Cf. †K2137.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1438. †J1438. Veterinarian becomes doctor. When he killed animals he had to pay for them; but he did not have to pay for killing people. Spanish: Childers.

J1440. †J1440. Repartee -- miscellaneous.

J1441. †J1441. God of the earth. Question from the king: "Who are you?" "I am God." "Make my eyes larger." "I am only God of the earth and have power only below the girdle." *Köhler-Bolte I 504; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 279 No. 326.

J1442. †J1442. A cynic's retorts.

J1442.1. †J1442.1. The cynic wants sunlight. King (to cynic): "What can I do for you?" "Get out of my sunlight. Don't take away from me what you can't give me." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 802; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1442.1.1. †J1442.1.1. Cynic praises power of reason. Tells Alexander that the power of reason makes even a poor man as great as a king. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1442.2. †J1442.2. The cynic at the bath. Leaving an unclean bath house: "Where can I go now to wash?" Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 802.

J1442.3. †J1442.3. The cynic and the pale gold. "Why is gold so pale?" "It is in great danger." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 802.

J1442.4. †J1442.4. The cynic's burial. Asked who will carry him to his grave if he has no friends: "He who needs my house." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 802.

J1442.4.1. †J1442.4.1. Cynic asks that his body be exposed to the elements. When told that the beasts and the birds will prey on him he says: "Put a stick at my side so that I may chase them away." Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1442.5. †J1442.5. The cynic as judge of wine. Asked which wine tastes best, he says, "That belonging to other people." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 802.

J1442.6. †J1442.6. The cynic and the big gates. Coming to a little town with big gates, he says, "Close the gate so that the town won't run away." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 802.

J1442.7. †J1442.7. The cynic and the bastard stone-thrower. Cynic: "Be careful; you might hit your father." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 802; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1442.8. †J1442.8. The cynic discusses heaven. Hearing a man discoursing at great length about heaven, he asks, "When did you come down from there?" Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 802.

J1442.9. †J1442.9. The cynic and the bald-headed man. His only reply to the baldheaded man's slanders is to compliment the hair that has left such a horrible head. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 802.

J1442.10. †J1442.10. The cynic and the deceiver. When the deceiver calls him wicked, he says, "I am glad that you are my enemy; for you do good to your enemies and evil to your friends." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 802.

J1442.11. †J1442.11. The cynic and the fig tree. Man tells friend that his wife has hanged herself on a fig tree. Friend: "Give me a shoot of that tree!" Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1442.11.1. †J1442.11.1. The cynic's wish. When he learns that a woman has hanged herself from a tree he explains: "Would that all trees bore such fruit!" Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1442.12. †J1442.12. Cynic is asked if widower should remarry. "One who has just escaped from drowning should not return to sea." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1442.13. †J1442.13. The smallest woman makes the best bride. "Of an evil choose the smallest part." Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1443. †J1443. The fools in the city. Man ordered to number the fools in the city replies, "It is easier to number the wise men." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 241 No. 535; Chauvin VII 126 No. 393bis.

J1444. †J1444. They gave it away themselves. A wandering actor rewarded by a city with a coat of their color gambles it away. When upbraided about giving away their present he replies that they hadn't wanted to keep it themselves. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 396.

J1445. †J1445. The forgotten traditions. A man has been told by a seer that there are two ways in which a believer may be distinguished. But he has forgotten one of them and the seer had forgotten the other. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 186 No. 353.

J1446. †J1446. Aaron's censer. A man strikes a priest with a cane: "This is Moses' staff." The priest shoots with a pistol: "This is Aaron's holy censer." Type 1847*.

J1447. †J1447. The favored swine. Dog reproaches sow that Venus will not allow those who have eaten swine to enter her temple. Sow says that it is because the goddess abhors those who kill swine. Wienert FFC LVI 56 (ET 161), 107 (ST 191); Halm Aesop No. 408.

J1448. †J1448. The contagious yawns. A husband planning to punish his wife, who has yawned in church at the same time as a man, sees his error when his wife in the woods calls out, "The squirrels hop from bough to bough as the yawns from mouth to mouth." Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 6 No. 23; XXXIII 52 No. 23; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 141 No. 12; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 84 No. 35.

J1451. †J1451. Who gets the beehive. Badger: "I was a hundred years old when grama grass first grew." Crane: "My daughter was a hundred years old when grama grass first grew." Wolf: "I am only eight years old, but we shall see who gets the beehive." Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 31 No. *80, Espinosa III Nos. 268--270, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 26, 27.

J1452. †J1452. Why he was thin. Philosopher explains that with his own blood he was nourishing as large a population as that of the Roman Emperor (lice). *Wesselski Bebel II 145 No. 140.

J1453. †J1453. It's better to fight in the shade. Soldier tells captain that the enemy are so numerous that their arrows darken the sun. Captain: "Good, it will be more comfortable fighting in the shade." Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1454. †J1454. The lion and the statue. A man points out the statue to show the supremacy of man. The lion: "If it had been a lion sculptor, the lion would have been standing over the man." Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 343), 101 (ST 145); Halm Aesop No. 63; Jacobs Aesop 208 No. 35.

J1455. †J1455. Has never died yet. Slave (workman) recommended to master whose recent slaves have died: "He has never died while I owned him." *Clouston Book of Noodles 8; England, U.S.: Baughman.

J1456. †J1456. The liar. A man attempts to lie out of having called another a liar: "You lie if you say that I said you lied." The other: "It's a good thing for you that you didn't call me a liar." (Cf. †J817.) *Wesselski Bebel I 204 No. 85.

J1457. †J1457. The gray fox. An old husband tells his young wife, who is concerned about his gray hair, "A gray fox is as good as a red one." "But an old gray fox is not so good as a young red one." Bolte Frey 242 No. 75.

J1458. †J1458. An oath to break oaths. Village called on to join in war deliberates in meeting. A man says, "We have taken oaths not to go to war. We must now take an oath to break all the oaths we have taken." Wesselski Bebel I 205 No. 88.

J1461. †J1461. The cause of grayness. Fool asked what made him gray-headed replies, "My hair." *Wesselski Bebel I 228 No. 133.

J1462. †J1462. Customary suits. Man who wears a red cap after his father's death says, "I can grieve just as much in red as in black." *Wesselski Bebel I 125 No. 16.

J1463. †J1463. A long beard and sanctity. Told that a forest dwarf with a long beard is a saint, a man replies: "If a long beard indicates sanctity, the goat is a saint." *Wesselski Bebel I 129 No. 30.

J1465. †J1465. Trumpeter's false defense. A trumpeter captured pleads that he did not fight. Answered: "You may not fight, but you encourage your men to do so." Jacobs Aesop 220 No. 79.

J1467. †J1467. Must drink from the common cup. A man always drinks out of his own cup. In storm at sea a sailor says, "Today we all drink out of the same cup (the sea). *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 247.

J1467.1. †J1467.1. Sailor prays for gods to sink ship during storm, since gods never do what they are asked to do. Spanish: Childers.

J1468. †J1468. Not in good form. A duke invites a notorious eater. The latter consumes eight fowls, forty eggs, and other things in proportion. In leaving he apologizes for eating so little as he had not felt well the night before. He will do better next time. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 249; Nouvelles Récréations Nos. 57, 73.

J1471. †J1471. The eunuch's defense. Reproached with his mutilation, the eunuch says that his ill fortune is no shame. The only shame is to merit what you suffer. Wienert FFC LVI 82 (ET 485), 149 (ST 546).

J1472. †J1472. The fairest thing in the garden. Three brothers asked by princess what is the most beautiful thing in the garden. The youngest replies, "Yourself." He wins the princess. Type 925*.

J1473. †J1473. The greedy dreamer. He dreams that he receives nine coins. He demands ten. He wakes and finds that he has dreamed. He is willing to accept the nine. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 206 (No. 5); Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1473.1. †J1473.1. The 999 gold pieces. A man prays for a thousand gold pieces and says that he will not accept one less. A joker sends him 999. He says that he will trust God for the other coin. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 220ff. No. 54.

J1474. †J1474. The fatal bed. A sailor says that all his ancestors have drowned. Citizen: "Aren't you afraid of drowning?" Sailor: "How did your ancestors die?" Citizen: "All of them in bed." Sailor: "Aren't you afraid to go to bed?" *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 264.

J1475. †J1475. Is ready to go. A peddler scolds the dog who is waiting and tells him to get ready to go with him. The dog replies that he has nothing to carry, that it is the peddler who is late. Wienert FFC LVI 73 (ET 379), 125 (ST 343).

J1476. †J1476. The proud hide humbled. A hide is in the river. River: "What is your name?" Hide: "Hard hide." River: "Hunt another name; I'll soon soften you." Wienert FFC LVI 75 (ET 403), 101 (ST 148); Halm Aesop No. 381.

J1477. †J1477. Demonstrate here. A man boasts of his jump on Rhodes and says that if he were in Rhodes he could prove his boast. Reply: "No need to go to Rhodes. Show us your jump here." Wienert FFC LVI 82 (ET 480), 100 (ST 135); Halm Aesop No. 203.

J1478. †J1478. Husband and wife burn their mouths. A wife served overhot soup, forgets and burns herself so that tears come to her eyes She says that her departed father liked soup so much that she weeps when she eats it. The husband is also burned and weeps: "I am weeping because your accursed mother didn't take you with her when she died." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 238 No. 115; Köhler-Bolte I 498; Indonesian: Coster-Wijsman 71 No. 129.

J1478.1. †J1478.1. The abbot burns his mouth. Says that he is crying because so many have left the monastery. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1481. †J1481. As you surely will. After her husband's death a woman cannot find a hammer and anvil. She goes to a dying neighbor and says, "If you die, as you surely will, and go to Heaven, as you surely will not, ask my husband where he left the hammer and anvil." The dying man's wife replies, "If you go to Heaven, as you surely will, if you die as you surely will not, do not run around and get into trouble, but sit down by the Eternal Father and observe and keep still." Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 93 No. 805.

J1482. †J1482. Keeping the secret. Man tells parson secret and asks him to keep it. The parson refuses; "If you can't keep the secret, you must not expect me to." *Wesselski Arlotto II 263 No. 199.

J1483. †J1483. Repartee concerning runaway horses.

J1483.1. †J1483.1. King and jester flee: the king's swift horse. Jester: "You did have a swift horse. When I had to stop because my horse was tired out, you went two miles further." Wesselski Bebel I 207 No. 94.

J1483.2. †J1483.2. Where his mule will. A man on a runaway mule is asked, "Where are you going?" "Wherever my mule wants to." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 181 No. 343; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1483.3. †J1483.3. Storms on land. An inexperienced rider borrows a horse, which runs away with him. He says, "There are no such storms on sea as on the land." *Wesselski Bebel II 107 No. 21.

J1483.4. †J1483.4. "Why didn't you stay on the horse?" The rider: "I couldn't; you see, it ended there" (pointing to horse's head). India: Thompson-Balys.

J1484. †J1484. The sound of shaving. An unskillful barber keeps cutting a man's face. A noise is heard. The man: "What is that?" Barber: "A smith shoeing horses." Man: "I thought it was someone being shaved." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 226f. No. 473.

J1485. †J1485. Mistaken identity. A bride slips up behind her husband and kisses him. He is annoyed. She: "Pardon me, I did not know it was you" Clouston Noodles 94.

J1485.1. †J1485.1. Husband mistaken for lover in bed. Farmer has whiskers shaved off, hair cut short. He gets home late, slips into bed with his wife. She runs her hand over his face, says: "Young man, if you're goin' to do anything, you'd better be agittin' at it, 'cause Old Whiskers'll be here pretty soon." U.S.: Baughman.

J1486. †J1486. Listening to the debate. A lazy youth explains his late rising by saying that he lay abed to hear the argument between industry and laziness. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 761; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1487. †J1487. Progress in school. A man sends his two sons to schools and later enquires of their progress. One: "I am past Grace." The other: "I am at the devil and all his works." *Clouston Noodles 222; England: *Baughman.

J1488. †J1488. What the bear whispered in his ear. Paid guide climbs tree and leaves traveler to mercy of a bear. Traveler feigns death and the bear sniffs at him and leaves. The guide: "What did the bear say to you?" "He said, never trust a coward like you." Wienert FFC LVI 68 (ET 319), 126 (ST 349); Halm Aesop No. 311; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 422; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1491. †J1491. Artist paints too few birds. Is engaged to decorate room. Owner: "You did not paint as many birds as I told you to." Artist: "The windows were left open and most of them flew out." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1492. †J1492. Trickster artist hoodwinks king: cuckold's eyes cannot see picture. King pretends to see the picture. Courtiers reveal that there is no picture. Spanish: Childers.

J1493. †J1493. Daydreamer has lost his chance for profit. He has broken his master's pots while dreaming of future profits. He has therefore lost more than the master and excuses himself of blame. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1494. †J1494. Why captain takes lame and one-eyed soldiers into army. The lame cannot flee from the enemy; the one-eyed soldiers will not see enough to make them afraid. Spanish: Childers.

J1495. †J1495. Person runs from actual or supposed ghost. (Cf. †E293, †J1483.)

J1495.1. †J1495.1. Man runs from actual or from supposed ghost. The ghost runs beside him. The man stops to rest; the ghost stops, says, "That was a good run we had!" The man says, "Yes, and as soon as I get my breath, I'm going to run some more." U.S.: *Baughman.

J1495.2. †J1495.2. When Caleb comes. Man attempts to stay in haunted house all night. One cat after another enters, says, "Everything will be all right when Caleb comes, won't it?" (or something similar). Man finally says, "When Caleb comes, tell him I was here and left." He leaves. U.S.: *Baughman.

†J1500-†J1649. Clever practical retorts.

J1500. †J1500. Clever practical retort.

J1510. †J1510. The cheater cheated.

J1511. †J1511. A rule must work both ways.

J1511.1. †J1511.1. Make-believe eating, make-believe work. At table the peasant says, "We will only act as if we were eating." At work the servant replies, "We will only act as if we were working." *Type 1560.

J1511.2. †J1511.2. Turnips called bacon: cat called rabbit. A peasant compels his servant to call turnips bacon. Under favorable circumstances the servant compels the master to call a cat a rabbit. Type 1565**.

J1511.2.1. †J1511.2.1. Man bathing rich man uses sand instead of sandalwood: "Consider the sand of the Ganges to be sandalwood." When man asks for his fee, other takes a frog and gives it to him: "Know that the frog of the Ganges is a cow." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1511.3. †J1511.3. Eating cure becomes epidemic. A woman feigns periodic attacks of a sickness that can be cured only by eating a great number of delicacies. The husband feigns the same disease. Type 1372*.

J1511.4. †J1511.4. Fits become epidemic. After dinner a servant feigns a fit and goes to sleep. The master thereupon feigns a fit and beats the boy, who is thus cured of his laziness. Type 1572*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1572A*.

J1511.5. †J1511.5. The wine-spilling host rebuked. A host spills his customer's wine so that he must buy more. He consoles the guest with "It is a sign of the great abundance you shall have this year." With the same remark the guest draws the spigot from the host's wine cask. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 372; *Wesselski Mönchslatein No. 106; *Crane Vitry 269 No. 310.

J1511.6. †J1511.6. The porter's revenge for the three wise counsels. A man offers a porter three wise counsels for carrying his goods. "When anyone tells you that hunger and satisfaction are the same, don't believe him." The second and third are similar and equally valueless. The porter throws down the load: "When anyone tells you that any part of this load is not broken, don't believe him." *Basset 1001 Contes II 391; Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 260 No. 211; Chauvin VIII 139 No. 136; *Fb "sandhed".

J1511.7. †J1511.7. No clothes needed for Day of Judgment. Friends tell a man that the next day is the Day of Judgment and urge him to kill a lamb and give a feast. He apparently consents. He then burns up their clothes. They will not need clothes on the Day of Judgment. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 212 No. 31.

J1511.8. †J1511.8. Forbidden to think. A husband forbids a wife to think. During his absence she roasts a chicken, eats it, and leaves two drumsticks on the table. The husband asks for the chicken. "Since you have forbidden me to think, I did not think of you." The ban is lifted. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 145.

J1511.9. †J1511.9. Master says that he has eyes in back of head: servant cheats him. Holds up food to master's back and then not having objection raised, eats it. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1511.10. †J1511.10. Counterfeit money burned up. A priest who has lent money to a Jew, but will not lend to a farmer, on being reproached by the latter, says that the money he lent the Jew was "false". When the Jew gets to know of this, he claims that as soon as he heard the money was false he burnt it up. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1772.

J1511.11. †J1511.11. Boy pretends to speak only Latin. Father, chastising his lazy son, also speaks in "Latin". Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *2423; Russian: Andrejev No. *2082.

J1511.12. †J1511.12. The man in place of a watch-dog. The master orders his serf to watch the manor at night in place of the dog. When the thieves come, the serf barks: "Dress, dress .... They take, take .... They lead, lead .... " The master does not understand the barking and pays no heed to it -- is robbed of his property. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *2421.

J1511.13. †J1511.13. Oisin's poor diet in Patrick's house -- pancake size of ivy leaf, measure of butter only size of rowan berry. Later Oisin gives Patrick quarter of a wild boar, servant ivy leaf and rowan berry. Irish myth: Cross.

J1511.14. †J1511.14. Things on highway belong to the public. Man reproves another for picking his cherries that overhang the highway. He is told that things on the public highway belong to no one in particular. He invites the man to climb the tree for better cherries, drives off with his horse and buggy, giving the same answer about things in the public highway. U.S.: Baughman.

J1511.15. †J1511.15. Can drink only one kind of wine at a time. Priests come to an inn where host gives them good wine and bad. They insist on having all good since they must drink only one kind of wine. On their return he serves them with all bad. They claim to have had the rule changed. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 245.

J1511.16. †J1511.16. "Eat spiritual food, not material," say monks to lazy brother who criticizes them for working in the garden. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1511.17. †J1511.17. Ox bought; buyer also claims load of wood attached. Later deceived man disguises and sells sharper another ox for "handful of coppers." He is allowed by court to claim the hand as well. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1511.18. †J1511.18. Priests say dying woman's unfulfilled request for mangoes must be paid in golden mangoes to them. Priests burned with iron since she had asked to be cauterized. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1511.19. †J1511.19. Wife surrendered to king. Vizier advises doctor to give up his wife to love-sick prince since everything belongs to a sovereign. Doctor then tells him prince is in love not with his (the doctor's) wife but with the vizier's. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1511.20. †J1511.20. Goldsmith sells thinly plated gold; peasant retaliates: a pot of dirt with a little gyav on top. (Cf. †J1556.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J1512. †J1512. Impossible demand rebuked. Irish myth: *Cross.

J1512.1. †J1512.1. Milk from the hornless cow. A king demands a hundred men's drink from the milk of a hornless dun cow from every house in the land. Wooden cows are made and bog-stuff substituted for milk; the king must drink it. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 26, *Cross.

J1512.2. †J1512.2. To return the eye to the one-eyed man. "Let me have your other so that I can see whether the one I bring you matches." India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1513. †J1513. Healed with his own medicine.

J1513.1. †J1513.1. "If he does not live, let him die." The student as healer hangs this sign around the neck of a sick calf. Later as parson he is sick. It is proposed to heal him with the same remedy. *Type 1845.

J1515. †J1515. You lead and I will follow: hard command thus evaded.

J1515.1. †J1515.1. The father of an illegitimate child must walk in front of the cross. Condemned man insists that the priest, who is guilty also, shall lead the way. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 71.

J1516. †J1516. Rogues exchange objects and cheat each other. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1517. †J1517. Thieves deceived by prearranged conversation which they overhear. (Cf. †K420.)

J1517.1. †J1517.1. Overheard conversation: "Mustard has advanced in price." Thieves steal mustard and leave all else. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1517.2. †J1517.2. Overheard conversation: "Money hidden in wall (field)." Thieves take box filled with stone (or dig up field). India: Thompson-Balys.

J1517.3. †J1517.3. Overheard conversation: "My money is hanging in the tree." Thieves stung by hornets. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1521. †J1521. Swindler's plans foiled.

J1521.1. †J1521.1. The shoes carried into the tree. Tricksters induce a numskull to climb a tree, planning to steal his shoes. He takes them in his belt with him. "Perhaps I shall find a nearer road home up there and shall need my shoes." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 233 No. 96.

J1521.2. †J1521.2. The old man nods "Yes". A monk at an old man's deathbed asks if he hasn't promised this and that to the church. The old man from weakness rather than understanding nods "Yes". The son standing by asks, "Shall I throw this fellow down stairs?" The old man nods "Yes". *Wesselski Bebel I 154 No. 81; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 497.

J1521.2.1. †J1521.2.1. Clever wife of king's adopted son keeps king distracted on deathbed so that he cannot disinherit husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1521.3. †J1521.3. Command would become permanent. A ruler receives gifts from his subjects and later demands them as he due. The fool sets the nobleman's bed on fire. When the nobleman commands him to put the fire out he refuses, since he would ever afterward have to be putting out fires. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 44.

J1521.4. †J1521.4. Unjust oath countered by another. A woman entrusts three coins to a headsman. He denies her claim which she fails to substantiate in ordeal. She now claims more and happens to succeed with ordeal. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1521.5. †J1521.5. Catching by words.

J1521.5.1. †J1521.5.1. Bargain: to render service for "something". Claimant has called dead cricket "something" and must be content. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1522. †J1522. Rebuke to the stingy.

J1522.1. †J1522.1. Half price for half a shave. A man asks to be shaved at half price. The barber shaves one side. He must pay the other half for the rest of the shave. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 601.

J1522.2. †J1522.2. Stingy man rebuked when his children are feasted in his absence. They think he has been responsible and honor him. He reforms. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1525. †J1525. Poor girl outwits prince in fright-contest. He frightens her and later mocks her with her words of fright. She plays the same trick on him. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No 3.

J1526. †J1526. Soldier's practical retort to officer.

J1526.1. †J1526.1. Officer disarmed by sentry. Army major approaches sentry, takes away his rifle, and reproaches him for allowing himself to be disarmed. Sentry draws pistol from inside shirt, demands return of unloaded rifle. U.S.: Baughman.

J1527. †J1527. Dream answered by dream. Priests misinterpret raja's dream and get his horses. Trickster advises raja to announce dream demanding cauterization of the priests. They return horses. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1530. †J1530. One absurdity rebukes another. Brown JAOS XXIX 43 n. 40, Penzer III 241, 250f., V 64ff., IX 152, 155; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1531. †J1531. Borrower's absurdities. England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, U.S.: Baughman.

J1531.1. †J1531.1. The transformed golden pumpkin. Borrower of golden pumpkin returns a brass pumpkin and claims that the gold has turned to brass. The lender takes the borrower's son and returns with an ape. He claims that the boy has turned into an ape. Köhler-Bolte I 533; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1531.1.1. †J1531.1.1. Mill has given birth to horse. Jackal as judge comes late. "Tank of water caught fire." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1531.2. †J1531.2. The iron-eating mice. Trustee claims that mice have eaten the iron scales confided to him. The host abducts the trustee's son and says that a falcon has carried him off. *BP II 372; Chauvin II 92 No. 37; B[ö]dker Exempler; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer III 250, V 62, *64; Indonesian: DeVries's list No. 299.

J1531.2.1. †J1531.2.1. The dog-eating bugs. Man keeps dog for boy, tells him when he comes for it that the chinch bugs have eaten it. The boy borrows a mule from the man, later tells him that a buzzard has carried it away. He gets his dog back. U.S.: Baughman.

J1531.3. †J1531.3. The pot has a child and dies. A borrower returns a pot along with a small one saying that the pot has had a young one. The pots are accepted. He borrows the pot a second time and keeps it. He sends word that the pot has died. *BP II 372 n. 2; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 213 No. 35; DeVries FFC LXXIII 273 n. 1; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 1705*; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1532. †J1532. Adulteress's absurdity rebuked.

J1532.1. †J1532.1. The Snow-Child. (Modus Leibinc.) A sailor's wife bears a son in his absence and says that it came from eating snow. Later the husband makes away with the boy who, he says, melted in the sun. *Type 1362; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 208; BP IV 130; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1533. †J1533. Absurdities concerning birth of animals, or men. (Cf. †J1531.3.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J1534. †J1534. Deer captured in bird-net: water flows upstream. One partner claims a deer he has captured in his bird-net. The other pretends to be watching water flow upstream. Coster-Wijsman 32 No. 8.

J1536. †J1536. Ruler's absurdity rebuked.

J1536.1. †J1536.1. Absurdity of entrusting military mission to bishop. Courtier rebukes king by asking that he be given an ecclesiastical post. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1536.2. †J1536.2. Absurdity of trying to convert king to Hinduism -- like making cow of donkey or black dog into white. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1539. †J1539. One absurdity rebukes another -- miscellaneous.

J1539.1. †J1539.1. Priest forbidden to have female servant ostentatiously washes his own clothes. Bishop reverses the order. Nouvelles Récréations No. 34.

J1539.2. †J1539.2. Scholar given third egg. A scholar, showing his skill in logic, proves that two chickens (or eggs) on the table are really three. His father (or host) takes one chicken for himself, gives the other to the mother, tells son that he can have the third one. England: Baughman.

J1540. †J1540. Retorts between husband and wife. (Cf. †J1532.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

J1541. †J1541. Husband outwits his wife.

J1541.1. †J1541.1. The good words. A man pledged to give his wife only good words hits her with a prayer book. *BP III 278.

J1541.1.1. †J1541.1.1. Sharing joy and sorrow. Man pledged to do so with his wife follows instructions literally. Beats her -- a joy to him and a sorrow to her. BP III 277f.

J1541.2. †J1541.2. The flute makes more noise. A man overcomes his quarrelsome wife by playing the flute as long as she is scolding. *Wesselski Bebel I 228 No. 139; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1541.3. †J1541.3. Woman repulses ugly husband's advances. He placates her by telling her that he wants a handsome child. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1541.4. †J1541.4. Husband and wife separate and divide property. Man keeps the house, gives the wife the road. U.S.: Baughman.

J1545. †J1545. Wife outwits her husband.

J1545.1. †J1545.1. Will work when beaten. A wife whose husband has beaten her sends a rumor to the sick king that her husband is a skilled physician but will practice only when he is well beaten. He is seized and whipped. Wesselski Mönchslatein 117 No. 98; Mensa Philosophica No. 73.

J1545.2. †J1545.2. Four men's mistress. A husband disguises as a priest to hear his wife's confession. She says that she has been mistress of a servant, a knight, a fool, and a priest; i.e., her husband when he was her servant, and later her knight. He had then been a fool for demanding her confession, and was a priest because he had heard it. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 793; Wesselski Mönchslatein 109 No. 93; Boccaccio Decameron VII No. 5 (Lee 198); Scala Celi 49a No. 275; *Hibbard 41 n. 12; Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No 78; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1545.3. †J1545.3. Fault-finding husband nonplussed. The wife has cooked so many dishes that when he complains, she can always supply another. Finally he says, "I had rather eat dung." She produces some. *Wesselski Theorie 175; Plattdeutsch: Wisser Plattdeutsche Volksmärchen (Jena 1922, 1927) II 98; India (Kashmir): Knowles 245.

J1545.3.1. †J1545.3.1. Which does the more work. Wife shows that she does many more tasks in one morning than the husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1545.3.2. †J1545.3.2. Where are the shoes? Fault-finding husband threatens to hit wife with shoes. She: "You will have to have some shoes first." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1545.3.3. †J1545.3.3. Man who continually threatens to leave wife mortified when she tells him to go; pretends his buffalo is dragging him home (after he does leave). India: Thompson-Balys.

J1545.4. †J1545.4. The exiled wife's dearest possession. A wife driven from home is allowed by her husband to take her one dearest possession. She takes her sleeping husband and effects reconciliation. *Type 875; *DeVries FFC LXXIII 275--284 passim; *Fb "kjæreste" II 153a; *BP II 349; Fansler MAFLS XII 63; Jewish: *Neuman, *Gaster Exempla 224 No. 196; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1545.4.1. †J1545.4.1. The besieged women's dearest possession. (Women of Weinsberg.) Permitted to carry from the city their dearest possession, they take their husbands. *DeVries FFC LXXIII 278ff.; *Gaster Germania XXV 285ff.; *Wehrhan Die Sage 31ff.; *Bolte Montanus Gartengesellschaft 615 No. 80.

J1545.5. †J1545.5. Husband tells wife in indecent posture to "lock up shop". She retorts that he has the key. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1545.6. †J1545.6. Wife by cleverness wins back fortune overbearing husband has foolishly lost and humbles him. India: Thompson-Balys

J1545.7. †J1545.7. Clever laughter and response of wife stops husband from fondling maid. Heptameron No. 54.

J1545.8. †J1545.8. Corpse to be cut in two for easy carrying. Husband who feigns death hears wife propose this. He upbraids her; she replies: "If you had really died I should have given myself up to be burnt." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1545.9. †J1545.9. Wife shows deep water. Husband declares that he will drown himself. The wife shows him a deep spot in the stream. England: Baughman.

J1546. †J1546. Overcurious wife learns of the senate's deliberations. Husband (son) tells her that they have decided that each man may have many wives. Gullible wife believes it. *Crane Vitry No. 235; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 392; Herbert III 19; Alphabet No. 141; Gesta Romanorum No. 126; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 46; Scala Celi 46b No. 260; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1550. †J1550. Practical retorts: borrowers and lenders.

J1551. †J1551. Imaginary debt and payment. *Fischer-Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 209ff.; Hindu: Penzer V 132 n. 2, 133, IX 155f.; cf. Nouvelles de Sens No. 9.

J1551.1. †J1551.1. Imagined intercourse, imagined payment. A woman demands money for a visit which she dreams of having had from a merchant. She is shown the money in a mirror. *Chauvin VIII 158 No. 163; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 810; *Fischer-Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 209; Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 113; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1551.2. †J1551.2. Imagined penance for imagined sin. A penitent confesses that a plan to sin had entered his mind. Priest tells him that the thought is as good as the deed. Assesses four florins as penance. Penitent says that he had only had it in his mind to give the florins; he must take the thought for the deed. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 298; *Wesselski Gonnella 110 No. 10; *Fischer-Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 210.

J1551.3. †J1551.3. Singer repaid with promise of reward: words for words. *Fischer-Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 211; Nouvelles Récréations No. 3; Hindu: Penzer V 132.

J1551.4. †J1551.4. Directions for getting pay given in return for directions for healing. *Fischer-Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 211.

J1551.5. †J1551.5. Substitute for candle repaid with substitute for money. A monk gives a man a stick instead of the candle the man has wanted to burn before a holy picture. The monk says that it will have the same effect as if the candle were burned. The man takes out his purse and lets the monk touch it. *Wesselski Arlotto I 186 No. 6.

J1551.6. †J1551.6. The hare at third remove. A man receives a present of a hare. Later a crowd comes to him for entertainment saying that they are friends of the man who presented the hare. This happens a second time. He serves them clear water. "It is the soup from the soup of the hare." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 234 No. 97.

J1551.7. †J1551.7. Imagined ownership: derived from a dream. Man claims ownership of bulls because he has dreamed of them. He is given their shadows. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1551.8. †J1551.8. Imagined color. Clerk tells person to imagine that blue cloth is green. The customer walks out without paying. The clerk asks for payment; the customer tells clerk to imagine he has been paid. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1551.9. †J1551.9. Half of money thrown into tank. The monkey to the grocer: "You sold half water and half milk." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1551.10. †J1551.10. The priest administers to a man sick with infectious disease. Shows him the Host through window, and says: "Have hope and imagine you receive it." The man shows the priest a coin through the window, and repeats the same phrase. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1844.

J1551.11. †J1551.11. "Here is half of picture and you must imagine other half." Jester later redecorates house in fragments of pictures. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1552. †J1552. Loans refused.

J1552.1. †J1552.1. The ass consulted about the loan. A man wants to borrow an ass. The owner goes to see what the ass says. The ass is unwilling. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 223 No. 60.

J1552.1.1. †J1552.1.1. The ass is not at home. A man wants to borrow an ass. The owner says that the ass is not at home. The ass brays and the borrower protests. "Will you believe an ass and not a graybeard like me?" *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 224 No. 65; L. Schmidt Oesterr. Zs. f. Vksk. 1954, 128; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1552.1.1.1. †J1552.1.1.1. The bigger fool. When told by servants their master is not at home, man says it is a fool that goes out in such midday heat. Whereupon master sticks his head out of the window, saying "Thou who art moving about at this time art the big fool: I have been seated all day in my house." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1552.2. †J1552.2. Three reasons for refusing credit. A man asks for credit, although he has always paid cash before. He is refused on these grounds: either (1) he has never found anyone to trust him, (2) he has never bought anything, or (3) he is rich and does not need an extension of time. *Wesselski Bebel II 121 No. 65.

J1552.3. †J1552.3. Man refuses to lend horse: sued for consequent damages. The would-be borrower gets one from another neighbor. He overworks the horse and renders him useless. The owner of the horse sues the man who had refused to lend his animal. Reasoning: "If he had lent his horse this would not have happened to mine." Settled by compromise. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1552.4. †J1552.4. Better to donate half of what is asked than lend all. Two farmers ask a priest to lend two measures of grain to each of them. The priest refuses to lend them any but donates one measure to each. Thus he saves two measures. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1556. †J1556. Lender repays borrower for deceptive loan.

J1556.1. †J1556.1. Borrower of butter receives pot of cowdung with little butter on top: repays by lending wooden sword covered with thin iron. (Cf. †J1511.20.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J1559. †J1559. Miscellaneous retorts concerning borrowing and lending.

J1559.1. †J1559.1. A present or a retaining fee. An abbot presents a lawyer with a fine horse. Later the abbot comes to Rome and calls on the lawyer for help. The latter returns the horse. "I did not know that you had a lawsuit in Rome." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 126.

J1559.2. †J1559.2. God as surety; the abbot pays. A young man is ransomed by giving God as surety for the ransom money. He fails to return as agreed. The creditor sees a wealthy abbot, who says that he is a servant of God. He robs the abbot and when the young man finally appears he tells the latter than the debt is already paid by God's servant. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 59; Alphabet No. 503.

J1559.3. †J1559.3. Too large a payment. A student leaving the university sends back a small coin to pay for the knowledge he is carrying away, although he says that he is really paying too much. Wesselski Bebel II 114 No. 45.

J1560. †J1560. Practical retorts: hosts and guests.

J1561. †J1561. Inhospitality repaid. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1561.1. †J1561.1. Clothes thrown into the cooking food. A trickster when told that food cooking is clothes being boiled retaliates by throwing his dirty hose into the pot. *Wesselski Arlotto II 247 No. 153; *Wesselski Gonnella 130 No. 23; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 240.

J1561.2. †J1561.2. Inhospitable host punished for hospitality. An abbot has his innkeeper treat his guests with the most shameful neglect. A guest retaliates by telling the abbot that he has been very sumptuously entertained. The innkeeper is discharged. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 60; Scala Celi 104a No. 565; Alphabet No. 357.

J1561.3. †J1561.3. Welcome to the clothes. A man at a banquet is neglected because of his poor clothes. He changes clothes, returns, and is honored. "Feed my clothes," he says, "for it is they that are welcomed." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 416; Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 222 No. 55; *Prato RTP IV 167; Herbert III 70; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1561.3.1. †J1561.3.1. Poor suitor served good supper prepared for rich one. Recites a satirical rhymed grace. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 702.

J1561.4. †J1561.4. Servant repays stingy master (mistress). Type 1561**; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1561.4.1. †J1561.4.1. Hostess says that she has no spoons. Otherwise she would be glad to give something to eat. A joker brings along the necessary spoons. Type 1449*.

J1561.4.2. †J1561.4.2. The boy "loses his sight." No butter on the bread. Type 1561*.

J1561.5. †J1561.5. Father causes inhospitable daughter to spoil her feast by deceptive advice about cooking. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1561.6. †J1561.6. A box connection. Man refused hospitality tells rich man he is a relative. Asked for the "connection," he tells him there is a box connection. Rich man not understanding, man explains his cart is made of box wood and is tied to a rich man's box tree. Rich man, ashamed, entertains him with all due respect. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1561.7. †J1561.7. Grace said in name of the host. Neglected guest thus gets his portion of food. Jewish: *Neuman.

J1562. †J1562. The greedy host.

J1562.1. †J1562.1. Turning the plate around. A cuts the meat and puts all the good things on his side. B turns the plate around: "See how all things turn about in this world." A turns it back: "However the world may turn, with good friends like us the plate will always remain the same." *Wesselski Arlotto II 222 No. 89; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1568*; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV No. 1568*.

J1562.2. †J1562.2. The peasant's share is the chicken. He serves small birds and a roast chicken to his guests. Guests each take a small bird, leaving only the chicken when the plate reaches the host. He takes the whole chicken saying: "Since everyone has a bird, I must have one too." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 583.

J1562.3. †J1562.3. Host hides meat in his clothing. It attracts his dog and he is exposed. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1563. †J1563. Treatment of difficult guests.

J1563.1. †J1563.1. The guest who could not keep warm. He keeps calling for more bed clothes. The host finally piles a ladder, a trough, etc., on top of him until he calls for help. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 259 No. 200; Wesselski Arlotto I 130 No. 51.

J1563.2. †J1563.2. Guests make impossible demands of host: host's representative forces guests to leave by sending them on difficult quest. Irish myth: *Cross.

J1563.3. †J1563.3. Bread baked with onions for an undesirable guest. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1563.4. †J1563.4. Proper food for ox and ass. Guests call each other ox and ass. Host offers green grass for the first and fodder for the second. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1563.5. †J1563.5. Guests frightened away by housewife. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1563.5.1. †J1563.5.1. Wife prepares the pestle. Tells guests husband uses it against guests. They flee. Tells husband they left because she refused to give them pestle. Husband pursues to give them the pestle, but they run the faster. (Cf. †K2137.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J1563.5.2. †J1563.5.2. Servants touch cooking pot. Food being considered unclean then, guests depart empty but unwitting of true reason. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1563.6. †J1563.6. When hints do not get rid of unwelcome guests, force must be used. Thus man treats his sons-in-law. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1563.7. †J1563.7. A sham fight to frighten away the guests. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1563.8. †J1563.8. Priest frightens away parasitic guests. Tells them he has that morning confessed man with plague. French: Irwin No. 161.

J1564. †J1564. Talker keeps person from eating.

J1564.1. †J1564.1. Trickster's interrupted feast revenged. He is asked a question by his master each time he tries to eat a date, so that he always has to spit out the date. He revenges himself that night when the master tries to carry on an intrigue with his wife's maid. He comes with his answers at embarrassing moments. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 242 No. 537.

J1564.2. †J1564.2. Revenge by interrupting feast. A rabbi who has been inhospitably treated is afterwards invited to dinner. He keeps the guests so amused by his jokes that they fail to eat and the feast is spoiled. Jewish: *Neuman, *Gaster Exempla 226 No. 212.

J1565. †J1565. Inappropriate entertainment repaid. Irish myth: *Cross.

J1565.1. †J1565.1. Fox and crane invite each other. Fox serves the food on a flat dish so that the crane cannot eat. Crane serves his food in a bottle. *Type 60; Wienert FFC LVI 54 (ET 141), 98 (ST 123); Halm Aesop No. 34; *Crane Exempla 202 No. 165; Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 64 No. 13.

J1565.2. †J1565.2. Bugs unable to eat honey at banquet of bees, and bees unable to eat dung at bug's dinner. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1565.3. †J1565.3. Crop division between parrot and cat: they try to cheat each other by inviting to a dinner in turns every day. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1566. †J1566. Luxury of host rebuked.

J1566.1. †J1566.1. Philosopher spits in king's beard. It is the only place he can find at the royal table not covered with gold and jewels. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 475; *Crane Vitry 195 No. 149; Scala Celi 140a No. 784; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 29, Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1566.2. †J1566.2. Ruler refuses hospitality from subject who spends more than he earns. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1573. †J1573. Host rebukes negligent servant.

J1573.1. †J1573.1. A step-ladder for setting the table. Servant who leaves off the salt is instructed to bring in the step-ladder so as to see what is missing. Wesselski Bebel II 71 No. 159.

J1575. †J1575. Guest brings along cakes to eat. Stingy host rebuked. Spanish: Espinosa III No. 192; Italian Novella: *Rotunda, Boccaccio Decameron I No. 8 (Lee 23).

J1575.1. †J1575.1. Suitor brings own lamp. Mother of girl tells suitor that she cannot have him burning her midnight oil. The next night he brings his own lamp and a can of oil, tells her he will stay all night if he wishes. U.S.: Baughman.

J1576. †J1576. "Cause liberality to be depicted." Answer of hungry man when host asks for suggestion for a picture to be painted of something that has not been seen. Boccaccio Decameron I No. 8 (Lee 23), Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1577. †J1577. Deceptive invitation to feast.

J1577.1. †J1577.1. Inviting to a feast only those whose households have never been touched by death. None comes. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1580. †J1580. Practical retorts connected with almsgiving.

J1581. †J1581. Stingy almsgiving repaid.

J1581.1. †J1581.1. Poem for poem: all for all. A poet gives the emperor a poem, hoping for a reward The emperor later gives the poet a poem in return. The poet thereupon sends the emperor two pennies, saying that this is all the money he has. The emperor, seeing that he is defeated in the exchange, laughs and becomes the poet's friend. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 506.

J1581.2. †J1581.2. Reinforcement of the request for alms. A clown asks for alms and receives nothing. He then throws pellets made of herbs at the steward, saying that there is great power in words, herbs, and stones: he has tried two of them and plans to try the third. He is given alms. Wesselski Mönchslatein 20 No. 14.

J1582. †J1582. Base money in the offering.

J1582.1. †J1582.1. The penny baked in the wafer. A peasant always puts a bad penny into the offering. The priest has a penny baked in a wafer and gives it to the peasant at communion. The peasant, unable to swallow it, thinks that he is possessed of the devil. The priest asks whether he has ever done wrong with a penny, secures confession and a pledge of reform. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 73.

J1582.2. †J1582.2. Sulphur in the censer. Parishioners put base money into the collection. The priest burns sulphur instead of incense He tells them that their money will buy nothing better. *Wesselski Arlotto II 218 No. 82.

J1583. †J1583. Interested only in his capital. Preacher tells parishioners (regarding the day's offering): "You will get back 100 for 1." Donor of a penny: "I'll be glad to get back my capital!" Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1593. †J1593. Any boon desired. Stingy king insists on trickster asking any boon desired. By asking king to perform disgusting act, trickster compels king to give expensive gift. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1600. †J1600. Practical retorts -- miscellaneous.

J1601. †J1601. How much the ass cost. As the fool brings the new ass home everyone wants to know how much it cost. He has all publicly assemble and announces just what it cost. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 134 No. 1550C, Espinosa No. 54.

J1602. †J1602. Throw at a rich man. Philosopher gives a penny to a man who throws stones at him but advises him that it will be wiser to throw at one who can afford to give more. The advice is followed and the rascal is arrested and hanged. Wienert FFC LVI 85 (ET 519), 99 (ST 128).

J1603. †J1603. Eyes treated for the stomach ache. A man who has stomach ache from eating bad bread is treated for his eyes so that he will thereafter be able to tell good bread from bad. Chauvin II 124 No. 121; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1604. †J1604. The fish in the sleeve. A particularly obnoxious man delays others while he haggles over prices with a butcher. Meanwhile a parson takes the three fish the man has laid down and puts them into his large sleeves. The man is angry and searches in vain for them. The parson then shows them and advises him not to let people cheat him. *Wesselski Arlotto I 190 No. 10.

J1605. †J1605. One wrong and five hundred good deeds. A man steals a large sum, keeps half and distributes the rest among five hundred persons. He says that he has committed one wrong but has done five hundred good deeds. Chauvin II 208 No. 76.

J1606. †J1606. Two monks renew their appetites. Entertained by a lord, they say that they are going to certain waters to recover their appetites. They are taken to a chamber and locked in for a day They recover their appetites without further journeying. (Cf. †K1955.1.1.) *Köhler-Bolte I 137, II 5714; *Anderson FFC XLII 359; Boccaccio Decameron X No. 2 (Lee 311ff.); Scala Celi 126a Nos. 685, 686; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1606.1. †J1606.1. Hungry man eats intestines of fish next morning after refusing to do so the evening before. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1607. †J1607. The testament of the dog. The owner of a dog has him given Christian burial. The bishop thereupon pretends that the dog has left the church a large legacy. *Anderson FFC XLII 359 n 3; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 72; **Feilberg "Hundens Testament" Festskrift til E. T. Kristensen 11ff.; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 96.

J1608. †J1608. Ass's charter in his hoof. The ass absents himself from the parliament of beasts. The lion sends the fox and the wolf to summon him. He pleads his charter of exemption and invites the fox to read it in his hoof. (Cf. †K551.18.) Herbert III 53; Crane Vitry 147 No. 33; Baum MLN XXXVII 350; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1611. †J1611. The stolen meat and the weighed cat. A man buys three pounds of meat. His wife eats it and says that the cat ate it. The man weighs the cat and finds that it does not weigh three pounds. *Type 1373; Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 232 No. 87, *II 185 No. 348.

J1612. †J1612. The lazy ass repaid in kind. Loaded with salt, he falls down in the river and lightens his burden. His master then loads him with sponges so that the next time the ass tries the trick he increases his load. Type 211***; Wienert FFC LVI 72 (ET 372), 98 (ST 126); Halm Aesop No. 322.

J1613. †J1613. The rescuers' Sabbath. A Jew, fallen into a pit, refuses to be rescued on Saturday, his Sabbath. The next day he calls for help but the Christians refuse to rescue him on Sunday, their Sabbath. Wesselski Mönchslatein 100 No 84; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 389.

J1614. †J1614. The forehanded servant. A parson boasts that when he asks his maid if certain work is done she always answers that it has been done long ago. A guest wagers that she can be trapped if she is asked whether she has thrown the parson's suit of clothes into the tub of water. She overhears the wager and has the suit in the water before he asks the question. Bolte Frey's Gartengesellschaft 252 No. 92.

J1615. †J1615. That which was promised him. A tenant promises his daughter to his master against her will. The master sends for "that which was promised him." The daughter sends the horse, and it is taken into the master's chamber. *Type 1440.

J1616. †J1616. St. Peter not guiltless. Soldiers are admitted neither to hell nor to heaven. They remind Peter of his denial of Christ. He admits them. *Wesselski Bebel I 155 No. 84.

J1617. †J1617. God's omniscience. A woman tells her brother of God's omniscience. When he is ill and the priest has been called, he creeps under some straw and hides. The priest leaves. The man: "If God were so omniscient he might have found me for the priest." Wesselski Bebel II 119 No. 57.

J1618. †J1618. The one word petition. A guardian of monks in need of food approaches the prince The prince is busy and says that he will permit the guardian but a single word. The guardian says, "Soup", and secures all the food he wants from the prince. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 64.

J1621. †J1621. Sharing his wounds. Two men on parting agree to share everything they receive. One returns with much money. His friend reminds him of the pact. He replies that he has also received many wounds. The friend is willing to forego dividing. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 169; Mensa Philosophica No. 35.

J1622. †J1622. The blacksmith's and the horse-trader's dreams. They are forced to sleep together because of lack of room. The blacksmith tells the horsetrader that he often dreams that he is striking the bellows and that he may accidently strike him in the night. The horsetrader retaliates by dreaming that he is riding a horse and drives the spurs into the blacksmith. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 109.

J1623. †J1623. Drunkard cured of seeing double. When he claims to see two roast chickens, his wife takes the one chicken away and he falls into the fire trying to find the other. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 140.

J1624. †J1624. The priest makes the omen come true. A woman crosses herself when she meets a priest, as if he were the devil. She says that meeting a priest always brings her bad luck. The priest knocks her down and steps on her. "As ye believe, so shall it be." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 151.

J1625. †J1625. Armies like seeds and peppercorns. One king sends large sack of seed to the other to represent the number of his soldiers. The second replies with a small bag of peppercorns: "My army is small compared to yours but has all the power of the peppercorn compared to your lifeless seed." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 722.

J1626. †J1626. The sound of the harp. An apprentice harpmaker is blamed that he has not made the harp sound. He throws the harp at his master's head and breaks it to pieces: "There you have your sound." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 722.

J1627. †J1627. To give the accounting afterward. A nobleman embezzles money from the public treasury. When counsellors urge an accounting, he replies that he is ready as soon as they have themselves made an accounting of all their transactions. They are ready to let well enough alone. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 800.

J1628. †J1628. Taking cold in effigy. A traitor is hanged in effigy naked. Later the citizens sue for peace and arrange a meeting. They find him in a hot room swathed with many blankets. He says that he has taken cold when the night wind blew on him as he hung naked from the gallows. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 542.

J1631. †J1631. An expensive joke. A shoemaker's apprentice greases boots as he would grease a fowl. The owner in anger returns and breaks a window. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 642.

J1632. †J1632. The minstrel repays the cobbler. The cobbler learns the minstrel's songs and sings them so that the minstrel loses his trade. He in turn sews the cobbler's leather into crazy shapes. He has done no worse than the cobbler, who marred his songs. When they sing together the people realize the contrast and patronize the minstrel. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 139 No. 1695A*, Keller.

J1633. †J1633. Brotherly love and patience both dead. A man failing to receive alms in a village, rings the bell for mass. He tells the sexton that he is ringing because of the death of brotherly love. The sexton rings another bell. It is for the death of the other man's patience. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 474.

J1634. †J1634. To follow the king. In order to test a favorite, a king says that he is going to retire from the world and offers the regency to the favorite. On advice from his philosopher, the favorite says that he is going to accompany the king into retirement. *Chauvin II 148 No. 1, III 98 No. 2; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1635. †J1635. Robber gives priest double his penance and then takes his horse. Mensa Philosophica No. 53; Shakespeare Jest Books III (Certayne Conceyts and Jeasts) 11 No. 22.

J1636. †J1636. He has a family to support. Ruler to servant stealing his game: "If you wish any I'll send you some." U.S.: Baughman; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1638. †J1638. Sticking to the rules. Merchant at inn deprives monk of fowl. "It's against the rules of your order." Later the monk undertakes to help merchant across stream. In the middle of the stream he asks the merchant if he has any money. "Yes." The monk drops him in the water. "It's against the rules of our order to have any money on us." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1647. †J1647. Priest asked to preach short sermon does so saying to congregation only that they are wicked. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1648. †J1648. Do not start here. Man asks directions to a certain place. Native attempts to give directions, then in disgust says, "If I wanted to go to ----, I wouldn't start from here." U.S.: Baughman.

†J1650-†J1699. Miscellaneous clever acts.

J1651. †J1651. The abbot cannot find his needle. An undesirable abbot furnishes adequate grounds for his dismissal when he cannot find the needle that all monks are supposed to carry with them. If careless in little things he will be careless in great. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 62.

J1652. †J1652. Kissing the mother first. Oracle that the first of three sons to kiss his mother will be king. One of them kisses the earth, mother of all. He succeeds. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 171.

J1653. †J1653. Using the lamb to get an audience. Peasant calls on lawyer for advice. Lawyer says that he is busy. Peasant returns with lamb. The lawyer hears its bleat and grants the audience. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1655. †J1655. Clever ways of concealing jewels (treasure).

J1655.1. †J1655.1. Jewels concealed in cowdung cakes. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1655.2. †J1655.2. Valuable rubies baked in bread. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1655.3. †J1655.3. Coins concealed in jar of oil (pickles). India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1661. †J1661. Clever deductions.

J1661.1. †J1661.1. Deductions from observation.

J1661.1.1. †J1661.1.1. Deduction: the one-eyed camel. A she-camel has passed, blind in one eye; on the one side she carries wine and on the other vinegar; two men lead her, one a heathen and the other a Jew. Solution: She is recognized as a she-camel by the footprints; she is blind because she feeds on only one side of the road; the wine dropping down has soaked into the earth; the vinegar makes bubbles; the heathen is not so careful in his manners as is the Jew. **Fischer-Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 198ff.; Gaster Exempla 195 No. 51; *Penzer VI 287; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 101 No. 55.

J1661.1.1.1. †J1661.1.1.1. Deduction: the camel ridden by a pregnant woman. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1661.1.2. †J1661.1.2. Deduction: the king is a bastard. After dinner the king begins to dance. He is therefore called illegitimate. His mother acknowledges an intrigue with a dancer. *Type 655; *Fischer-Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 198ff.; *Gaster Exempla 195 No. 51; Herrmann Saxo II 265ff.; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1661.1.2.1. †J1661.1.2.1. Deduction: magistrate is a bastard. Korean: Zong in-Sob 102ff. No. 55.

J1661.1.3. †J1661.1.3. Deduction: bread made by a sick woman. It falls apart; therefore it was kneaded by a weak person. *Chauvin VII 159 No. 438.

J1661.1.4. †J1661.1.4. Deduction: mare has she-buffalo as mother. Told by shape of hoofs. Chauvin VII 162 No. 439.

J1661.1.5. †J1661.1.5. Deduction: horse has been brought up on ass's milk. Has drooping ears. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1661.1.5.1. †J1661.1.5.1. Deduction: animal has been brought up on dog's milk. Can not get enough to eat. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1661.1.6. †J1661.1.6. Deduction: insect inside precious stone. The jewel is warm. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1661.1.7. †J1661.1.7. Deduction: prince plays with children because he has been denied a normal youth. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1661.1.8. †J1661.1.8. Deduction: one-eyed, long-bearded thief is named Kale Khan. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1661.1.9. †J1661.1.9. Banker able to recognize honest merchant by a single hair of his mustache. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1661.1.10. †J1661.1.10. Clever deduction of wise man: the theft of a cauldron detected. Cauldron has been buried in river. Thief has no taste of salt on his body: he must have been immersed in fresh water recently. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1661.2. †J1661.2. Clever deductions by eating, smelling, drinking, etc. Penzer VI 285; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1661.3. †J1661.3. Person describes approaching bands of warriors without recognizing them. Another (interlocutor) identifies them. Irish myth: *Cross.

J1662. †J1662. The cat's only trick. She saves herself on a tree. The fox, who knows a hundred tricks, is captured. *Type 105; *BP II 119; *Fb "kat" II 108b, "ræv" III 114a; *Krohn Am Urquell III 177ff.; Magoun California Folklore Quarterly IV 390ff., Jacobs Aesop 209 No. 38; Wienert FFC LVI 66 (ET 303), 143 (ST 492); Halm Aesop 65; *Chauvin III 54 No. 10; *Herbert III 36ff. --Roumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No 33 I*; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys; cf. Africa (Angola): Chatelain 215 No. 37 (turtle goes into hole).

J1662.1. †J1662.1. One basket of wit better than twelve carloads of it. Female jackal saves herself and husband by quick thinking. (Cf. †K622.1.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1664. †J1664. Clever solution of debated question.

J1664.1. †J1664.1. Which is coldest season? Rainy season or winter (debate between animals). Solution by man as umpire: neither as cold as windy season. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1671. †J1671. The inventive coachman. Makes the horses run by binding a bundle of hay to the shaft. Type 1576*.

J1672. †J1672. Clever use of human weakness. Penny demanded of every bad man, two pennies of every good man. Thus two pennies received from every man. Irish myth: Cross.

J1675. †J1675. Clever dealing with a king.

J1675.1. †J1675.1. Clever ways of attracting the king's attention.

J1675.1.1. †J1675.1.1. King's attention attracted by fighting when it cannot be otherwise gained. *Chauvin VII 162 No. 439 n. 1.

J1675.1.2. †J1675.1.2. Unjust action brought to inform king of judge's malfeasance. Husband is imprisoned and wife detained by judge. She accuses her husband of having stolen her. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 287, 378.

J1675.2. †J1675.2. Clever ways of breaking bad news to a king, who will kill bearer of bad tidings.

J1675.2.1. †J1675.2.1. Tidings brought to the king: You said it, not I. The messenger arranges it so that the king says the words in the form of a question. *Anderson FFC XLII 362; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 111 No. 925B.

J1675.3. †J1675.3. King's capriciousness censured: the ass in the stream. A nobleman seeing an ass letting water in a river remarks that it reminds him of his king. He explains to the king that just as the ass puts water where it is already plentiful, so the king awards wealth where it is not needed. The king says that it is all in the nature of the nobleman's fate. Subsequent events prove this. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 836; Boccaccio Decameron X No. 1; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1675.4. †J1675.4. One-eyed king has rocks counted on pain of death. Clever man avoids saying "one" (which king considers a curse on his one eye) by saying that first is the rock that must not be called by name. Africa (Vai): Ellis 216 No. 30.

J1675.5. †J1675.5. Abbot gives king unique concert. Separates hogs into tenors, bassos, etc. So arranges them that when he pricks them they render a tune. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1675.6. †J1675.6. Poet goes to king to complain of destruction of his dwelling. King requires story. Poet recites list, ending with account of the destruction of his dun. Reparation granted. Irish myth: *Cross.

J1675.7. †J1675.7. Clever hero feigns dullness so as to avenge himself on king. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1675.8. †J1675.8. Son of God to see king. When steadily unable to be admitted to presence of a king, a clever man demands an interview saying he is the son of God come down to earth and will condescend to see the king. When asked to show the king Heaven and the path to it, the pretender retorts that when he was sent down by the Father, he was told to look to matters relating to this earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1678. †J1678. Settling the dispute. Two men cannot agree to bride's dowry. Third party tells each parent that the other has agreed. Marriage. "Now that you are relatives you can settle it between yourselves." Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1682. †J1682. Taunts of charioteer to rouse anger in master (who is losing battle) so that he may fight more vigorously. Irish myth: *Cross.

J1684. †J1684. Poet uses words which student cannot understand and so confounds him. (Cf. †J1803.) Irish myth: *Cross.

†J1700-†J2749. FOOLS (AND OTHER UNWISE PERSONS).

†J1700-†J1729. Fools (general).

J1700. †J1700. Fools. **Clouston Noodles; *Field Myth of the Pent Cuckoo; *Types 1200-1349, 1381-1387, 1430, 1450, 1642, 1643, 1653B, 1675, 1680-1696, 1725, 1750, 1775; *Bolte Frey's Gartengesellschaft No. 1; Köhler-Bolte I 135. --Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 299 No. 18; Hindu: Penzer V 67ff., 80ff., 113ff., 117 n. 1; Oceanic (German New Guinea, Banks Is., New Hebrides): Dixon 124f.; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 295ff. nn. 81, 84-87, 92, 95, 103, 109f., 109h, 109k, 109y 109bb, 109dd, 270a-270c, 271b, 286.

J1701. †J1701. Stupid wife. *Types 1380--1404; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 187b nn. 145--149; Christensen DF L 35; Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière.

J1701.1. †J1701.1. Extravagant woman whose husband continually finds fault with her. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1702. †J1702. Stupid husband. *Type 1361, 1405-1423; Jewish: Neuman.

J1703. †J1703. Town (country) of fools. **Christensen DF XLVII; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1705. †J1705. Stupid classes.

J1705.1. †J1705.1. Stupid peasant. *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 187b.

J1705.2. †J1705.2. Stupid (ignorant) Brahmin. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1705.3. †J1705.3. Foolish pundits. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1705.4. †J1705.4. Foolish king. Jewish: Neuman.

J1706. †J1706. Stupid animals.

J1706.1. †J1706.1. Tiger as stupid beast. India: Thompson-Balys.

†J1710-†J1729. Association with fools.

J1710. †J1710. Association with fools.

J1711. †J1711. Numskulls go a-travelling. (Cf. †J1742.) *BP II 555; **Field Myth of the Pent Cuckoo.

J1711.1. †J1711.1. Animals helpless in sea-voyage together. Sheep, duck, and cock in peril The duck swims; the cock flies to the mast. *Type 204; *Fb "and" IV 12.

J1712. †J1712. Numskulls quarrel over a greeting. Three men greeted by a stranger. Quarrel as to whom he greeted. "I greeted the biggest fool among you." A contest is held in which tales are told to decide which is the biggest fool. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 263 No. 237; Christensen DF L 91; India: *Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 484.

J1713. †J1713. Foolish married couples. (Cf. †J1701, †J1702.) *Type 1430.

J1713.1. †J1713.1. How he knew she was baking cakes. Husband actually knows from observation but wife thinks he has supernatural knowledge and spreads his fame India: Thompson-Balys.

J1714. †J1714. Association of wise men with fools. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1714.1. †J1714.1. A wise man follows a fool against his better judgment. Both are put to death for their foolishness. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 26; Herbert III 192; Alphabet No. 722; Oesterley No. 67; Scala Celi 75a No. 428; Africa (Vai): Ellis 242.

J1714.2. †J1714.2. The wise man and the rain of fools. A wise man is persuaded to taste water which has turned many persons into fools. He also becomes a fool. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 34, 54.

J1714.3. †J1714.3. When with fools, act foolish. A wise man refuses to join a foolish crowd who stayed out in an unexpected rain after a long drought. He is punished by them for being a fool. *Wesselski Arlotto II 224 No. 91.

J1714.3.1. †J1714.3.1. Forty wise men foretell violent rainstorm. Failing to convince people, they go into a cave. After the shower they come out. The people call them fools. Irish myth: Cross.

J1714.4. †J1714.4. Author believes that his book must be stupid. Stupid people and gossipers are praising it. Spanish: Childers.

J1714.5. †J1714.5. Old man silent in king's presence asks king what he himself does when in company with a fool. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1715. †J1715. A fool objects to fools as companions. Leaves when placed between two fools at table. Wesselski Bebel I 179 No. 25.

J1717. †J1717. Three silly pundits sent to a raja as the two-footed cattle he had demanded. India: Thompson-Balys.

†J1730-†J1749. Absurd ignorance.

J1730. †J1730. Absurd ignorance.

J1730.1. †J1730.1. Hero does not learn his name until after first adventure. Irish myth: Cross.

J1731. †J1731. The city person ignorant of the farm.

J1731.1. †J1731.1. The city girl: Do turnips grow in the ground or on trees? Type 2010*.

J1731.2. †J1731.2. Man wants roasted honeycomb. Unwilling to admit that he does not know what a honeycomb is, a stupid man asks the innkeeper's wife to roast a slice of honeycomb. Spanish: Childers.

J1732. †J1732. Ignorance of certain foods.

J1732.1. †J1732.1. Fool unacquainted with sausage. He squeezes the inside out and takes the covering for a sack. Type 1316*; cf. Christensen DF XLVII 216 No. 76.

J1732.2. †J1732.2. Fool is unacquainted with bananas, throws away the fruit, finds the rest bitter. (Similar for watermelon, plums.) England, Canada, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1732.3. †J1732.3. Woman is unacquainted with tea, serves the boiled leaves with butter. Scotland: Baughman.

J1733. †J1733. Why the pigs shriek. The sheep does not understand why the pig being carried to slaughter shrieks. Wienert FFC LVI 60 (ET 222), 91 (ST 32); Halm Aesop No. 115.

J1734. †J1734. Layman's ignorance of medicine.

J1734.1. †J1734.1. Urine diagnosis to tell where a man comes from. A farmer takes some of his master's urine for examination. The doctor asks where the man comes from. "You will soon see," says the man, expecting the analysis to tell. (Cf. †K2321.1.) *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 857; Christensen DF L 72; ibid. DF XLVII 202f. Nos. 42, 47.

J1735. †J1735. Fool cannot tell his right hand in the dark. *Clouston Noodles 91.

J1735.1. †J1735.1. How to tell the right hand in the dark. Numskull keeps the candle at his right side as he goes to bed so that he can do so. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 235 No. 104.

J1736. †J1736. Fools and the unknown animal.

J1736.1. †J1736.1. Fools do not know what a crayfish is. Shoot it and build a rampart around it. *Wesselski Bebel II 114 No. 43.

J1736.2. †J1736.2. Fools do not know what an owl is and attack it. BP III 286.

J1736.3. †J1736.3. Unknown animal: a pig captured in a pit. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1737. †J1737. Foolish lover ignorant of mistress's flaws.

J1737.1. †J1737.1. Foolish lover does not know that his mistress lacks an eye. Only after his return from an absence does he notice it. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 407; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1738. †J1738. Ignorance of religious matters.

J1738.1. †J1738.1. Ignorant priest forces rolls of cloth instead of bread down a dying man's throat. Wesselski Bebel I 222 No. 116.

J1738.2. †J1738.2. Living crucifix chosen. Peasants take their old crucifix to an artist for a new one. The artist asks them whether they want a living or dead crucifix. Argument: living God takes less for upkeep and he can be killed later. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 409; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1738.3. †J1738.3. Numskulls surprised at news that God has a son. Christensen DF XLVII 205 No. 53A; U.S.: Baughman.

J1738.4. †J1738.4. Numskulls surprised to hear that God's son has died. Christensen DF XLVII 205 No. 53B; U.S.: Baughman.

J1738.5. †J1738.5. Standing up for the friendless. Preacher in backwoods asks congregation members who are friends of Jesus to rise. No one rises. "What, are there no friends of Jesus in this house?" A cowboy rises to his feet: "Stranger, I don't know who this man Jesus is. I never heard of him before, but I'll stand up for any man who hasn't got any more friends than he has." U.S.: Baughman.

J1738.6. †J1738.6. Letting in the light. Backwoods preacher tells couple that they are living in darkness. The woman responds that she has been trying for years to get her husband to cut a window in the house. U.S.: *Baughman.

J1738.7. †J1738.7. Ignorant people told religious holiday is coming the next day: camel appears and is feasted. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1738.8. †J1738.8. Men hide so that God will not see their sin. Jewish: *Neuman.

J1741. †J1741. Priests (schoolmasters) ignorant of Latin.

J1741.1. †J1741.1. Evangelium secundum Pergamum. Pergamus, a rival city of Luca, objects to the reading of the Evangelium secundum Lucam, insisting that it be "secundum Pergamum". *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 345.

J1741.2. †J1741.2. "Agnus dei" as a prayer for money. An ignorant schoolmaster interprets many of the texts of scripture as commands for the priests to live lives of luxury. Bolte Frey's Gartengesellschaft 213 No. 8.

J1741.3. †J1741.3. Prearranged answers in Latin not always successful. (Essentially same as †X111.9.) Nouvelles Récréations No. 7.

J1741.3.1. †J1741.3.1. Stupid scholar memorizes set answers to oral examination in Latin. The questions are not given in the order he expects; comic results. England: Baughman.

J1742. †J1742. The countryman in the great world.

J1742.1. †J1742.1. Countryman expects to find persons from his own village when he travels to another land. *Wesselski Bebel II 139 No. 122.

J1742.2. †J1742.2. His address: a big high house. Mayor asked about where he lives, names his village and directs the enquirer to a big high house. Wesselski Bebel I 182 No. 31.

J1742.3. †J1742.3. Peasants in city inn order whole portion of mustard. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI No. 1316*.

J1742.3.1. †J1742.3.1. Countryman visiting rich relative in the city refuses to eat dessert: "No, I am not hungry." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1742.4. †J1742.4. Peasant surprised that king is not larger than other men. Nouvelles Récréations No. 70.

J1742.5. †J1742.5. Countryman misunderstands comforts of city. Thinks latrine is kitchen, refuses to take a walk because he fears high houses will fall upon him, etc. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1742.5.1. †J1742.5.1. Boy who has never seen a real carpet, hops around the side of the room to avoid stepping on the cloth on the floor. U.S.: Baughman.

J1743. †J1743. Ignorance of dates.

J1743.1. †J1743.1. All sins since the birth of Christ. A stupid man at confession says, "I confess myself guilty of all sins that I have committed since Christ's birth." "Are you so old?" "Yes, and I have a brother who is three years older than I." Wesselski Bebel II 106 No. 17; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 295.

J1743.2. †J1743.2. Family do not realize that Lent has arrived until it is Palm Sunday. Then they explain that Lent will be short because it has been a short winter. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 89; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1743.3. †J1743.3. Wash Bee Day. Woman misinterprets calendar notation "February 22, Wash. B'day." Washes their bee-hives. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 697.

J1744. †J1744. Ignorance of marriage relations. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

J1744.1. †J1744.1. Bridegroom does not know what to do on his wedding night. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1744.1.1. †J1744.1.1. Bridegroom gets into bed. The numskull groom on his wedding night does not know how to get to the bed, the curtains being drawn. He scales one of the posts, clambers to the canopy, falls upon his bride below, who screams for help. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1745. †J1745. Absurd ignorance of sex.

J1745.1. †J1745.1. Fool cannot tell sex of nudes, since they have no clothes on. U.S.: Baughman.

J1745.2. †J1745.2. Foolish girl ignorant of what is happening at her first menses. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1746. †J1746. Ignorance of reading.

J1746.1. †J1746.1. Fool weeps each time he reads a book to see how small letters have become: at school they were big and fat. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1747. †J1747. The archbishop's wife and family. Fool asks what he is to talk about when guests arrive. Is told: "Their wives and family." He asks the archbishop about his family. (Cf. †J2461.2.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1748. †J1748. Absurd ignorance of the use of spectacles. Christensen DF XLVII 226 No. 89.

J1749. †J1749. Absurd ignorance -- miscellaneous.

J1749.1. †J1749.1. Fool thinks that "aforesaid" is a title of honor. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1749.2. †J1749.2. Ignorant notary cannot draw up document. The names of the participants are not the same as those in his sample form. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

†J1750-†J1849. Absurd misunderstandings.

†J1750-†J1809. ONE THING MISTAKEN FOR ANOTHER.

J1750. †J1750. One animal mistaken for another.

J1751. †J1751. Dungbeetle thought to be bee. "I know you well enough, you have put on a blue coat." Type 1317*.

J1752. †J1752. Wolf thought to be colt. In the man's absence eats the mare. *Type 1311.

J1753. †J1753. Bear thought to be dog. Type 1312*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1313.

J1754. †J1754. Ass thought to be hare. Type 1316****.

J1755. †J1755. Earthworm thought to be snake (or other monster). Type 1316***.

J1756. †J1756. Other animals thought to be a giant cat. Hero in search of monster brings home a dog, zebra, etc. thinking it is the animal he seeks. Zanzibar: Bateman 160 No. 8.

J1757. †J1757. Rabbit thought to be a cow. Servant sent to bring in cows is found chasing rabbits. BP III 260 (Grimm No. 162); U.S.: Baughman.

J1758. †J1758. Tiger (lion, etc.) mistaken for domestic animal.

J1758.1. †J1758.1. Tiger mistaken for goat. Fool trying to steal goat in dark catches thieving tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1758.1.1. †J1758.1.1. Fool rides tiger thinking it to be a big male-goat. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1758.2. †J1758.2. Tiger thought to be dog. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1758.3. †J1758.3. Tiger mistaken for ass. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1758.4. †J1758.4. Thief mistakes leopard for calf (ass). India: Thompson-Balys.

J1758.5. †J1758.5. Lion thought to be donkey: drunkard rides it. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1758.5.1. †J1758.5.1. Thief thinks lion is horse. Rides him. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1758.6. †J1758.6. Stupid husband mistakes tiger-cubs for jungle cats despite wife's judgment. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1759. †J1759. Other mistaken animals. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1759.1. †J1759.1. Scotsman thinks moose is a mouse, asks what rats look like in this country. (Cf. †X1423.) Canada: Baughman.

J1759.2. †J1759.2. Hunter mistakes louse on his eyelash for game. He shoots several times before he notices the trouble. U.S.: *Baughman.

J1759.3. †J1759.3. Numskull thinks fireflies are mosquitoes carrying lanterns to find victims. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1759.4. †J1759.4. Bull mistaken for horse. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1759.4.1. †J1759.4.1. Calf mistaken for colt. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1759.5. †J1759.5. Cat's tail mistaken for worm. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1760. †J1760. Animal or person mistaken for something else.

J1761. †J1761. Animal thought to be object.

J1761.1. †J1761.1. Whale thought to be island. Sailors light a fire on his back. *Chauvin VII 9 n. 1 No. 373A; *Fb "fish" I 296b, "[ö]" III 1159b; Gunter 84; *Gaster Beiträge 53ff.; *Reinhard PMLA XXXVIII 448 n. 84. --Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; Hindu: Penzer II 193; B[ö]dker Exempler 286 No. 34; Indonesian: DeVries's list No. 210.

J1761.1.1. †J1761.1.1. Turtle thought to be an island. U.S.: Baughman.

J1761.1.2. †J1761.1.2. Serpent is taken for island. U.S.: Baughman.

J1761.2. †J1761.2. White mare thought to be church. Type 1315**.

J1761.3. †J1761.3. Glowworm thought to be a fire. The bird who tries to keep the monkeys from this error is killed for her pains. Chauvin II 90 No. 32; B[ö]dker Exempler 286 No. 34; Penzer V 58f.

J1761.4. †J1761.4. Fish thought to be chewed sugar-cane. Numskulls therefore throw away their fish. Indonesian: DeVries's list No. 262.

J1761.5. †J1761.5. Wolf thought to be log of wood. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bûche".

J1761.6. †J1761.6. Snake thought to be flute. Bites tiger who tries to play flute. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1761.6.1. †J1761.6.1. Snake mistaken for a whip by a blind man. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1761.7. †J1761.7. Living toad or beetles thought to be lost food and therefore eaten by numskulls. Christensen DF XLVII 188, 199 Nos. 13, 31.

J1761.8. †J1761.8. Man mistakes dragon for log, sits on it. (Cf. †B11.) England: Baughman.

J1761.9. †J1761.9. Bear mistaken for a floating log (blanket). India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1761.10. †J1761.10. Blind men and elephant. Four blind men feel an elephant's leg, tail, ear and body, respectively, and conclude it is like a log, a rope, a fan, and something without beginning or end. *Taylor English Riddles in Oral Tradition (Berkeley, 1951) 582 n. 11; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1761.11. †J1761.11. Fool mistakes dung-beetles for fruit: eats them. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1762. †J1762. Animal thought to be a person.

J1762.0.1. †J1762.0.1. Animals mistaken for messengers. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1762.1. †J1762.1. Goose mistaken for a tailor. In a ghost house he is thought to be a tailor who snips the devil with his scissors. *Fb "gås" I 528b.

J1762.1.2. †J1762.1.2. Crab mistaken for tailor. Christensen DF XLVII 171.

J1762.2. †J1762.2. Bear on haywagon (on horse) thought to be the preacher. *Type 116.

J1762.2.1. †J1762.2.1. The bear mistaken for a saint. The godless man is cheated and attacks a bear thinking it is a saint, and barely escapes with his life. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1705; Russian: Andrejev No. *2103.

J1762.3. †J1762.3. Crab caught on tiger's tail thought to be pursuing man. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1762.4. †J1762.4. Deer thought to be man with basket on head. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 698.

J1762.5. †J1762.5. Bees (wasps) mistaken for Jutlanders, etc. Christensen DF XLVII 222 No. 85.

J1762.6. †J1762.6. Dressed up monkey thought to be a nobleman. Christensen DF XLVII 197, 231 No. 23.

J1762.7. †J1762.7. Lobsters mistaken for Norwegians. Christensen DF XLVII 206 No. 56.

J1762.8. †J1762.8. Bear mistaken for a foreigner. The strong man meets a bear in the forest, takes it for a German and struggles with it. Having strangled the bear, fears he has killed a man. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1283*.

J1762.9. †J1762.9. Foolish wife believes goats' heads are human heads. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1763. †J1763. Person thought to be an object.

J1763.1. †J1763.1. Small priest covered with large hat thought to be a hat. Nouvelles Récréations No. 37.

J1763.2. †J1763.2. Girl mistaken for stone. Espinosa JAFL XXVII 119--129.

J1763.3. †J1763.3. Sleeping soldier thought to be recumbent statue in chapel. Heptameron No. 65.

J1765. †J1765. Person thought to be animal. Jewish: *Neuman.

J1765.1. †J1765.1. Shepherd taken to be she-ass. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1765.2. †J1765.2. Man taken to be sheep. (Cf. †X424.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1766. †J1766. One person mistaken for another.

J1766.1. †J1766.1. Horsemen thought to be men mounted on cattle. Irish myth: Cross.

J1769. †J1769. Other creatures with mistaken identity.

J1769.1. †J1769.1. Giant thought to be a hill. BP III 333 (Grimm No. 183).

J1769.2. †J1769.2. Dead man is thought to be alive. U.S.: *Baughman.

J1769.2.1. †J1769.2.1. Dead mistaken for the living. Man with abhorrence for corpse sleeps with one thinking it alive. (Cf. †H1410.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1769.3. †J1769.3. Fool lays his hand on demon in the dark, believing it is male goat he has come to steal. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1770. †J1770. Objects with mistaken identity. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1771. †J1771. Object thought to be animal.

J1771.1. †J1771.1. Big tree thought to be snake. Killed with guns and spears. Type 1315.

J1771.2. †J1771.2. Old sausage (roll) taken for frightening animal. Christensen DF XLVII 174 no. 2.

J1771.3. †J1771.3. Object thought to be a turkey. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1771.4. †J1771.4. Bush thought to be elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1771.5. †J1771.5. Island thought to be large dog. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 448.

J1772. †J1772. One object thought to be another. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J1772.1. †J1772.1. Pumpkin thought to be an ass's egg. Numskull thinks he has hatched out an ass's egg. He thinks that the rabbit which runs out is the colt. *Type 1319; *BP I 317ff.; *Köhler-Bolte I 323; *Clouston Noodles 38; *Fb "æg" III 1142a; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 249 No. 163; Christensen DF XLVII 208 no. 63. --Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 324 No. 157; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "oeuf", "âne" "lièvre"; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

J1772.1.1. †J1772.1.1. Boy thinks terrapin hatches from bedbug eggs. Small boy examines bedbug eggs under pillow every morning. One morning he finds a terrapin there. "I don't see how we raised this so quick." U.S.: Baughman.

J1772.1.2. †J1772.1.2. Potatoes mistaken for "irregular eggs", or "eggs of the earth." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1772.2. †J1772.2. Dog mistakes mussel for an egg. Cuts his mouth. Wienert FFC LVI 63 (ET 268), 107 (ST 199); Halm Aesop No. 223.

J1772.3. †J1772.3. Coins thought to be red beans. Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 4.

J1772.3.1. †J1772.3.1. Coins thought to be uncooked cakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1772.4. †J1772.4. Culture hero's pubic hair thought to be bear hair. N. Am. Indian (Peoria, Kickapoo, Potawatomi): Michelson JAFL XXX 494.

J1772.4.1. †J1772.4.1. Pubic hair of ardent husband's wife thought to be calf's tail by peasant in tree. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 12.

J1772.5. †J1772.5. Man puts food bowl on head thinking it a helmet. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 413.

J1772.6. †J1772.6. Fish bones in soup thought to be underdone peas. Nouvelles Récréations No. 73.

J1772.7. †J1772.7. Fools think evening star is morning star. Start morning journey evening before. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1772.8. †J1772.8. Cotton pods knocked off by bullock thought to be lumps of bullock's fat. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1772.9. †J1772.9. Excrements thought to be meat and therefore eaten. Christensen DF XLVII 192 No. 18; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1772.9.1. †J1772.9.1. Excrement thought to be berries. Numskull tries to sell it. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

J1772.10. †J1772.10. Gun thought to be clarinet: one man blows, another presses the "keys". (Cf. †K1057.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1861*.

J1772.11. †J1772.11. Boot mistaken for an axe-sheath. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1282*.

J1772.12. †J1772.12. Foolish tiger thinks dog's tail is a gun. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1772.13. †J1772.13. Frog thinks cattle are distant country. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1772.14. †J1772.14. Eight-oared ferry-boat mistaken for an animal which must have long legs to wade the stream. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1780. †J1780. Things thought to be devils, ghosts, etc. Indonesian: Coster-Wijsman 57 No. 83.

J1781. †J1781. Objects thought to be the devil.

J1781.1. †J1781.1. Steamship thought to be the devil. Type 1315*.

J1781.2. †J1781.2. Watch mistaken for the devil's eye. Knocked to pieces. Type 1321*; Christensen DF XLVII 187; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1679*.

J1781.3. †J1781.3. Glowing wheel supposed to be the devil. Christensen DF XLVII 184ff.

J1782. †J1782. Things thought to be ghosts.

J1782.1. †J1782.1. Robber or dog in church thought to be a ghost. Type 1318*.

J1782.1.1. †J1782.1.1. Cows in church thought to be ghost. U.S.: Baughman.

J1782.2. †J1782.2. Dropping dough thought to be a ghost. It drops on the floor and the man thinks the place is haunted. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 137 No. 101; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 47 No. 101.

J1782.2.1. †J1782.2.1. Sound of water dripping on dinner pail thought to be ghost using pick in mine. U.S.: Baughman.

J1782.3. †J1782.3. Noise in house thought to be ghost. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1782.4. †J1782.4. Man sleeping in stable (abandoned cabin) thinks entering animals are ghosts: kills them. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3445, Legends Nos. 872ff.; U.S.: Baughman.

J1782.5. †J1782.5. Animal with lighted candle thought to be ghost. (Cf. †K335.0.5.1.) U.S.: Baughman.

J1782.6. †J1782.6. Person in white thought to be ghost. U.S.: Baughman.

J1782.7. †J1782.7. Sleep-walker thought to be a ghost until discovered. U.S.: Baughman.

J1782.8. †J1782.8. Person in haunted house shoots off all his toes thinking they are ghosts. (Cf. †J1838.) U.S.: Baughman.

J1783. †J1783. Thing thought to be corpse.

J1783.1. †J1783.1. Butter cask thought to be a dead man. Fools knock it in two. Type 1314.

J1784. †J1784. Things thought to be spirits. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3446, Legends Nos. 875-885.

J1784.1. †J1784.1. Laughter of boy thought to be spirits' laughter. Africa (Masai): Fuchs 21ff. No. 4.

J1785. †J1785. Animals thought to be the devils or ghosts. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 886ff.

J1785.1. †J1785.1. Grasshopper thought to be the devil. *Field Pent Cuckoo 7; England: Baughman.

J1785.2. †J1785.2. Crab thought to be the devil. Becomes red. Type 1310*.

J1785.3. †J1785.3. Ass thought to be the devil. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1785.4. †J1785.4. Man sees Hereford cow at night; thinks it is devil, says, "Devil I deny thee! I am a psalmsinger and a worshiper of God!" England: Baughman.

J1785.4.1. †J1785.4.1. Man addresses colt: "Abide, Satan! I am a righteous man and a psalm singer." England: Baughman.

J1785.5. †J1785.5. Cat mistaken for devil. Fool in the dark mistakes cat's eyes for embers. Is attacked by the cat and he thinks it is the devil. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1785.6. †J1785.6. Fox in coffer thought to be devil. Pierre Faifeu No. XXXII.

J1785.7. †J1785.7. Black sheep thought to be the devil. Christensen DF XLVII no. 64.

J1786. †J1786. Man thought to be a devil or ghost. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 868--871, 890; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1786.1. †J1786.1. Man costumed as demon thought to be devil; thieves flee. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1786.2. †J1786.2. Woman thought to be devil; thieves flee. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1786.3. †J1786.3. Man mistaken for Famine and Cholera in person. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1786.4. †J1786.4. Priest exorcising demon mistaken for demon and beaten to death. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1786.5. †J1786.5. Man thought to be devil by lion. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1786.6. †J1786.6. Men, on first seeing wives with hair, think they are witches and run away. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1786.7. †J1786.7. Lion thinks man astride him is monster: frightened. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1786.8. †J1786.8. Man reported to be dead so that people flee from him as from a ghost. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1789. †J1789. Things thought at night to be other frightful object.

J1789.1. †J1789.1. Windmill thought to be holy cross (church, God). Type 1322**; Christensen DF XLVII 212 No. 68; Russian: Andrejev 1322**; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1789.2. †J1789.2. Clock ticking thought to be gnawing of mice. Type 1323*; Christensen DF XLVII 187.

J1790. †J1790. Shadow mistaken for substance. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1790.1. †J1790.1. Numskull thinks his shadow is a man pursuing him. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1790.2. †J1790.2. Shadow mistaken for thief: is beaten. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1790.3. †J1790.3. Monkey seeing tiger attack his shadow is frightened so that he falls from tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1791. †J1791. Reflection in water thought to be the original of the thing reflected.

J1791.1. †J1791.1. Drinking the moon. The numskull sees a cow drink from a pool where the moon is reflected. The moon goes under a cloud. He thinks the cow has eaten the moon and slaughters her to recover it. Type 1335; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 241 No. 124; *Köhler-Bolte I 90, 498; Christensen DF XLVII 181.

J1791.2. †J1791.2. Rescuing the moon. A numskull sees the moon in the water and throws a rope in to rescue it, but falls in himself. He sees the moon in the sky. At least the moon was saved! *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 241 No. 124; Christensen DF XLVII 217--18 no. 78; American Negro: Harris Nights 100 No. 19.

J1791.3. †J1791.3. Diving for cheese. Man (animal) sees moon reflected in water and, thinking it a cheese, dives for it. *Type 34; *Dh IV 230f.; *Fb "øst"; *Clouston Noodles 44; *Field Pent Cuckoo 18; Köhler-Bolte I 107; Christensen DF XLVII 217--18 no. 78; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 206f.; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 295 n. 81; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 357 (cf. †J1791.4).

J1791.3.1. †J1791.3.1. Wolf tries to drink well dry to get cheese. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 29 No. 34.

J1791.3.2. †J1791.3.2. Dogs by river try to get food in river by drinking the river dry. Wienert FFC LVI 62 (ET 246), 119 (ST 287); Halm Aesop No. 218.

J1791.3.2.1. †J1791.3.2.1. Demon tries to recover object from river by drinking it dry. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1791.3.3. †J1791.3.3. Moon's reflection thought to be gold in water. Fools dive for it. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1791.3.4. †J1791.3.4. Jackals jump into well after drums and are killed. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1791.4. †J1791.4. Dog drops his meat for the reflection. Crossing a stream with meat in his mouth he sees his reflection; thinking it another dog with meat he dives for it and loses his meat. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 426; *Chauvin II 85; B[ö]dker Exempler 275 No. 13; Wienert FFC LVI 64 (ET 270), *105 (ST 178); Halm Aesop No. 233; *Crane Vitry 140 No. 18; Scala Celi 19a No. 111; Jacobs Aesop 199 No. 3. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 357 (cf. †J1791.3).

J1791.5. †J1791.5. Diving for reflected enemy. India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 352 n. 270a.

J1791.5.1. †J1791.5.1. Shooting at enemy's reflection in water. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 352 n. 270c.

J1791.5.2. †J1791.5.2. Man throws stone at own reflection in water. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1791.5.3. †J1791.5.3. Frog leaps into water after elephant's reflection. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1791.6. †J1791.6. Diving for reflection of beautiful woman. Indonesian, Melanesian: Dixon 227 n. 34; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 352 n. 270b.

J1791.6.0.1. †J1791.6.0.1. Woman dives in water three times after reflected image of man peering down from a tree. Marquesas: Handy 46.

J1791.6.1. †J1791.6.1. Ugly woman sees beautiful woman reflected in water and thinks it is herself. Prides herself on her beauty. *Type 408; BP II 121ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 9; Indonesian: Dixon 226.

J1791.6.2. †J1791.6.2. Ogre sees beautiful woman reflected in water. Attempts to drink the lake dry. (Cf. †J1791.3.1.) Type 1141*; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1791.7. †J1791.7. Man does not recognize his own reflection in the water. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 276 No. 311; Penzer VI 86f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 17; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 441; American Negro: Harris Remus 68 No. 14.

J1791.7.1. †J1791.7.1. Simpleton thinks his reflection in jar of melted butter is thief; strikes at the jar and breaks it. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1791.8. †J1791.8. Goose dives for star, thinking it a fish. The next day when she sees fish, she lets it escape. Chauvin II 89 No. 28; B[ö]dker Exempler 284 No. 30; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1791.9. †J1791.9. Fools see bee's nest reflected in water: try to carry off the well. Clouston Noodles 67.

J1791.10. †J1791.10. Fool sees golden-crested bird reflected in water. Thinks it is gold. Penzer V 115 n. 1.

J1791.11. †J1791.11. Diving for reflected fruit. Meantime rascal steals the fruit itself. Spanish: Espinosa III 206f.; Indonesia: Coster-Wijsman 37 No. 25.

J1791.12. †J1791.12. Elephant frightened at agitated reflection of moon in water. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1792. †J1792. Picture mistaken for original.

J1792.1. †J1792.1. Dove sees painted cups of water and dashes into them. Wienert FFC LVI 64 (ET 276), 107 (ST 196); Halm Aesop No. 357.

J1793. †J1793. Mask mistaken for face. Jacobs Aesop 204 No. 20; Wienert FFC LVI 75 (ET 405), 124 (ST 333); Halm Aesop No. 47.

J1794. †J1794. Statue mistaken for living original. (Cf. †K1840.) Icelandic: Boberg.

J1795. †J1795. Image in mirror mistaken for picture. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1795.1. †J1795.1. Foolish demon sees his reflection in trickster's mirror and is convinced he has been captured. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1796. †J1796. Moonlight thought to be substance.

J1796.1. †J1796.1. Men build hedge to keep in the moonlight. (Cf. †J1904.2.) England: Baughman.

J1800. †J1800. One thing mistaken for another -- miscellaneous.

J1801. †J1801. Breath in the cold thought to be tobacco smoke. Type 1320.

J1802. †J1802. Words in a foreign language thought to be insults. Type 1322*; Nouvelles Récréations No. 65.

J1802.1. †J1802.1. "I don't understand." Foreigner asks who owns property, clothing, servants; whose wife an attractive woman is; whose funeral is in progress? Answer to each question is "I don't understand," which foreigner takes to be a person's name. (Cf. †J1152, †J1741, †X111.7.) Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. III (N.F.) 173-8.

J1803. †J1803. Learned words misunderstood by uneducated.

J1803.1. †J1803.1. Not of legitimate birth. A cleric is asked whether he is of legitimate birth ("de legitimo thoro"). "No, I am not from that place; I am from Schmich." *Wesselski Bebel II 126 No. 80.

J1803.2. †J1803.2. Doctor's expressions misunderstood. Christensen DF XLVII 208 No. 62.

J1804. †J1804. Conversation by sign language mutually misunderstood. *Nyrop Dania II 49ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1805. †J1805. Other misunderstandings of words.

J1805.1. †J1805.1. Similar sounding words mistaken for each other. Nouvelles Récréations No. 46.

J1805.1.1. †J1805.1.1. To cover house with straw. Word for wife is similar, so wife is covered. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1805.2. †J1805.2. Unusual word misunderstood. Strange results.

J1805.2.1. †J1805.2.1. Daughter says "Sobur" (wait) to her father when he asks what to bring from the journey. Father finds Prince Sobur. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1805.3. †J1805.3. Numskull referring to a forgotten name keeps saying "I have lost it." People dive into tank to recover treasure they think he has lost. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1805.4. †J1805.4. A fool given money to buy something to eat; goes around asking for a thing called "something." India: Thompson-Balys.

J1806. †J1806. Setting sun mistaken for fire. Christensen DF XLVII 176, 196; American Negro: Harris Nights 230 No. 39, Work JAFL XXXII 403, Parsons MAFLS XVI 32.

J1809. †J1809. Other things with mistaken identities.

J1809.1. †J1809.1. Old woman's sneeze mistaken for gunfire. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1810. †J1810. Physical phenomena misunderstood.

J1811. †J1811. Animal cries misunderstood.

J1811.1. †J1811.1. Owl's hoot misunderstood by lost simpleton. *Wesselski Bebel II 158 No. 183. Cf. BP II 535.

J1811.1.1. †J1811.1.1. The old maid answers the owl's hoot, saying "Anybody, Lord!" or giving the name of the young man she wants. (Cf. †X750.3.) U.S.: *Baughman.

J1811.2. †J1811.2. Frog's cries misunderstood. U.S.: *Baughman.

J1811.3. †J1811.3. Turkey's gobble misunderstood by man lost in woods. U.S.: Baughman.

J1811.4. †J1811.4. Rooster's crow interpreted.

J1811.4.1. †J1811.4.1. Henpecked husband leaves home. Hears a rooster crow, saying: "Cocky kuko! It's the same everywhere!" He returns home. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1812. †J1812. Other sounds misunderstood.

J1812.1. †J1812.1. Seeds rattling in pods thought to be insults. Numskull burns field. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1812.2. †J1812.2. Rabbits think sound of waves is great danger to them. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1812.3. †J1812.3. Fermenting dough: "Woe to you .." The rain drops: "Here he is.." The little bell: "He is hiding here.." Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1264*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1264 I*.

J1812.4. †J1812.4. Hissing of fire thought to be noise of cooking muffins. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1812.4.1. †J1812.4.1. Noises fire is making misunderstood. Hunchback springs into it to burn to his death. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1812.5. †J1812.5. Snoring sounds misunderstood. (Cf. †J1833.)

J1812.5.1. †J1812.5.1. Numskull thief thinks snoring sleeper is asking for food. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1813. †J1813. Cooking processes misunderstood. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1813.1. †J1813.1. Mushrooms shrink in water. Fool kills his wife because he thinks that she has eaten part of them. Africa (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 412 No. 11.

J1813.2. †J1813.2. Boiling milk thought to be overflowing. Simpleton lets it run over. Type 1328*.

J1813.2.1. †J1813.2.1. Numskull thinks his prayers have stopped milk boiling over. Actually his wife has added cold water. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1813.3. †J1813.3. Boiling pumpkin thought to be talking. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1813.4. †J1813.4. Boiling pot on the floor thought to be self-cooking. Christensen DF XLVII 177 No. 5, cf. 192 No. 18.

J1813.5. †J1813.5. Fish dancing about in cooking pot appears to be many. Cook eats one; none left. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1813.6. †J1813.6. Handful of black pepper taken into mouth instead of cooking it in food. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1813.7. †J1813.7. Savory tea. The peasant entertains a priest at tea. Making it, puts in all the tea, six pounds of sugar, a piece of bacon, etc. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2439*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1710*.

J1813.8. †J1813.8. Sheep's head has eaten dumplings. Small boy is at home to watch the dinner. Runs into church, calls out to his mother that the sheep's head has eaten all the dumplings (or butted them out of the pot). England, U.S.: *Baughman.

J1813.9. †J1813.9. All the beans cooked for one meal. They fill the room. U.S.: *Baughman.

J1813.9.1. †J1813.9.1. Stupid servant cooks all the rice for one meal. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1813.10. †J1813.10. Numskull thinks boiling pot is threatening him: breaks pot. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1814. †J1814. Numskull stays till he has finished. As he is making water he hears a brook flowing and mistakes what it is. He waits for a day and a half. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 210 No. 23; U.S.: Baughman.

J1815. †J1815. Did the calf eat the man? A fool, liking the shoes on the feet of a man hanged on a gallows, cuts off the swollen feet in order to carry off the shoes. In the room in which he sleeps that night is a newborn calf. The next morning the man takes the shoes but leaves the feet. Peasants agree that the calf has eaten the man all but the feet. They burn the house to destroy the calf. Type 1281; *Wesselski Bebel I 231 No. 144; Danish: Christensen DF L 65, Nyrop Dania I (1890) 283ff., cf. II 68ff.; U.S.: Baughman.

J1816. †J1816. Fool thinks gold is being destroyed when snails crawl over it. Icelandic: Boberg.

J1817. †J1817. Fool thinks belly is speaking to him; stabs himself. Other animals are shouting at him. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 78.

J1818. †J1818. Animal's action misunderstood.

J1818.1. †J1818.1. Urination of bull thought to be bleeding. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1819. †J1819. Physical phenomena misunderstood -- miscellaneous. U.S.: Baughman.

J1819.1. †J1819.1. Fools think thorn bush doesn't sting at night. Christensen DF XLVII 219 No. 80.

J1819.2. †J1819.2. Simpleton sleeping in cold room breaks window to let the cold out. (Cf. †J2123.) U.S.: Baughman.

J1819.3. †J1819.3. Fool wakes with sleeping mat over head and thinks it is still night. Marquesas: Handy 25.

J1820. †J1820. Inappropriate action from misunderstanding.

J1821. †J1821. Swimming (fishing) in the flax-field. Peasants go to visit the sea. They see a waving flax-field, and, thinking it is the sea, jump in to swim. *Type 1290; *BP III 205; Köhler-Bolte I 112; Christensen DF XLVII 195 no. 20; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "lin", "pêche"; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1821.1. †J1821.1. Trying to swim in the mist. Mistaken for sea. Tonga: Gifford 98.

J1822. †J1822. Sweeping with a stick instead of a broom. Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 63 (to Gonzenbach No. 13).

J1823. †J1823. Misunderstanding of church customs or ceremonies causes inappropriate action.

J1823.1. †J1823.1. Misunderstandings concerning images of Christ.

J1823.1.1. †J1823.1.1. Christ accused of trying to fool the people. Fool sees the image of Christ elevated on Ascension Day to the beams of the church. He accuses Christ of having fooled the people into believing that he has gone to heaven. Wesselski Bebel II 158 No. 181.

J1823.1.2. †J1823.1.2. Christ's image has broken his arm. A man refuses to have anything to do with the crucifix because once an image of Christ has fallen on him in church and broken his arm. Reminded that this image is not the same, he replies that it is the son of the other and is just as bad. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 270.

J1823.1.3. †J1823.1.3. The Lord has departed. Maidservant on way to church on Palm Sunday meets priests leading ass on which Jesus rode. The maid runs home and tells her mistress that the Lord has mounted and has just gone away. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 865.

J1823.1.4. †J1823.1.4. Numskull knocks the figure of Jesus from the ass. Sees the waving of palms on Palm Sunday and thinks the people are trying to knock the figure from the ass. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 768; *Wesselski Bebel I 200 No. 78.

J1823.2. †J1823.2. Bishop struck for breaking the peace. At a wedding after a period of silent prayer the bishop begins an antiphony. The fools walks up and strikes the bishop: "You have made this shouting in the church." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 49.

J1823.3. †J1823.3. Numskull thinks the extinguishing of lights at the church presages a fight. Draws his sword. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 849.

J1823.4. †J1823.4. Move away from Moslem land so that Allah need not be feared. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1824. †J1824. Fatal bread. Numskull refuses communion because his sister died shortly after eating the bread. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 572.

J1824.1. †J1824.1. Other misunderstandings of the communion. Christensen DF XLVII 202f. no. 44.

J1825. †J1825. Turkish ambassador misunderstands Christian ceremonies. Makes ridiculous report to his king. Bolte Frey's Gartengesellschaft 217 No. 5.

J1825.1. †J1825.1. Christian laws are profitless, Turkish ambassador says. Good people do not need them; bad people do not reform as a result of them. Spanish: Childers.

J1826. †J1826. The falcon not so good as represented. A nobleman praises his falcon. His fool, supposing they were praising the falcon as food, kills the bird, but is disappointed in the taste. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 52; *Wesselski Bebel I 194 No. 64; Alphabet No. 239.

J1827. †J1827. The king no priest's son. A pope in writing to a king says, "To our dear son Frederick." Upon hearing this the fool cries out, "That is a lie; he is no priest's son. I knew his father and mother and they were both honest people." *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 51.

J1828. †J1828. The obedient log. A fool sees a boat (with rowers) obedient to commands, "Right! Left!" etc. He asks what kind of wood the boat is made of. Later he gets a log of that wood and tries to make it obey commands. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 258.

J1831. †J1831. Numskull throws the dishes out. A landlord in anger throws a dish out the window. The numskull throws the rest out, thinking that the landlord wanted to eat outdoors. *Wesselski Bebel I 194 No. 65.

J1832. †J1832. Jumping into the river after their comrade. Through misunderstanding one of the men jumps into the river. He calls out; the others think that he wants them to follow, and all jump in and are drowned. *BP II 556 n. 1; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1833. †J1833. Numskull thinks the bishop's snoring is his death rattle. He strikes at a fly on the bishop's nose because it seems to be killing the bishop. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 712.

J1833.1. †J1833.1. Numskull shoots grasshopper which lighted on the shoulder of his friend and kills friend. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1833.1.1. †J1833.1.1. Boy strikes at a fly on his sister's breast: it turns into nipple and girl thinks it due to brother's caress. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1833.1.2. †J1833.1.2. One man strikes at partridge which has lighted on second man's head. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1834. †J1834. Numskulls lose corpse and bury live person instead. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1835. †J1835. Goat chewing cud angers fool, who thinks goat is mimicking him. Type 1211; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1836. †J1836. Fool not recognizing coins lying on roadside leaves them. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1838. †J1838. Man thinks own toe is snake's head and cuts it off. (Cf. †J1782.8.) North Carolina: Brown Collection I 699.

J1842. †J1842. Useless surgical operation from misunderstanding.

J1842.1. †J1842.1. Numskull (female devil) thinks her pubic hair has been telling her lies and pulls it out together with the skin. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1842.2. †J1842.2. Fool cannot answer as his mouth is full; thought to have an abscess in cheeks, allows them to be cut open. India: Thompson-Balys. (Cf. †W111.5.8.)

J1842.3. †J1842.3. Bird protruding from king's stomach cut out with swords: king killed. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1842.4. †J1842.4. Child's stomach split open to cure him of wandering. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1845. †J1845. Serfs congratulate their master. The delegate slips and falls, cursing: "The devil may take you!" The serfs outside think this was the congratulation, and all cry in chorus: "You and your family!" Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1708; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII 98 No. 14.

J1846. †J1846. Numskull prepares brother's wedding (father's funeral). On the way home from town he destroys his purchases. (Cf. †J1851, †J1856, †J1871.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1677*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1681 I*; Prussian: Plenzat 75.

J1849. †J1849. Inappropriate action from misunderstanding -- miscellaneous.

J1849.1. †J1849.1. Fool believes realistic story. Inappropriate action.

J1849.1.1. †J1849.1.1. Story told about a deer: fool starts chase. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1849.2. †J1849.2. Jackdaw tries to swallow sparks from glowworm. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1849.3. †J1849.3. Numskull strikes all matches in order to try them. Christensen DF XLVII 207 no. 60.

J1849.4. †J1849.4. Nobody can move it. Foolish soldier at guard by cannon therefore quits. Christensen DF XLVII no. 49.

†J1850-†J1999. Absurd disregard of facts.

†J1850-†J1899. ANIMALS OR OBJECTS TREATED AS IF HUMAN.

J1850. †J1850. Gift or sale to animal (or object).

J1851. †J1851. Gift to animal or object.

J1851.1. †J1851.1. Gifts to frogs.

J1851.1.1. †J1851.1.1. Numskull throws money to frogs so that they can count it. *Type 1642; *BP I 59.

J1851.1.2. †J1851.1.2. Numskull feeds his wheat to frogs. He has been sent to mill to have it ground. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 139 No. *1693, Espinosa III 147.

J1851.1.3. †J1851.1.3. Numskull throws money to frogs to repay them. They have frightened his fleeing ass from the water. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 226 No. 69.

J1851.1.4. †J1851.1.4. Wool taken to pond for frogs and toads to weave. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1851.2. †J1851.2. Gifts to birds. Numskulls hear birds calling and give them gifts. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 260.

J1851.3. †J1851.3. Gift to object.

J1851.3.1. †J1851.3.1. Fool stops hole with money. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "argent".

J1851.4. †J1851.4. Thankful numskull puts money in the anus of sheep which he supposes has helped him. Christensen DF XLVII 221 No. 84.

J1852. †J1852. Goods sold to animals. *Type 1642; *BP I 59f.; *Chauvin VI 126 No. 280; Fansler MAFLS XII 352.

J1852.1. †J1852.1. Numskull sells cow to bird. When he comes for his money the bird flies to a trash pile, where the fool finds a treasure. (Cf. †J1853.1.1.) *Clouston Noodles 147.

J1852.1.1. †J1852.1.1. Fool sells balls of thread to great lizard. Next day he finds a treasure there. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1852.1.2. †J1852.1.2. Oil sold to iguana. Treasure found. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1853. †J1853. Goods sold to object. *Type 1642; *BP I 59; Köhler-Bolte I 135; Spanish: Espinosa III 147.

J1853.1. †J1853.1. Fool sells goods to a statue. He is told not to sell to talkative people. The statue is the only one he can find who is not talkative. *Chauvin VI 126 No. 280; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 211 No. 426; Fansler MAFLS XII 352; Clouston Noodles 144; Spanish: Espinosa III 147; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 4.

J1853.1.1. †J1853.1.1. Money from the broken statue. Fool sells goods to a statue and when it will not pay him knocks it to pieces. He finds a treasure inside. (Cf. †J1852.1.) Type 1643; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 211 No. 426; Wienert FFC LVI 80 (ET 459), 138 (ST 430); Halm Aesop No. 66; Chauvin VIII 94 No. 65; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 4.

J1856. †J1856. Food given to object. (Cf. †J1871.)

J1856.1. †J1856.1. Meat fed to cabbages. *Type 1386; BP I 520; Indonesia: Coster-Wijsman 60 No. 92.

J1860. †J1860. Animal or object absurdly punished.

J1861. †J1861. Thief punishes the escaped ox. An ox strays on the rascal's land but escapes from him. The next week he sees the ox yoked up and gives him a beating. The master is astonished. The rascal: "Let me alone; he knows well enough what he has done." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 210 No. 20.

J1862. †J1862. The ass deprived of his saddle. A man's coat is stolen when he leaves his ass for a moment. He takes the saddle off the ass and says that he will give it back if the ass will return the coat. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin *223 No. 61.

J1863. †J1863. Cow punished for calf's misdeeds. Blamed for not teaching calf better. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 236 No. 108.

J1863.1. †J1863.1. Man beats calves because the bull has butted him over the fence. England: Baughman.

J1863.2. †J1863.2. Wolf punished for his father's misdeeds. Jewish: *Neuman.

J1864. †J1864. Man flogs his shot. On a rainy day when shot will not go a man flogs the shot. It goes and he shoots a deer. Africa (Vai): Ellis 189 No. 4.

J1865. †J1865. Sickle punished by drowning. In a land where the sickle is not known the new sickle cuts off the head of a man. It is drowned. *Type 1202.

J1865.1. †J1865.1. Sickle punished by being tied in top of a tree. The men hang themselves in the attempt. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

J1866. †J1866. Man avenges self on animals by wholesale slaughter.

J1866.1. †J1866.1. Man avenges brother's death by wholesale slaughter of wild pigs. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1867. †J1867. Man punishes offending part of his body.

J1867.1. †J1867.1. Man beats his foot for slipping. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1870. †J1870. Absurd sympathy for animals or objects.

J1871. †J1871. Filling cracks with butter. Numskull sees cracks in the ground and feels so sorry for them that he greases them with the butter he is taking home. *Type 1291; BP I 521; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 250 No. 165; Missouri French: Carrière.

J1872. †J1872. Creaking limbs. Numskull hears limbs creaking in the wind. He is sorry for them and holds them apart. While he is caught between them his enemies take advantage of him. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 297 n. 85.

J1872.0.1. †J1872.0.1. Creaking wagon dies. When the wagon stops its creaking, fool decides it has died; he cremates it. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1872.1. †J1872.1. Helping the cuckoo. A numskull climbs a tree to help a cuckoo so that he may call louder than the one in the neighboring forest. Meanwhile his horse is eaten by a wolf. *Wesselski Bebel I 137 No. 42.

J1873. †J1873. Animals or objects kept warm.

J1873.1. †J1873.1. Fool makes shoes for animals as well as men, since he expects a cold winter. *Type 1695.

J1873.2. †J1873.2. Cloak given to a stone to keep it warm. Köhler-Bolte I 71; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 140 No. 1651; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1873.3. †J1873.3. Warming the stove with wool. Type 1271A*.

J1873.4. †J1873.4. King orders houses built to keep howling jackals warm in winter. Rascal misappropriates funds. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1874. †J1874. Relieving the beast of burden.

J1874.1. †J1874.1. Rider takes the meal-sack on his shoulder to relieve the ass of his burden. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 229 No. 490; *Fb "sæk" III 720b; *Clouston Noodles 19; Field Pent Cuckoo 3; England, U.S.: Baughman; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1874.2. †J1874.2. Man puts bag of meal on one side of saddle, balances it on the other side with a rock. U.S.: Baughman.

J1875. †J1875. Objects ascribed human feelings.

J1875.1. †J1875.1. Kernel tries to escape death. A fool eats nuts. A kernel slips from him. The fool: "Everything tries to escape from death." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 183 No. 346.

J1875.2. †J1875.2. Complaint of the porridge pot. The woman thinks the boiling pot is complaining. Type 1264*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1264.

J1875.3. †J1875.3. The homesick wave. Numskulls try to take home a wave of the sea in a bamboo rod. At home when it refuses to wave they say that it is homesick for its mother, the sea. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 252.

J1875.4. †J1875.4. Coin weeps. Numskull thinks money piece covered with perspiration after he has held it for awhile is weeping. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1879. †J1879. Absurd sympathy for animals or objects -- miscellaneous.

J1879.1. †J1879.1. Men drag carts on to roof to shade it from the sun. England: *Baughman.

J1880. †J1880. Animals or objects treated as if human -- miscellaneous.

J1881. †J1881. Animal or object expected to go alone.

J1881.1. †J1881.1. Object sent to go by itself. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 272 No. 281; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa III 147; Indonesia: Coster-Wijsman 72 No. 130.

J1881.1.1. †J1881.1.1. Cheeses thrown down to find their way home. Clouston Noodles 35; Field Pent Cuckoo 4.

J1881.1.2. †J1881.1.2. One cheese sent after another. Numskull lets one roll down hill; sends the other to bring it back. *Type 1291; BP I 521.

J1881.1.3. †J1881.1.3. Three-legged pot sent to walk home. Clouston Noodles 36; Field Pent Cuckoo 5; *BP I 521 n. 1; England: Baughman; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa III 147; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 417f.

J1881.1.4. †J1881.1.4. Table thrown out of the sledge; to go home by itself. Type 1291*.

J1881.1.5. †J1881.1.5. Spinning wheel is sent home by itself. The man asks his wife if it has arrived before him, finds that it has not. "I thought not. I came a shorter way." Scotland: *Baughman.

J1881.1.6. †J1881.1.6. Sickle laid in field and told to cut grain. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1881.1.7. †J1881.1.7. Fool sends letter home by a flooded river. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1881.2. †J1881.2. Animal sent to go by itself.

J1881.2.1. †J1881.2.1. Ass loaded and commanded to go home. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 272 No. 281; Spanish: Espinosa III 147.

J1881.2.2. †J1881.2.2. Fools send money by rabbit. Since he is a swift runner they expect it to reach the landlord in time. Field Pent Cuckoo 6; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J1881.2.3. †J1881.2.3. Fishes to stop at his house. Fool directs them as he places them in stream. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1882. †J1882. Foolish attempt to educate animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1882.1. †J1882.1. Teaching chickens to talk. Fool believes they can be taught. *Type 1750; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 843.

J1882.2. †J1882.2. The ass as mayor. Fool made to believe that his ass (ox) has been educated and has become mayor. *Type 1675; *BP I 59; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 224 No. 63; *Fb "tyr" III 908b; Christensen DF XLVII 229; England: Baughman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1882.3. †J1882.3. Elephant educated as drum beater. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1883. †J1883. Trickster joins bulrushes in a dance. He thinks they are dancing when he sees them waving. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 306 n. 109dd.

J1883.1. †J1883.1. Simpleton addresses a field of reeds. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1884. †J1884. The boat gets tired. The woman tries to tire out her rival's boat so as to win the race, but only tires herself. Type 1277; Christensen DF XLVII 190.

J1885. †J1885. Singing snails rebuked. A boy roasts snails and they make noise in cooking. "Wretches, your house burns and yet you sing!" Wienert FFC LVI 65 (ET 291), 135 (ST 413); Halm Aesop No. 214.

J1886. †J1886. Hens in mourning. Fool puts black clothes on his hen's necks. He tells people that they mourn their mother. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 210 No. 19.

J1887. †J1887. The mad wheelbarrow. Fools chain a wheelbarrow, bitten by a mad dog, lest it bite others. Field Pent Cuckoo 15.

J1888. †J1888. Wants the organ to come and play for her. An old woman enraptured with the sound of a cathedral organ prays for it to come to her house and gives it directions as to where she lives. Bolte Frey 235 No. 54.

J1891. †J1891. Object foolishly blamed.

J1891.1. †J1891.1. Sickness ascribed to quarreling wines. A man has drunk so much of various wines that he is sick. He says to the wines, "Have peace among yourselves and don't quarrel or I'll throw you out the window." *Wesselski Bebel II 102 No. 14.

J1891.2. †J1891.2. Carpenter blames the nails. On his deathbed refuses to forgive nails which ruined his tools. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 702.

J1891.3. †J1891.3. Sea foolishly accused of cruelty. Sea says that it is calm itself, but the wind blew it up and broke the ship. Wienert FFC LVI 75 (ET 406), 123 (ST 317); Halm Aesop No. 94.

J1892. †J1892. Preserving the cock's freedom. A boy recently home from school sees his mother trying to catch the cock. "Don't mother, don't break his freedom or we will suffer for it." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 817.

J1894. †J1894. Scholar speaks Latin on hunt so that the birds cannot understand him. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1895. †J1895. Woman thinks calf's bleating has accused her of stealing from harvest. Begs that people not believe what calf said. (Cf. †N611.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J1896. †J1896. Objects supposed to be born, grow, and die like animals. (Cf. †J1932.) Christensen DF XLVII 189--190 no. 15.

J1896.1. †J1896.1. Stones thought to reproduce. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 88.

J1900. †J1900. Absurd disregard or ignorance of animal's nature or habits.

J1901. †J1901. Absurd ignorance concerning the laying of eggs.

J1901.1. †J1901.1. The overfed hen. A woman wants her hen to lay many eggs. Overfeeds her and she stops laying altogether. Wienert FFC LVI 72 (ET 362), 106 (ST 184); Halm Aesop No. 111.

J1901.2. †J1901.2. Numskull feeds hens hot water so they will lay boiled eggs. *Clouston Noodles 120; England: Baughman.

J1902. †J1902. Absurd ignorance concerning the hatching of eggs.

J1902.1. †J1902.1. Numskull sits on eggs to finish the hatching. Cautions people to be quiet and not frighten the eggs. (Sometimes puts on honey and feathers before sitting on the eggs.) Type 650; *BP I 316; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 212 No. 433; *Wesselski Bebel II 146 No. 148; Christensen DF XLVII 210 No. 63; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "oeuf"; Spanish: Espinosa III 147 Nos. 181--188; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 4.

J1902.2. †J1902.2. Numskull tries to hatch out a calf from a cheese. *BP I 317.

J1903. †J1903. Absurd ignorance concerning animal's eating and drinking.

J1903.1. †J1903.1. The water on the calf's back. When the calf will not drink, the peasant woman throws the water on its back. Type 1211*.

J1903.2. †J1903.2. Numskull puts the milk back. When the customer refuses to take the milk he puts it back into the goat's mouth so that it will flow back into the udder. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 247 No. 550.

J1903.3. †J1903.3. Fattening the pig. A farmer who wanted to fatten a pig fed it only twice a day. When told to feed it three times a day he says, "A working man must have more to eat than a pig." *Wesselski Bebel I 141 No. 56.

J1903.4. †J1903.4. How can an elephant eat, having tails at both ends? Decision: it lives on air. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1904. †J1904. Absurd ignorance concerning place for animal to be kept.

J1904.1. †J1904.1. Cow (hog) taken to roof to graze. *Type 1210; *Köhler-Bolte I 66, 135; *Fb "ko" II 241a, "tyr" III 908b; Christensen DF XLVII 219 No. 81; English: Clouston Noodles 55; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 295 No. 15; Spanish: Espinosa III 147 Nos. 181--188.

J1904.2. †J1904.2. The pent cuckoo. Fools build an enclosure to keep in the cuckoo. She flies over the hedge. They say that they have not built the hedge high enough. **Field Pent Cuckoo; Clouston Noodles 27; England: Baughman.

J1904.2.1. †J1904.2.1. Fools try to hedge the cuckoo so that they will have summer the year round (the coming of the first cuckoo being the sign of the coming summer). England: *Baughman.

J1904.2.2. †J1904.2.2. Deer belled and enclosed like goats jump fence and escape. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1904.3. †J1904.3. Hogs made to sleep in trees to cure their filthy habits. All are killed. England: Baughman.

J1904.4. †J1904.4. Nest built in tree for fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1904.4.1. †J1904.4.1. Fish will climb trees like buffaloes. Numskull considers what will happen if river burns up. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1905. †J1905. Absurd ignorance about milking animals. (Cf. †J1903.2.)

J1905.1. †J1905.1. Fool does not milk cow for a month so that she will give plenty for a feast. Penzer V 72.

J1905.2. †J1905.2. Fools try to milk male ass. Penzer V 136 n. 3.

J1905.3. †J1905.3. Divided ownership of cow. The brother who owns the front end tries to drive the cow and will not let the owner of the rear end milk her. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1905.4. †J1905.4. Fool asks owner of oxen why he does not milk them since he is not working them. Canada: Baughman.

J1905.5. †J1905.5. Trying to have cows make curds before being milked. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1905.6. †J1905.6. Cow killed in order to get all the milk at once. (Cf. †J2129.3.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J1906. †J1906. Absurd ignorance about slaughtering animals.

J1906.1. †J1906.1. Bullock struck on hindquarters instead of head in attempt to kill it. (Only frightens it.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1908. †J1908. Absurd attempt to change animal nature. Wienert FFC LVI 45ff. (ET 31, 37, 38, 39, 54, 241, 420, 422), 87ff. (ST 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 504); Halm Aesop Nos 149, 360, 373, 374, 375; Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 427, 430.

J1908.1. †J1908.1. The cat and the candle. A man has a cat trained to hold up lighted candles on its head. The king has a mouse let loose. The cat drops the candle and chases the mouse. *Type 217; **Cosquin Études 403ff.; *Fb "kat" IV 255a; *Wesselski Arlotto II 238 No. 131; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1908.2. †J1908.2. Cat transformed to maiden runs after mouse. *Hertel Zs. f. Vksk. XXII 244; **Rohde Kleinere Schriften II 212ff.; Wienert FFC LVI *45, 71, 78 (ET 34, 351, 444), 86 (ST 1); Halm Aesop No. 88; Jacobs Aesop 218 No. 76; Spanish: Espinosa III 275-277; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1908.3. †J1908.3. Frog-woman betrays self by croaking. Africa (Nama): Des Schwartzen Menschen Märchenweisheit (Stuttgart, 1929) 140f. No. 27.

J1909. †J1909. Absurd disregard of animal's nature or habits -- miscellaneous.

J1909.1. †J1909.1. Fisherman fails to make fish dance to his flute. Later in his net they jump about without the aid of the flute. Wienert FFC LVI *66 (ET 301), 117 (ST 275); Halm Aesop 27.

J1909.2. †J1909.2. Fool tries to shoot dead antelope until it will come to him. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 156 No. 3.

J1909.3. †J1909.3. Numskull tries to shake birds from tree like fruit. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 238 No. 526.

J1909.4. †J1909.4. Breeding fine horses from an ass. Fool says, "Just as soon as the body of a colt bred from this mare is in proper proportion to its ears you will have a fine horse." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 763.

J1909.5. †J1909.5. Sheep licking her lamb is envied by the wolf. He says, "Such is bad conduct. If I were to do that they would say that I was eating it." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 587; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 33 No. 129*. Cf. Wienert FFC LVI *69 (ET 335), 94f. (ST 81); Halm Aesop Nos. 282, 330.

J1909.6. †J1909.6. Numskull tries to wash black hen white. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 246 No. 142.

J1909.7. †J1909.7. Fear that frog may drown or get dirty. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1910. †J1910. Fatal disregard of anatomy.

J1911. †J1911. Nature of a baby misunderstood.

J1911.1. †J1911.1. Numskull does not understand about baby's skull. Sticks needle through it. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 215 No. 445; Spanish: Espinosa III 147; West Indies: Flowers 486.

J1911.2. †J1911.2. Foolish mother does not understand how babies cry. Wrings the child's neck. Africa (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 406 No. 3.

J1914. †J1914. Horse taught to live without food. Dies. Type 1682; Wienert FFC LVI 72 (ET 364), 129 (ST 370); Halm Aesop No. 176.

J1914.1. †J1914.1. The underfed warhorse. Fails in the war. Wienert FFC LVI 72 (ET 363), 129 (ST 369); Halm Aesop No. 178.

J1914.2. †J1914.2. Three brothers take turns using mule. None of them feeds him, supposing that the others have. The mule dies. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 575.

J1916. †J1916. Fool carries wife across stream head downwards and drowns her. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J1919. †J1919. Fatal disregard of anatomy -- miscellaneous.

J1919.1. †J1919.1. The remodelled stork. A trickster cuts off the bill and legs of a stork to make him look more like a real bird. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 213 No. 37.

J1919.2. †J1919.2. Where the ducks ford. A fool is asked where the river is fordable. He says, "Everywhere." The man tries to ride across and is almost drowned. The fool, "Those little ducks were able to cross here; why couldn't a big fellow like you?" Wesselski Bebel II 146 No. 146.

J1919.3. †J1919.3. The two extra pounds. A dog has eaten 14 pounds of butter; the fool squeezes 16 pounds from him. Fb "sm[ö]r" III 412b.

J1919.4. †J1919.4. Fool cuts off tails of oxen so that they will look like fine steeds. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 769.

J1919.5. †J1919.5. Genitals cut off through ignorance.

J1919.5.1. †J1919.5.1. Ignorant bride castrates groom when jokingly told to do so. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1919.5.2. †J1919.5.2. Nun tells friar to get rid of offending member. He does so. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1919.5.3. †J1919.5.3. Fool undergoes castration to put on weight. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1919.6. †J1919.6. Simpleton's ignorance of anatomy leads him to share his wife with a priest. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1919.7. †J1919.7. Fool believes that he has begot child with his sister by an earbox. Icelandic: Boberg.

J1919.8. †J1919.8. The man without a member: foolish wife gives her husband money to buy himself one. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *2911; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV No. 1543*.

J1919.9. †J1919.9. Cowboy shoots his wife when she breaks her leg (or is injured in another way). U.S.: *Baughman.

J1920. †J1920. Absurd searches for the lost.

J1921. †J1921. The needle (or the like) falls into the sea: sought the next summer. Type 1280.

J1922. †J1922. Marking the place. Christensen DF XLVII 177ff.

J1922.1. †J1922.1. Marking the place on the boat. An object falls into the sea from a boat. Numskulls mark the place on the boat-rail to indicate where it fell. *Type 1278; *Fb "båd" IV 87a; *Clouston Noodles 99; Penzer V 92f.; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1922.2. †J1922.2. Marking the place under the cloud. Numskulls leave a knife in the field, marking the place by putting it under a heavy cloud. Next day the cloud is gone and the knife lost. Clouston Noodles 53; England: Baughman; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1922.2.1. †J1922.2.1. Fool seeks the ears of grain in the direction of the cloud toward which he has sowed them. Type 1278*.

J1922.3. †J1922.3. Marking the place in the sand. Vessel left under mound in sand while owner is swimming. Others make similar mounds so that it is lost. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1923. †J1923. The rejected bread resought. Numskull looks for bread that he threw away a year before. Africa (Zulu): Callaway 359.

J1924. †J1924. Numskull forgets name of certain food and thinks that it has fallen into sand. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1930. †J1930. Absurd disregard of natural laws.

J1931. †J1931. Money tested by throwing it into a stream to see if it will swim. Good coins are supposed to swim, counterfeit to sink. *Type 1651; BP II 75; *Fb "penge" II 804a; Russian: Andrejev No. 842*.

J1932. †J1932. Absurd practices connected with crops. Christensen DF XLVII 207.

J1932.1. †J1932.1. Numskulls sow cooked grain. *DeVries FFC LXXIII 246; *Fb "så" Penzer V 67 n. 3; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

J1932.2. †J1932.2. Sowing cheese to bring forth a cow. *Type 1200; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 209 No. 423; *Fb "så".

J1932.3. †J1932.3. Sowing salt to produce salt. *Type 1200; Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 209 No. 423; Christensen DF XLVII 206, 231 no. 57; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1932.4. †J1932.4. Planting a hog in order to grow pigs. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 209 No. 423.

J1932.4.1. †J1932.4.1. Planting animal's tail in order to produce young animals. Type 1200.

J1932.4.2. †J1932.4.2. Planting bones to produce animal. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1932.5. †J1932.5. Sowing needles (like seed). Köhler-Bolte I 135.

J1932.6. †J1932.6. Harvesting early for half a crop. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1932.7. †J1932.7. Stones watered to make them grow. (Cf. †J1896.1.) Hawaii: Beckwith 88.

J1933. †J1933. Numskull tries to dig up a well (spring). He wants to take it home. Köhler-Bolte I 533; Clouston Noodles 67.

J1934. †J1934. A hole to throw the earth in. Numskull plans to dig a hole so as to have a place to throw the earth from his excavation. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 227 No. 480; Christensen DF XL VII 201 no. 37; Jewish: Neuman.

J1935. †J1935. Articles sent by telegraph. U.S.: Baughman.

J1935.1. †J1935.1. Boots sent by telegraph. A peasant hangs boots and an accompanying letter on a telegraph wire, expecting them to reach the city. Type 1710; Christensen DF XLVII 204 no. 50; U.S. (Ozarks): *Randolph Devil's Pretty Daughter (New York, 1955) 195.

J1936. †J1936. How he looks in his sleep. A man stands before mirror with his eyes shut to see how he looks in his sleep. Clouston Noodles 9.

J1936.1. †J1936.1. Man takes mirror to bed to see whether he sleeps with his mouth open. England: *Baughman.

J1937. †J1937. Absurd ideas about the dead.

J1937.1. †J1937.1. Dead man identified by his cough. Numskull asked to identify corpse tries to do so by his cough. Clouston Noodles 15.

J1937.2. †J1937.2. A healthy place for a tomb. Numskull objects to unhealthy place for his tomb. Clouston Noodles 9.

J1938. †J1938. Porridge in the ice hole. They put meal in the boiling current of the ice hole and then, one after another, they jump in to taste the porridge. Type 1260; Clouston Noodles 44; Field Pent Cuckoo 17; Christensen DF XLVII 178; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 255.

J1941. †J1941. How far his voice will reach. A numskull cries from a tower and then runs away to see how far his voice will reach. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 191 No. 373.

J1942. †J1942. Holding in the heat. A numskull ties yarn around the stove to keep the heat from escaping. Type 1271B*.

J1943. †J1943. Examining the sundial by candle-light. Numskull tries to find the time of night. Clouston Noodles 76; England: Baughman.

J1943.1. †J1943.1. Sundial covered in order to protect it. Christensen DF XLVII no. 46.

J1944. †J1944. Trying to get fruit from fruitless tree.

J1944.1. †J1944.1. Numskulls try to get pears from an oaktree. They accuse each other of eating all the pears. Wesselski Bebel II 147 No. 149.

J1945. †J1945. Warming hands across the river. Numskull stretches out his hands toward the fire across the river. Clouston Noodles 68.

J1946. †J1946. As tired as if he had walked. So says the numskull after riding to town on his stick horse. *Wesselski Bebel II 158 No. 182.

J1947. †J1947. Drying snow to make salt. Wesselski Bebel II 89.

J1952. †J1952. Fire and water mixed to make sacrifice. Fool told that he needed only the two. Penzer V 68.

J1955. †J1955. Demand that murderer restore life to victim.

J1955.1. †J1955.1. Woman runs after guest to tell him he must restore her husband whom he has unintentionally killed. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1959. †J1959. Absurd disregard of natural laws -- miscellaneous.

J1959.1. †J1959.1. Simpleton drives goats into a well, because he thinks it would be cooler for them. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1959.1.1. †J1959.1.1. Hot sickle put into water to cure its fever. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1959.2. †J1959.2. Substitute for the corpse. Fool loses his mother's corpse on way to funeral. Mistakes old woman for mother and substitutes her. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1960. †J1960. Other absurd disregard of facts.

J1961. †J1961. White sheep-skin used as a source of light. Type 1245*.

J1961.1. †J1961.1. Trying to catch light in a mouse-trap. Type 1245**.

J1962. †J1962. The yeast as an afterthought. An old woman who has forgotten to knead it in the dough throws it into the stove. Type 1261*.

J1963. †J1963. The fool puts but one stick of wood in the stove. "Several others have burned up." Type 1260*.

J1964. †J1964. Tree-trunks laid crosswise of the sledge. *Type 1248; BP III 302. Cf. Type 801.

J1964.1. †J1964.1. Trying to stretch the beam. *Type 1244.

J1965. †J1965. Protected by the needle. In a storm on the ice, numskulls stick needles into the ice to keep from blowing away. Type 1279.

J1966. †J1966. The wall accuses the crowbar. But the man who uses the crowbar is to blame for the downfall of the wall. Wienert FFC LVI 75 (ET 400), 123 (ST 319); Halm Aesop No. 402.

J1967. †J1967. Numskull bales out the stream. He comes to a stream but not wishing to get his feet wet he sits down to wait for the stream to run down. He helps to bale the stream out with a hazelnut shell and keeps it up for months. Italian: Gonzenbach No. 17, Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J1968. †J1968. Foolish fight with the sea. Absurd attempt to punish sea. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 254. Cf. Yeats's "Cuchulain's Fight with the Sea."

J1968.1. †J1968.1. Foolish fight with the sun. India: Thompson-Balys.

J1971. †J1971. Fools try to use buffalo tongue as a knife. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 253.

J1972. †J1972. Stupid woman swims on the roof. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 324 No. 161.

J1973. †J1973. Tree pulled down in order to give it water to drink. Type 1241; Christensen DF XLVII 179.

J1974. †J1974. Fool tries to purify cotton by burning it (as the goldsmith does with gold). Penzer V 70; India: Thompson-Balys.

J1976. †J1976. Numskulls are affected by heat from stove which has no fire in it. U.S.: *Baughman.

J1977. †J1977. Mouth and ears stopped up lest wisdom escape. India: Thompson-Balys.

†J2000-†J2049. ABSURD ABSENT-MINDEDNESS.

J2010. †J2010. Uncertainty about own identity.

J2012. †J2012. Person does not know himself. Fb "selv"; L. Schmidt Oesterr. Zs f. Vksk. 1954, 129ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J2012.1. †J2012.1. Numskull's beard cut off: does not know himself. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 274 No. 298; Christensen DF XLVII 27, 221 No. 83; India: Thompson-Balys.

J2012.2. †J2012.2. Woman's garments cut off: does not know herself. *Type 1383; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 274 No. 298; Christensen DF XLVII 35.

J2012.3. †J2012.3. Woman in tar and feathers does not know herself. *Type 1383; Fb "tjære" III 811a; Christensen DF XLVII 35; India: Thompson-Balys.

J2012.4. †J2012.4. Fool in new clothes does not know himself. Wesselski Mönchslatein 193 No. 152; Christensen DF XLVII 221 No. 83.

J2012.5. †J2012.5. Man does not know himself from another identically clad. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 214 No. 43.

J2012.6. †J2012.6. Fool at baths believes he is someone else. Sees everybody naked. Puts straw on his shoulder to identify himself. Straw floats to another bather. "You are me and I am you!" Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J2013. †J2013. Man made to believe that he is someone else. *Chauvin VIII 96 No. 67; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J2013.1. †J2013.1. White man made to believe that he is a negro. Sleeps with a negro. His friends blacken him during the night. When he is waked up, he complains that they have waked the wrong man. Clouston Noodles 7; L. Schmidt Oesterr. Zs. f. Vksk. 1954, 130; England, U.S.: Baughman.

J2013.2. †J2013.2. Man made to believe that he is a dog. He barks at people. *Type 1406; Bédier Fabliaux 265ff.; *Crane Vitry 227 No. 231.

J2013.3. †J2013.3. Pumpkin tied to another's leg. A numskull ties a pumpkin to his leg at night so that he shall know himself in the morning. Someone ties the pumpkin to another's leg and the numskull is not sure of his identity next morning. Clouston Noodles 7.

J2013.4. †J2013.4. Numskull made to believe he is an evil spirit. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2014. †J2014. Fool does not recognize his own house and family. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J2015. †J2015. His pupils grab a dog's tail and think it is their master's. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2016. †J2016. Man does not recognize his name when it is called: he is accustomed to hear his nickname. (Cf. †K1984.3.) U.S.: Baughman.

J2020. †J2020. Inability to find own members, etc.

J2021. †J2021. Numskulls cannot find their own legs. A stranger helps them with a switch. (Usually get them mixed up when they sit down to bathe their feet.) Type 1288; BP III 150 n. 1; *Fb "ben" IV 32b; Clouston Noodles 32; Christensen DF XLVII 183.

J2021.1. †J2021.1. Numskull asks doctor which leg (own) is hurting him. Italian Novella: Rotunda; Nouvelles Récréations No. 11.

J2022. †J2022. Numskull cannot find ass he is sitting on. *Type 1288A; *BP III 150; Christensen DF XLVII 182.

J2023. †J2023. Numskull doesn't recognize his own horse. Finds it only when the rest ride away and he takes the only one left. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 234 No. 100; Italian Novella: Rotunda (†J2043).

J2024. †J2024. Numskull rides backward. "I didn't get on backward but the horse seems to be left-handed." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 235 No. 100.

J2025. †J2025. Inability to find object one is carrying.

J2025.1. †J2025.1. Man searches for axe which he carries on his shoulder. Africa (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 407 No. 4.

J2025.2. †J2025.2. Woman cannot find pastry which is sticking to her posterior. Mensa Philosophica No. 48.

J2026. †J2026. Fools try to fight with man inside of drum who seems to make the noise. Are really pounding each other. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2027. †J2027. Opium-smoker on journey asks his way about; ends up at his own house. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2030. †J2030. Absurd inability to count. Christensen DF XLVII 181ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

J2031. †J2031. Counting wrong by not counting oneself. Numskulls conclude that one of their number is drowned. *Type 1287; *BP III 149 n. 1; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 267 No. 261; *Clouston Noodles 28ff., 192; *Field Pent Cuckoo 8; Köhler-Bolte I 112; Christensen DF XLVII 181ff. --Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 317 No. 153; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: Coster-Wijsman 66 No. 111.

J2031.1. †J2031.1. Numskulls count selves by sticking their noses in the sand. They then count the holes. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 268 No. 261.

J2031.2. †J2031.2. There are ten horses; then when he is mounted there are only nine. Why? *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 267 No. 261; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J2031.3. †J2031.3. Culture hero throws coconuts to various islands, but forgets one he stands on: hence none now on that island. Cook Islands: Beckwith Myth 104, cf. 270.

J2032. †J2032. Are there nine or ten geese? Ten men are called in; each is to take a goose. If all have a goose, there are ten. One man is left without one. Numskull: "You should have taken one before they were all gone." Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 246 No. 143.

J2033. †J2033. Three girls distressed by seemingly impossible task of going and returning together -- one in half month, other in fifteen days, other in seven plus eight days. Chinese: Graham.

J2035. †J2035. The interrupted calculation. While the merchant is making calculations, he asks the age of his youngest daughter, the elder daughter, and the mother, and always adds this to the number he has reached. Type 1592*.

J2036. †J2036. Keeping the measure by stretching out the arms. Numskull goes to buy goods for his wife. Clouston Noodles 90; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 248 No. 161.

J2037. †J2037. Numskulls buy things in common: each pays full price.

J2037.1. †J2037.1. Numskulls buy church in common: each pays full price. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1336*.

J2037.2. †J2037.2. Three brothers buy cow for common use; each brother pays the farmer full price. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2040. †J2040. Absurd absent-mindedness -- miscellaneous. U.S.: Baughman.

J2041. †J2041. Actor forgets and speaks in his own person.

J2041.1. †J2041.1. In Passion Play the Christ says, "I am thirsty"; the thief on the left speaks up, "I too." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 864.

J2044. †J2044. Fool forgets master's message. As result of his absent-mindedness he is given a heavy mortar to take to his master. The latter makes him return it as punishment. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J2045. †J2045. Fool believes plea of not guilty even though he has seen man injure him. Nouvelles Récréations No. 2.

J2046. †J2046. Law student forgets his speech. Absurd results. Nouvelles Récréations No. 76.

J2047. †J2047. Hero keeps on leading his horse without discovering that it is dead. Icelandic: Boberg.

J2048. †J2048. Given things for self and relatives, fool forgets to take his own. India: Thompson-Balys.

†J2050-†J2199. ABSURD SHORT-SIGHTEDNESS.

J2050. †J2050. Absurd short-sightedness. *Wienert FFC LVI 108 (15*).

J2051. †J2051. Wise man short-sightedly scorned for his advice. Icelandic: *Boberg.

J2052. †J2052. God's mercy contrasted with man's short-sightedness. Jewish: *Neuman.

J2060. †J2060. Absurd plans. Air-castles. *Type 1430; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 249 No. 163; *Chauvin V 162 No. 85.

J2060.1. †J2060.1. Quarrel and fight over details of air-castles. *Type 1430; BP III 275; *Gerould MLN XIX 228; India: *Thompson-Balys; Arab: Azov JPASB (n.s.) II 402f.; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 269, Coster-Wijsman 65f. Nos. 107--110.

J2060.2. †J2060.2. Man plants hedge: sheep will leave wool on the thorns and bring riches. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2060.3. †J2060.3. To build a palace in the sky: hawk as architect is let fly in the air. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2060.4. †J2060.4. Fools cast lots for royal purple of queen who is still alive. Jewish: Neuman.

J2061. †J2061. Air-castle shattered by lack of forethought.

J2061.1. †J2061.1. Air-castle: the jar of honey to be sold. In his excitement he breaks the jar. *BP III 261f.; *Chauvin II 101 No. 60; *Gerould MLN XIX 229; B[ö]dker Exempler 300 No. 65; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella; *Rotunda; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 55, 277; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J2061.1.1. †J2061.1.1. Air-castle: basket of glassware to be sold. In his excitement he breaks the glassware. BP III 264.

J2061.1.2. †J2061.1.2. Air-castle: basket of eggs to be sold. In her excitement she breaks all the eggs. *BP III 265; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 520; *Fb "æg" III 1141b; *Gerould MLN XIX 226; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J2061.1.3. †J2061.1.3. Pot of flour to be sold: broken. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2061.1.4. †J2061.1.4. Air-castle: jar of oil to be sold. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2061.2. †J2061.2. Air-castle: pail of milk to be sold. Proud milkmaid tosses her head (or kicks the pail in her sleep) and spills the milk. *BP III 264; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 520; *Crane Vitry 154f. No. 51; **Gerould MLN XIX 225; Jacobs Aesop 219 No. 77; Nouvelles Récréations No. 12; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 55, 277.

J2061.2.1. †J2061.2.1. Air-castles: pail of milk to be sold. Old woman thinks about the horse she is finally to get from the sale. In her imagination she spurs it and spills the milk. *Gerould MLN XIX 225.

J2061.3. †J2061.3. Air-castle: to sell hide of sleeping deer. In his excitement he wakes the deer, who runs off. *BP III 265.

J2061.4. †J2061.4. Toad having found money daydreams and is run over. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2062. †J2062. Foolish illustration of argument.

J2062.1. †J2062.1. Which way the sheep shall return. One man plans to buy sheep; another says that he shall not drive them across the bridge. They quarrel over the sheep, which have not yet been acquired. A third numskull to convince them of their foolishness pours all his meal out in the water so as to show them the empty sack. "How much meal is in the sack?" he asks. "None." "There is just that much wit in your heads." *Clouston Noodles 26; Field Pent Cuckoo 2; England: Baughman.

J2062.2. †J2062.2. Foolish logician upsets ghee in argument. "Does the ghee protect the saucer, or the saucer the ghee?" India: Thompson-Balys.

J2062.3. †J2062.3. How was the town burned? India: Thompson-Balys.

J2063. †J2063. Distress over imagined troubles of unborn child. (Clever Else.) Girl sent to cellar to get wine to serve the suitor begins weeping over the troubles of the child which she might have if she married the suitor. Her parents join her. Meanwhile the suitor leaves. *Type 1450; *BP I 335; *Clouston Noodles 191; Christensen DF L 35; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 55, 277; India: Thompson-Balys; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 285 No. 125.

J2063.1. †J2063.1. Queen grieves herself to death over fate of her children after her death. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2064. †J2064. Servant plans to deceive his master by refusing to eat. Type 1698**.

J2066. †J2066. Foolish waiting.

J2066.1. †J2066.1. The hungry fox waits in vain for horse's scrotum (lips) to fall off. Type 115.

J2066.2. †J2066.2. The daw waits in vain for the figs to ripen in winter. Wienert FFC LVI 45 (ET 25), 119 (ST 288); Halm Aesop 199.

J2066.3. †J2066.3. Men (animals) wait in vain for nuts to fall from a tree. Africa (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 410 No. 8; American Negro: Harris Nights 223 No. 38.

J2066.3.1. †J2066.3.1. Waiting in vain for fruit to fall from a non-fruitbearing tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2066.4. †J2066.4. Wolf scorns salt meat (etc.) in false expectation of other booty. Wesselski Märchen 250 No. 58; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 3.

J2066.5. †J2066.5. Wolf waits in vain for the nurse to throw away the child. She has threatened to throw the child to the wolf. Wienert FFC LVI 68 (ET 320), 102 (ST 156); Halm Aesop No. 275; Jacobs Aesop 211 No. 46; Japanese: Ikeda.

J2066.6. †J2066.6. Dog waits to be hit with meat. A butcher has threatened to hit him with a piece of meat. Chauvin III 57 No. 16.

J2066.6.1. †J2066.6.1. Dog follows washerwoman with bundle hoping for meat. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2066.7. †J2066.7. Dupe waits for rear wheels of wagon to overtake front wheels. Is told that money is thus made. England, U.S.: Baughman; American Negro: Harris Friends 122 No. 16.

J2066.8. †J2066.8. Hare waits in vain for leaves to fall from palm tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2066.9. †J2066.9. Hare waits in vain for man's hand to fall off. He sees it dangling. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2067. †J2067. Sacrifice equal to the reward.

J2067.1. †J2067.1. Sacrifice of one son to get another. A woman plans to sacrifice her only son so that the gods will permit her to give birth to another son. Penzer V 94.

J2070. †J2070. Absurd wishes.

J2071. †J2071. Three foolish wishes. Three wishes will be granted: used up foolishly. *Bédier Fabliaux 212ff., 471; Type 750; *Bolte Zs. f. vgl. Litgsch. VII 453; *BP II 212; *Fb "[ö]nske" III 1179a. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "souhaits"; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 213, Coster-Wijsman 46 No. 56.

J2072. †J2072. Short-sighted wish.

J2072.1. †J2072.1. Short-sighted wish: Midas's touch. Everything to turn to gold. *BP II 213; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 180; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *775.

J2072.2. †J2072.2. Short-sighted wish: grain to grow without beards. Birds eat it up. *BP II 213.

J2072.3. †J2072.3. Short-sighted wish: all he pulls on will follow. He blows his nose and it pulls out long. *BP II 213.

J2072.4. †J2072.4. A man without a stomach. The man complains that he is a mere slave of his stomach. His wish is granted and the stomach taken away from him. He discovers soon that life has become very uninteresting to him, and recovers his stomach again. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *716.

J2072.5. †J2072.5. Short-sighted wish: camel wishes a long neck. Killed by jackals. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2072.6. †J2072.6. Old woman demands something that she would remember all her life: her nose cut off. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2073. †J2073. Same wishes used wisely and foolishly. Given to two persons with opposite results. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2073.1. †J2073.1. Wise and foolish wish: keep doing all day what you begin. One begins pulling linen out of a box; other in anger begins throwing water on the pig and must do so all day. *Type 750A; *Fb "[ö]nske" III 1179a; *BP II 214; *Dh II 140ff.

J2073.1.1. †J2073.1.1. Wise and foolish wish: help in whatever one is doing. One gets help in work, other in striking his wife (etc.). *Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 262 No. 65.

J2074. †J2074. Twice the wish to the enemy. (The covetous and the envious). A can have a wish, but B will get twice the wish. A wishes that he may lose an eye, so that B may be blind. *Type 1331; *BP II 219 n. 1; Crane Vitry 212 No. 126; Bédier Fabliaux 457; Wienert FFC LVI 79 (ET 446), 132 (ST 387); Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 647; *Reinhard JAFL XXXVI 383 n. 1; Scala Celi 106b No. 589; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 31. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J2075. †J2075. The transferred wish. A husband, given three wishes, transfers one to his wife, who wastes it on a trifle; in his anger he wishes the article in her body and must use the third to get it out. *Type 750A; *BP II 220, 225; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 454.

J2075.1. †J2075.1. Transferred wish wisely used as well as unwisely. (†J2075 contrasted with a married couple in which the wish is wisely used by the wife.) *BP II 223.

J2075.2. †J2075.2. Two transferred wishes used unwisely: redeemed by wise use of third. Wife uses two transferred wishes selfishly. Husband kills wife and uses remaining wish to his advantage. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

J2075.3. †J2075.3. Woman disdainfully throws away pills; punished with sores on body, must use the pills to restore herself. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2075.4. †J2075.4. Wife granted wish for beauty, elopes with prince. Husband wishes her into a pig; son must use third wish to restore her. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2076. †J2076. Absurdly modest wish. Granted any wish, the fool chooses a trifle. Penzer V 96.

J2076.1. †J2076.1. Absurdly modest wish: no lights on certain night except in her own house. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J2079. †J2079. Absurd wishes -- miscellaneous.

J2079.1. †J2079.1. Wife wishes to be turned to gold. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2079.2. †J2079.2. Foolish wish: to destroy all flies and spiders. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2080. †J2080. Foolish bargains. Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J2081. †J2081. Foolish bargain: progressive type. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2081.1. †J2081.1. Foolish bargain: horse for cow, cow for hog, etc. Finally nothing left. *Type 1415; *BP II 199; English: Wells 118 (Octovian); India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: Coster-Wijsman 57 No. 84; N. Am. Indian (Zuni): Boas JAFL XXXV 74 No. 3. Cf. Africa (Ibo, Nigeria): Thomas 128.

J2081.2. †J2081.2. Foolish bargain: good fish for worthless shell; shell with pearl in it for small fish. Chauvin II 83 No. 10, cf. II 89 No. 28.

J2081.3. †J2081.3. Fool exchanges his wife with ox; thinks something to be wrong with her head (she has been marked with red at the parting of her hair). India: Thompson-Balys.

J2081.4. †J2081.4. Fools sent to buy cow procure a monkey instead. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2082. †J2082. Squaring accounts by shaving the wife. A numskull has paid twice the regular amount for a shave. The barber shaves the wife. Clouston Noodles 180.

J2083. †J2083. The foolish attempt to cheat the buyer.

J2083.1. †J2083.1. One-third for the price of one-fourth. In the grain sale the fool sells a third of a cask for the price of a fourth, thinking that he is cheating the buyer. Type 1266*.

J2083.2. †J2083.2. Two for the price of one. The fool sells two fox-skins pulled into each other. Type 1265*.

J2083.3. †J2083.3. Seller of fox skins mixes otter skins with them. Thinks to cheat the buyer. Type 1300*.

J2083.4. †J2083.4. Ten for the price of nine. A fool buys nine eggs and sells ten for the same price. He says that business is improving. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 209 No. 12.

J2083.5. †J2083.5. A heaping measure given for a level measure. *Fb "skjæppe" III 276a.

J2083.6. †J2083.6. Selling more yards of goods for the money than they received. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2085. †J2085. Foolish reward offered.

J2085.1. †J2085.1. Lost ass, saddle, and bridle offered as reward to the finder. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 231 No. 496.

J2085.1.1. †J2085.1.1. Man trades his only horse for a set of harness. U.S.: Baughman.

J2086. †J2086. The foolish pawn. The woman sells cows and gets one of them back as a pledge for the unpaid purchase price. *Type 1385; *BP II 440; Christensen DF L 35.

J2087. †J2087. The persuasive auctioneer. The auctioneer praises the man's worthless cow so much in his speech that the man takes her back himself. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 276 No. 309; Clouston Noodles 72; U.S.: Baughman.

J2088. †J2088. The considerate seller. A numskull having an over-short turban for sale at auction warns the prospective buyer that it is too short. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 223 No. 58.

J2088.1. †J2088.1. The fool advises the buyer that the horse is worth little or his father would not sell it. *Wesselski Bebel I 208 No. 95.

J2088.2. †J2088.2. Seller advises buyer that cow is a thief. Breton: Luzel Legendes chrétiennes de Basse Bretagne (Paris, 1881) I 16.

J2091. †J2091. Thief warned what not to steal. The numskull tells the thief where his door-key, his cakes, and his roasts are and warns him not to steal them. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. IX 87.

J2091.1. †J2091.1. Fool hides treasure and leaves sign "Here it is." Thief leaves sign "Here it is not." Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 74; Mensa Philosophica No. 141.

J2092. †J2092. The trusted porters. A man finds a treasure, but is robbed by porters whom he has employed to rid him of the trouble of carrying it. Chauvin II 82 No. 2; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 179; B[ö]dker Exempler 272 No. 2; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J2093. †J2093. Valuables given away or sold for trifle.

J2093.1. †J2093.1. Numskull gives away the old water bag in which the money is hid. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 201 No. 393.

J2093.2. †J2093.2. Woman gives a jewel for a salad. The recipient is also a numskull and doesn't know its value. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 30.

J2093.3. †J2093.3. Fool ignorant of value of jewel throws it away. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2093.3.1. †J2093.3.1. Boy refuses pearls for worthless stones; jeweler recognizes them for what they are. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2093.4. †J2093.4. Good timber given for useless because wife says they will have only sickness and trouble. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2093.5. †J2093.5. Sacks of gold and silver traded for sacks of rice. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2093.6. †J2093.6. Gold and jewels sold for trifle. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2094. †J2094. Expensive wood burned to make charcoal. Penzer V 67.

J2095. †J2095. To eat a hundred onions. Choice of eating 100 onions, receiving 100 blows, or paying 100 coins. Fool tries onions in vain, then the blows, and finally must give the coins. *Zachariae Kleine Schriften 170; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 349; India: Thompson-Balys.

J2096. †J2096. Stupid boy convinced that trading all his silver for worthless cup will gain people's respect. Chinese: Graham.

J2099. †J2099. Foolish bargain: miscellaneous. U.S.: Baughman.

J2099.1. †J2099.1. Woman exchanges a horse for a sack of bones. She has been falsely told that the sack is filled with gold. Type 2007*.

J2100. †J2100. Remedies worse than the disease.

J2101. †J2101. Getting rid of the cat. In a land in which cats are not known, one is bought at a great price. It eats many mice. By misunderstanding, they think the cat is a monster. In order to get rid of it they set the house on fire. *Type 1281; BP II 72 n. 1; Christensen DF XLVII 219ff. no. 82.

J2101.1. †J2101.1. Lighting the cat's tail. Woman wishing to punish a cat fastens cotton to its tail and lights it. The whole village is burnt. Clouston Noodles 65; Wesselski Märchen 251 No. 59; India: Thompson-Balys.

J2102. †J2102. Expensive means of being rid of insects.

J2102.1. †J2102.1. Sleeping in shoes to avoid insect bites. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 237 No. 524.

J2102.2. †J2102.2. Snake rids himself of wasps: he lets himself be run over by a cart wheel along with them. Wienert FFC LVI 49 (ET 49), 128 (ST 363); Halm Aesop No. 393.

J2102.3. †J2102.3. Bald man aims at a fly: hurts his head. Jacobs Aesop 204 No. 18; Wienert FFC LVI 67 (ET 313), 128 (ST 361).

J2102.4. †J2102.4. House burned down to rid it of insects. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 37; *BP III 288; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 244 No. 137; Christensen DF XLVII 219ff. No. 82; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 267.

J2102.4.1. †J2102.4.1. House burned down to get rid of lizard. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2102.5. †J2102.5. Burning the wasp nest. The house catches fire and burns. Clouston Noodles 40 n. 1; England: Baughman.

J2102.6. †J2102.6. Clothes burned to rid them of insects. Wienert FFC LVI 65 (ET 288), 128 (ST 362); Halm Aesop No. 411.

J2102.7. †J2102.7. Crop burned to rid it of insects. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2102.8. †J2102.8. Frogs to eat insects, snakes to eat frogs. Snakes eat numskull's family. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2103. †J2103. Expensive extermination of rodents.

J2103.1. †J2103.1. The cat to guard the cheese. A farmer troubled with mice eating his cheese places a cat in the tub with the cheese. She eats the mice and the cheese. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 35; *Crane Vitry 138 No. 11; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

J2103.1.1. †J2103.1.1. The cat and the eel-pie. Woman puts cat in flour bin to catch a mouse. The cat eats the pie in the bin and loses interest in the mouse. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

J2103.2. †J2103.2. Pursuing the rabbit who harmed the garden. Peasant asks a nobleman's help against a rabbit. The nobleman chases the rabbit on horseback for five days and ruins the peasant's crop. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 25.

J2103.2.1. †J2103.2.1. King ruins his garden to get rid of viper. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2103.3. †J2103.3. House burned down to get rid of rats. (Cf. †J2102.4.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

J2104. †J2104. Moving the fireplace. When it gives too much heat numskulls decide to move it instead of putting out the fire. Type 1325*.

J2104.1. †J2104.1. Cleaning the church by moving it. A cow fouls a church. Numskulls try to move the church with ropes. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 293 No. 4.

J2105. †J2105. Protecting the prince's slumber. To keep croaking frogs from disturbing him, the fools shoot at the frogs all night. Type 1329*.

J2106. †J2106. Man kills self to make quarrelsome wife a widow. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2107. †J2107. Taming the bull by cutting off his horns. It makes him the more violent. *Wienert FFC LVI 71 (ET 360), 116 (ST 263).

J2108. †J2108. Punishing the dog by feeding him. A man is bitten by a dog. On the advice of an old woman he rubs bread on the wound and gives it to the dog. All dogs will bite him if they thus get double reward. Wienert FFC LVI 85 (ET 520), 116 (ST 265); Halm Aesop No. 221.

J2112. †J2112. Gray hair cured by pulling it out so that the person is bald. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 504; U.S.: Baughman.

J2112.1. †J2112.1. Young wife pulls out his gray hairs; old wife his black. Soon all are gone. *Chauvin II 128 No. 134; Fb "hår" IV 241b; Crane Vitry 215 No. 201; *Herbert III 16; Wienert FFC LVI 82 (ET 489), 129 (ST 372); Halm Aesop No. 56; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

J2113. †J2113. Getting the calf's head out of the pot. A calf gets its head caught in a pot. A fool cuts off the calf's head and then breaks the pot to get it out. Clouston Noodles 89; India: *Thompson-Balys.

J2113.1. †J2113.1. Man strikes off donkey's head to punish it. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J2114. †J2114. Snakes in pond to be killed: eels also killed. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2115. †J2115. Fools take fatal overdose of medicine. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J2119. †J2119. Remedies worse than the disease -- miscellaneous.

J2119.1. †J2119.1. Nose cut off to get it out of the light. Koryak, Eskimo: Jochelson JE VI 364.

J2119.1.1. †J2119.1.1. Improving the wife's face by cutting off her nose. Penzer V 68f.; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 21 No. 76.

J2119.2. †J2119.2. Straight path not always shortest. (Cf. †J21.5.)

J2119.2.1. †J2119.2.1. Taking the short-cut. Farmer takes a few feet off his journey and lifts a wheelbarrow over 22 stiles in so doing. Clouston Noodles 54; England: Baughman.

J2119.2.2. †J2119.2.2. One contestant chooses straight path through stones; other circles about and wins. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2119.3. †J2119.3. Noodles push parents over a rock as a favor to them. Icelandic: Boberg.

J2119.4. †J2119.4. Numskulls bore hole in boat in order to make water run out. Christensen DF XLVII no. 45.

J2119.5. †J2119.5. Stupid giant, seeing how fat he has become, wants to eat himself up. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2119.6. †J2119.6. How to save the rice. Boy has rice in joined hands and arms around a pillar. Afraid to move lest rice be lost. Roof is removed and boy lifted over pillar. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2119.7. †J2119.7. Stupid cowherds apply hot iron to temples of unconscious man to revive him. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2119.8. †J2119.8. Cow tied tight with stones in order not to blow away, but is unable to do all others things too. Christensen DF XLVII 216 no. 76.

J2119.9. †J2119.9. Hero beheads old woman who asks him to cure her of old age. Icelandic: Boberg.

J2120. †J2120. Disregard of danger to objects (or animals).

J2121. †J2121. Drying snow on the stove. Type 1272*.

J2122. †J2122. Candle put in the stove to dry: melts. Type 1270.

J2123. †J2123. Sunlight carried into windowless house in baskets. When this plan does not succeed, they gradually pull down the house to get light. Type 1245; *Fb "lys" II 483b; Clouston Noodles 58, 64; Christensen DF XLVII 215 No. 74, ibid. DF L 49.

J2124. †J2124. Putting the fish aside for Easter. They are put in one big pool, but an eel eats them up. Clouston Noodles 34.

J2124.1. †J2124.1. Numskull sends meat home through kite (bird); kite devours it. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2125. †J2125. Guarding chickens from the fox. Numskull ties their beaks and weights them down in the river with stones. BP III 337ff.; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 139 No. 1692.

J2126. †J2126. Numskull to water roots of tree. Digs up the tree to find the roots. Von der Leyen Das Märchen 78 and Herrigs Archiv CXIV 20 n. 2.

J2126.1. †J2126.1. Trees cut down to gather fruit. Penzer V 70f.

J2127. †J2127. Looking for the hole. Numskull is to carry a can of oil with especial care since it has a little hole in it. In order to find the hole he turns the can about and lets all the oil run out. Penzer V 84; Von der Leyen Das Märchen 78 and Herrigs Archiv CXIV 20 n. 2; India: Thompson-Balys.

J2129. †J2129. Disregard of danger to objects or animals -- miscellaneous.

J2129.1. †J2129.1. Fools make a boat go over a precipice. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 249.

J2129.2. †J2129.2. Quarreling heirs destroy the entire property involved. Clouston Noodles 119; West Indies: Flowers 487f.

J2129.3. †J2129.3. Getting all the eggs at once. A peasant kills his hen so that he can immediately get all the eggs she will lay during the next year. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 53; Scala Celi 4b No. 21.

J2129.4. †J2129.4. Fool sticks needle in haywagon. He has been told to stick it in his sleeve. It is lost. Type 1696; *BP I 314; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 141 No. 1703.

J2129.5. †J2129.5. Old shoes patched with new. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 319 No. 18.

J2129.6. †J2129.6. Keeping rain from the trunks. Numskulls take out the clothing and cover the trunks to keep rain off. Penzer V 116 n. 1.

J2129.7. †J2129.7. Horse drawn across ice till skin is rubbed off. Type 1212.

J2129.8. †J2129.8. Fool sows his mother's seed rice on other people's fields. India: Thompson-Balys.

J2130. †J2130. Foolish disregard of personal danger.

J2131. †J2131. Numskull injured. U.S.: Baughman.

J2131.0.1. †J2131.0.1. Numskulls try to kill mosquitoes with bows and arrows: only injure themselves. Clouston Noodles 95.

J2131.1. †J2131.1. Numskull beaten.

J2131.1.1. †J2131.1.1. Numskull tries to preach while the priest is preaching: beaten. U.S.: Baughman; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 138 No. 1690.

J2131.2. †J2131.2. Numskull stung.

J2131.2.1. †J2131.2.1. Bees caught in sack which is opened at home. Indonesia: DeVries's list No. 268.

J2131.3. †J2131.3. Numskull injures his limbs. U.S.: Baughman.

J2131.3.1. †J2131.3.1. Girl hacks off her heel to get shoe on. Fb "hæl" I 727; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 111--112, Espinosa Jr. No. 119.

J2131.3.1.1. †J2131.3.1.1. Fool cuts off his arms to wear sleeveless sweater. U.S.: *Baughman.

J2131.3.2. †J2131.3.2. Dupe persuaded to cut off part of his own body. India: *Thompson-Balys.

J2131.3.3. &dag