S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958. • Main page


Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, ÐÔÔÈ #06-06-80-420a, ÐÔÔÈ #07-06-00441-à



H. TESTS

DETAILED SYNOPSIS

†H0.--H199. Identity tests: recognition

†H0. Identity tests

†H10. Recognition through common knowledge

†H20. Recognition by resemblance

†H30. Recognition through personal peculiarities

†H50. Recognition by bodily marks or physical attributes

†H80.--H149. Identification by tokens

†H80. Identification by tokens

†H90. Identification by ornaments

†H100. Identification by matching parts of divided token

†H110. Identification by cloth or clothing

†H120. Identification by tokens -- miscellaneous

†H150. Circumstances of recognition

†H200.--H299. Tests of truth

†H210.--H239. Tests of guilt or innocence

†H210. Test of guilt or innocence

†H220. Ordeals

†H240. Other tests of truth

†H300.--H499. Marriage tests

†H300. Tests connected with marriage

†H310.--H359. Suitor tests

†H310. Suitor tests

†H360.--H399. Bride tests

†H360. Bride test

†H400.--H459. Chastity tests

†H400. Chastity test

†H410. Chastity test by magic objects or ordeals

†H430. Chastity index

†H440. Other indications of chastity

†H460. Wife tests

†H480. Father tests

†H490. Other marriage tests

†H500.--H899. TESTS OF CLEVERNESS

†H500. Test of cleverness or ability

†H510. Tests in guessing

†H530.--H899. Riddles

†H540. Propounding of riddles

†H570. Means of solving riddles

†H580. Enigmatic statements

†H600. Symbolic interpretations

†H620. The unsolved problem: enigmatic ending of tale

†H630. Riddles of the superlative

†H660. Riddles of comparison

†H680. Riddles of distance

†H690. Riddles of weight and measure

†H700. Riddles of numbers

†H710. Riddles of value

†H720. Metaphorical riddles

†H770. Riddles of explanation

†H790. Riddles based on unusual circumstances

†H810. Riddles based on the Bible or legend

†H840. Other riddles

†H900.--H1199. TESTS OF PROWESS: TASKS

†H900.--H999. Assignment and performance of tasks

†H900.--H949. Assignment of tasks

†H900. Tasks imposed

†H910. Assignment of tasks in response to suggestion

†H920. Assigners of tasks

†H940. Assignment of tasks -- miscellaneous

†H1050.--H1089. Paradoxical tasks

†H1050. Paradoxical tasks

†H1090. Tasks requiring miraculous speed

†H1110. Tedious tasks

†H1130. Superhuman tasks

†H1150. Tasks: stealing, capturing, or slaying

†H1180. Miscellaneous tasks

†H1200.--H1399. TESTS OF PROWESS: QUESTS

†H1200.--H1249. Attendant circumstances of quests

†H1200. Quest

†H1210. Quest assigned

†H1220. Quest voluntarily undertaken

†H1240. Other circumstances of quests

†H1250.--H1399. Nature of quests

†H1250.--H1299. Quests to the other world

†H1250. Quest to the other world

†H1260. Quest to the upper world

†H1270. Quest to the lower world

†H1280. Quests to other realms

†H1290. Quests to the other world -- miscellaneous motifs

†H1300. Quests for the unique

†H1320. Quest for marvellous objects or animals

†H1360. Quest for dangerous animals

†H1370. Miscellaneous quests

†H1400.--H1599. OTHER TESTS

†H1400.--H1449. Tests of fear

†H1400. Fear test

†H1410. Fear test: staying in frightful place

†H1420. Fearless traffic with devils

†H1430. Fearless traffic with ghosts

†H1440. The learning of fear

†H1450.--H1499. Tests of vigilance

†H1450. Vigilance test

†H1460. Test: vigil at tomb

†H1470. Other vigilance tests

†H1480. Accomplishment of vigilance test

†H1500.--H1549. Tests of endurance and power of survival

†H1500. Tests of endurance

†H1510. Tests of power to survive

†H1540. Contests in endurance

†H1550.--H1569. Tests of character

†H1550. Tests of character

†H1570.--H1599. Miscellaneous tests

H. Tests.

†H0-†H199. Identity tests: Recognition.

H0. †H0. Identity tests. Recognition. Elaborate means are employed in folk-literature for the recognition of persons even though they have been separated a very short time. The various means used are detailed in the following discussion.

H10. †H10. Recognition through common knowledge. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H11. †H11. Recognition through story-telling. Telling of a story known to both persons concerned brings about recognition. Icelandic: *Boberg; Arabian: Burton Nights III 96ff., S V 155, 164, S VI 34f., 476; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 224.

H11.1. †H11.1. Recognition by telling life history. *Type 506; Köhler-Bolte II 351ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 19; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H11.1.1. †H11.1.1. Recognition at inn (hospital, etc.) where all must tell their life histories. *Type 304; *BP II 255 n. 1, 505; bin Gorion Born Judas I 189, 374; *Chauvin V 90 No. 28 n. 1; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 2.

H11.1.2. †H11.1.2. Recognition: life story painted on wall. India: Thompson-Balys.

H11.1.3. †H11.1.3. Recognition by life history sung. (Cf. †H12.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H11.1.4. †H11.1.4. Recognition by tracing ancestry. Greek: Homer Iliad VI 215, Aeschylus Suppliants 290.

H12. †H12. Recognition by song (music). Person is recognized because the song is sung only by him or because he is the only one besides the listener who knows it. Thien Motive 9; Norse: De la Saussaye 137; Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. *452f.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "chanson"; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 3 and the legend of Richard Coeur de Leon and Blondel; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 359; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 530, 539; New Zealand: Dixon 83; West Indies: Flowers 455.

H12.1. †H12.1. Missing female poet discovered through test of poetic ability. Irish myth: *Cross.

H12.2. †H12.2. Recognition by verse of song. India: Thompson-Balys.

H12.2.1. †H12.2.1. Recognition by matching a couplet together. India: Thompson-Balys.

H13. †H13. Recognition by overheard conversation (usually with animals or objects). Person not daring to reveal self directly thus attracts attention and recognition. *Types 313, 533, 706, 870; *BP I 19, III 445ff.; *Fb "hest" I 598b, "ovn" II 774a; **Liungman Jordkulan passim; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 62, 69 Nos. 445*B, 515*; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Thonga): Junod 231.

H13.1. †H13.1. Recognition by overheard conversation with animal.

H13.1.1. †H13.1.1. Recognition by overheard conversation with horse. *Type 870; **Liungman Jordkulan passim; *BP III 444ff.; Fb "hest" I 598b.

H13.1.2. †H13.1.2. Recognition by overheard conversation with dog. Type 533; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 307b.

H13.1.3. †H13.1.3. Recognition by overheard conversation with cow. Chinese: Graham.

H13.2. †H13.2. Recognition by overheard conversation with objects. *Type 870; *BP III 444ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 8; Icelandic: Boberg.

H13.2.1. †H13.2.1. Recognition by overheard conversation with bridge. Bridge which will trip up bridal party if king is not marrying an equal. Disguised princess praises bridge for its recognition of her equality with the king. *Type 870.

H13.2.2. †H13.2.2. Recognition by overheard conversation with stone. *Types 710 870; BP I 19 n. 2; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 62 No. 445B*, Espinosa Jr. No. 114.

H13.2.3. †H13.2.3. Recognition by overheard conversation with plant. *Type 870.

H13.2.4. †H13.2.4. Recognition by overheard conversation with churchdoor. *Type 870.

H13.2.5. †H13.2.5. Recognition by overheard conversation with cups (or other utensils). *Type 710; *BP I 19 n. 2.

H13.2.6. †H13.2.6. Recognition by overheard conversation with flax. By comparing her fate with that of the flax the heroine is able to reveal herself. *Type 710; BP I 19 n. 2; *Köhler-Bolte I 131.

H13.2.7. †H13.2.7. Recognition by overheard conversation with stove. *Type 533; *BP II 275; *Fb "ovn" II 774a; K. Ranke Festschrift f. W.-E. Peuckert, Berl. 1955, 46.

H13.3. †H13.3. Recognition from overheard conversation of two sons. India: Thompson-Balys.

H13.4. †H13.4. Recognition from overheard conversation with flower-woman. India: Thompson-Balys.

H14. †H14. Recognition by observing emotional reactions of another to object of common experience.

H14.1. †H14.1. Recognition by seeing husband shed tears on sight of bird (main character in a former experience common to both husband and wife). India: *Thompson-Balys.

H14.2. †H14.2. Recognition by tears at recital of own exploits. Greek: Homer Odyssey VIII 94.

H15. †H15. Identity tested by account of common experiences. Missouri French: Carrière.

H15.1. †H15.1. Identity tested by demanding that person say again what he said on former occasion. (Impostor fails.) *Types 425, 870; Tegethoff 21; Missouri French: Carrière.

H15.2. †H15.2. Recognition by recalling common experiences. Jewish: *Neuman.

H16. †H16. Recognition by describing or producing object of common knowledge.

H16.1. †H16.1. Recognition by brother king of lost brother brought about by model of their father's palace which lost brother builds of clay. India: Thompson-Balys.

H16.2. †H16.2. Recognition by wounds on lip and finger received at common adventure. India: Thompson-Balys.

H16.3. †H16.3. Recognition of brothers brought about by bouquet of flowers tied as father's gardener used to do. India: Thompson-Balys.

H16.4. †H16.4. Recognition by describing unique bed. Greek: Homer Odyssey XXIII 183ff.

H17. †H17. Recognition by reminders of what has been said. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 3; Jewish: Neuman.

H18. †H18. Recognition by password. Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 236 No. 40.

H19. †H19. Recognition through common knowledge -- miscellaneous.

H19.1. †H19.1. Recognition by ability to identify property.

H19.1.1. †H19.1.1. Recognition of reincarnated person by ability to identify former weapons. India: Thompson-Balys.

H19.2. †H19.2. Recognition by answer to conundrum (known only to two persons). India: Thompson-Balys.

H20. †H20. Recognition by resemblance. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "reconnaissance"; Greek: Homer Odyssey IV 144, 150.

H21. †H21. Recognition through picture. Picture is publicly displayed and brings about recognition of lost person. *Type 881; *BP II 505; Köhler-Bolte I 528; *Chauvin V 92 No. 196, 94 No. 30; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries's list No. 223.

H22. †H22. Recognition through image. Jewish: *Neuman.

H24. †H24. Recognition from dream. India: Thompson-Balys.

H30. †H30. Recognition through personal peculiarities

H31. †H31. Recognition by unique ability. Irish myth: *Cross.

H31.1. †H31.1. Recognition by unique ability to dislodge sword. Sword is stuck in a stone or tree. English: Wells 43 (Arthour and Merlin); Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Volsunga saga 7; India: Thompson-Balys.

H31.2. †H31.2. Recognition by unique ability to bend bow. Greek: Fox 139; Jewish: Neuman.

H31.3. †H31.3. Recognition by unique ability to swing spear. Greek: Roscher Lexikon "Achilleus" I 12.

H31.4. †H31.4. Only one man can lift small pot from ground. India: Thompson-Balys.

H31.5. †H31.5. Recognition by unique ability to cut (carve) tree, etc. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H31.6. †H31.6. Recognition by unique ability to break iron apple with first stone cast. Irish myth: Cross.

H31.7. †H31.7. Recognition by unique ability to perform magic act. German: Grimm Nos. 76, 89; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Kordofan): Frobenius Atlantis IV 134ff. No. 13.

H31.7.1. †H31.7.1. Recognition by ability to shed pearls for tears. India: Thompson-Balys.

H31.7.2. †H31.7.2. Only one man is able to read magic book. India: Thompson-Balys.

H31.8. †H31.8. Recognition by unique ability to shoot, swim, and drink. Icelandic: Boberg.

H31.9. †H31.9. Recognition by unique ability to handle easily a heavy stone. Irish myth: Cross.

H31.10. †H31.10. Recognition by unique ability to play chess. Irish myth: Cross.

H31.11. †H31.11. Recognition by unique ability to read inscription. Irish myth: Cross.

H31.12. †H31.12. Only one man is able to pluck fruits from tree. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H31.12.1. †H31.12.1. Bridegroom alone able to pluck flower from bride's grave. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H32. †H32. Recognition by extraordinary prowess. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

H35. †H35. Recognition by unique manner of performing an act. Irish myth: *Cross.

H35.1. †H35.1. Recognition by unique manner of playing lute. Chauvin V 152 No. 75; India: Thompson-Balys.

H35.1.1. †H35.1.1. Recognition by unique manner of playing harp. Irish myth: *Cross.

H35.1.2. †H35.1.2. Recognition by unique manner of playing flute. German: Grimm No. 181; Chinese: Graham.

H35.2. †H35.2. Recognition by unique cookery. Only one person could have prepared the food in this way. *Chauvin VI 105 No. 270 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: Boberg.

H35.3. †H35.3. Recognition by unique needle-work. *Type 506; von der Hagen I cxxxix; India: Thompson-Balys.

H35.3.1. †H35.3.1. Recognition of false bride by inability to finish true bride's weaving. India: Thompson-Balys.

H35.3.2. †H35.3.2. Recognition by embroidery. Chinese: Graham (†H141.).

H35.4. †H35.4. Recognition by unique manner of carving chips. These sent down stream for recognition. (Cf. †H135.) *Schoepperle II 301ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

H35.4.1. †H35.4.1. Recognition by ogam carving on withe (rod, tree). Irish myth: *Cross.

H35.5. †H35.5. Recognition by manner of throwing cakes of different weights into faces of old uncles. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H36. †H36. Recognition by exact fitting of clothes. Irish myth: Cross.

H36.1. †H36.1. Slipper test. Identification by fitting of slipper. *Type 510; *Cox Cinderella 504ff.; *BP I 187; *Fb "sko" III 288a; Cosquin Contes Indiens 48ff.; Saintyves Perrault 115ff., 156. --Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; New Mexican: Rael Mod. Lang. Forum XVIII (1933).

H36.1.1. †H36.1.1. Recognition by shoes with which the father had once beaten his son. India: Thompson-Balys.

H36.2. †H36.2. Garment fits only true king. (Cf. †H41.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H36.2.1. †H36.2.1. Crown fits only legitimate successor to throne. Jewish: Neuman.

H38. †H38. Person's rank betrayed by habitual conversation.

H38.1. †H38.1. Disguised king (noble) recognized by habitual speech.

H38.2. †H38.2. Impostor of low origin recognized by habitual speech.

H38.2.1. †H38.2.1. Tailor married to princess betrays trade by calling for needle and thread. *Type 1640; BP I 148 ff.

H38.2.2. †H38.2.2. Peasant boy masking as prince betrays self by his answers. *Köhler-Bolte I 172.

H38.2.3. †H38.2.3. Recognition of maidservant substitute bride by her habitual conversation. Icelandic: Boberg.

H38.2.4. †H38.2.4. Weaver married to princess betrays trade by talking in his sleep. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H38.2.4.1. †H38.2.4.1. Weaver married to princess betrays his identity when he unconsciously waves his hands as though he were weaving and asks for his shuttle. India: Thompson-Balys.

H38.2.5. †H38.2.5. Substitution of low-caste boy for promised child detected when he prefers long road to short one through jungle (swimming instead of ferry, etc.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

H38.3. †H38.3. Slave recognized by his conversation, habits, and character. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H41. †H41. Recognition of royalty by personal characteristics or traits. (Cf. †H36.2, †H71.) Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

H41.1. †H41.1. Princess on the pea. Princess recognized by her inability to sleep on bed which has a pea under its dozen mattresses. *BP III 330; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 575b; Grimm No. 182a; *Fb "seng"; Penzer VI 288ff.; Wirth AA o.s. VII (1894) 367ff.; Arthur Christensen Acta Orientalia XIV 241--257; India: Thompson-Balys.

H41.2. †H41.2. High-spitting the test of a chief. N. Am. Indian (Quileute): Farrand-Mayer JAFL XXXII 253 No. 1, (Chinook): Boas BBAE XX 160, (Nootka): Boas RBAE XXXI 919.

H41.3. †H41.3. Test of king (pope): his candle lights itself. *Type 671; *Köhler-Bolte I 148.

H41.4. †H41.4. Flame issuing from mouth as sign of royalty. English: Wells 14f. (The Lay of Havelok).

H41.5. †H41.5. Unknown prince shows his kingly qualities in dealing with his playmates. Type 920; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 40ff., 323ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H41.5.1. †H41.5.1. Unknown prince reared by fisher spends money on princely tastes. *Boje 126; India: Thompson-Balys.

H41.6. †H41.6. Prophecy for newborn princesses: the one who takes gold in the mouth will be married to a prince; the one who takes hawkweed, to a peasant. Icelandic: Boberg.

H41.7. †H41.7. Task: to ride horse whereby one becomes king. India: Thompson-Balys.

H41.8. †H41.8. Test of royalty: ability to sow, reap, and winnow rice in one day. India: Thompson-Balys.

H41.9. †H41.9. King recognized by unique ability to occupy certain seat (Siege perilous). Irish myth: *Cross; *Nutt Studies in the Legend of the Holy Grail (London, 1888) 81f., 88.

H41.9.1. †H41.9.1. Chariot tilts under anyone who is not entitled to throne. Irish myth: *Cross.

H41.10. †H41.10. Chief in disguise carries bundle so large that rank is recognized. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 388.

H44. †H44. Recognition by perfume. India: Thompson-Balys.

H45. †H45. Recognition of deity. Tonga: Gifford 56.

H45.1. †H45.1. God recognized by his supernatural powers. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H45.2. †H45.2. Milk gushes forth from cows when they sit under tree inhabited by deity. India: Thompson-Balys.

H45.3. †H45.3. Test of a god: when his image is bound it frees itself. Oertel Studien z. vgl. Littg. VIII 116; Frazer Pausanias III 336f.; Zs. f. Vksk. II 197, III 89, 448.

H45.4. †H45.4. God in disguise recognized by tokens on his feet and hands. Greek: Homer Iliad XIII 71.

H45.5. †H45.5. Girl sleeping naked awakened: is she a goddess? If mortal, she will cover herself; if a goddess, will not. Tonga: Gifford 191.

H46. †H46. Cannibal recognized by cloud of dust raised. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 47, 142, (Basuto): Jacottet 4 No. 1, 206 No. 30, (Kaffir): Theal 125.

H46.1. †H46.1. Cannibal nature of woman recognized when she devours dead buffalo raw. India: Thompson-Balys.

H47. †H47. Demon recognized by corpse it occupies turning to worm when stake is driven through it. Irish myth: Cross.

H48. †H48. Animal in human form recognized. (Cf. †H64.)

H48.1. †H48.1. Fox (in man's form) cries out like a fox in his sleep. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 122.

H48.2. †H48.2. Fox (in man's form) betrays identity when he procures fox-food for human wife. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 123.

H49. †H49. Recognition through personal peculiarities -- miscellaneous.

H49.1. †H49.1. Unique scent of their rice betrays abandoned children. India: Thompson-Balys.

H50. †H50. Recognition by bodily marks or physical attributes. Irish myth: Cross.

H51. †H51. Recognition by scar. (Cf. †H56.) *Type 314; Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 9, *Rotunda; Greek: Odyssey, books XIX, XXIV; Arabian: Burton Nights I 248; Jewish: *Neuman; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 158; Chinese: Werner 281; N. Am. Indian (Ponka): Dorsey CNAE VI 606, (Blackfoot): Wissler and Duvall PaAM II 109, (Eastern Cree): Skinner PaAM IX 92.

H51.1. †H51.1. Recognition by birthmark. *Types 400, 850; Dickson 49 nn. 58, 59; cf. Shakespeare's Cymbeline II, 2, 38; BP II 318, 528; German. Grimm No. 92; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 140; N. Am. Indian (Blackfoot): Wissler and Duvall PaAM II 109.

H55. †H55. Recognition through branding. *Types 314, 502, 883B; Dickson 41; Chauvin V 152; Tawney I 37, 92; Burton Nights VII 89 n.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H55.1. †H55.1. Recognition through branding with hoof-marks. *Types 314, 502; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "marque", "mule".

H55.2. †H55.2. Sacred animals branded by conjurer. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 327.

H55.3. †H55.3. Recognition by tatoo. Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 370.

H56. †H56. Recognition by wound. (Cf. †H51.) *Types 314, 502; *Cosquin Études 447ff.; Dickson 42 n. 41; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 169, 170; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 417.

H56.1. †H56.1. Recognition by hole burned in hand when woman removes glove. *Wesselski Märchen 198.

H56.2. †H56.2. Mutilation of children's bodies for identification. *Dickson 42 n. 41.

H57. †H57. Recognition by missing member. *Hartland Perseus III 208f.; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 150, 168, 171.

H57.0.1. †H57.0.1. Recognition of resuscitated person by missing member. *Type 313; French: Cosquin Lorraine II 11.

H57.1. †H57.1. Recognition by broken tooth. New Zealand: Dixon 84.

H57.2. †H57.2. Recognition by missing finger. *Hartland Perseus III 207ff.; Dickson 42 n. 42; Icelandic: Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "doigt"; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. 120, 121.

H57.2.1. †H57.2.1. Severed finger as sign of crime. Robber bridegroom thus detected. *Type 955.

H57.2.2. †H57.2.2. Recognition of murdered person by severed fingernail. India: Thompson-Balys.

H57.3. †H57.3. Recognition by missing toe. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H57.4. †H57.4. Recognition by description of woman with missing hands. Nouvelles de Sens No. 12.

H57.5. †H57.5. Recognition by artificial hands. *Type 706; *BP I 295ff.

H58. †H58. Tell-tale hand-mark. Clandestine lover is identified by paint marks left on his skin by his mistress. *Type 950; Köhler-Bolte I 200; India: Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Tawney I 15; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 273 n. 1.

H58.1. †H58.1. Disguised mistress identified by chalk marks left on back by lover. Heptameron No. 43.

H58.2. †H58.2. Clandestine lover identified by scratches left on face by lady. Heptameron No. 4.

H61. †H61. Recognition by ornaments under skin.

H61.1. †H61.1. Recognition of twins by golden chain under their skin. Köhler-Bolte I 119.

H61.2. †H61.2. Recognition of disenchanted person by ornaments under his skin. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 348 n. 249b.

H61.3. †H61.3. Recognition by means of ring enclosed in wound. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 104.

H61.4. †H61.4. Recognition by grain of gold under skin. Irish myth: *Cross.

H62. †H62. Recognition of transformed person (animal). (Cf. †H48.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H62.0.1. †H62.0.1. Recognition of man transformed to horse. Chinese: Graham.

H62.1. †H62.1. Recognition of person transformed to animal. *Type 325; *BP II 60.

H62.1.1. †H62.1.1. Person transformed to animal recognized by his eyes. *Fb "öje" III 1166a; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H62.1.2. †H62.1.2. Person transformed to animal recognized by ability to read. Scotch: Campbell-McKay.

H62.2. †H62.2. Horse recognizes kol transformed to look like his master and throws him off. India: Thompson-Balys.

H62.3. †H62.3. Marvelous horse identified by prince though in form of miserable worn-out one. India: Thompson-Balys.

H63. †H63. Recognition of other transformed persons.

H63.1. †H63.1. Woman transformed to flower is recognized by the absence of dew on petals. Type 407; BP III 259; German: Grimm No. 160.

H64. †H64. Recognition of disenchanted person by physical attributes.

H64.1. †H64.1. Recognition of disenchanted person by thread in his teeth. As werwolf he has torn woman's apron and caught thread in teeth. *Fb "varulv" III 1015a.

H64.2. †H64.2. Werwolf killed and recognized by man's clothes under the wolf's skin or rosary on the neck. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3680.

H64.3. †H64.3. Person disenchanted from animal "unable to hide his tail." India: Thompson-Balys.

H64.4. †H64.4. Person disenchanted from animal unable to eat after manner of men. India: Thompson-Balys.

H71. †H71. Marks of royalty. (Cf. †H41, †H171.5.) *Type 533; *BP II 275; Köhler-Bolte I 130; India: Thompson-Balys.

H71.1. †H71.1. Star on forehead as sign of royalty. *Type 707; *BP I 102, II 380, 393; *Fb "stjærne" III 577b, "guldstjærne" I 515a; Köhler-Bolte I 119; Dickson 48; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 311 No. 56; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 137; India: Thompson-Balys.

H71.1.1. †H71.1.1. Moon on forehead and stars in palm of hand as sign of royalty. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H71.2. †H71.2. Gold (silver) hairs as sign of royalty. *Types 533, 707; *BP II 275, 380, 393; *Fb "hår" I 771b; India: Thompson-Balys.

H71.2.1. †H71.2.1. Golden body of boy as sign of royalty. India: Thompson-Balys.

H71.3. †H71.3. Pearls from hair as sign of royalty. *Type 707; BP II 380, 393.

H71.4. †H71.4. Roses from lips as sign of royalty. Princess laughs roses. *BP I 100.

H71.5. †H71.5. Cross between shoulders as sign of royalty (nobility). Dickson 48f.; English: Wells 14f. (The Lay of Havelok); Icelandic: *Boberg.

H71.6. †H71.6. Bright eyes as sign of royalty (nobility). Icelandic: *Boberg.

H71.6.1. †H71.6.1. Luminous face as sign of royalty. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 29, *Cross.

H71.6.2. †H71.6.2. Gold tint as sign of royalty. India: Thompson-Balys.

H71.7. †H71.7. Child born with chain around neck: sign of royalty. *Type 707; BP I 432, II 380ff.; Todd MLN VI 7; Wesselski Märchen 174 No. 64; Wells Manual 96 (Chevalere Assigne).

H71.7.1. †H71.7.1. Girl born with costly jewels: sign of royalty. India: Thompson-Balys.

H71.7.2. †H71.7.2. Prince born with bow of gold and string of silver. India: Thompson-Balys.

H71.8. †H71.8. Tears of blood: sign of royalty. Jewish: Neuman; S. Am. Indian (Inca): Alexander Lat. Am. 252.

H71.9. †H71.9. Red teeth as sign of royalty. Africa (Thonga): Junod 231.

H71.10. †H71.10. Marvel as sign of royalty. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

H71.10.1. †H71.10.1. Tree bows before prince. De Vries FFC LXXIII 329; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H71.10.2. †H71.10.2. Water stands still before prince. De Vries FFC LXXIII 329.

H71.10.3. †H71.10.3. Frogs croak at prince's command. De Vries FFC LXXIII 330.

H71.10.4. †H71.10.4. Chariot horses spring at anyone who is not entitled to throne. Irish myth: *Cross.

H71.10.5. †H71.10.5. Two blocks of stone that move apart to allow passage of chariot of true king. Irish myth: *Cross.

H71.10.6. †H71.10.6. Stone screams under feet of legitimate king. Irish myth: Cross.

H71.10.7. †H71.10.7. Arrows turn aside for prince (king). India: Thompson-Balys.

H71.11. †H71.11. Gold in stool as sign of royalty. India: Thompson-Balys:

H75. †H75. Identification by a hair.

H75.1. †H75.1. Identification by hair found floating on water. *Type 531; *BP III 31 n. 1. 33; **Golther "Die Jungfrau mit den goldenen Haaren" Studien zur Literaturgeschichte M. Bernays gewidmet (Leipzig, 1893). --N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 355 n. 281.

H75.2. †H75.2. Identification by hair dropped by bird. *Type 531; *BP III 31 n. 1, 33; **Golther ibid.

H75.3. †H75.3. Recognition by hair found in a fish which has swallowed it. India: Thompson-Balys.

H75.4. †H75.4. Recognition by golden hair. Types 314, 502; BP II 275. --Icelandic: Boberg.

H75.5. †H75.5. Identification by wolf's hair. Icelandic: Boberg.

H75.6. †H75.6. Recognition by missing hair. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 187, 189, Thalbitzer 7.

H75.7. †H75.7. Recognition of murderers by their short hair. Tonga: Gifford 34.

H78. †H78. Recognition by feather.

H78.1. †H78.1. Youth shoots raven and takes feather to raven's sister as token. *Type 553.

H78.2. †H78.2. Identification by feather taken from hero when he was transformed to bird. *Type 665.

H79. †H79. Recognition by physical attributes -- miscellaneous. Jewish: *Neuman.

H79.1. †H79.1. Troll's daughter after being cooked in kettle recognized by golden fingernail. Fb "guldnagle" I 514.

H79.2. †H79.2. Identification of man by his little toe. Chinese: Werner 337.

H79.3. †H79.3. Recognition by voice. Icelandic: Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H79.4. †H79.4. Recognition by smile. Sultan frees prisoner when he recognizes him as a former aid. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H79.5. †H79.5. Identification of man by his skull. Irish myth: Cross.

H79.6. †H79.6. Recognition by large breasts that woman in bed is not husband's wife. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 35.

H79.7. †H79.7. Recognition of monk by his large organ. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 15.

H79.8. †H79.8. Identity established because one of man's teeth is blue. India: Thompson-Balys.

†H80-†H149. Identification by tokens.

H80. †H80. Identification by tokens. Types 300, 301, 304, 306, 873; English: Child V 499 s. v. "tokens"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18; Greek: Fox 71; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

H80.1. †H80.1. True redeemers to be recognized by tokens. Jewish: *Neuman.

H81. †H81. Clandestine lover recognized by tokens.

H81.1. †H81.1. Hero lies by sleeping girl and leaves identification token with her. *Types 304, 550, 551; *BP II 505; *Fb "sove" III 472a; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 26; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H81.1.1. †H81.1.1. Hero takes token from sleeping princess. Type 304; BP II 505; German: Grimm No. 111.

H81.2. †H81.2. Clandestine visit of princess to hero betrayed by token. *Type 851; BP I 197; India: Thompson-Balys.

H81.3. †H81.3. Clandestine visit of lover to queen betrayed by token. Icelandic: Boberg.

H82. †H82. Identifying tokens sent with messenger. English: Child V 499 s. v. "tokens"; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H82.1. †H82.1. Tokens sent to jailor as warrant of king's authority. English: Child V 499 s. v. "tokens".

H82.2. †H82.2. Marriage tokens identifying lover. English: Child V 499 s. v. "tokens"; Icelandic: Boberg.

H82.3. †H82.3. Tokens between lovers. (Cf. †H105.6.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

H82.4. †H82.4. Ring sent from husband to wife as token that he has been baptized, and that she should also be. Icelandic: Boberg.

H82.5. †H82.5. Token sent as warning. Icelandic: Boberg.

H82.6. †H82.6. Token sent with youth to relatives, that they may take care of him. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H83. †H83. Rescue tokens. Proof that hero has succeeded in rescue. (Cf. †H105, †H105.1, †H105.2.) *Types 300, 301, 304, 306; *Hartland Perseus III 203ff. (list of tokens).

H84. †H84. Tokens of exploits.

H84.1. †H84.1. Branches broken from tree to prove journey. Type 306; German: Grimm No. 133.

H84.2. †H84.2. Cup taken as proof that one has been present at feast. Type 306; German: Grimm No. 133.

H84.3. †H84.3. Flail substantiates story of witnessing threshing in heaven. Type 852; German: Grimm No. 112.

H84.4. †H84.4. Stolen ring as proof of daring theft. German: Grimm No. 192.

H85. †H85. Captive sends token of safety. Africa (Swahili): Steere 143, (Zulu): Callaway 221.

H86. †H86. Inscribed name on article as token of ownership. (Cf. †H94.10.) German: Grimm Nos. 60, 101, 111.

H86.1. †H86.1. Saber with king's name inscribed on it. German: Grimm No. 111.

H86.2. †H86.2. Articles of clothing with name embroidered on them taken as tokens. German: Grimm No. 111.

H86.3. †H86.3. Ring with names inscribed on it. German: Grimm No. 101.

H86.4. †H86.4. Handkerchief with name on it. German: Grimm No. 60.

H87. †H87. Garlands (flowers) as token. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H88. †H88. Recognition by tokens left as trail. Irish myth: *Cross.

H90. †H90. Identification by ornaments. *Type 870A; India: Thompson-Balys.

H91. †H91. Recognition through precious metal.

H91.1. †H91.1. Recognition through gold found in eagle's nest. English: Wells 114 (Sir Isumbras).

H91.2. †H91.2. Recognition by gold wrapped in mantle. *Hibbard 9.

H91.3. †H91.3. Identification by producing three golden apples. German: Grimm No. 136.

H92. †H92. Identification by necklace. *Types 450, 870, 870A; *BP I 79ff., III 443ff., 445; *Fb "guldkjæde" IV 192a; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 514.

H93. †H93. Identification by jewel. French: Cosquin Lorraine I 220 n.; Hindu: Tawney I 170.

H93.0.1. †H93.0.1. Recognition by smell of jewels worn about neck. India: Thompson-Balys.

H94. †H94. Identification by ring. *Types 301, 304, 882; *BP II 348; Thien Motive 33; *Fb "ring" III 60a; *Hartland Perseus III 207ff.; Liungman Två Folkeminnes. 25 n. 1; Saintyves Perrault 204ff.; Irish myth: *Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 26; English: Wells 9ff. (Horn Childe and Maiden Rimnild), 73 (Sir Percyvelle of Galles), 80 (Sir Tristrem); Icelandic: *Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 181; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 3; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Penzer II 76f., Tawney I 142 n., II 620; Chinese: Graham.

H94.0.1. †H94.0.1. Recognition of wife's ring in friend's possession informs husband of her unfaithfulness. Heptameron No. 8.

H94.1. †H94.1. Identification by ring baked in cake. *Type 400.

H94.2. †H94.2. Identification by ring baked in bread. *Type 510; *Fb "ring" III 60a; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bague".

H94.3. †H94.3. Identification by ring dropped in pitcher of wine. Penzer II 76 n. 1.

H94.4. †H94.4. Identification by ring dropped in glass (cup) of wine. *Types 400, 506, 510; *Fb "guldring" I 514b, "ring" III 60a; *BP II 348; Wesselski Mönchslatein 111 No. 95; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 53, Beal XXI 320; English: Wells 9 (King Horn), Child V 493 s. v. "ring.

H94.5. †H94.5. Identification through broken ring. (Cf. †H100.) The two parts of the ring fit together. Type 361, BP II 428; *Fb "guldring" I 514b, "ring" III No. 95; Heptameron No. 24; Köhler-Bolte I 585; Wesselski Mönchslatein 111 No. 95; Icelandic: Boberg; English: Child V 493 "ring"; Filipino: Fansler MAFLS XII 210.

H94.6. †H94.6. Recognition through arm-ring. Africa (Angola): Chatelain 227 No. 40.

H94.7. †H94.7. Recognition by ring springing off finger. Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 9.

H94.8. †H94.8. Recognition by medallion (plaque). Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H94.9. †H94.9. Identification through ring concealed in garland. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H94.10. †H94.10. Recognition through gold ring with owner's name engraved on it. (Cf. †H88.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H94.11. †H94.11. Recognition by earrings. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 35.

H95. †H95. Recognition by bracelet. Chinese: Graham.

H96. †H96. Identification by amulet. (Cf. †D1070.) Jewish: Neuman.

H100. †H100. Identification by matching parts of divided token. Icelandic: Boberg.

H101. †H101. Identification by broken weapon. Point of weapon broken off. Later found to match rest of weapon. English: Wells 80 (Sir Tristrem); Icelandic: Ragnarssaga Loðbrókar 118, Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18f.; Indonesia: cf. De Vries's list No. 163.

H101.1. †H101.1. Identification by matching weapon with wound. Africa (Chaga): Stamberg ZsES XXI 296ff., Gutmann 82f. No. 41, (Ganda): Baskerville 1ff.

H102. †H102. Identification by indenture. Each of two persons keeps his half of a contract which has been torn in two. Fitting of the halves brings about recognition. English: Child II 499b.

H102.1. †H102.1. Identification by fitting together two pieces of parchment. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H103. †H103. Pieces taken from flags serve to identify. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "drapeau".

H105. †H105. Parts of slain animals as token of slaying. *Hartland Perseus III 207; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 242b. nn. 37--47; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 7; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 343 No. 59.

H105.1. †H105.1. Dragon-tongue proof. Dragon slayer cuts out the tongues and uses them later to prove his identity as slayer. *Types 300, 303; *Hartland Perseus III 203ff.; **Ranke FFC CXIV 251ff.; *BP I 534ff., 548; Fb "tunge" III 893b; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 242a nn. 24--47; Schoepperle I 204 n. 3; Irish myth: Cross; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 7, 18f.; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 63 n. 4; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 323ff.; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 278 No. 90.

H105.1.1. †H105.1.1. False dragon-head proof. Impostor cuts off dragon heads (after tongues have been removed) and attempts to use them as proof of slaying the dragon. *Type 300; *BP I 534ff. and all references to †H105.1; *Parsons FL XXXII 194ff.; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H105.2. †H105.2. Tongue as proof that man has been murdered. *Fb "tunge" III 894a; India: Thompson-Balys.

H105.2.1. †H105.2.1. Tongue of slain giant as proof of slaying. Icelandic: Boberg.

H105.3. †H105.3. Arm of monster kept as token of innocence of dog. Scottish: Campbell-McKay.

H105.4. †H105.4. Head of monster as token (proof) of slaying. Africa (Ronga): Junod Les Chants et les Contes des Ba-Ronga (Lausanne, 1897) 317ff. No. 30.

H105.4.1. †H105.4.1. Monster's beard as proof of visit. Type 461; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 602, *Boberg.

H105.5. †H105.5. Ears, fingers and noses of demons cut off as proof of killing them. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H105.5.1. †H105.5.1. Recognition of tiger-slayer by tips of ears, nose, and tail of tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.

H105.5.2. †H105.5.2. Teeth and fingernails of slain cyclops taken as proof. India: Thompson-Balys.

H105.5.3. †H105.5.3. Beak and claws of slain monster as proof of slaying. Icelandic: Boberg.

H105.5.4. †H105.5.4. Abandoned son shows claws and tail of tiger to which his parents have exposed him. India: Thompson-Balys.

H105.6. †H105.6. Identification between lovers by matching claw and leg of dragon. Icelandic: Boberg.

H105.7. †H105.7. Sex organs of enemy as proof of slaying. Jewish: Neuman.

H106. †H106. Identification by severed limbs. (Cf. also †H105.)

H106.1. †H106.1. Identification by severed hand. India: Thompson-Balys.

H106.2. †H106.2. Severed head as proof of killing. Type 507B (H. C. Andersen Rejsekammeraten); Icelandic: *Boberg; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H110. <†H110. Identification by cloth or clothing.

H111. †H111. Identification by garment. *Types 301, 510B, 451; English: Wells 116 (Sir Eglamour of Artois), 126 (Lai le Freine); Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Africa (Benga): Nassau 229 No. 34.

H111.1. †H111.1. Identification by royal garments. Burton Nights S VII 108; English: Wells 126 (Lai la Freine).

H111.2. †H111.2. Identification by feather cloak. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 420, 479.

H112. †H112. Identification by scarf. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "foulard".

H113. †H113. Identification by handkerchief. *Types 300, 301; *Hartland Perseus III 206ff.; Missouri French: Carrière; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "mouchoir"; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H114. †H114. Identification by glove. English: Wells 134 (Sir Degare); Icelandic: Boberg.

H115. †H115. Identification by veil. *Hartland Perseus III 206.

H116. †H116. Identification by girdle. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H117. †H117. Identification by cut garment. Garment is cut and fragment taken as token. *Types 304, 851; *BP I 197, II 505; *Hartland Perseus 208ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

H118. †H118. Identification by shred of garment of rescued princess used as bandage for wound. Irish myth: *Cross.

H119. †H119. Identification by cloth or clothing -- miscellaneous.

H119.1. †H119.1. A piece of cloth on one's back as a guarantee against his being eaten on the way. India: Thompson-Balys.

H119.2. †H119.2. Needle left in garment of husband by abducted wife as sign. Chinese: Graham.

H120. †H120. Identification by tokens -- miscellaneous.

H121. †H121. Identification by cup. English: Wells 158 (Amis and Amiloun); Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H125. †H125. Identification by weapons. Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

H125.1. †H125.1. Identification by sword. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 100 (Theseus).

H125.2. †H125.2. Identification by spear. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 416.

H125.3. †H125.3. Identification by war-club. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 508.

H125.4. †H125.4. Recognition by dart. Maori: Beckwith Myth 482.

H126. †H126. Identification by coat of arms. English: Wells 117 (Sir Torrent of Portyngale).

H131. †H131. Identification by axe. Recognition by axe which man bears. Fb "økse" III 1171b.

H132. †H132. Recognition by knife. Man who is werwolf recognized by knife which was carried away by the wolf. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 46 No. 74; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 131 No. 74.

H133. †H133. Recognition by calabash. Slave recognizes calabash and knows that girl lives. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 27.

H134. †H134. Recognition through books. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H135. †H135. Leaf (chip) sent down stream as a warning to one below. (Cf. †H35.4.) Child I 40b, 487a; *Schoepperle Tristan and Isolt 301ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

H135.1. †H135.1. Recognition by trimmed leaf thrown from tree hiding place. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Africa (Nyanja): Rattray Some Folk-Lore Stories (London, 1907) 149ff. No. 24, (Chaga): Stamberg ZsES XXIII 296ff.

H135.2. †H135.2. Milk poured into stream as signal. Irish myth: Cross.

H142. †H142. Recognition by token -- mouth-harp left by bed. Chinese: Graham.

H145. †H145. Identification by magic hand. India: Thompson-Balys.

H147. †H147. Recognition by tobacco-pipe. Chinese: Graham (†H107).

H150. †H150. Circumstances of recognition. Missouri French: Carrière.

H151. †H151. Attention drawn and recognition follows.

H151.1. †H151.1. Attention drawn by magic objects: recognition follows. *Type 707; *BP II 380ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone Introduction; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H151.1.1. †H151.1.1. Attention drawn by playing marbles with remarkable jewel. India: Thompson-Balys.

H151.1.2. †H151.1.2. Attention drawn by gold and silver decorated mouse: as princess turns after it, suitor recognizes her. Icelandic: Boberg.

H151.1.3. †H151.1.3. Recognition by ability to perform marvels. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

H151.2. †H151.2. Attention drawn by helpful animal's theft of food from wedding table; recognition follows. *Type 301, 900; BP I 443ff.; *Philippson FFC L 53; *Fb "mad" II 525a.

H151.3. †H151.3. Recognition when parents come to son (priest, pope) to be confessed. *Type 933; *Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 173 (to Gonzenbach No. 85); *Baum PMLA XXXI 562 n. 59; Japanese: Ikeda.

H151.4. †H151.4. Recognition by cup in sack: alleged stolen goods. Cup is placed in the sack of Joseph's brethren, they are accused of theft; this gives occasion for recognition. *BP I 489; *Fb "sæk" III 720b, "bæger" IV 83a; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 10; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

H151.5. †H151.5. Attention attracted by hints dropped by heroine as menial: recognition follows. *Type 510; India: Thompson-Balys.

H151.6. †H151.6. Heroine in menial disguise discovered in her beautiful clothes: recognition follows. *Type 510; India: Thompson-Balys.

H151.6.1. †H151.6.1. Enchanted heroine seen temporarily disenchanted: recognition follows. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 6.

H151.6.2. †H151.6.2. Recognition because of imperfection of disguise. Type 510; German: Grimm No. 152.

H151.7. †H151.7. Hero's power to transform girl to carnation brings about recognition. *Type 652.

H151.8. †H151.8. Husband attracted by wife's power of healing: recognition follows. *Type 712.

H151.9. †H151.9. Abandoned child joins parents in game: recognition follows. Oceanic (New Zealand, Melanesia): Dixon 42 n. 10.

H151.9.1. †H151.9.1. Abandoned child recognized in game. India: Thompson-Balys.

H151.10. †H151.10. Combat of unknown brothers brings about recognition. Dickson 108 n. 18; Icelandic: Boberg.

H151.11. †H151.11. Hero is served at table by his unknown son: recognition of his wife follows. English: Wells 130 (Emare). Cf. Chaucer's Man of Law's Tale.

H151.12. †H151.12. Geese tell of beauty of their mistress and bring about recognition. *Type 533; Köhler-Bolte I 347; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 7.

H151.13. †H151.13. Disguised hero's golden hair discovered by spying princess. Type 314.

H151.14. †H151.14. Tears fall on person below and indicate presence of those above (on cliff, tree, etc.).

H151.14.1. †H151.14.1. Recognition by tear falling from tree where girl has been abandoned. India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 77.

H151.15. †H151.15. Seller of trinkets tells of heroine's address of son as "tiger's son" and brings about recognition of true bride. India: Thompson-Balys.

H152. †H152. Recognition through accidental encounter.

H152.1. †H152.1. Poor people given alms: one of them recognized. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H152.1.1. †H152.1.1. Woman entertains every traveler in the hope of finding her husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

H152.2. †H152.2. Impoverished husband in service of wife recognized. India: Thompson-Balys.

H152.3. †H152.3. Abandoned wife recognized among workers. India: Thompson-Balys.

H153. †H153. Outcast wife (children) builds castle identical with king's, invites him, and is recognized. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H154. †H154. Recognition of abandoned child when parent comes to him for relief from famine. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H155. †H155. Abandoned queen invites all to forest, gives appropriate food to her persecutors, and is recognized. India: Thompson-Balys.

H157. †H157. King finds note with children in casket floated down river identifying them as his. (Cf. †S141.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 526.

H161. †H161. Recognition of transformed person among identical companions. Prearranged signals. *Type 313, 325; *BP II 29, 516ff.; *Fb "hest" I 598b; *Köhler to Gonzenbach II 246. --Missouri French: Carrière; Hindu: Keith 142; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 340 n. 224.

H161.0.1. †H161.0.1. Recognition of person among identical companions. Irish myth: *Cross; Chinese: Graham.

H162. †H162. Recognition of disguised princess by bee lighting on her. Fb "bi" IV 36b; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H162.1. †H162.1. Insect points out deity by settling where he is. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 18.

H162.2. †H162.2. King selected by having a cricket light on his head. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H162.3. †H162.3. Recognition of disguised princess by bull. Africa (Madagascar): Renel I 144ff. No. 26, 148ff. No. 27.

H163. †H163. Recognition of own cow in herd of twenty thousand. Hornet helper. Africa: Werner African 154.

H165. †H165. Father recognizes son after having thrown him in oven. Marquesas: Beckwith Myth 482.

H171. †H171. Animal (object) indicates election of ruler. *Egerton JAOS XXXIII 158; *Chauvin VI 75 No. 239; Irish: Beal XXI 309.

H171.1. †H171.1. King selected by elephant's bowing to him. *Penzer V 175ff.; *Hartland Ritual and Belief (1914) 290ff.; *Christiansen FFC XXIV 124; Paris Zs. f. Vksk. XIII 6 n. 8. --India: *Thompson-Balys.

H171.1.1. †H171.1.1. Elephant raises girl three times to be king's wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

H171.2. †H171.2. Bird indicates election of king (pope). *Type 671; *BP I 325; Fb "pave" II 793a; *Loomis White Magic 66; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H171.3. †H171.3. Horse indicates election of emperor. *Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 157; Penzer IV 104, V 176; Herodotus II cap. 84--87; Herbert III 210; Oesterley No. 270.

H171.4. †H171.4. Man before whom riderless car stops chosen king. *Penzer V 175ff.

H171.4.1. †H171.4.1. Man before whom oxen stop chosen king. India: Thompson-Balys.

H171.5. †H171.5. Stone of destiny (Lia Fáil). Roars out under rightful king. (Cf. †H71.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H171.6. †H171.6. Pope selected by chair moving toward candidate. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 27 (b).

H172. †H172. Animal will serve only certain man.

H172.1. †H172.1. Horse will permit only certain man to ride him. India: Thompson-Balys.

H173. †H173. Disguised man recognized by dog. Greek: Fox 139; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H173.1. †H173.1. Chieftain recognized by faithful swineherd. Irish myth: Cross.

H173.2. †H173.2. Chieftain recognized by former captive. Irish myth: Cross.

H173.3. †H173.3. Animal first to recognize his returned master. *Boje 105, 108ff.; Icelandic: Boberg.

H175. †H175. Recognition by "force of nature". Unknown member of family immediately and magically recognized. *Dickson 16f., 69 n. 17; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 86.

H175.1. †H175.1. Recognition of son by gushing up of milk in mother's breasts. *Cosquin Études 199ff., 238; *Chauvin V 13 No. 8; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H175.2. †H175.2. Child mystically recognizes woman as his mother. Chinese: Graham.

H175.3. †H175.3. Sick prince's pulse beats violently when his loved one passes by. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H175.4. †H175.4. Fire issues spontaneously from fireless hearth when man approaches. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H175.5. †H175.5. Ghost of unknown child passes over heads of parents and bursts in a spray of blood. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 183.

H181. †H181. Recognition by unmasking. *Type 900; India: Thompson-Balys.

H182. †H182. Beating brings about outcry and recognition. India: Thompson-Balys.

H183. †H183. Identification by nurse. Long-missing person identified by his childhood nurse. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H184. †H184. Recognition by miraculous sight of seer (saint). Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 119 (Cassandra).

H186. †H186. Hero spits twice at his wife as sign of recognition. Chinese: Graham.

H187. †H187. Recognition by servant: saves master from death. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H188. †H188. Princess appears before crane (who had demanded her in marriage) and is recognized by him despite loathly disguise. India: Thompson-Balys.

H192. †H192. Recognition by supernatural manifestation. Jewish: Neuman.

H192.1. †H192.1. Recognition of man acceptable to God: knife leaps into his hand. Jewish: *Neuman.

†H200-†H299. Tests of truth.

†H210-†H239. Tests of guilt or innocence.

H210. †H210. Test of guilt or innocence. Icelandic: Boberg.

H210.1. †H210.1. Guilt or innocence of souls tested by bridge. Irish myth: Cross.

H211. †H211. Criminal detected by having child hand knife to him. *Type 950; Köhler-Bolte I 202.

H215. †H215. Magic manifestation at execution proves innocence. Types 451, 710; Irish: Beal XXI 316; German: Grimm Nos. 3, 6, 120; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H215.1. †H215.1. Sword magically changed to wood when executioner is to decapitate innocent person. Chauvin V 173 No. 96 n. 1.

H215.2. †H215.2. Gallows rope breaks when innocent person is hanged. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 44.

H215.3. †H215.3. Grass refuses to grow: indication of innocence of man hanged there. (Cf. †E631.2, †F974.) U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

H215.4. †H215.4. Ineradicable handprint as indication of innocence. (Cf. †D1654.3.) U.S.: Baughman.

H216. †H216. Indications of innocence.

H216.1. †H216.1. Garden filled with flowers on innocent girl's approach. India: Thompson-Balys.

H216.2. †H216.2. Voice from heaven testifies to innocence of accused. (Cf. †F966.) Jewish: *Neuman.

H216.3. †H216.3. Church door opens magically, as proof of priest's innocence. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 29.

H217. †H217. Decision made by contest. India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 195; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 137.

H217.1. †H217.1. Decision of victory by single combat between army leaders. (Cf. †H218.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

H217.2. †H217.2. Decision by single combat or holmgang of who is to marry girl. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H217.3. †H217.3. Holmgang to decide owner of gold. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H217.4. †H217.4. Holmgang to decide who is to be king. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H218. †H218. Trial by combat. Guilt or innocence established in judicial combat. Thien Motive 41f.; *Schoepperle II 338ff.; Dickson 74, 77 n. 38, 78 n. 40, 130f., 153, 174, 226; *Ashdown Modern Lang. Review XVII 113ff.; Bell ibid XVIII 22ff.; *Boje 88; *Hibbard 35ff., 132 n. 11. --Irish myth: *Cross; English: Child V 490 s. v. "ordeal", Wells 97 (Chevalere Assigne); Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Tawney I 396.

H218.0.1. †H218.0.1. Vindication by champion. Usually noble lady or king accused. Child II 34--48, 508a, 510b. See also most references to †H218.

H218.1. †H218.1. Judicial combat interrupted by friends of loser. *Dickson 79 n. 40.

H218.2. †H218.2. Wrestling to test legitimacy of son. India: Thompson-Balys.

H220. †H220. Ordeals. Guilt or innocence thus established. **Patetta Le Ordalie (1890). *Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 994ff.; Penzer VIII 196 n.; Keith Encyc. Relig. Eth. s. v. "ordeal"; Basset RTP XVII 397, 597, XIX 156ff., XXIII 182. --Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 317; English: Child V 490 "ordeal"; Icelandic: Boberg; West Indies: Flowers 455.

H221. †H221. Ordeal by fire. Suspected person must pass through or jump over fire to determine guilt or innocence. Basset RTP VI 631; Scala Celi 6b, 46b Nos. 38, 259; Herbert III 605f., Alphabet Nos. 69, 221, 434; *Gaster Exempla 191 No. 28. --Irish: O'Suilleabhain 71; English: Child V 490 s. v. "ordeal"; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Keith 128; S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Ehrenreich Int. Cong. Americanists XIV 661; Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 248 No. 42; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 238 No. 9.

H221.1. †H221.1. Ordeal by burning coal. Basset RTP VII 284; Jewish: Neuman.

H221.1.1. †H221.1.1. Ordeal: carrying live coals in robe or cloak without harm to garment or bearer. *Loomis White Magic 34.

H221.1.2. †H221.1.2. Sanctity of person tested by survival in burning house. Irish myth: *Cross.

H221.1.3. †H221.1.3. Sanctity of books tested by throwing them into fire. Irish myth: *Cross.

H221.2. †H221.2. Ordeal by hot iron. *Penzer VIII 195 n. 3, 196 n.; Basset RTP VII 284, 615, VIII 20, 431, 561; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys.

H221.2.1. †H221.2.1. Ordeal: virgin to pull on hot iron and name men. Only with guilty will she and he be burnt. India: Thompson-Balys.

H221.2.2. †H221.2.2. Ordeal by red-hot iron applied by druids. Irish myth: *Cross.

H221.3. †H221.3. Ordeal by burning oil. Basset RTP VII 282, VIII 20; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 22.

H221.4. †H221.4. Ordeal by boiling water. Basset RTP VII 281, 616, VIII 561; Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 50, Beal XXI 318; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

H221.5. †H221.5. Ordeal by spitting. Extinguishing fire is proof of innocence. England: *Baughman.

H222. †H222. Ordeal by water. Guilt or innocence shown by ability to swim. *Kittredge Witchcraft 232ff., 536ff.; Penzer VIII 195f.; Basset RTP VII 285; *Fb "svømme" III 695b, "vand" III 999b, "vandprøve" III 1005b; Loomis White Magic 41. --Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Frazer Pausanias III 388; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3664; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 456.

H222.0.1. †H222.0.1. Ordeal by water applied by druids. Irish myth: *Cross.

H222.1. †H222.1. Legitimacy of children tested by dipping them in river. English: Child I 271 n.

H222.2. †H222.2. Ordeal by holy water. If simpleton closes his eyes to holy water he is possessed; if he laughs he is merely an idiot. U.S.: Baughman; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H222.3. †H222.3. Guilt or innocence shown by effect of enchanted water. Irish myth: Cross.

H222.4. †H222.4. Sanctity of books tested by throwing them into water. Irish myth: Cross.

H223. †H223. Ordeal by poison. Penzer VIII 196 n.; Basset RTP VI 631, VII 278, 616; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

H224. †H224. Ordeal by crocodiles (snakes). Judgment depends on whether person is devoured or rejected by crocodiles. Basset RTP VII 286; English: Child V 490 "ordeal."

H224.1. †H224.1. Ordeal by kissing poisonous serpents. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 46.

H225. †H225. Ordeal by rope-walking. Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 182, (Ekoi): Talbot 402; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 238 No. 9.

H225.1. †H225.1. Ordeal: walking on ladder of knives. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 22.

H225.2. †H225.2. Ordeal: walking on eggs. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 22.

H226. †H226. Ordeal by balance. Defendant is weighed twice. He must be lighter second time. *Penzer VIII 195 n. 3.

H227. †H227. Ordeal: carrying murdered man's blood. Must not spill it. Fb "blod" IV 47b.

H228. †H228. Ordeal by creeping under a sod partially detached from the earth without its falling down. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H232. †H232. Ordeal by bread and cheese. Declaration: if I am not innocent may I choke on bread and cheese. Kittredge Witchcraft 237f., 543 nn. 85--91; England: *Baughman.

H233. †H233. Ordeal: taking stone out of bucket. Color indicates guilt or innocence. Irish myth: *Cross.

H233.1. †H233.1. Ordeal: names of suspected persons are placed in chalice on altar: the one to whom the lot falls is guilty. Irish myth: Cross.

H234. †H234. Scales test: weighing witch against Bible. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

H235. †H235. Ordeal: cock under pot crows when guilty person touches pot. England: *Baughman.

H236. †H236. Ordeal by exposure. (Cf. †S141, †S331.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H240. †H240. Other tests of truth. Icelandic: Boberg.

H241. †H241. Worn-out shoes as proof of long journey. *Köhler-Bolte I 574f.; Fb "sko" III 288b; Icelandic: Saga och Sed 1940 p. 35, *Boberg; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 114.

H242. †H242. Credential tests: proof that messenger comes from certain person. Africa (Fjort): Dennett 75 No. 16.

H242.1. †H242.1. Riding speckled horse as credential test. Irish myth: Cross.

H243. †H243. Nature fruitless if false judgment is passed. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H244. †H244. Person magically disfigured when he speaks falsely. Irish myth: *Cross.

H245. †H245. Casting lots as truth test. Irish myth: *Cross.

H245.1. †H245.1. Incantation which when recited over certain "lots" causes them to distinguish between guilt and innocence. Irish myth: Cross.

H248. †H248. Test of death: to see whether person is dead or feigning. English: Child V 3, 6, 498 s. v. "tests"; Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 16ff. Nos. 1, 3, 3 version 2; (Basuto): Jacottet 14 No. 1.

H248.1. †H248.1. Sham-dead person tested by hot lead poured on hand. *Wesselski Märchen 197.

H248.2. †H248.2. Sham dead tested by stinging insects down back. Africa (Yaunde): Heepe 253ff. No. 31.

H248.2.1. †H248.2.1. Crocodile masking as dead obeys suggestion that he make flesh quiver. India: Thompson-Balys.

H248.3. †H248.3. Sham dead tested by pricking. Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman.

H248.4. †H248.4. Test of death by putting burning wood in the mouth of fallen warriors. Icelandic: Boberg.

H248.5. †H248.5. Sham dead detected by batting eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.

H251. †H251. Test of truth by magic object.

H251.1. †H251.1. Bocca della Verità. Person swearing oath places hand in mouth of image. If oath is false the hand is bitten off. *Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 216; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 8, 206; *Krappe Nuovi Studi Medievali II fasc. I (1925); *Spargo Virgil the Necromancer 207ff.; English: Child I 269, 270 n., cf. Alphabet No. 418; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H251.1.1. †H251.1.1. Oath of truth before magic lion. If oath is false perjurer is dismembered. India: Thompson-Balys.

H251.2. †H251.2. Stone of truth. When one stands on it he must utter truth. Fb "sten" III 554b; *Loomis White Magic 132. --Irish: Plummer clvii, *Cross.

H251.2.1. †H251.2.1. Stone cannot be moved by one who speaks falsehood. Irish myth: Cross.

H251.2.2. †H251.2.2. Magic stone detects perjury: sheds water. Irish myth: Cross.

H251.2.3. †H251.2.3. Stone on which saint was born pours forth water when perjury is committed under it. "But if (the) oath be true, the stone remains in its proper nature." Irish myth: Cross.

H251.3. †H251.3. Other magic object tests truth.

H251.3.1. †H251.3.1. Tree tests perjury. Irish: Plummer cliii, Cross.

H251.3.2. †H251.3.2. Thief detected by psalter and key. Closed Bible with key inside at magic text loosely held by diviner and client. Name of suspected thief on end of key. As verse is spoken, if name is that of thief, book and key will turn around. Kittredge Witchcraft 196 nn. 65--82.

H251.3.3. †H251.3.3. Thief detected by sieve and shears. Sieve put on open shears and then grasped by two fingers so as to balance. Charm recited. If sieve trembles when name is called, that person is guilty. Kittredge Witchcraft 198ff. nn. 83--94; England: Baughman; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn VI (1900) 389ff., (1936) 188ff.

H251.3.4. †H251.3.4. Stick with money in it breaks and betrays thief who swears his innocence. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 248a; *Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII 78; Chauvin II 129; BP IV 323, 389; Jewish: Gaster Exempla No. 121, *Neuman.

H251.3.5. †H251.3.5. Oath taken before image. If oath is false the image turns around (or changes color). Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H251.3.6. †H251.3.6. Chain around neck tests truth. Tightens when wearer speaks falsehood. Irish myth: Cross.

H251.3.7. †H251.3.7. Magic object cast on water sinks if person is guilty. Irish myth: Cross.

H251.3.8. †H251.3.8. Magic object clings to hand of guilty person. Irish myth: *Cross.

H251.3.9. †H251.3.9. Magic spring detects perjury: disfigures perjurer. Irish myth: Cross.

H251.3.9.1. †H251.3.9.1. Magic spring detects parricide and idolatry. Irish myth: Cross.

H251.3.9.2. †H251.3.9.2. Well rises for sheep only for rightful owner. Jewish: Neuman.

H251.3.10. †H251.3.10. False judgment by judge causes fruit to fall. Just judgment by judge causes fruit to be perfect. Irish myth: Cross.

H251.3.11. †H251.3.11. Pig that can be boiled only after four true stories are told. Irish myth: *Cross.

H251.3.12. †H251.3.12. Truth-testing vessel. Irish myth: *Cross.

H251.3.13. †H251.3.13. Magic cup as test of truth and falsehood. Irish myth: Cross.

H251.3.14. †H251.3.14. Calumniated princess' dead body fails to rot; accuser repudiated. India: Thompson-Balys.

H252. †H252. Act of truth. Person asserts a thing as true declaring: "If my words are true, may this or that happen." W. J. Rees Lives of the Cambro-British Saints 193; J. P. Collier Old Shakespeare Society XIV 82; Alphabet Nos. 35, 486; *Burlingame Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (July 1917) 429ff.; Fb "ildebrand" II 13. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys, *Penzer II 31ff., III 179ff., IV 239 n. 3; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 23, 96, 151, 490, 531, 707, 832, II 412, 473, 614, 679, 816, 841, 933, 1060, 1098, 1153, 1258.

H252.0.1. †H252.0.1. Test: telling true stories. Irish myth: *Cross.

H252.1. †H252.1. Placing hand on genitals as test of truth. Irish myth: Cross.

H252.2. †H252.2. Amount of blood in spittle as test of complete subjection. Incomplete till all is blood. Irish myth: Cross.

H252.3. †H252.3. If oath is false, fruit will fall. (Cf. †H251.3.10.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H252.4. †H252.4. Oath taken on boy's head: boy to die if false. India: Thompson-Balys.

H252.4.1. †H252.4.1. Act of truth: boy falls dead though what has been said is the truth; when lie is told he is resuscitated. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H252.4.2. †H252.4.2. Women swear falsely by their husbands and children, who immediately fall dead. India: Thompson-Balys.

H252.5. †H252.5. Act of truth: island sinks into sea, after hanging of man who has appealed to God to cause the phenomenon as indication of his innocence. (Cf. †F948.) U.S.: *Baughman.

H252.6. †H252.6. Act of truth: cursed church clock never runs correctly. England: Baughman.

H253. †H253. Oaths before gods as test of truth. Chinese: Werner 403.

H255. †H255. Test: which of twins is elder. Younger unthinkingly hands chopsticks to elder and thus betrays his junior rank. Burmese: Scott Indo-Chinese 356.

H256. †H256. Test of innocence: apple and gold offered. Innocent person takes apple. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 93a; BP I 203, III 236.

H256.1. †H256.1. Test of child's innocence: onyx stone and coal of fire offered. (Cf. †H501.) Jewish: Neuman.

H257. †H257. Holiness of saint tested: asked to perform miracles. India: Thompson-Balys.

H257.1. †H257.1. Grade of holiness tested: one whose candle burns down first. *Loomis White Magic 129.

H261. †H261. Gold in the Bible. A man professes to be a great Bible reader. King leaves a piece of money in the Bible. On his next visit it is still there. Anderson FFC XLII 361. Cf. Type 1453.

H263. †H263. Test of sin. Irish myth: Cross.

H263.1. †H263.1. Exposure in boat as test of sin. Irish myth: Cross.

H264. †H264. Footsteps in manure (dust) as proof that dead man has walked. Chinese: Graham.

†H300-†H499. Marriage tests.

H300. †H300. Tests connected with marriage.

H301. †H301. Excessive demands to prevent marriage. *Chauvin V 63 No. 19 n. 1; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H305. †H305. Task: to win ogress' daughter for a bride. India: Thompson-Balys.

†H310-†H359. Suitor tests.

H310. †H310. Suitor tests. A suitor is put to severe tests by his prospective bride or father-in-law. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; English: Wells 16 (Guy of Warwick); Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 187; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 324 n. 170, 328 n. 186; S. Am. Indian (Tropical Forests): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 55, (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 264; Africa: Werner African 153f., (Benga): Nassau 227 No. 34.

H310.1. †H310.1. Tests for hero, husband of supernatural (divine) wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

H310.2. †H310.2. Brother unwittingly qualifies as bridegroom of sister in test. India: Thompson-Balys.

H311. †H311. Inspection test for suitors. Suitors for princess's hand must present themselves for public inspection. (Cf. †H362, †T55.7.) Types 314, 502; BP III 111; Krappe Revue Hispanique LXXXI 5ff.; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 104, *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

H312. †H312. Physical and mental requirements for suitors. Penzer III 66; Irish myth: *Cross; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 106 n. 1.

H312.1. †H312.1. Successful suitor to be without blotches. Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 69 No. 15; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 272 No. 85.

H312.2. †H312.2. Successful suitor must have gold teeth. *Fb "tand" III 771a; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 93; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 1.

H312.3. †H312.3. Suitors chosen with feet as only part seen. Icelandic: Boberg.

H312.4. †H312.4. Successful suitor must have whitest hands. Blacksmith qualifies because of frequent washing of hands. Herbert III 86.

H312.4.1. †H312.4.1. Successful suitor must have the prettiest hands; not whitest, but dark with scars and gold rings. Köhler-Bolte I 90; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H312.5. †H312.5. Successful suitor must have cheeks like blood, skin like snow and hair like a raven. (Cf. †Z65.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H312.6. †H312.6. Suitor test: correct wearing of clothes. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H312.7. †H312.7. Suitor test: to be able to go through a wall. Chinese: Graham.

H312.8. †H312.8. Bridegroom-to-be has to have three pecks, three quarts of gold and an animal with a horn on his head pointing to the sky, and a large red hair. Chinese: Graham.

H313. †H313. Suitor test: obedience and humility before bride. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H313.1. †H313.1. Princess will marry whoever will give her anything she wishes for a month. India: Thompson-Balys.

H313.2. †H313.2. Fairy will marry king only if he will either cut off son's head or give up fasting on eleventh day. India: Thompson-Balys.

H314. †H314. Suitor's sincerity tested. Chinese: Werner 272.

H314.1. †H314.1. Suitor's sincerity tested by reporting girl's death. All but one make excuses for not helping with funeral. Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 85 No. 14.

H314.2. †H314.2. Suitor's sincerity tested by seven years' banishment. Heptameron No. 24.

H315. †H315. Suitor test: to whom the princess turns. Rival suitors sleep with princess. The one she turns to is to have her. They vie in enticements. *Type 621, 850; Köhler-Bolte I 428f.

H315.1. †H315.1. Suitor test: to make the princess fall in love with him. India: Thompson-Balys.

H315.2. †H315.2. Suitor contest: bride offered to suitor giving the token of the greater love. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H316. †H316. Suitor test: apple thrown indicates princess's choice. (Often golden apple.) *Type 502; *BP III 111; Cosquin Contes Indiens 317ff.; Chauvin VI 3, *201, VIII 151, *Galtier RTP XIV 65; Fb "guldæble" I 516a; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 93a.

H316.1. †H316.1. Orange (lemon) thrown to indicate princess's choice. Cosquin Contes Indiens 317ff.

H316.2. †H316.2. Flowers thrown to indicate princess's choice. Cosquin Contes Indiens 317ff.; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H316.3. †H316.3. Ball (goblet) thrown indicates princess's choice. Indonesian: De Vries's list No. 216; Persian: Carnoy 341.

H316.4. †H316.4. Suitor test: garland thrown indicates girl's choice. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H316.5. †H316.5. Expressing love by throwing little stones. India: Thompson-Balys.

H317. †H317. Long term of service imposed on suitor. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H317.1. †H317.1. Seven years of service imposed on suitor. Frazer Old Testament II 342--368; English: Wells 149 (The Squyr of Low Degre), Child I 204--6, 255, V 212b; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Cowell Jataka VI 164.

H317.2. †H317.2. Two years of silence imposed on suitor. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H317.3. †H317.3. Gardener's son to marry princess if he remains in prison twelve years. India: Thompson-Balys

H317.4. †H317.4. Test of suitor's love and endurance by constant postponing. Icelandic: Ragnars saga Loðbr. 127--29, Boberg.

H318. †H318. Suitor preferred who will pay enormous sum for bride. India: Thompson-Balys.

H321. †H321. Suitor test: hiding from princess. She has magic sight. *Types 329, 554; *BP II 365; Köhler-Bolte I 408.

H322. †H322. Suitor test: finding princess. Type 590; Fb "skjule"; cf. Thompson CColl II 393; Filipino: Fansler MAFLS XII 183; Tuamotu: Stimson (z-G. 13/1241); West Indies: Flowers 457.

H322.1. †H322.1. Suitor test: finding object hidden by princess. *Type 507A; Irish myth: Cross.

H322.2. †H322.2. Suitor test: to get to imprisoned princess in a year's time. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H322.3. †H322.3. Suitor test: bringing leg that fits into dragon claw left by the beloved of the princess. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H322.4. †H322.4. Suitor test: bringing maiden's lost shoe. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H323. †H323. Suitor test: learning girl's name. Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 45 No. 5.

H324. †H324. Suitor test: choosing princess from others identically clad. *Type 554; BP II 28; Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: Dixon 217; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda.

H324.1. †H324.1. Suitor test: choosing sweetheart's sedan chair from thirty others like it. Chinese: Graham.

H326. †H326. Suitor test: skill.

H326.1. †H326.1. Suitor test: aptness in handicrafts.

H326.1.1. †H326.1.1. Suitor test: constructing automatic peacock. India: Thompson-Balys.

H326.1.2. †H326.1.2. Suitor test: skill in archery. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H326.2. †H326.2. Suitor test: eating a pomegranate without letting a single seed fall. India: Thompson-Balys.

H326.3. †H326.3. Suitor test: skill in hunt. Eskimo (Aleut): Golder JAFL XXII 17.

H326.4. †H326.4. Suitor test: skill in fishing. India: Thompson-Balys.

H327. †H327. Suitor test: cleverness and learning. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H328. †H328. Suitor test: power of endurance.

H328.1. †H328.1. Suitor test: resisting intoxication after much drinking. India: Thompson-Balys.

H328.2. †H328.2. Suitor test: being swung by mustache without shedding tears. India: Thompson-Balys.

H328.3. †H328.3. Suitor test: enduring blow from spear. India: Thompson-Balys.

H328.4. †H328.4. Suitor test: standing naked in river through a winter night. India: Thompson-Balys.

H328.5. †H328.5. Suitor test: bathing in boiling water. India: Thompson-Balys.

H328.6. †H328.6. Princess to be married to man who withstands twelve years' fight. India: Thompson-Balys.

H331. †H331. Suitor contests: bride offered as prize. *Types 513, 514, 900; Philippson FFC L 12f. --Icelandic: Egils saga einhendsa ok Ásmundar Berserkjabana (FAS III) 366; Finnish: Kalevala rune 3; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 9, *Rotunda; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 420; Japanese: Ikeda; Oceanic (New Zealand, Tahiti, Cook Group, Society Group): Dixon 61, 64; Eskimo (Aleut): Golder JAFL XXII 17; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson-Tales 328n. 186; West Indies: Flowers 457.

H331.1. †H331.1. Suitor contest: difficult riding.

H331.1.1. †H331.1.1. Suitor contest: riding up glass mountain. *Type 530; *BP III 111 n. 3; Köhler-Bolte I 67; Hdwb. d. Märchens II 627ff.; **Boberg Prinsessen på Glasbjærget (Danske Studier [1928] 16ff.); *Fb "glarbjærg" I 459; Krappe The Glass Mountain (Modern Language Quarterly VIII 139--145); India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.1.2. †H331.1.2. Suitor contest: riding to fourth story of tower. *Type 530; *BP III 112 n. 1.

H331.1.2.1. †H331.1.2.1. Suitor contest: jumping horse over palace. India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.1.3. †H331.1.3. Suitor contest: riding up mast (spear). *BP III 113 n. 3; N. Am. Indian (Chilcotin): Farrand JE II 43.

H331.1.3.1. †H331.1.3.1. Suitor test: jumping over high hedge. India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.1.4. †H331.1.4. Suitor contest: riding across pit. *BP III 113 n. 2.

H331.1.5. †H331.1.5. Suitor contest: riding through fire. *Panzer Sigfrid 110; Krappe Waberlohe (Archiv fur das Studium der neueren Sprachen CLXXII 10ff.); Icelandic: *Boberg.

H331.1.6. †H331.1.6. Suitor contest: jumping river on horseback. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H331.1.6.1. †H331.1.6.1. Suitor contest: jumping ditches and hedges of spears. India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.1.7. †H331.1.7. Contest in reaping: best reaper to get beautiful girl as wife. Irish myth: Cross.

H331.2. †H331.2. Suitor contest: tournament. *Type 508; Cosquin Contes Indiens 329ff.; *Liljeblad 39ff.; Dickson 181; English: Wells 147 (Ipomedon); Icelandic: Boberg; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman.

H331.2.1. †H331.2.1. Suitor contest: success in battle. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H331.2.1.1. †H331.2.1.1. Suitor contest: bride offered to the one distinguishing himself most in battle. Girl loves both suitors equally. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.3. †H331.3. Suitor contest: prize to one whose staff blooms. Told of Joseph in contest for Virgin Mary. *Dh II 265; Jewish: *Neuman.

H331.4. †H331.4. Suitor contest: shooting. Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 295, Ikeda; N. Am. Indian (Kutenai): Boas BBAE LIX 199 No. 64, (Sahaptin): Farrand MAFLS XI 157 No. 9, (Tsimshian): Boas BBAE XXVII 137, (Wichita): Dorsey CI XXI 130 No. 19, Dorsey Contributions to N. Am. Ethnology VI 604, (Pawnee): Grinnell 87 No. 1, Dorsey MAFLS VIII 113 No. 31, 239 No. 60, (Crow): Simms FM II 292 No. 13, (Dakota): Zitkala-Sa Old Indian Legends 77; (Menomini): Skinner and Satterlee PaAM XIII 396 No. 25, (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 139, 318, 513, 567, (Wyandot): Barbeau GSCan XI 212, (Zuñi): Cushing 215; Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 126.

H331.4.1. †H331.4.1. Suitors contest with bride's father in shooting. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 238 n. 1.

H331.4.2. †H331.4.2. Suitor contest: bending bow of woman's absent husband. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 300 n. 3; Japanese: Ikeda.

H331.5. †H331.5. Suitor contest: race. Dh III 145; Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 23 n. 5, 160 n. 2; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Salishan): Hill-Tout British North America 229, (Shuswap): Teit JE II 684 No. 22, (Thompson River): Teit MAFLS VI 36 No. 7, (Skykomish): Haeberlin JAFL XXXVII 383 No. 9, (Achomawi): Curtin JAFL XXII 284 No. 2, (Arapaho): Dorsey and Kroeber FM V 105, (Ponca): Dorsey CNAE VI 333, (Menomini): Skinner and Satterlee PaAm XIII 396 No. 25, (California): Gayton and Newman 92; Africa (Vai): Ellis 189 No. 5; West Indies: Flowers 458.

H331.5.0.1. †H331.5.0.1. Loser in bride-race must die. Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 160 n. 2.

H331.5.1. †H331.5.1. Race with princess for her hand. *Types 513, 514; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 8; Greek: Fox 59.

H331.5.1.1. †H331.5.1.1. Apple thrown in race with bride. Distracts girl's attention and as she stops to pick it up, suitor passes her. (Atalanta.) Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 60; *BP IV 138; Herbert III 193; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Greek: Fox 59, *Grote I 138.

H331.5.1.1.1. †H331.5.1.1.1. Hero's confederate slows down princess with his breath. Extraordinary blower blows against her so that she is retarded and loses race. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H331.5.2. †H331.5.2. Suitor contest: race with bride's father. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 181; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 157 n. 4.

H331.5.3. †H331.5.3. Suitor test: winning horse-race three times. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 229a n. 3.

H331.5.4. †H331.5.4. Suitor test: boat race. Eskimo (Aleut): Golder JAFL XXII 17.

H331.6. †H331.6. Suitor contest: wrestling. (Cf. †H1562.9.) India: Thompson-Balys Eskimo (Aleut): Golder JAFL XXII 17.

H331.6.1. †H331.6.1. Suitor contest: wrestling with bride. N. Am. Indian (Wasco): Curtin PAES II 290 No. 2.

H331.6.1.1. †H331.6.1.1. Princess wins wrestling match with suitor by revealing her breast. He looks and is beaten. Köhler-Bolte I 561.

H331.7. †H331.7. Suitor contest: aiming with missile. Jamaica: Beckwith: MAFLS XVII 269 No. 82.

H331.8. †H331.8. Suitor contest: splitting antlers. N. Am. Indian (Snohomish): Hill-Tout British Assn. Adv. Science (70th meeting) 525.

H331.9. †H331.9. Suitor contest: trapping. N. Am. Indian (Shoshoni): Lowie JAFL XXXVII 237 No. 18, (Pawnee): Dorsey MAFLS VIII 178 No. 45, (Gros Ventre): Kroeber PaAM I 80 No. 19.

H331.10. †H331.10. Suitor contest: carrying one hundred jugs of water from sea to castle in one day. India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.11. †H331.11. Princess given to the one confessing all his treachery. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H331.12. †H331.12. Suitor contest: splitting block of wood. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H331.13. †H331.13. Suitor contest: cheating. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H331.14. †H331.14. Suitor contest: trial of strength. India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.15. †H331.15. Suitor contest: animal fight.

H331.15.1. †H331.15.1. Suitor contest: cockfight. India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.15.2. †H331.15.2. Suitor contest: bullfight. India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.16. †H331.16. Suitor contest: throwing ball up to princess. India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.16.1. †H331.16.1. Suitor contest: throwing iron ball. India: Thompson-Balys.

H331.17. †H331.17. Suitor contest: eating one hundred carcasses at a sitting. (Cf. †H1141.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H332. †H332. Suitor in contest with bride or member of her family. See †H331.4.1, †H331.5.1, †H331.5.2, †H331.6.1.

H332.1. †H332.1. Suitor in contest with bride.

H332.1.1. †H332.1.1. Suitor test: duel with bride. Wesselski Archiv Orientální II 430.

H332.1.2. †H332.1.2. Suitor test: to defeat bride in game. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H332.1.2.1. †H332.1.2.1. Suitor test: to defeat bride at dice. India: Thompson-Balys.

H332.1.3. †H332.1.3. Suitor test: to defeat bride in harping. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H332.1.4. †H332.1.4. Suitor test: tournament with bride. Icelandic: Boberg.

H332.1.5. †H332.1.5. Shooting contest with bride-to-be. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H332.2. †H332.2. Suitor contest with brother-in-law. Icelandic: *Boberg; S. Am. Indian (Chincha): Alexander Lat. Am. 231.

H332.3. †H332.3. Suitor test: duel with father-in-law. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H332.4. †H332.4. Groom and his army have to fight bride's army. India: Thompson-Balys.

H333. †H333. Girl demands suitor's life (or mutilation).

H333.1. †H333.1. Lover has head cut off at girl's desire. India: Thompson-Balys.

H333.2. †H333.2. Suitor test: tribute of his severed hands. India: Thompson-Balys.

H335. †H335. Tasks assigned suitors. Bride as prize for accomplishment. (For nature of tasks see †H1000ff.) *Types 313, 502, 513, 514, 518, 570, 577; BP II 87ff., III 267ff., 424ff.; Hibbard 275ff. (Sir Eglamour). --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Kalevala runes 7, 8, 13, 14, 19; Italian Novella: *Rotunda, Basile Pentamerone II Nos. 5, 7; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 87 n. 3, II 61 n. 3, Fox 107; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries's list No. 168; Indo-Chinese: Scott Indo-Chinese 290; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Anesaki 262; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/174, 13/203, 13/276, 13/317, 13/441, 13/499, 13/730, 13/243, 13/1241); Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 57; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 324 n. 170; Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 31 No. 4, (Benga): Nassau 134 No. 15; West Indies: Flowers 458. Cf. Wünsche Teufel 33 (devil).

H335.0.1. †H335.0.1. Bride helps suitor perform his tasks. *Type 313; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; German: Grimm Nos. 92, 113, 121, 196; Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 7, Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda.

H335.0.1.1. †H335.0.1.1. Otherworld mistress instructs hero how to perform tasks (imposed by her mother). Irish myth: Cross.

H335.0.1.2. †H335.0.1.2. Bride's parents (supernatural) help suitor win in suitor contests. India: Thompson-Balys.

H335.0.2. †H335.0.2. Girl assigns tasks to her suitors. *De Vries FFC LXXIII 308; Irish myth: *Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Japanese: Ikeda.

H335.0.2.1. †H335.0.2.1. Suitor task: to study philosophy for five years. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H335.0.2.2. †H335.0.2.2. Suitor task: prince to learn a trade. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 949*.

H335.0.3. †H335.0.3. Devil as suitor assigned tasks. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 343f., 345f., 363, 398.

H335.0.4. †H335.0.4. Suitor tasks announced by inscription on statue. India: Thompson-Balys.

H335.0.5. †H335.0.5. Goddess assigns task to her mortal suitor. India: Thompson-Balys.

H335.1. †H335.1. Suitor task: avenging bride's father's death before marriage. Icelandic: Boberg.

H335.1.1. †H335.1.1. Suitor task: avenging bride's former fiance before marriage. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H335.2. †H335.2. Suitor task: cutting open magic gourd. Indo-Chinese: Scott Indo-Chinese 290.

H335.3. †H335.3. Suitor task: killing ferocious animal.

H335.3.1. †H335.3.1. Suitor task: to kill dragon to whom the princess is to be sacrificed. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H335.3.2. †H335.3.2. Suitor task: killing lion guarding girl. India: Thompson-Balys.

H335.3.3. †H335.3.3. Suitor task: to slay thieving boar. India: Thompson-Balys.

H335.3.4. †H335.3.4. Suitor task: to kill treasure-guarding snake lying around the princess's chamber. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H335.3.5. †H335.3.5. Task: hero's servant must kill giant pig. India: Thompson-Balys.

H335.3.6. †H335.3.6. Suitor task: killing tiger demons. India: Thompson-Balys.

H335.3.7. †H335.3.7. Suitor task: to kill other monsters. Icelandic: *Boberg; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/317).

H335.4. †H335.4. Suitor task: to defeat enemies. Icelandic: *Boberg; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H335.4.1. †H335.4.1. Suitor task: to bring enemy's head. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H335.4.2. †H335.4.2. Suitor task: to overcome robbers. Chinese: Graham.

H335.4.3. †H335.4.3. Suitor task: to kill all earlier suitors. Icelandic: Boberg.

H335.4.4. †H335.4.4. Suitor task: to kill (defeat) unwelcome suitor. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H335.5. †H335.5. Suitor task: to bring back food as a marriage present. Chinese: Graham.

H335.6. †H335.6. Suitor task: making weather calm. (Cf. †D2141.0.8.1.) Tonga: Gifford 176.

H335.6.1. †H335.6.1. Suitor task: controlling violent tide. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/730).

H336. †H336. Suitors assigned quests. *Types 513, 514; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 115 (Sir Eglamore); German: Grimm Nos. 6, 62, 93, 96, 97, 106, 137, 163, 197; Icelandic: *Boberg; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 74.

H336.1. †H336.1. Prospective father-in-law requires that suitor for his daughter's hand visit foreign country (otherworld?) to learn feats of arms. Irish myth: *Cross.

H336.2. †H336.2. Suitor required to catch wild animals. (Cf. †H335.3.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H338. †H338. Suitor test: faithfulness. India: Thompson-Balys.

H338.1. †H338.1. Suitor test: keeping princess's secret. India: Thompson-Balys.

H341. †H341. Suitor test: making princess laugh. Sadfaced princess has never laughed. *Types 559, 571, 1642; *BP I 59, 61, II 39ff., 454 n. 1; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXVI 89 n. 1; Italian: Basile Pentamerone Introduction, I No. 3; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H341.1. †H341.1. Princess brought to laughter by people sticking together. *Type 571; India: Thompson-Balys.

H341.2. †H341.2. Princess brought to laughter by small animals. *Type 571; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 5.

H341.3. †H341.3. Princess brought to laughter by foolish actions of hero. *Type 571; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXVI 89 n. 1; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 3.

H341.3.1. †H341.3.1. Princess brought to laughter by indecent show made in quarrel with old woman at well. Italian: Basile Pentamerone Introduction.

H342. †H342. Suitor test: outwitting princess.

H342.1. †H342.1. Suitor test: forcing princess to say, "That is a lie." *Type 852; BP II 506; *Fb "løgn" II 513a; Japanese: Ikeda.

H343. †H343. Suitor test: bringing dumb princess to speak. *Type 945; BP III 53ff.; *Gründwald Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXX 317; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 263; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 279 No. 95; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 277 n. 1.

H343.0.1. †H343.0.1. Princess to marry man who can make her speak to him in all watches of the night. India: Thompson-Balys.

H343.1. †H343.1. Dumb princess brought to speak by shepherd who insults her. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 105 No. 860; India: Thompson-Balys.

H343.2. †H343.2. Silent princess gives right answer when talking monkey is given wrong one by suitor-prince. India: Thompson-Balys.

H344. †H344. Suitor test: entering princess's chamber. *Type 854.

H344.1. †H344.1. Princess to marry man who can give her correct account of what happened in her bedchamber. India: Thompson-Balys.

H345. †H345. Suitor test: overcoming princess in strength. *Type 519.

H345.1. †H345.1. Suitor test: lifting strong princess's giant weapon. *Type 519.

H345.2. †H345.2. Suitor test: riding strong princess's horse. *Type 519.

H346. †H346. Princess given to man who can heal her. *Types 610, 613; *Christiansen FFC XXIV 98; BP III 267ff.; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; S. Am. Indian (Chincha): Alexander Lat. Am. 231.

H346.1. †H346.1. Maiden queen promises herself to the man who heals her husband and kills his bewitcher. Icelandic: Boberg.

H347. †H347. Suitor test: to consort with princess without sleeping. Suitors are given sleeping potion. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

H351. †H351. Suitor test: to live on small amount of food.

H351.1. †H351.1. Suitor test: to live on as much food as can be piled on a leaf. India: Thompson-Balys.

H352. †H352. Suitor test: to make garden bloom in winter. (Cf. †M261.1.) Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H353. †H353. Suitor test: to plunge into a stream. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

H355. †H355. Suitor test: finding an extraordinary object. India: Thompson-Balys.

H355.0.1. †H355.0.1. Who will find the most marvelous thing? Each finds some marvelous thing. It turns out, that to save the girl's life all the things must be used together. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 467*.

H355.1. †H355.1. Suitor test: finding a cow with silver horns. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H355.2. †H355.2. Suitor test: finding a hog with silver bristles. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H355.3. †H355.3. Suitor test: bringing marvelous tree. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H355.4. †H355.4. Suitor test: obtaining flowers. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H355.5. †H355.5. Suitor test: obtaining for bride a necklace like her mother's. India: Thompson-Balys.

H355.6. †H355.6. Suitor test: to get wedding dress so fine that it will go through ring. India: Thompson-Balys.

H359. †H359. Other suitor tests.

H359.1. †H359.1. Suitor test: building causeway. (Cf. †H1131.) Irish myth: *Cross (†H345.3).

H359.2. †H359.2. Suitor test: clearing land. Icelandic: Boberg.

†H360-†H388. Bride tests.

H360. †H360. Bride test. Irish myth: *Cross.

H361. †H361. Ring (jewel) bride test. Hero will marry girl possessing certain ring or jewel. Cox 505.

H362. †H362. Bride chosen from girls assembled at feast. (Cf. †H311.) German: Grimm No. 21.

H363. †H363. Deceased wife marriage test. Man will marry woman meeting certain specifications prescribed by his deceased wife. *Type 610B; Cox 53--79 passim.

H363.1. †H363.1. Bride test: wearing deceased wife's clothes. *Type 510B; Cox 53--79 passim; Fb "kjole" II 142.

H363.2. †H363.2. Bride test: wearing deceased wife's ring. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H365. †H365. Bride test: size of feet. Hindu: Tawney II 356.

H373. †H373. Bride test: performance of tasks. *Type 875; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 4; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

H375. †H375. Bride contest: game.

H375.1. †H375.1. Game of hide and seek with seven princesses to determine which is to be hero's wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

H375.2. †H375.2. Man marries girl bringing his clothes soonest. India: Thompson-Balys.

H375.3. †H375.3. Bride test: procuring food plants in shortest time. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 44, 45.

H381. †H381. Bride test: thrift. *Types 1451, 1452.

H381.1. †H381.1. Bride test: making dress from wasted flax. *Type 1451; BP III 239.

H381.2. †H381.2. Bride test: thrifty cutting of cheese. Three girls tested. First eats rind and all, second cuts away good cheese, third cuts away just enough. Type 1452; BP III 236; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 92b.

H381.2.1. †H381.2.1. Bride test: thrifty peeling of apple. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 92b.

H381.2.2. †H381.2.2. Bride test: thrifty scraping of bread tray. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 702.

H382. †H382. Bride test: industry. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 259.

H382.1. †H382.1. Bride test: key in flax reveals laziness. Suitor hides key in flax on spinning wheel. Finds it there next day. Type 1453; BP III 236.

H383. †H383. Bride test: domestic skill. India: Thompson-Balys.

H383.1. †H383.1. Bride test: bread-making. Africa (Kaffir): Theal 52.

H383.1.1. †H383.1.1. Bride test: bread-making -- dough under fingernails. After three weeks the girl still has dough under her fingernails. Type 1453***; Russian: Andrejev No. 1453*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1454.*

H383.1.2. †H383.1.2. Bride test: cooking griddle cakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

H383.2. †H383.2. Bride test: cloth-working.

H383.2.1. †H383.2.1. Bride test: spinning -- girl cannot use spinning-wheel. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H383.2.2. †H383.2.2. Bride test: weaving magic cloth, sewing magic shirt. Icelandic: Boberg.

H383.2.3. †H383.2.3. Bride test: sewing a shirt for bridegroom's father. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H383.3. †H383.3. Bride test: skillful sweeping. India: Thompson-Balys.

H383.4. †H383.4. Bride test: cooking. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

H383.4.1. †H383.4.1. Bride test: ale brewing. Icelandic: Boberg.

H383.5. †H383.5. Bride test: cutting up a monster fish with scaly hide. India: Thompson-Balys.

H384. †H384. Bride test: kindness. Jewish: Neuman.

H384.0.1. †H384.0.1. Suitor chooses kindly girl. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 75.

H384.1. †H384.1. Bride test: kindness -- father-in-law disguised as beggar. Type 1455.

H384.1.1. †H384.1.1. Wealthy (handsome) suitor disguised as beggar to test bride's kindness. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; S. Am. Indian (Caraja): Métraux MAFLS XL 49.

H384.1.2. †H384.1.2. Prince disguised as a madman to test bride's character. India: Thompson-Balys.

H385. †H385. Bride test: greediness. Type 1454*.

H386. †H386. Bride test: obedience. *Type 901.

H386.1. †H386.1. Bride test: to allow oneself to be beaten with shoe. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H387. †H387. Bride test: constancy.

H387.1. †H387.1. Bride's constancy tested by seven year's mourning over supposed dead lover. English: Wells 151 (The Squyr of Lowe Degre).

H388. †H388. Bride test: wisdom (cleverness). Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

†H400-†H459. Chasity tests.

H400. †H400. Chastity test. Various means are employed to test a woman's (or man's) chastity. *Types 870, 870A; *Bédier Fabliaux 465; Dunlop-Liebrecht 85; Child I 258--71, 507a, II 502, III 503, IV 454a, V 215f., 289a; *Cross MPh X 289; Heinrich von dem Türlin Diu Crone, lines 917f.; Clouston Tales I 173ff. --Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; Arabian: Burton Nights V 271, 278, VII 259, IX 252ff.; India: Thompson-Balys, Penzer I 167, *Tawney I 86 n., 329, 487, *II 601 n.; Chinese: Werner 269; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 516, 535; Samoa: Beckwith Myth 535; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 358 n. 287 m.

H410. †H410. Chastity test by magic objects or ordeals.

H411. †H411. Magic object points out unchaste woman.

H411.1. †H411.1. Magic stone as chastity test. At foot of bed: cannot be stepped on by unchaste woman. (Cf. †D931.) *Type 870A; Fb "sten" III 554b; English: Child I 269 n.

H411.1.1. †H411.1.1. Stone breaks when unchaste woman looks at it. Jewish: Neuman.

H411.2. †H411.2. Magic tree as chastity test. Cannot be climbed by unchaste woman. (Cf. †D950.) Dunlop-Liebrecht 416.

H411.3. †H411.3. Magic plant as chastity test. (Cf. †D965.) Chauvin VII 168; Penzer I 168.

H411.4. †H411.4. Magic drinking horn (cup) as chastity test. (Cf. †D1171.6.) Unchaste woman cannot drink from cup. *Chauvin VII 167; Bédier Fabliaux 465; Child I 262--273 passim; Penzer I 165; Cross MPh X 289; Irish myth: *Cross.

H411.4.1. †H411.4.1. Drinking bitter water as chastity test. Water will poison the unchaste. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas II 119, 345, *Neuman.

H411.4.2. †H411.4.2. Magic cup as chastity test: sticks to hands of adulterer. Irish myth: Cross.

H411.5. †H411.5. Magic pin as chastity test. If it floats, woman is chaste. (Cf. †D1182.) Chauvin VII 168; RTP XIV 598.

H411.6. †H411.6. Magic chair as chastity test. Unchaste woman cannot sit in it till bidden. (Cf. †D1151.2.) Chauvin VII 168; English: Child I 72f., 75.

H411.7. †H411.7. Mantle as chastity test. Will not fit unchaste woman. (Cf. †D1053.) *Chauvin VII 168; *Cross MPh X 289, XVI 649; *Child I 260ff., 265, V 289a; Bédier Fabliaux 465; BP IV 138; Oesterley No. 69; Irish myth: *Cross.

H411.8. †H411.8. Magic bridge as chastity test. Cannot be crossed by unchaste. (Cf. †D1258.) *Bolte Montanus 631; Chauvin VII 168; Child I 267, 269.

H411.9. †H411.9. Magic statue as chastity test. Moves eyes in presence of unchaste woman. (Cf. †D1268.) *Chauvin VII 169; Puymaigre Folklore (Paris, 1885) 37.

H411.9.1. †H411.9.1. Magic idol as chastity test. Turns black in presence of unchaste woman. Lights up in presence of chaste woman. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H411.10. †H411.10. Magic bed and pillows as chastity test. Speak and reveal unchastity. (Cf. †D1154.1.) Liungman Två Folkminnesundersökningar 1ff.; English: Child I 64--70 passim.

H411.11. †H411.11. Magic spring as chastity test. Wells up if girl is not a virgin. (Cf. †D927.) Irish myth: Cross; English: Floris and Blanchefleur line 618.

H411.11.1. †H411.11.1. Unchaste woman dips arm into the water: skin boiled away. *Loomis White Magic 126.

H411.11.2. †H411.11.2. Fountains as chastity tests. One fountain of clear water, other muddy. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H411.12. †H411.12. Magic harp as chastity test. Plays out of tune at approach of unchaste girl. (Cf. †D1231.) English: Child I 269.

H411.13. †H411.13. Magic lamp as chastity test. Only virgin can light it. (Cf. †D1162.1.) *Oesterley No. 278; Herbert III 210.

H411.14. †H411.14. Apple as chastity test. Fades if owner is not virgin. (Cf. †D981.1.) Fb "pige" II 817a.

H411.15. †H411.15. Magic mirror as chastity index. (Cf. †D1163.) Jewish: *Neuman.

H411.16. †H411.16. Catching salmon as proof of virginity. Irish myth: Cross.

H411.17. †H411.17. Swan as chastity test. Irish myth: *Cross.

H411.18. †H411.18. Dust of Tabernacle as chastity test. (Cf. †D935.) Jewish: Neuman.

H412. †H412. Chastity tested by ordeal.

H412.1. †H412.1. Chastity ordeal: passing under magic rod. Unchaste woman bears twins. (Cf. †D1254.2.) Irish myth: Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 96.

H412.2. †H412.2. Chastity ordeal: holding shaven and greased tail of bull. Wade-Evans Welsh Mediaeval Law (Oxford, 1909) 241.

H412.3. †H412.3. Chastity ordeal: feather over door; if girl who enters blushes she is not a virgin. Fb "pige" II 817a.

H412.4. †H412.4. Chastity ordeal: passing through fire. Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys, Keith 128.

H412.4.1. †H412.4.1. Chastity ordeal: holding hot iron. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 227; Alphabet No. 173.

H412.4.2. †H412.4.2. Chastity ordeal: oath on boiling oil. India: Thompson-Balys.

H412.5. †H412.5. Chastity ordeal: poisonous snake around girl's neck. India: Thompson-Balys.

H412.6. †H412.6. Chastity ordeal: drawing lover out of wall with single thread rope. India: Thompson-Balys.

H412.7. †H412.7. Chastity ordeal: jumping.

H412.7.1. †H412.7.1. Chastity ordeal: jumping over magic thread. India: Thompson-Balys.

H412.7.2. †H412.7.2. Chastity ordeal: jumping over pit. India: Thompson-Balys.

H413. †H413. Special powers of chaste woman.

H413.1. †H413.1. Special power of chaste woman: blowing out candle with one puff and relighting it with another. English: Child I 270.

H413.2. †H413.2. Special power of chaste woman: making ball of water. English: Child I 270; India: Thompson-Balys.

H413.3. †H413.3. Special power of chaste woman: carrying water in sieve. English: Child I 270; India: Thompson-Balys.

H413.4. †H413.4. Special power of chaste woman: raising fallen elephant. India: Thompson-Balys, Penzer I 166.

H413.5. †H413.5. Chastity test: throwing certain number on dice. India: Thompson-Balys.

H413.6. †H413.6. If princess is chaste her weight will be only that of five flowers; if not, normal. India: Thompson-Balys.

H421. †H421. Tests for true lover.

H421.1. †H421.1. Valley from which no false lover can escape until it has been entered by a true lover. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Child I 267.

H422. †H422. Tests for true husbands.

H422.1. †H422.1. Crown exposes infidelity of husbands. English: Child I 266f.

H425. †H425. Tests for cuckolds.

H425.1. †H425.1. Cuckold's knife cannot carve boar's head. English: Child I 273.

H425.2. †H425.2. Horns grow on cuckold. *New English Dictionary V 385c s. v. "horn"; Dunger Germania XXIX 59; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 122.

H426. †H426. Chastity tests of holy men and monks. Irish myth: Cross.

H430. †H430. Chastity index. Objects indicate faithfulness or unfaithfulness of separated lovers (husband or wife). *Type 888; *Penzer I 165ff.; *BP III 517ff.; Clouston Tales II 290ff.; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 110f.

H431. †H431. Clothing (cloth) as chastity index.

H431.1. †H431.1. Shirt as chastity index. Remains white as long as woman (man) is true (Cf. †D1056.) *Type 888; BP III 517ff.; Penzer I 44, 165; Oesterley No. 69; Herbert III 233; English: Child I 268.

H431.2. †H431.2. Handkerchief as chastity index. Will not soil as long as woman (man) is true. *Type 888; BP III 517ff.

H431.3. †H431.3. Veil as chastity index. Flowers on veil fade on head of unchaste. Bédier Fabliaux 465.

H432. †H432. Flower as chastity index. (Cf. †D975.) Fb "brudekrans" IV 65b; English: Child I 268; India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer I 165.

H432.1. †H432.1. Rose as chastity index. Fading rose indicates unfaithfulness. (Cf. †D975.2.) G. Paris Romania XXIII 102ff.; Bédier Fabliaux 465; Köhler-Bolte II 444; Penzer I 165.

H432.1.1. †H432.1.1. Three roses fall as sign of unfaithfulness. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 12.

H432.2. †H432.2. Lily as chastity index. Penzer I 165.

H432.3. †H432.3. Lotus flower as chastity index. (Cf. †D975.1.) Penzer I 42, 156.

H432.4. †H432.4. Blooming staff as chastity index. India: Thompson-Balys.

H433. †H433. Ornament as chastity index.

H433.1. †H433.1. Ring as chastity index. Indicates faithfulness by color. (Cf. †D1076.) Penzer I 168; Child I 269; Zingerle Zs. f. Deutsche Myth. und Sittenkunde II (1855) 353.

H434. †H434. Fruit as chastity index.

H434.1. †H434.1. Apple as chastity index: shines as long as woman is chaste. (Cf. †D981.1.) *Fb "guldæble" I 516b.

H435. †H435. Weapon as chastity index.

H435.1. †H435.1. Sword as chastity index: will not spot while woman is faithful. (Cf. †D1081.) English: Child I 268.

H439. †H439. Chastity index -- miscellaneous.

H439.1. †H439.1. Picture as chastity index: indicates by its color. (Cf. †D1266.2.) English: Child I 269; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H439.1.1. †H439.1.1. Painting on wife's stomach as chastity index. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H439.2. †H439.2. Drinking-tube as chastity index: retains taste of another's lips. Irish myth: *Cross.

H440. †H440. Other indications of chastity.

H451. †H451. Talking private parts betray unchastity. *Taylor MLN XXI 249 n. 2; Gering Hermes LI (1916) 632ff.; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 296 n. 83d.

H452. †H452. Disguise to test bride's chastity. India: Thompson-Balys.

H455. †H455. Chastity test: king weighs princess against a flower. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H460. †H460. Wife tests. Chinese: Graham.

H461. †H461. Test of wife's patience. Griselda. Children stolen and attendance at wedding to another demanded. *Type 887; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXXV--XXXVI 290; Hdwb. d. Märchens s. v. "Geduldsprüfung"; **H. Siefkin Das geduldige Weib in der englischen Literatur bis auf Shakespeare (Leipzig, 1903); *Loomis White Magic 118; *Laserstein; Ilse von Stach Griseldis (1922); Köhler-Bolte II 501, 534; *Fb "Griselda" IV 486a; Huet 66; *Cate Studies in Philology XXIX 389ff.; *Hibbard Medieval Romance in Eng. 289 n. 9; Philippson FFC 1 48ff. --Italian Novella: *Rotunda. Cf. also Types 712, 881, 900.

H461.1. †H461.1. The clever wife in disguise wins a second wife for her husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

H465. †H465. Test of wife's endurance. Haughty princess married to beggar and must endure poverty and menial work. *Type 900; BP I 443ff.; *Philippson FFC L 34ff.; *Fb "tigge" III 793b; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 10.

H466. †H466. Feigned death to test wife's faithfulness. *Type 1350; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 92 n. 2; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 144.

H466.1. †H466.1. Feigned absence to test wife's faithfulness. India: Thompson-Balys.

H467. †H467. Other tests of wife's love or faithfulness. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

H467.1. †H467.1. Feigned illness to test wife's love. Husband feigns loss of genitalia. Italian Novella: Rotunda (†H384.1.1.)

H467.2. †H467.2. Wife's faithfulness tested by proposal in another's name. Olrik Zs. f. Vksk. II (1892) 254ff.; Icelandic: Boberg.

H472. †H472. Test of wife's ability to keep secret. Jewish: Neuman.

H472.1. †H472.1. Test of wife's ability to keep secret: the buried sheep's head. Husband tells her that he is burying head of murdered man. She is to keep secret. She tells. When head is dug up it is sheep's head. *T. Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XXXII--XXXIV 77; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 220ff., 224 n. 1; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 25, 275; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H473. †H473. Test of wife's obedience. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

H473.1. †H473.1. Test of wife's obedience: finger in hole. Disobedient wife puts her finger into the hole where her husband has fixed sharp nails. Herbert III 18; Crane Vitry 226 No. 228; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 318.

H473.2. †H473.2. Test of wife's obedience: the one command. Upon his wife's insistence that he test her by giving one command the husband tells her not to go into the oven while he is away. She does so and oven falls on her. Herbert III 19; *Crane Vitry 231 No. 236; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 318; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H473.3. †H473.3. Test of wife's obedience: not to eat leeks. Although she does not like them, she immediately begins to want them. Herbert III 24; Crane Vitry 258 No. 284; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 317.

H473.4. †H473.4. Man leaving home warns wife not to wash face in puddle in dunghill. She does. He cannot understand why; she cannot explain. England: Baughman.

H473.5. †H473.5. Test of wife's obedience: decorating house. India: Thompson-Balys.

H474. †H474. Complacent wife agrees with all of husband's absurd statements. India: Thompson-Balys.

H476. †H476. Husband tests false wife by sleeping on her hair. Had always done so with true bride. Chinese: Graham.

H479. †H479. Wife tests -- miscellaneous motifs.

H479.1. †H479.1. Widow prepared for suttee can lift by little finger heavy stone by temple. India: Thompson-Balys.

H480. †H480. Father tests. Test as to who is unknown father of child. Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "père", "enfant"; Arabian: Burton Nights S V 236 n.

H481. †H481. Infant picks out his unknown father. *Type 675; BP I 485; *Fb "barn" IV 27b; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 3; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries's list No. 208; Japanese: Ikeda; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 336 n. 212; S. Am. Indian (Yunca): Alexander Lat. Am. 228.

H481.1. †H481.1. Infant indicates his unknown father by handing him an apple. *Fb "æble" III 1135b, "guldæble" I 516a; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 93b.

H481.1.1. †H481.1.1. Baby picks out his disguised father from a crowd by handing him a bow. S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 369.

H482. †H482. Infant picks out his unknown mother. Chinese: Graham.

H483. †H483. Animals compete as messenger to call father of new-born child. Their voices are tried. Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 265 No. 71.

H485. †H485. Test of unknown father: gold on street. Princess has gold put on street leading to her. The man who rides over the gold-covered street without noticing is the father of her child. Köhler-Bolte I 56.

H486. †H486. Test of paternity. Child tested to see if it is child of certain father. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H486.1. †H486.1. Test of paternity: adhesion of blood. Blood of real son will adhere to dead father's bones. Oesterley No. 196; Herbert III 191; Zachariae Kleine Schriften 305; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 61, Neuman.

H486.2. †H486.2. Test of paternity: shooting at father's corpse. Youngest of supposed sons refuses to shoot and is judged the only genuine son of dead emperor. *Herbert III 206; Oesterley No. 45; Scala Celi 98a No. 526; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 835; Nouvelles de Sens. No 29; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 28; L. Schmidt Oesterr. Zs. f. Vksk. 1955, 70 ff. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; *Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas II 123, 345, IV 102, 280, *Neuman.

H490. †H490. Other marriage tests.

H491. †H491. Test of mother's and father's love for children.

H491.1. †H491.1. In large family father unwilling but mother willing to sell children. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 87, 303, Neuman.

H492. †H492. Test of faithfulness of husband and wife.

H492.1. †H492.1. Husband refuses to murder his wife for high honors; wife agrees to murder husband. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 90, 303, Neuman.

H492.2. †H492.2. Husband has a friend woo his wife: she is seduced. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H492.2.1. †H492.2.1. Husband has friend woo his wife: wife is generous to certain point only. Husband makes her wear dress symbolic of her generosity -- blouse of coarse cloth; dress of gold brocade. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H492.2.2. †H492.2.2. Husband has friend woo his wife: seduction narrowly averted by frightened husband's intervention. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H492.3. †H492.3. Husband castrates himself to test wife's faithfulness. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H493. †H493. Virility test for husband. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H494. †H494. Maternity test: to produce a baby within a year. India: Thompson.

H495. †H495. Mother test.

H495.1. †H495.1. Baby finds its mother, goes to her for suckling. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

H495.2. †H495.2. Mother test: milk goes long distance into child's mouth. India: Thompson-Balys.

H495.3. †H495.3. Old woman suckles all babies at son's circumcision to prove she has borne child. Jewish: *Neuman.

†H500-†H899. Tests of cleverness.

H500. †H500. Test of cleverness or ability. Irish myth: *Cross, Chauvin VII 160, VIII 11ff.; West Indies: Flowers 459.

H500.1. †H500.1. Sons tested for skill. Types 653, 660.

H501. †H501. Test of wisdom. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer VI 74 n.

H501.1. †H501.1. Test of wisdom: wise man sends ruler magic gems. Ruler admires their beauty but neglects to inquire of their virtues. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H501.2. †H501.2. Wise man answers questions of many with single speech. Irish myth: Cross.

H501.3. †H501.3. Sons tested for wisdom; given same amount of money. What will they do with it? India: Thompson-Balys.

H502. †H502. Test of learning. Tawney I 274, 311f.; Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H502.1. †H502.1. Test of religious learning. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

H503. †H503. Test of musical ability. (Cf. †H509.4.) Tawney IT 431; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H503.1. †H503.1. Song duel. Contest in singing. Irish myth: *Cross; Eskimo: Alexander N. Am. 282 n. 21.

H504. †H504. Test of skill in handiwork. Types 653, 654, 660; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Vai): Ellis 193 No. 11.

H504.1. †H504.1. Contest in lifelike painting. India: Thompson-Balys.

H504.1.1. †H504.1.1. Contest in lifelike painting: fly on saint's nose. Second artist in first artist's absence paints a fly on a saint's nose in a picture. On his return the first artist tries to drive away the fly. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 411.

H504.1.2. †H504.1.2. Contest in lifelike painting: mare and curtain. First artist paints a mare so realistic as to deceive a stallion. Second paints a curtain which deceives the first artist. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 410.

H504.1.3. †H504.1.3. Contest in lifelike painting: grapes and curtain. First artist paints a bunch of grapes so realistically that it attracts the birds. The second artist paints a curtain which deceives the first artist. He wins. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H504.2. †H504.2. Barber's contest in shaving (without waking man). India: Thompson-Balys.

H505. †H505. Test of cleverness: uttering three wise words. Youths called on to do so display by their answers extraordinary powers of deduction. *Type 655; *Chauvin VII 159 No. 438; BP IV 137; Oesterley No. 58; India: Thompson-Balys.

H505.1. †H505.1. Test of cleverness: uttering three truths. FFC LVI 35; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H506. †H506. Test of resourcefulness.

H506.1. †H506.1. Test of resourcefulness: weighing elephant. Man puts him on boat; marks water-line; fills boat with stones until it sinks to same line; weighs stones. *Chauvin VIII 97 No. 68 n. 1.

H506.2. †H506.2. Test of resourcefulness: finding how many people are in dark closed room. Fills room with evil smell; men call each other by name and disclose number. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 396.

H506.3. †H506.3. Test of resourcefulness: carrying wolf, goat, and cabbage across stream. Man is to set across a stream, in a boat that will hold himself and only one other object, a wolf, a goat, and a cabbage. He must do this so that the wolf doesn't eat the goat, nor the goat the cabbage. Two solutions: (1) (a) take goat over, (b) take wolf over and goat back, (c) take cabbage over, (d) take goat over; (2) (a) take goat over, (b) take cabbage over and goat back, (c) take wolf over, (d) take goat over. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII--XXXIV 38; Fb "ulv" III 970a, "kål" II 354b.

H506.4. †H506.4. Test of resourcefulness: putting thread through coils of snail shell. Thread tied to ant who pulls it through. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 141 n. 1 (Daidalus); Zachariae Kleine Schriften 59, 108ff.; Japanese: Ikeda.

H506.5. †H506.5. Test of resourcefulness: to swing seventy girls until they are tired. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H506.6. †H506.6. Test of resourcefulness: not to sit at the foot of couch. Servant gives prince a lemon to place on it indicating which is head and which foot of couch. India: Thompson-Balys.

H506.7. †H506.7. Test of resourcefulness: to eat food without untying cloth containing it; hole torn in cloth. India: Thompson-Balys.

H506.8. †H506.8. Test of resourcefulness: to get melon out of jar without breaking it. Melon is planted in jar made of unbaked clay. Jar is wrapped in a wet cloth so that it collapses. India: Thompson-Balys.

H506.9. †H506.9. Test of resourcefulness: to cook rice without fire (in hot sand). India: Thompson-Balys.

H506.10. †H506.10. Test of resourcefulness: to find relationships among three sticks: they are put in vessel of water; degree of sinking shows what part of tree each comes from. India: Thompson-Balys.

H506.11. †H506.11. Test of resourcefulness: to discover how old, respectively, three horses are. Youth drops water on each; one jumps fifteen paces only, another twenty, and the last bounds in air and gallops. India: Thompson-Balys.

H507. †H507. Wit combat. Test in repartee. Type 1093; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Kalevala rune 3; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H507.1. †H507.1. Princess offered to man who can defeat her in repartee. *Type 853; BP I 201; *Wesselski Der Islam XXII (1934) 114 n. 4; Japanese: Ikeda.

H507.1.0.1. †H507.1.0.1. Princess defeated in repartee by means of objects accidentally picked up. E. g., Hero: What red lips you have! --Princess: There is fire inside. --Hero: Then boil this egg (producing egg). Type 851; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 414ff.

H507.1.0.2. †H507.1.0.2. King defeated in repartee by boy, who thus wins girl. Boy: "Who would give a man a bath, feed him his rice, and then bring him the tamal-pan to chew?" King: "No one but a wife." Boy claims minister's daughter. India: Thompson-Balys.

H507.1.1. †H507.1.1. Princess offered to man who can defeat her in argument. *Penzer VI 73 n. 3.

H507.2. †H507.2. Test: making senseless remarks. King brought to say, "What is the sense in that?" Anderson FFC XLII 357; Japanese: Ikeda.

H507.3. †H507.3. Contest in wishing. Type 1925; Japanese: Ikeda.

H507.3.1. †H507.3.1. Three brothers contest in wishing. Third wishes for all that the other brothers have wished for. Type 1951*.

H507.4. †H507.4. Wit combat among three sisters for additional dowry. Replies to husbands when their premarital pregnancy is noticed. Nouvelles Recreations No. 5.

H507.5. †H507.5. Contest in scolding as introduction to battle. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H507.6. †H507.6. Literary contest won by deception: he who will be first silenced is the loser. When the false teacher answers in nonsense syllables, the true scholar is speechless and so loses contest. India: Thompson-Balys.

H508. †H508. Test: finding answer to certain question. Irish myth: Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H508.1. †H508.1. King propounds questions to his sons to determine successor. England: Child I 13 n., Baughman.

H508.2. †H508.2. Bride offered to man who can find answer to question. *Type 306; BP I 198ff.; Wesselski Märchen 211; Malone PMLA XLIII 399; Irish myth: Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H509. †H509. Tests of cleverness or ability: miscellaneous. Irish myth: Cross.

H509.1. †H509.1. Test: threading needle. Guest of convent is given choice of nuns. On the morrow he is given three opportunities to thread a needle. Success means reward, failure confiscation of his belongings. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H509.2. †H509.2. Contest in making mouths water. Hero uses certain berry that always causes mouths of onlookers to water. India: Thompson-Balys.

H509.3. †H509.3. Chess game as test. Irish myth: *Cross.

H509.4. †H509.4. Tests of poetic ability. (Cf. †H503.) Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H509.4.1. †H509.4.1. Test: supplying missing half-stanza. Irish myth: *Cross.

H509.4.1.1. †H509.4.1.1. Contest in adding a verse which makes the first poet ridiculous. India: Thompson-Balys.

H509.4.2. †H509.4.2. Riddles proposed as tests of poetic ability. Irish myth: *Cross.

H509.4.3. †H509.4.3. Understanding poem as test. Irish myth: *Cross.

H509.5. †H509.5. Test: telling skillful lie.

H509.5.1. †H509.5.1. Test: telling five lies which should so closely resemble the truth the tester will believe them himself. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H510. †H510. Tests in guessing. Irish myth: *Cross.

H511. †H511. Princess offered to correct guesser. *Type 621; BP III 483; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H511.1. †H511.1. Three caskets. Princess offered to man who chooses correctly from three caskets. Alphabet No. 412; Scala Celi 20b No. 127; Oesterley No. 251; Dunlop-Liebrecht 462 n. 74; *Wesselski Märchen 213 No. 18; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 264; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 121 No. 10, (Benga): Nassau 219 No. 33.

H511.1.1. †H511.1.1. Choice of two sword sheaths (from one a gold shaft protrudes; from the other, a silver). India: *Thompson-Balys.

H511.1.2. †H511.1.2. Suitor must prefer princess to treasures. Irish myth: Cross.

H511.2. †H511.2. Test: to guess which of veiled sisters has golden hair. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H512. †H512. Guessing with life as wager. *Type 500, 922; *Anderson FFC XLII 252; India: Thompson-Balys.

H515. †H515. Guessing contest between kings. India: Thompson-Balys.

H516. †H516. Test: guessing trolls' names in order to save one's life. Icelandic: Boberg.

H517. †H517. Curse evaded by guessing names in magic writing. Icelandic: Boberg.

H521. †H521. Test: guessing unknown propounder's name. *Type 500; *BP I 490; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 141 No. 14.

H521.1. †H521.1. Test: guessing unknown propounder's age. *Type 500; Chinese: Graham.

H522. †H522. Test: guessing unknown animal (plant).

H522.1. †H522.1. Test: guessing origin of certain skin.

H522.1.1. †H522.1.1. Test: guessing nature of certain skin -- louse-skin. Louse (flea) is fattened and its skin made into coat (drum, etc.) *Type 621; BP III 484; *Taylor MPh XV 224 n. 2; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bète"; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5; India: *Thompson-Balys; Filipino: Fansler MAFLS XII 114.

H522.1.2. †H522.1.2. Test: guessing nature of certain skin -- wolf-skin. BP I 444, III 484.

H522.1.3. †H522.1.3. Test: guessing origin of animal lungs. Lungs of fattened lizard are further inflated. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H522.2. †H522.2. Test: guessing nature of certain plant. Plant came from scrapings of princesses' bodies. India: Thompson-Balys.

H522.3. †H522.3. Test: identifying what type of rice is in sack. India: Thompson-Balys.

H523. †H523. Test: guessing nature of devil's possessions. *Type 812; BP III 12ff.

H523.1. †H523.1. Test: guessing nature of devil's horse. Answer: he-goat. *Type 812; BP III 12ff.

H523.2. †H523.2. Test: guessing nature of devil's cloth. Answer: goat-skin. *Type 812; BP III 12ff.

H523.3. †H523.3. Test: guessing nature of devil's gold cup. Answer: cup of pitch. *Type 812; BP III 12ff.

H523.4. †H523.4. Test: guessing nature of devil's roast meat. Answer: dead dog. *Type 812; BP III 12ff.

H523.5. †H523.5. Test: guessing nature of devil's spoon. Answer: whale rib. *Type 812; BP III 12ff.

H523.6. †H523.6. Test: guessing nature of devil's wine glass. Answer: horse's hoof. *Type 812; BP III 12ff.

H523.7. †H523.7. Test: guessing nature of devil's plate. Answer: stone. *Type 812; BP III 12ff.

H523.8. †H523.8. Test: guessing nature of devil's purse. Answer: whip. *Type 812; BP III 12ff.

H524. †H524. Test: guessing person's thoughts. *Anderson FFC XLII 219ff.; Fb "konge" II 264b, "gjætte" I 452a, "liv" II 438b; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H524.1. †H524.1. "What am I thinking?" "That I am the priest." So answers youth masking as priest. *Type 922; BP III 214ff.; **Anderson FFC XLII 219ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H525. †H525. Test: guessing princess's birthmarks. *Type 850.

H526. †H526. Question: "What is under my cloak?" Questioner has branch of blackthorn laden with berries under her cloak. Irish myth: Cross.

H527. †H527. Guessing: whether more of a certain stone is above or below ground. A test set by heathen king for a saint. Irish myth: Cross.

H528. †H528. Guessing sex of unborn child (or animal).

H528.1. †H528.1. Test: to prophesy offspring of cow and mare. India: Thompson-Balys.

†H530-†H899. Riddles.

H530. †H530. Riddles. Only such riddles are treated in this work as appear in tales, ballads, myths, or the like. **J. B. Friedreich Geschichte des Räthsels (Dresden, 1860); **Taylor English Riddles in Oral Tradition (Berkeley, 1951), A Bibliography of Riddles (FFC CXXVI); R. Petsch Das deutsche Volksrätsel (Strassburg, 1917); *Anderson FFC XLII 3ff.; *Chauvin VI 42 No. 207; Jewish: *Neuman. A classification of riddles will be found in Lehmann-Nitsche Zs. f. Vksk. XXIV 240ff. and in Von Sydow and Christiansen Iriska gåtor (Folkminnen och Folktankar, II 65--80, VI 120--48).

H540. †H540. Propounding of riddles. Irish myth: *Cross.

H540.1. †H540.1. Supernatural creatures propound riddles. (Cf. also †H541.1.1, †H543, †G681.) Child I 13ff., 484, II 495; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H540.2. †H540.2. Queen propounds riddles. Dickson 41 n. 40.

H540.2.1. †H540.2.1. Queen of Sheba propounds riddles to Solomon. *Penzer VI 74; FL I 349ff.; Anderson FFC XLII 237 n. 2; Hertz Gesammelte Abhandlungen (1905) 412ff.; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 32, 297f., *Neuman; *Frazer Old Testament II 564.

H540.3. †H540.3. King propounds riddles.

H540.3.1. †H540.3.1. Riddles sent to Solomon by King Hiram. (Cf. †H548.) Jewish: Neuman.

H540.4. †H540.4. Saint as propounder of riddles. Irish myth: Cross.

H540.5. †H540.5. Bridegroom propounds riddles at wedding feast. Jewish: Neuman.

H541. †H541. Riddle propounded with penalty for failure. *Anderson FFC XLII 252; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H541.1. †H541.1. Riddle propounded on pain of death. (Cf. †H512.) *Type 922; **Anderson FFC XLII 252; *BP III 230; *Oertel Studien zur vgl. Littgsch. VIII 121; Malone PMLA XLIII 398f.; Fb "bejler" IV 31b; English: Child V 493 "riddles"; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H541.1.1. †H541.1.1. Sphinx propounds riddle on pain of death. **Laistner Rätsel der Sphinx; Fb "menneske" II 578a; Gascon: Bladé I 3 No. 1; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 349 n. 1; Persian: Carnoy 335; Hindu: Penzer IX 143.

H541.2. †H541.2. Riddle propounded on pain of loss of property. *Anderson FFC XLII 253; English: Child V 493 "riddles".

H541.2.1. †H541.2.1. Fine for failure to solve riddle. Jewish: Neuman

H541.3. †H541.3. Riddle propounded on pain of loss of official position. *Anderson FFC XLII 252.

H542. †H542. Death sentence escaped by propounding riddle king (judge) cannot solve *Type 927; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 314f.; **F. J. Norton FL LIII 27--57; Köhler-Bolte I 46; Penzer I 51, 51n.; Malone PMLA XLIII 407; Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 112 No. 927*A.

H542.1. †H542.1. Riddle assigned defendant in action. If he solves it he wins suit. India: Thompson-Balys.

H543. †H543. Escape from devil by answering his riddles. *Type 812; BP III 12ff.; Fb "spørgsmål" III 524b; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 754; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 275 No. 86.

H543.1. †H543.1. Devil held off from person by answering his riddles. St. Andrew the Bishop, and the Devil. The Devil, in form of beautiful maiden visits a holy bishop. St. Andrew appears as a pilgrim, answers the questions through which the devil seeks to keep him at a distance and discomfits the devil. (Cf. †B302.22.3.) Anderson FFC LXII 353; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 45; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H543.2. †H543.2. Child in cradle guesses devil's riddle: all are saved. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3121A.

H544. †H544. Answers found in other world to riddles propounded on way. Type 461; Aarne FFC XXIII 129; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H548. †H548. Riddle contests. *BP II 370; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 435b n. 150; Frazer Old Testament II 564; Child I 405; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 43ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 427, 458.

H548.1. †H548.1. King and rabbi exchange riddles. Jewish: Neuman.

H551. †H551. Princess offered to man who can out-riddle her. *Types 725, 851, 900; BP I 188ff., 200; Philippson FFC L 22; *Chauvin V 192, 192 No. 113; Fb "bejler" IV 31b; Malone PMLA XLIII 414; von der Hagen Gesammtabenteuer III *lxi; Child V 493 s. v. "riddles". --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 851A*; India: Thompson-Balys; Filipino: Fansler MAFLS XII 278; Africa: Werner African 356.

H551.1. †H551.1. Man wins wife by instructing her how to answer her mother's riddles. Child I 418f.

H551.2. †H551.2. Woman gives self to solver of riddles. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H552. †H552. Man marries girl who guesses his riddles. Child V 493 s. v. "riddles"; Irish myth: Cross.

H561. †H561. Solvers of riddles.

H561.1. †H561.1. Clever peasant girl asked riddles by king. *Type 875; **De Vries FFC LXXIII 52ff.; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 195a; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H561.1.0.1. †H561.1.0.1. Clever peasant wife asks king riddles. India: Thompson-Balys.

H561.1.1. †H561.1.1. Conflict between peasant and nobleman decided so that each must answer riddles: peasant's daughter solves them. De Vries FFC LXXIII 65ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

H561.1.1.1. †H561.1.1.1. Clever daughter construes enigmatic sayings. India: Thompson-Balys.

H561.1.2. †H561.1.2. Found mortar taken to king reveals peasant girl's wisdom. Peasant finds mortar in his field and against his daughter's advice takes it to the king, who demands the pestle as well. Peasant laments that he has not followed daughter's advice. King summons her. *Type 875; De Vries FFC LXXIII 15ff., 62ff.

H561.2. †H561.2. King and abbot. King propounds three riddles to abbot to answer on pain of death. Herdsman disguises as abbot and answers questions. *Type 922; **Anderson FFC XLII; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 55; Fb "hyrde" I 719; India: Thompson-Balys; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H561.3. †H561.3. Solomon and Marcolf. Witty questions and answers between youth and servant. *BP II 359 n. 2; Fb "Salomon"; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 317 No. 146.

H561.3.1. †H561.3.1. King Solomon as master riddle-solver. (Cf. †H540.2.1, †H540.4.) Jewish: Neuman.

H561.4. †H561.4. King and clever youth. King asks questions; youth returns riddling answers. *Type 921; **De Vries FFC LXXIII 111ff., 308ff.; Anderson FFC XLII 356 n. 2; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H561.5. †H561.5. King and clever minister. King propounds riddles and questions to his clever minister. **De Vries FFC LXXIII 365ff.; *Encyc. Rel. Ethics s. v. "Ahiqar"; *Marc Studien zur vgl. Littgesch. II 393f., III 52; **Meissner Das Märchen vom weisen Achikar (Leipzig, 1917); Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H561.6. †H561.6. King and peasant vie in riddling questions and answers.

H561.6.1. †H561.6.1. King and peasant: the plucked fowl. The king gives riddling questions to a peasant, who always interprets them right. The king says that he will send the peasant a fowl which he shall pluck. The king gives the same questions to his courtiers, who cannot interpret them. They pay the peasant good money for the answers. Peasant tells king that he has plucked the fowl. Anderson FFC XLII 342; India: Thompson-Balys.

H561.7. †H561.7. Druid as solver of riddles. Irish myth: Cross.

H561.8. †H561.8. Cleric as solver of riddles. Irish myth: Cross.

H561.9. †H561.9. Clever prince interprets enigmatic statements. Icelandic: Boberg.

H561.10. †H561.10. Saint as solver of riddles. Irish myth: *Cross.

H562. †H562. Inscription on home of riddle-solver "I have no care." Anderson FFC XLII 244.

H565. †H565. Riddle propounded from chance experience. On way to riddle trial youth sees things that give him a clue for his riddles. *Type 851.

H565.1. †H565.1. Happenings before feast give Samson clue for riddles. Jewish: Neuman.

H570. †H570. Means of solving riddles.

H571. †H571. Counterquestions. Riddles answered by a question that reduces the riddle to an absurdity. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 275 No. 299; Wesselski Arlotto I 215 No. 59; Anderson FFC XLII 346; Japanese: Ikeda.

H571.1. †H571.1. Counterquestion: "What is difference between you and an ass? What is difference between you and a cushion." *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 228 No. 74.

H572. †H572. Reductio ad absurdum of riddle: stallions of Babylon. "Why is my mare restless when stallions of Babylon neigh?" Hero beats cat for having strangled a cock last night in Babylon (impossible distance away). BP II 372; Chauvin VI 39 No. 207 n. 4.

H573. †H573. Answer to riddle found by trickery. *Type 621.

H573.1. †H573.1. Riddle solved with aid of hidden informant. Malone PMLA XLIII 400; Irish myth: Cross.

H573.2. †H573.2. Problem of why certain person cannot sleep solved by trickery. Irish myth: Cross.

H573.3. †H573.3. Riddle solved by listening to propounder talk in his sleep. German: Grimm No. 22.

H574. †H574. Riddles solved with aid of propounder's wife. (Cf. †G530.2, †H335.0.1, †H974.) Jewish: Neuman.

H575. †H575. Accidental discovery of answer to riddle. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H580. †H580. Enigmatic statements. Apparently senseless remarks (or acts) interpreted figuratively prove wise. *Wesselski Märchen 197; **De Vries FFC LXXIII; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 389, *Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 122 No. 1358; Jewish: *Neuman; Arab: Azov 411f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Batak: Voorhoeve 163 No. 169.

H580.1. †H580.1. Girl given enigmatic commands must do the opposite. Type 480; Roberts 176.

H581. †H581. Three young men arrested tell who they are.

H581.1. †H581.1. Arrested man tells who he is: before his father the great incline the head and give blood and money (barber). Chauvin VI 35 No. 205.

H581.2. †H581.2. Arrested man tells who he is: the hospitable fire of his father is sought (bean merchant). Chauvin VI 35 No. 205.

H581.3. †H581.3. Arrested man tells who he is: father throws himself into the ranks and holds them (weaver). Chauvin VI 35 No. 205.

H581.4. †H581.4. Arrested farmer tells who he is: one son is thief (priest), second beggar (teacher), and third murderer (doctor). Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 921B*.

H582. †H582. Riddling answers betray theft or adultery *BP I 198, II 361f.; Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 59 (to Gonzenbach No. 1); *Wesselski Märchen 197.

H582.1. †H582.1. Riddling answer betrays theft.

H582.1.1. †H582.1.1. The full moon and the thirtieth of the month. Prince sends servant to clever girl with a round tart, thirty cakes, and a capon, and asks her if it is full moon and the thirtieth of the month and if the cock has crowed in the evening. She replies that it is not full moon, that it is the fifteenth of the month, and that the capon has gone to the mill; but that the prince should spare the pheasant for the partridge's sake. She thus shows him that the servant has stolen half the tart, half of the cakes, and the capon. *BP II 361; Köhler Zs. f. Vksk. VI 59; Arab: Azov 401f.; Africa (Sahel): Frobenius Atlantis VI 79--86.

H582.2. †H582.2. Riddling answers betray adultery. BP I 198; *Wesselski Märchen 197; India: Thompson-Balys.

H582.2.1. †H582.2.1. Enigmatic statement betrays incest. (Cf. †T411.) Woman, recognizing cleric as her son by her father (Fiachna), gives him a drink of milk and says, "I give drink to my brother; he is Fiachna's son, he is Fiachna's grandson; his mother is Fiachna's daughter." The son's reply shows that he understands the situation. Irish myth: *Cross.

H582.3. †H582.3. Woman's question to her husband disguised as woman, how many men she had in one night. This is properly understood as, how many helpers he had, and answered by lifting ten fingers. Icelandic: Boberg.

H583. †H583. Clever youth (maiden) answers king's inquiry in riddles. (Cf. †H561.4.) *Type 921; India: Thompson-Balys.

H583.1. †H583.1. King: What do you see? Youth: One and a half men and a horse's head. (Himself, the legs of the king on horseback in the door, and the horse's head.) *Köhler-Bolte I 84, 87, 151ff.; *Basset 1001 Contes II 41.

H583.1.1. †H583.1.1. King: Are you alone at home? Youth: Not now; I see the half of two quadrupeds. (Two legs of the king and the forefeet of his horse.) *Köhler-Bolte I 84, 87.

H583.2. †H583.2. King: What is your father doing? Youth: He is in the vineyard and is doing good and bad. (He prunes vines and sometimes cuts good and sometimes lets bad ones stay.) *Köhler-Bolte I 84, 87.

H583.2.1. †H583.2.1. King: What is your father doing? Youth: Makes an evil greater. (Closes up a path; this causes another to be opened.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 116ff.

H583.2.2. †H583.2.2. King: What is your father doing? Youth: Makes many out of few. (Sows grain.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 116ff.

H583.2.3. †H583.2.3. King: What is your father doing? Youth: Makes better from good. (Hedges his field.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 116ff.

H583.2.4. †H583.2.4. King: What is your father doing? Youth: Cuts wood which was burnt last year. (To pay old debts.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 116ff.

H583.2.5. †H583.2.5. King: What is your father doing? Youth: He fences thorns with thorns. (Eggplant garden fenced with thorns.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H583.3. †H583.3. King: What is your brother doing? Youth: He hunts; he throws away what he catches and what he does not catch he carries with him. (Hunts for lice on his body.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 128ff.; Wesselski Mönchslatein 120 No. 102; Missouri French: Carrière.

H583.3.1. †H583.3.1. King: What is your brother doing? Youth: He runs back and forth. (Plows.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 128ff.

H583.3.2. †H583.3.2. King: What is your brother doing? Youth: He sits between heaven and earth. (In a tree.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 128ff.

H583.4. †H583.4. King: What is your mother doing? Youth: She does for another what the latter cannot do for her. (Lays out a corpse.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 124ff.

H583.4.1. †H583.4.1. King: What is your mother doing? Youth: She shows the light of the world to one who has not yet seen it. (Assists at a birth.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 124ff.

H583.4.2. †H583.4.2. King: What is your mother doing? Youth: She is baking the bread we ate last week. (To pay back borrowed bread.) (Cf. †H583.2.4.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 124ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 85, 87.

H583.4.3. †H583.4.3. King: What is your mother doing? Youth: She cuts off the heads of the well to cure the sick. (Kills chickens to feed her sick mother.) Köhler-Bolte I 85, 87.

H583.4.4. †H583.4.4. King: What is your mother doing? Youth: She drives away the hungry and compels the filled to eat. (Drives away the hungry hens and stuffs the geese.) Köhler-Bolte I 85, 87.

H583.4.5. †H583.4.5. King: What are your mother and father doing? Girl: Mother is separating earth (being a midwife), and father is mixing earth (at a funeral). India: Thompson-Balys.

H583.4.6. †H583.4.6. King: What is your mother doing? Girl: She has gone to turn one into two (to split peas). India: Thompson-Balys.

H583.5. †H583.5. King: What is your sister doing? Youth: She is mourning last year's laughter. (Nurses child, the fruit of last year's love affair.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 133ff.

H583.6. †H583.6. King: What are you doing? Youth: I boil those which come and go. (Beans which keep rising and falling in water.) *Types 875, 921; De Vries FFC LXXIII 115.

H583.7. †H583.7. King: Where shall I tie my horse? Maiden: Between summer and winter. (Between wagon and sleigh.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 254.

H583.8. †H583.8. Maiden (to king): The house has neither eyes nor ears. (No child at window nor dog in yard to announce king's approach: he therefore finds her not dressed to receive him.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 252.

H583.9. †H583.9. Maiden (to king): Shall I feed you with loss or gain. (A slaughtered hen or milk.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 254; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1465*; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 877*.

H583.10. †H583.10. Girl to king: Should it (the flood) come I shall not come; should it not come, I shall come. India: Thompson-Balys.

H584. †H584. Other riddling answers. Icelandic: Boberg.

H585. †H585. Enigmatic conversation of king and peasant. India: Thompson-Balys.

H585.1. †H585.1. The four coins. (Focus.) King: What do you do with the four coins you earn? Peasant: First I eat (feed self); second I put out at interest (give my children); third I give back (pay debts); fourth I throw away (give my wife.) Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 161 (to Gonzenbach No. 50); BP IV 137; Oesterley No. 57; cf. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 8; Anderson FFC XLII 356 n. 1. --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 921A*; Russian: Andrejev No. 921 I*; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Swahili): Steere 295.

H585.2. †H585.2. King: Why did you not do it (marry so that sons could help you)? Peasant: I did, but it was not God's will (I married three times but it was not God's will to give me sons). India: Thompson-Balys.

H586. †H586. Riddling remarks of traveling companion interpreted by girl (man) at end of journey. De Vries FFC LXXIII 43ff.; *Wesselski Märchen 197 No. 7; India: Thompson-Balys.

H586.1. †H586.1. Man helps traveler and makes riddling remarks. Gives him food, shares his coat in rain, and carries him over stream. Reproaches him with traveling without mother, house, or bridge (nourishment, shelter, or horse). *Köhler-Bolte I 197f.; Nouvelles de Sens No. 3.

H586.2. †H586.2. Traveler says he is going to the city to see what has become of the seed he sowed in the street. (What has become of the girl he left in the city to await his return.) Köhler-Bolte I 197; Nouvelles de Sens No. 3.

H586.2.1. †H586.2.1. Traveler says he is going to seek a hind that he saw in the woods ten years before. (A maiden.) Wesselski Märchen 197 No. 7.

H586.2.2. †H586.2.2. Traveler says he must look after his net to see if it has taken fish. (He has left his lady seven years before with a pledge of faithfulness. Net has taken fish -- lady has had lovers.) English: Child I 191 n.

H586.3. †H586.3. One traveler to another: Let us carry each other and shorten the way. (Let us tell tales and amuse ourselves on the way.) *Wesselski Märchen 197 No. 7; Nouvelles de Sens Nos. 3, 8; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H586.4. †H586.4. One traveler to another: That field (uncut) is already harvested. (Belongs to spendthrift who has already spent the money.) Wesselski Märchen 197 No. 7.

H586.5. †H586.5. One traveler to another (as they see corpse borne by): He is not entirely dead. (Has left good property.) Wesselski Märchen 197 No. 7.

H586.6. †H586.6. One traveler to another (when asked how he crossed an unbridged stream): I cross on an ashen bridge. (Found a ford with an ashen staff.) Wesselski Märchen 197 No. 7; Nouvelles de Sens No. 8.

H586.7. †H586.7. One traveler to another: Is this cup valuable or not? (Is your daughter married or not?) India: Thompson-Balys.

H586.8. †H586.8. Boy says that travelers should catch the mares (walking sticks that are in the jungle). India: Thompson-Balys.

H587. †H587. King gives enigmatic order to minister.

H587.0.1. †H587.0.1. Enigmatic letter of king must be explained on pain of death. India: Thompson-Balys.

H587.1. †H587.1. King: Show me a ruby eight for a pice, nectar eight for a pice, and a faithless creature worth one-eighth of a pice. Minister: The lamp sells at eight for a pice and gives more light than any ruby; the water is the real nectar; and the dog is worthless and faithless lover because he follows anyone who feeds him. India: Thompson-Balys.

H588. †H588. Enigmatic counsels of a father. Taken literally bring trouble, but when properly interpreted are valuable. Icelandic: Hervarar saga 36--39, 116--18, *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys, (Kashmir): Knowles 243; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 232; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 256 No. 200.

H588.0.1. †H588.0.1. Father-in-law gives daughter-in-law enigmatic permission to go home. Chinese: Graham.

H588.1. †H588.1. Father's counsel: walk not in sunshine from your house to your shop. (Attend to business, rising early and retiring late.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.2. †H588.2. Father's counsel: let pilav be your daily food. (Eat frugally.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.3. †H588.3. Father's counsel: marry a new wife every week. (Do not see your wife too much.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.4. †H588.4. Father's counsel: on wishing to drink wine go to the vat and drink it. (Stench in vat so great that desire for wine is turned to loathing.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

H588.5. †H588.5. Father's counsel: if you want to gamble, then gamble with experienced gamblers. (If you see how wretched professional gamblers are you will not want to gamble.) *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 376; India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.6. †H588.6. Father's counsel: dress up the trunks of trees, cover the road. (Plant the road with fruit trees and betel between the trees.) India: *Thompson-Balys; Batak: Voorhoeve 164f. No. 169.

H588.7. †H588.7. Father's counsel: find treasure within a foot of the ground. (Sons dig everywhere and thus loosen soil of vineyard, which becomes fruitful.) Wienert FFC LVI 82 (ET 490), 126 (ST 346); Halm Aesop No. 98; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 914*; India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.8. †H588.8. Father's counsel: the four wells. Three empty and one full (3 sons and father). Full one can fill the three empty but the three when full cannot fill the one when empty (sons when scattered will not support the father). India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.9. †H588.9. Father's counsel: dam up the outlets. (Keep expenditures down -- not outlets of rice-field as son-in-law thinks). India: *Thompson-Balys.

H588.10. †H588.10. Father's counsel: don't stay too late with a concubine, nor tell her any secret. Icelandic: Boberg.

H588.11. †H588.11. Always eat bread with "honey". (Working diligently, your bread will be as sweet as honey.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 915A*.

H588.12. †H588.12. "Never greet anyone." (Start your work the earliest, so that not you but others may greet you.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 915A*.

H588.13. †H588.13. "Always wear new shoes." (Walk the fields bare-footed, wearing your shoes only when nearing the town.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 915A*.

H588.14. †H588.14. "Have a black look" (frown). India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.15. †H588.15. "Bite the ear" (do state affairs secretly). India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.16. †H588.16. "Take people by the locks" (use your influence to make people subservient to you). India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.17. †H588.17. "If you have to go to a prostitute, go early in the morning." India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.18. †H588.18. "When you go to the bazar, eat your morning meal first." India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.19. †H588.19. "A father should always check and never forgive; a mother should always forgive and never check." India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.20. †H588.20. "Do not plant a thorny tree." India: Thompson-Balys.

H588.21. †H588.21. Enigmatic advice: take only salt and water as food. India: Thompson-Balys.

H591. †H591. Extraordinary actions explained. Herrmann Saxo II 273.

H591.1. †H591.1. Man puts on shoes only when he wades river. (He cannot see what he is walking on.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H591.2. †H591.2. Man uses umbrella under trees. (To protect self from falling branches and bird droppings.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H591.3. †H591.3. Man cuts hooks for the revenge of his father (Hamlet). Icelandic: *Boberg.

H592. †H592. Enigmatic statement made clear by experience.

H592.1. †H592.1. "Love like Salt." Girl compares her love for her father to salt. Experience teaches him the value of salt. *Type 923; *BP III 305 n. 2, IV 407; *Hartland FLJ IV 309; *DeCock Studien en Essays 4f.; Cosquin Contes Indiens 103ff.; Köhler Aufsätze 14; India: *Thompson-Balys. Cf. Shakespeare's King Lear.

H592.1.1. †H592.1.1. "Love like wind in hot sun." Husband offended but later learns wife's meaning. Type 923A.

H592.2. †H592.2. Poison in nectar: wife who betrays husband to his enemies. India: Thompson-Balys.

H592.3. †H592.3. Nectar in poison: mistress who saves her lover. India: Thompson-Balys.

H592.4. †H592.4. Dogs in human shape: friends who seduce man's wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

H592.5. †H592.5. Donkey ruling a kingdom: king condemning man unjustly. India: Thompson-Balys.

H593. †H593. Suitors receive enigmatic answers. Girls answer in single words, which, when arranged in certain order, show that they accept. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H594. †H594. Inhospitality reproved enigmatically.

H594.1. †H594.1. Enigmatic statement: roof has no eaves. (Else it would give the beggar shelter.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H594.2. †H594.2. Enigmatic statement: the tank (pond) does not belong to you. (Else you would have given the beggar fish to eat.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H594.3. †H594.3. Enigmatic statement: the flocks are only rocks and grass. (Else you would have given the beggar milk and curds.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H595. †H595. Enigmatic welcome of host. Sounds very inhospitable but properly interpreted makes guests welcome. India: Thompson-Balys.

H595.1. †H595.1. Symbolic invitation to continued liberality. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H596. †H596. Enigmatic counsels of relatives (other than father). Spanish: Childers.

H596.1. †H596.1. Enigmatic counsels of a brother. Spanish: Childers.

H596.1.1. †H596.1.1. Enigmatic counsels of older brother. Gray younger brother asks well-preserved older brother for the secret of his good health. Answer: A measured mouth, a close purse, and a knot on the trouser's fly. Spanish: Childers.

H599. †H599. Other enigmatic statements.

H599.1. †H599.1. Girl will not drink of water which had no father or mother (i.e., stagnant). India: Thompson-Balys.

H599.2. †H599.2. Enigmatic statements of a sham mad man (Hamlet). Icelandic: *Boberg.

H599.3. †H599.3. Clever flatterer: Sir, you are a full moon, and my sovereign is a new moon (the full moon will decline, but the new moon has but started on its growth). India: Thompson-Balys.

H599.4. †H599.4. Man asked to kill thousands, press hundreds beneath his arm, etc. (To shave his head, put some hairs under his arm, etc.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H599.5. †H599.5. Enigmatic counsel: uproot old trees and plant new ones (dismiss old governors and appoint new). Jewish: Neuman.

H599.6. †H599.6. Give coals orange color, let glimmer of gold appear like expanse of heaven, prepare two heads of darkness. (Request for chickens for breakfast.) Jewish: Neuman.

H600. †H600. Symbolic interpretations. Irish myth: *Cross.

H601. †H601. Wise carving of the fowl. Clever person divides it symbolically: head to head of house, neck to wife, wings to daughters, legs to sons; keeps rest for himself. *Type 875; *BP II 360 n. 1; *Taylor JAFL XXXI 555; Köhler-Bolte II 645ff.; Scala Celi 37a No. 205; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 58. --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1580*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1580*; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI No. 1533*; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; Filipino: Fansler MAFLS XII 63, 253, 351.

H601.1. †H601.1. Wise division of the goat (similar). India: Thompson-Balys.

H602. †H602. Symbolic meaning of numbers, letters, etc.

H602.1. †H602.1. Symbolic meaning of numbers. Jewish: Neuman.

H602.1.1. †H602.1.1. Symbolic meaning of numbers one to seven (ten, twelve). E.g. One: sun; two: Moses' tablets; three: three Maries; etc. *Type 812; *BP III 15 n. 1; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 156 No. 2045*; Japanese: Ikeda.

H602.2. †H602.2. Symbolic interpretation of letters. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 7; Jewish: Neuman.

H602.3. †H602.3. Symbolic interpretation of names. Jewish: *Neuman.

H603. †H603. Symbolic interpretation of playing cards. Soldier reproved for playing cards during church says that playing cards are his prayerbook and calendar. Ace: one God, one Faith, one Baptism; 2: old and new Testaments; 3: Trinity; 4: evangelists; 5: wise virgins; 6: days of creation; 7: sabbath; 8. Noah's family; 9: ungrateful lepers; 10: commandments; knave (jack): Judas; queen (of Sheba); king: God; 12 face cards: 12 months; etc. *Type 1613; **Bolte Zs. v. Vksk. XI 376ff., XIII 84; Penzer IV 240 n. 1.

H604. †H604. Symbolic meaning of spiced and bitter tongue served at dinner. (Cf. †H605, †H606.) Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H605. †H605. Angel gives symbolic interpretation of value of work as well as of prayer. Works and prays where monk can see him. (Cf. †H604, †H606.) Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H606. †H606. Symbolic interpretation of sin. Priest drags heavy sack of sand behind him to show how men drag sin. (Cf. †H604, †H605.) Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H607. †H607. Discussion by symbols. Sign language. *Penzer I 80f. n.; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 32; W. Coland Zs. f. Vksk. XXIV 88; Hertel ibid. XXIV 317; Loewe ibid. XXVIII 126; *Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 206; Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H607.1. †H607.1. Discussion between priest and Jew carried on by symbols. E.g., priest raises three fingers (Trinity); Jew raises arm (one God); etc. *Anderson FFC XLII 354 n. 4; Köhler-Bolte II 479ff.; *Loewe Zs. f. Vksk. XXVIII 126; Penzer VI 249; Irish myth: Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 922A*; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H607.2. †H607.2. Discussion between two poets (sages?) carried on in poetic obscure language. Irish myth: *Cross.

H607.2.1. †H607.2.1. Learned professor from one university examines by signs a professor at another university (actually shoemaker or miller or the like). England, Scotland: *Baughman.

H607.3. †H607.3. Princess declares her love through sign language: not understood. India: Thompson-Balys.

H607.4. †H607.4. Is town too full of anchorites? Saint entering holy town is sent cup full to brim of milk by its worldly-minded fakirs that he may know the town can hold no more anchorites. Saint floats a flower on milk and returns cup. India: Thompson-Balys.

H608. †H608. Symbolic interpretation of official robes.

H608.1. †H608.1. Symbolic interpretation of points on a bishop's hat. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 100.

H611. †H611. Youth asks for branch of tree; promised root. (Branch = youngest daughter; root = eldest.) Type 1465*.

H611.1. †H611.1. Melons ripe and overripe analogous to girls ready for marriage. Iraq: Ethel Stevens Folk Tales of Iraq (London, 1931) 60.

H611.2. †H611.2. Sign message sent by girl to enamored prince; interpreted by prince's friend. India: Thompson-Balys.

H611.3. †H611.3. Chief asks another for cutting of yams to complete his yam patch (daughter in marriage). Reply that seed yams for the year are shrivelled and old and it is too early for seedlings (his daughters are too young or too old). Tonga: Gifford 43.

H614. †H614. Explanation of enigmatic phenomenon. Jewish: Neuman.

H614.1. †H614.1. Explanation of phenomenon; a man who not only picks up wood but everything that lies in his path (a miser). India: Thompson-Balys.

H614.2. †H614.2. Explanation of phenomenon: large pond emptying itself into several smaller pools (man may spend without getting any return). India: Thompson-Balys.

H617. †H617. Symbolic interpretations of dreams. Jewish: Neuman.

H619. †H619. Other symbolic interpretations. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

H619.1. †H619.1. Symbolic interpretation of chairs in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

H619.2. †H619.2. Symbolic interpretation of church and image therein. Irish myth: Cross.

H619.3. †H619.3. Roots and branches of World-tree explained symbolically. Irish myth: Cross.

H619.4. †H619.4. Symbolic interpretation of ineffectual thatching of house and building of fire in otherworld. (Cf. †F171.6.5, †F171.6.6.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H619.5. †H619.5. Symbolical interpretation of fight between one-legged bird and twelve-legged bird. One-legged bird symbolizes innocence; twelve-legged bird, guilt. (Cf. †B15.6.3.3.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H620. †H620. The unsolved problem: enigmatic ending of tale.

H621. †H621. Skillful companions create woman: to whom does she belong? Woodcarver carves a doll, tailor clothes her, gardener gives her speech (or the like). (Answer sometimes given: her father, her mother, or her husband). *Type 945; *BP III 53ff.; Tille FFC XXXIV 254; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 199; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 33 No. 3; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 112 No. 39.

H621.1. †H621.1. Skillful companions resuscitate girl: to whom does she belong? India: *Thompson-Balys.

H621.2. †H621.2. Girl rescued by skillful companions: to whom does she belong? *Type 653; *BP III 45; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H625. †H625. Hare and pig race across ditch. Each fails in his own way, pig behind hare. Which is winner? India: Thompson-Balys.

H630. †H630. Riddles of the superlative.

H631. †H631. Riddle: what is the strongest? *Types 461, 875, 922; *BP II 357; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 84, Aarne FFC XXIII 129; Japanese: Ikeda.

H631.1. †H631.1. What is the strongest? A horse. *De Vries FFC LXXIII 85; Arab: Azov JPASB II 415f.

H631.2. †H631.2. What is the strongest? God. De Vries FFC LXXIII 85.

H631.3. †H631.3. What is strongest? Earth. Type 875; De Vries FFC LXXIII 85; *BP II 357; Köhler-Bolte I 457f.

H631.4. †H631.4. What is strongest? Woman. Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 23, 360, Neuman.

H631.5. †H631.5. What is strongest? Truth. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda.

H631.6. †H631.6. What is mightiest? Rain. India: Thompson-Balys.

H631.7. †H631.7. What is strongest? Necessity. BP II 359.

H631.8. †H631.8. What is strongest? Wine. Jewish: *Neuman.

H631.9. †H631.9. What is strongest? The king. Jewish: *Neuman.

H632. †H632. Riddle: what is the swiftest? *Type 875; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 69ff.

H632.1. †H632.1. What is swiftest? Thought. *De Vries FFC LXXIII 71; *BP III 233.

H632.2. †H632.2. What is swiftest? The eye. *De Vries FFC LXXIII 72.

H632.3. †H632.3. What is swiftest? The sun. De Vries FFC LXXIII 72.

H633. †H633. Riddle: what is sweetest? Type 875; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 79ff.; *BP III 233.

H633.1. †H633.1. What is sweetest? Sleep. *De Vries FFC LXXIII 81.

H633.2. †H633.2. What is sweetest? Peace in heaven. *De Vries FFC LXXIII 81.

H633.3. †H633.3. What is sweetest? Mother's breast. De Vries De Sage van het ingemetselde Kind (Nederlandsch tijdschrift voor volkskunde XXXII 192ff); BP III 43; Krappe Balor 165ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

H633.4. †H633.4. What is sweetest? One's own interest. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H633.5. †H633.5. What is sweeter than sugar? The princess's speech. India: Thompson-Balys.

H634. †H634. Riddle: what is the sweetest song? *Type 922; *Anderson FFC XLII 233; Irish myth: Cross.

H634.1. †H634.1. What is the sweetest song? Angel song. Anderson FFC XLII 233.

H635. †H635. Riddle: what is the sweetest sound? Anderson FFC XLII 233; De Vries FFC LXXIII 90; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H635.1. †H635.1. What is the sweetest sound? Bell-ringing. Anderson FFC XLII 233; De Vries FFC LXXIII 91; BP II 357.

H635.2. †H635.2. What is the sweetest sound? God's Word. De Vries FFC LXXIII 90.

H636. †H636. Riddle: what is the richest? Types 461, 875; BP III 357; Aarne FFC XXIII 129.

H636.1. †H636.1. What is richest? Autumn. Type 875; BP III 349; Köhler-Bolte I 457f.

H637. †H637. Riddle: what is the hardest? BP III 16.

H637.1. †H637.1. What is hardest? Parent's heart (said by child being sacrificed). *De Vries De Sage van het ingemetselde Kind (Nederlandsch tijdschrift voor volkskunde XXXII 192ff.); BP III 43; *Krappe Balor 165ff.

H637.2. †H637.2. What is the hardest? Death. De Vries FFC LXXIII 94.

H638. †H638. Riddle: what is costliest? BP III 233.

H638.1. †H638.1. What is costliest? The earth. Köhler-Bolte I 457f.

H641. †H641. Riddle: what is most beautiful? *BP II 357; Köhler-Bolte I 457f.

H641.1. †H641.1. What is most beautiful? The spring. *Type 875; *BP II 357; Köhler-Bolte I 457f.

H641.2. †H641.2. What is most beautiful? Earth. BP II 358.

H642. †H642. Riddle: what is highest? De Vries FFC LXXIII 93.

H642.1. †H642.1. What is highest? Sun, moon, and stars. De Vries FFC LXXIII 93.

H643. †H643. Riddle: what is deepest? De Vries FFC LXXIII 92.

H643.1. †H643.1. What is deepest? The heart of man. De Vries FFC LXXIII 92; BP II 358.

H644. †H644. Riddle: what is longest? De Vries FFC LXXIII 93.

H644.1. †H644.1. What is longest? The way through the world. De Vries FFC LXXIII 93.

H645. †H645. Riddle: what is the heaviest? De Vries FFC LXXIII 94.

H645.1. †H645.1. What is heaviest? Lead. De Vries FFC LXXIII 94.

H646. †H646. Riddle: what is greenest? De Vries FFC LXXIII 94.

H646.1. †H646.1. What is greenest? The Month of May. De Vries FFC LXXIII 94.

H647. †H647. Riddle: what is the most beloved? De Vries FFC LXXIII 94.

H647.1. †H647.1. What is most beloved? Life. De Vries FFC LXXIII 94.

H647.2. †H647.2. What is most beloved? Health. De Vries FFC LXXIII 94.

H648. †H648. Riddle: what is best? De Vries FFC LXXIII 95; *Krappe Revue Celtique XLVII 401ff.

H648.1. †H648.1. What is best? God. De Vries FFC LXXIII 95; BP II 358.

H648.2. †H648.2. What is best? Water. De Vries FFC LXXIII 95.

H651. †H651. Riddle: what is brightest? De Vries FFC LXXIII 88.

H651.1. †H651.1. What is brightest? The sun. De Vries FFC LXXIII 89.

H651.2. †H651.2. What is brightest? Mother's eyes. (Cf. †H662.) De Vries De Sage van het ingemetselde Kind (Nederlandsch tijdschrift voor volkskunde XXXII 192ff.).

H652. †H652. Riddle: what is softest? De Vries FFC LXXIII 87; BP II 358.

H652.1. †H652.1. What is softest? The hand. (In order to lie soft one places his hand between the head and the pillow.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 88; BP II 358.

H652.2. †H652.2. What is softest? Mother's bosom. De Vries De Sage van het ingemetselde Kind (Nederlandsche tijdschrift voor volkskunde XXXII 192ff.)

H653. †H653. Riddle: what is the fattest? De Vries FFC LXXIII 75ff.

H653.1. †H653.1. What is the fattest? The earth. De Vries FFC LXXIII 77; BP II 357f.; Anderson FFC XLII 232 n. 3.

H659. †H659. Riddles of the superlative -- miscellaneous.

H659.1. †H659.1. Riddle: what is oldest?

H659.1.1. †H659.1.1. What is oldest? God. BP II 358.

H659.2. †H659.2. Riddle: what four things are hardest to hold? Anderson FFC XLII 228.

H659.2.1. †H659.2.1. What four things are hardest to hold? Wolf by eyebrows, bear by claws, snake by tail, hawk by beak. Anderson FFC XLII 228.

H659.3. †H659.3. Riddle: what are best and worst stones?

H659.3.1. †H659.3.1. What are best and worst stones? Best: altar, whetstone, millstone; worst: hailstone, stone in the eye, gallstone. Anderson FFC LXII 228; BP III 220 n. 3; De Vries FFC LXXIII 95.

H659.4. †H659.4. Riddle: what is the best fowl?

H659.4.1. †H659.4.1. What is the best fowl? The goose, since it makes the cabbage sweet and the bed soft. Type 922; BP III 233.

H659.5. †H659.5. Riddle: what is best religion -- Christian or Mohammedan?

H659.5.1. †H659.5.1. What is best religion -- Christian or Mohammedan? They are equally good: as both eyes are equally dear to you, so are both religions to God. (Cf. †J1262.9.) Anderson FFC XLII 237.

H659.6. †H659.6. Riddle: what kind of work occupies most men?

H659.6.1. †H659.6.1. What kind of work occupies most men? Healing, for every sick man practices this. Anderson FFC XLII 228.

H659.7. †H659.7. Riddle: what is greatest?

H659.7.1. †H659.7.1. What is greatest? Fame. BP II 358.

H659.7.2. †H659.7.2. What is the greatest? A sense of shame. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H659.7.3. †H659.7.3. What is the greatest? Charity. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H659.7.4. †H659.7.4. What is the greatest villainy? Stealing. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H659.8. †H659.8. What is moistest? The south wind. Arab: Azov JPASB II 415f.

H659.9. †H659.9. Riddle: what is wisest?

H659.9.1. †H659.9.1. What is wisest? Time. BP II 358.

H659.10. †H659.10. Riddle: what is most general?

H659.10.1. †H659.10.1. What is most general? Hope. BP II 359.

H659.11. †H659.11. Riddle: what is most useful?

H659.11.1. †H659.11.1. What is most useful? Excellence. BP II 359.

H659.12. †H659.12. Riddle: what is most shameful?

H659.12.1. †H659.12.1. What is most shameful? Cowardice. BP II 359.

H659.13. †H659.13. Riddle: what is most pleasant?

H659.13.1. †H659.13.1. What is most pleasant? Love. (In spite of childbirth pains women continue becoming pregnant.) Arab: Azov JPASB II 415f.

H659.14. †H659.14. Riddle: what is easiest?

H659.14.1. †H659.14.1. What is easiest? The natural. BP II 359.

H659.15. †H659.15. Riddle: what is the hardest to skin?

H659.15.1. †H659.15.1. What is the hardest to skin? The male member. De Vries FFC LXXIII 96.

H659.16. †H659.16. Who are the best painters? Women (in the art of make-up). Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H659.17. †H659.17. Riddle: what is the best time to eat? For the rich man, when he wishes; for the poor man, when he has something to eat. Spanish: Childers.

H659.18. †H659.18. What are the most accursed things?

H659.18.1. †H659.18.1. What are the most accursed things? A thriftless wife, a baldheaded daughter, a sour-faced daughter-in-law, a crooked axle, and a field which lies across the village road. India: Thompson-Balys.

H659.19. †H659.19. What is the most difficult to find and the most difficult to lose? The truth. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H659.20. †H659.20. Who are really irresistible? Meat and drink. India: Thompson-Balys.

H659.21. †H659.21. Who are really meek? Cows and daughters. India: Thompson-Balys.

H659.22. †H659.22. Which is best, domestic or ascetic life? With good wife domestic life is best. India: Thompson-Balys.

H659.23. †H659.23. Which is the best of flowers? Cotton. India: Thompson-Balys.

H659.24. †H659.24. What is the finest jewel? India: Thompson-Balys.

H659.25. †H659.25. What is most faithful thing in world? India: Thompson-Balys.

H659.26. †H659.26. What is most faithless thing in world? India: Thompson-Balys.

H660. †H660. Riddles of comparison. Boberg Danske Studier 1945, 1ff., and Øst og Vest, Afhandlinger til Arthur Christensen (Kbhvn. 1945) 192. --Irish myth: Cross.

H661. †H661. Riddle: what is swifter than a bird, the wind or lightning? The eye. (Cf. †H632.2.) Gascon: Bladé I 9 No. 1.

H662. †H662. Riddle: what is dearer than gold? Mother love. (Cf. †H651.2.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 311 No. 60.

H663. †H663. Riddle: what is whiter than a swan? An angel. *Fb "engel".

H671. †H671. Riddle: what is sweeter than honey? (Cf. †H633.) BP III 16.

H672. †H672. Riddle: what is softer than swan down? (Cf. †H652.1.) BP III 16.

H673. †H673. Riddle: what is harder than stone? (Cf. †H637.) BP III 16.

H674. †H674. Who is greater than God? Man's purpose. India: Thompson-Balys.

H680. †H680. Riddles of distance.

H681. †H681. Riddles of terrestrial distance.

H681.1. †H681.1. Riddle: how far is it from one end of the earth to the other (east to west)? *Type 922; *Anderson FFC XLII 146ff.; Fb "jord"; BP III 232.

H681.1.1. †H681.1.1. How far is it from one end of the earth to the other? A day's journey, since the sun makes it daily. *Type 922; Anderson FFC XLII 147. --Jewish: *Neuman.

H681.2. †H681.2. Riddle: how deep is the earth (or how far to lower world)? Anderson FFC XLII 140.

H681.2.1. †H681.2.1. How deep is the earth? It is deep: my grandfather went into it (died) years ago and has not yet returned. Anderson FFC LXII 141.

H681.2.2. †H681.2.2. How deep is the earth? My father went five years ago to measure it (died); when he returns I shall tell you the result. Anderson FFC XLII 142.

H681.3. †H681.3. Riddle: what is the center of the earth? *Type 922; Anderson FFC XLII 157.

H681.3.1. †H681.3.1. Where is the center of the earth? Here; if you don't believe it, measure it yourself. Anderson FFC XLII 158; India: Thompson-Balys.

H681.3.2. †H681.3.2. Where is the center of the earth? Here, for the earth is round and any point can serve as center. Anderson FFC XLII 158.

H681.4. †H681.4. Riddle: how deep is the sea? *Type 922; *Anderson FFC XLII 130.

H681.4.1. †H681.4.1. How deep is the sea? A stone's throw. *Type 922; Anderson FFC XLII 130; BP III 231.

H681.4.2. †H681.4.2. How deep is the sea? At first, knee-deep; further on, waist-deep, neck-deep; and beyond that over the head. India: Thompson-Balys.

H682. †H682. Riddles of heavenly distance. (Cf. †A658.)

H682.1. †H682.1. Riddle: how far is it from earth to heaven? *Type 922; BP III 231; Anderson FFC XLII 113; Jewish: *Neuman.

H682.1.1. †H682.1.1. How far is it from earth to heaven? A day's journey, since Christ went to heaven in one day. (A half-day's journey, similar reason). *Anderson FFC XLII 119; Wesselski Bebel I 36 No. 75.

H682.1.2. †H682.1.2. How far is it from earth to heaven? A day's journey, since there is no inn to stop at on the way. *Anderson FFC XLII 119.

H682.1.3. †H682.1.3. How far is it from earth to heaven? So and so high, and if you don't believe it, measure it yourself. *Anderson FFC XLII 118.

H682.1.4. †H682.1.4. How far is it from earth to heaven? As far as you can see. *Anderson FFC XLII 120.

H682.1.5. †H682.1.5. How far is it from earth to heaven? As far as from heaven to earth. *Anderson FFC XLII 120.

H682.1.6. †H682.1.6. How far is it from earth to heaven? Not far; when it thunders there it can be heard here. Anderson FFC XLII 120.

H682.1.7. †H682.1.7. How far from earth to heaven? A calf's (fox's) tail, if it were long enough. *Anderson FFC XLII 121; BP III 231; cf. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 96; Fb "kalvehale".

H682.1.8. †H682.1.8. How far from earth to heaven? A leg's length, for it is written, Heaven is my throne and earth my footstool. Anderson FFC XLII 121.

H682.1.9. †H682.1.9. How far from earth to heaven? One step, for they say, He stands with one foot in the grave and one in heaven. Anderson FFC XLII 122.

H682.1.10. †H682.1.10. How far from earth to heaven? The devil knows for he has fallen this distance. Alphabet No. 67.

H682.2. †H682.2. Riddle: how wide is heaven? Anderson FFC XLII 227.

H682.2.1. †H682.2.1. How wide is heaven? So and so wide, and if you do not believe it, go measure it yourself. Anderson FFC XLII 227.

H682.3. †H682.3. How many exits from paradise? Moreno Esdras; Jewish: Neuman.

H685. †H685. Riddle: how far is it from happiness to misfortune? Anderson FFC XLII 215.

H685.1. †H685.1. How far is it from happiness to misfortune? One day; yesterday I was herdsman and now I am abbot. (Cf. †H561.2.) Anderson FFC XLII 216.

H690. †H690. Riddles of weight and measure.

H691. †H691. Riddles of weight.

H691.1. †H691.1. Riddle: how much does the moon weigh? Anderson FFC XLII 172.

H691.1.1. †H691.1.1. How much does the moon weigh? A pound, for it has four quarters. *Type 922; BP III 232; *Anderson FFC XLII 173; Köhler-Bolte I 458.

H691.1.2. †H691.1.2. How much does the moon weigh? So and so much, and if you don't believe it go and weigh it yourself. Anderson FFC XLII 174.

H691.2. †H691.2. Riddle: how heavy is the earth? Anderson FFC XLII 143.

H691.2.1. †H691.2.1. How heavy is the earth? Take away all the stones and I will weigh it. Anderson FFC XLII 143.

H696. †H696. Riddles of measure.

H696.1. †H696.1. Riddle: how much water is in the sea? Anderson FFC XLII 134.

H696.1.1. †H696.1.1. How much water is in the sea? Stop all the rivers and I will measure it. Anderson FFC XLII 134; Japanese: Ikeda.

H696.1.2. †H696.1.2. How much water is in the sea? So and so much, and if you don't believe it, go measure it yourself. Anderson FFC XLII 136.

H696.1.3. †H696.1.3. How much water is in the sea? A tub-full if the tub is large enough. Anderson FFC XLII 134.

H696.1.4. †H696.1.4. How many measures of water are in the river? India: Thompson-Balys.

H700. †H700. Riddles of numbers.

H701. †H701. Riddle: how many seconds in eternity? Anderson FFC XLII 232.

H701.1. †H701.1. How many seconds in eternity? A bird carries a grain of sand from a mountain each century; when the whole mountain is gone, the first second of eternity has passed. (Cf. †D791.1.2, †H1583, †X950.2, †Z61.) *Type 922; BP III 232; *Anderson FFC XLII 232.

H702. †H702. Riddle: how many stars in the heavens? *Type 922; BP III 231; Anderson FFC XLII 162ff.; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 116 No. 970.

H702.1. †H702.1. How many stars in the heavens? As many as the grains of sand; if you don't believe it, count them yourself. *Anderson FFC XLII 166.

H702.1.1. †H702.1.1. How many stars in the heaven? Two million; if you don't believe it, count them yourself. India: Thompson-Balys.

H702.2. †H702.2. How many stars in the heavens? As many as the hairs in the head; if you don't believe it, count them yourself. *Anderson FFC XLII 167.

H702.2.1. †H702.2.1. How many stars in the heavens? As many as the hairs in the goatskin (on a donkey). India: Thompson-Balys.

H702.3. †H702.3. How many stars in the heavens? As many as the points on paper; if you don't believe it, count them yourself. *Anderson FFC XLII 167.

H703. †H703. Riddle: how many hairs are in the head? *Types 922, 926**; BP III 231; Anderson FFC XLII 230.

H703.1. †H703.1. How many hairs are there in the head? As many as are in the tail of my ass; if you don't believe it we will keep pulling out one hair from your beard and one from his tail. Anderson FFC XLII 230.

H704. †H704. Riddle: how many drops in the sea. (Cf. †H696.1.1.)

H705. †H705. Riddle: how many leaves are on the tree? Anderson FFC XLII 175; West Indies: Flowers 459.

H705.1. †H705.1. How many leaves are on the tree? As many as there are stems for. *Anderson FFC XLII 176.

H705.2. †H705.2. How many leaves are on the tree? So and so many; and if you don't believe it, go count them. *Anderson FFC XLII 176.

H705.3. †H705.3. How many leaves are on the tree? Counterquestion: how many stars in the sky? (Cf. †H702.) Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 116 No. 970.

H706. †H706. Riddle: how many days have passed since the time of Adam? Anderson FFC XLII 227.

H706.1. †H706.1. How many days have passed since the time of Adam? The seven days of the week. Anderson FFC XLII 227.

H707. †H707. Riddle of dates.

H707.1. †H707.1. When were you born? Its beginning is like its end, its top like its bottom (1691). Trog Am Urds-Brunnen IV 105.

H708. †H708. Are there more men or women in the world? India: Thompson-Balys.

H710. †H710. Riddles of value.

H711. †H711. Riddle: how much am I (the king) worth? Anderson FFC XLII 194; cf. Aarne FFC XXIII 129.

H711.1. †H711.1. How much am I (the king) worth? Twenty-nine pieces of silver, for Christ was sold for thirty. (Cf. †H716.) *Type 922;* Anderson FFC XLII 194; *BP III 232; *Fb "værd".

H712. †H712. Riddle: how much is my beard (king's) worth? *Type 875; De Vries FFC LXXIII 160; BP II 359.

H712.1. †H712.1. How much is king's beard worth? The months July, August, and September. Köhler-Bolte I 456.

H712.2. †H712.2. How much is king's beard worth? A May rain (three rains in summer). De Vries FFC LXXIII 161; Köhler-Bolte I 456.

H713. †H713. Riddle: how much is a golden plow (throne, crown, palace) worth? *De Vries FFC LXXIII 160ff.; *Anderson FFC XLII 180ff.

H713.1. †H713.1. How much is a golden plow (throne, crown, palace) worth? A rain in May. *De Vries FFC LXXIII 161ff.; *Anderson FFC XLII 186.

H715. †H715. Riddle: how much does the sun earn for his daily work? Anderson FFC XLII 226.

H715.1. †H715.1. How much does the sun earn for his daily work? A day's wages. Anderson FFC XLII 226.

H716. †H716. Riddle: how much is a certain crucifix worth? Twenty-nine pieces of silver. (Cf. †H711.1.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H720. †H720. Metaphorical riddles. Jewish: *Neuman.

H721. †H721. Riddle of the year. **Aarne FFC XXVI 74ff.

H721.1. †H721.1. Riddle: tree with twelve branches, each with thirty leaves, black and white. Year, month, days and nights. *Chauvin V 195 No. 114; *BP II 355 n. 1.

H721.2. †H721.2. Riddle: tree with leaves white on one side and black on other. Year made up of nights and days. Chauvin V 192 No. 113.

H721.3. †H721.3. Riddle: twelve cypresses with thirty boughs each. Years and months. Persian: Carnoy 348.

H721.4. †H721.4. Riddle: palace consisting of 8760 stones; twelve trees, thirty branches, each with black and white cluster of grapes. Year, months, days, hours. *Chauvin VI 40 No. 207.

H722. †H722. Riddle of the day and night. (Cf. †H721.1, †H721.2, †H721.4.)

H722.1. †H722.1. Riddle: white brother, black sister: every morning brother kills sister; every evening sister kills brother; they never die. (Day and night.) Köhler-Bolte I 116; Gascon: Bladé I 9 No. 1.

H722.2. †H722.2. Riddle: black and white horses chasing each other. (Day and night.) Persian: Carnoy 349.

H725. †H725. Riddle of the course of the sun.

H725.1. †H725.1. Riddle: bird nests on top of one cypress in morning, on top of another in evening. (Bird is the sun.) Persian: Carnoy 349.

H726. †H726. Riddle: who are the real travellers? The son and the moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

H731. †H731. Riddle of king and courtiers.

H731.1. †H731.1. Riddle: king in red; courtiers in white. (Sun and its rays.) Chauvin VI 39 No. 207 n. 1.

H731.2. †H731.2. Riddle: king in white; courtiers in white. (Moon and stars.) Chauvin VI 39 No. 207 n. 1.

H731.3. †H731.3. Riddle: king in red; courtiers in different colors. (Spring and flowers.) Chauvin VI 39 No. 207 n. 1.

H734. †H734. Riddle: what is the mother who devours her children when they grow up? (Ocean and rivers.) Chauvin V 192 No. 113.

H741. †H741. Riddle white field, black seed. (Paper with writing.) *Aarne FFC XXVI 35ff.

H742. †H742. Riddle: two legs, three legs, four legs. (Man, three-legged stool dog.) **Aarne FFC XXVII 24ff.

H743. †H743. Riddle: four hang, four walk, two show the road, one wags behind. (Cow's teats, feet, eyes, tail.) (Other answers: cat, dog, horse, hog, etc.) **Aarne FFC XXVII 60ff.

H744. †H744. Riddle: six legs, four ears, two faces, etc. (Horse and rider.) **Aarne FFC XXVII 173ff.

H746. †H746. Riddle: bill white, horns on feet, knob on head (cock). Zachariae 58.

H751. †H751. Riddle: who of fourfold beard is he, of azure foot and neck so ruddy? Arrow. India: Thompson-Balys.

H761. †H761. Riddle of the Sphinx: what is it that goes on four legs in the morning, on two at midday, and on three in the evening. (Man, who crawls as a child, walks in middle life, and walks with a stick in old age.) **Aarne FFC XXVII 3ff.; **Laistner Rätsel der Sphinx; Gascon: Bladé I 10 No. 1.; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 349 n. 1 Köhler-Bolte I 115; Fb "menneske" II 578a.

H761.1. †H761.1. Riddle: two are better than three (two legs better than man with staff in old age). Jewish: *Neuman.

H762. †H762. Riddle: what is the creature that is of all countries, that is loved by all the world, and that has no equal? (The sun.) Chauvin V 192 No. 113.

H763. †H763. Riddle: the father not yet born, the son already at the top of the house. (Flame and smoke.) Köhler-Bolte I 268.

H764. †H764. Riddle: bird without feathers flies on tree without leaves. (Snow falls on bare tree.) **Aarne FFC XXVIII 1ff.

H765. †H765. From wooden spring iron bucket makes stones from which water flows. (Metal stick picks stone from eye. If you rub lids with it, tears come.) Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 32, 297f., *Neuman.

H767. †H767. Allegorical riddles. Irish myth: Cross.

H767.1. †H767.1. Riddle: what is that thou passest over with haste? (The field of youth; the mountains of youth, etc.) Irish myth: Cross.

H768. †H768. What house gives no hostages, cannot be burned, and cannot be harried? (The fairy stronghold [sídh] of brugh na Boinne.) Irish myth: Cross.

H770. †H770. Riddles of explanation. Jewish: Neuman.

H771. †H771. Riddle: why is the hair gray before the beard? (It is twenty years older.) *Wesselski Arlotto II 270 No. 222.

H772. †H772. Riddle: why are there more days than nights? (The moon turns some nights into days.) Chauvin V 38 No. 365.

H773. †H773. Riddle: why are there more living than dead? (There are some of the dead of whom we still speak.) Chauvin V 38 No. 365.

H774. †H774. Riddle: why are there more women than men? (Some women make women [i.e., weaklings] of their husbands.) Chauvin V 38 No. 365.

H790. †H790. Riddles based on unusual circumstances. India: Thompson-Balys.

H791. †H791. Riddle: a fish was my father; a man was my mother. (Man eats magic fish and becomes pregnant; a girl is taken from his knee.) *Type 705; *Fb "fisk" I 297; Norse: Christiansen Norske Eventyr 96.

H792. †H792. Riddle of the unborn. I am unborn; my horse is unborn; I carry my mother on my hands. (A boy who has been taken from his dead mother's body digs up the body of his mother and makes gloves of her skin. He rides on a colt which has been taken from a dead mare's body.) *Type 851; BP I 196; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 112 No. 927*B; Africa (Swahili): Werner African 356.

H793. †H793. Riddle: seven tongues in a head. (A horse's head in which a bird's nest is found with seven birds in it.) *Type 927; Köhler-Bolte I 46; *Fb "hestehoved".

H795. †H795. Relationship riddles arising from unusual marriages of relatives. *Köhler-Bolte I 218; Hertz Abhandlungen 416; Jewish: *Neuman.

H797. †H797. Riddle: what does God do? Anderson FFC XLII 200.

H797.1. †H797.1. What does God do? He brings low the proud and exalts the lowly (said by shepherd masking as bishop to king, who has exchanged places with him). (Cf. †H562.) Anderson FFC XLII 207.

H797.2. †H797.2. What does God do? God is astonished that I sit on a horse and the king on an ass (Cf. †H797.1.). Anderson FFC XLII 209.

H802. †H802. Riddle: one killed none and yet killed twelve. (Horse is poisoned; raven eats of him and dies; twelve robbers eat raven and die.) *Type 851; BP I 188ff.; *Fb "hest" I 598b, "ravn" III 23a; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 172 No. 34; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 284 No. 116.

H803. †H803. Riddle: deaths from sleepiness, anger, and greed. Elephant sleeps before snake's hole. Snake bites elephant and kills it. Jackal eats hole in elephant and is caught inside. Snake can't get out of its hole. India: Thompson-Balys.

H804. †H804. Riddle: from the eater came forth meat and from the strong sweetness. (Swarm of bees and honey in lion's carcass.) Jewish: Judges 14:14.

H805. †H805. Riddle of the murdered lover. With what thinks, I drink; what sees, I carry; with what eats I walk. (Queen has cup made from skull of her murdered lover; ring with one of his eyes; she carries two of his teeth in her boots.) *Type 851; *BP I 196, II 361; Köhler-Bolte I 350, 372; India: Thompson-Balys.

H806. †H806. Riddle: drink this wine which a bird took to nest. (Stork took bunch of grapes to nest; boy makes wine from them.) Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 112 No. 927B*.

H807. †H807. Formerly I was daughter, now I am mother; I have a son who was the husband of my mother. (Girl has nursed her imprisoned father through a crack in the prison wall.) Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 111 No. 927*A.

H810. †H810. Riddles based on the Bible or legend. Jewish: *Neuman.

H811. †H811. Riddle: who first spun and when? (Eve.) Chauvin V 195 No. 114.

H812. †H812. Riddle: what were the clothes of Adam and Eve? (Their hair.) Chauvin V 195 No. 114.

H813. †H813. Riddle: who, having neither father nor mother, are dead? (Adam and Eve.) Chauvin V 195 No. 114.

H814. †H814. Riddle: who, having had father and mother, is not dead? (Elias.) Chauvin V 195 No. 114; Jewish: Neuman.

H815. †H815. Riddle: who, having had father and mother, is not dead like other mortals? (Lot's wife.) Chauvin V 195 No. 114; Scala Celi No. 821.

H817. †H817. Riddle: who has had, here below, two names? (Jacob-Israel.) Chauvin V 195 No. 114.

H821. †H821. Riddle: what was the walking tomb with the living tenant? (Jonah and the whale.) Chauvin V 194 No. 114; Jewish: *Neuman.

H822. †H822. Riddle: what is the land that has seen the sun only once? (The bottom of the Red Sea during the passage of the Israelites.) Chauvin V 194 No. 114; Jewish: *Neuman.

H822.1. †H822.1. What is the land that has seen the sun only once? (The land on which the waters were gathered after the creation.) Jewish: Neuman.

H823. †H823. What is the tree that became flesh? (Moses's staff.) Chauvin V 195 No. 114.

H824. †H824. Riddle: what is that which has drunk water for its sustenance and eaten after its death? (Moses's staff, which became a serpent.) Chauvin V 194 No. 114.

H825. †H825. Riddle: the king is surrounded by his nobles; what is this like? (The idol Bel surrounded by the priests of the god.) Chauvin VI 39 No. 207.

H826. †H826. Riddle: what did Christ do in his 30th year? Answer: entered into his thirty-first. (Cf. †H865.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H827. †H827. Riddle: what does the king of the world of the Devas do? Punishes the bad people. India: Thompson-Balys.

H828. †H828. What three not born of male and female ate and drank on earth? (Angels who visited Abraham.) Jewish: Neuman.

H831. †H831. Riddle: what house was full of dead? (Philistines in the building demolished by Samson.) Jewish: Neuman.

H832. †H832. What was not born, yet life was given to it? (The golden calf.) Jewish: Neuman.

H840. †H840. Other riddles.

H841. †H841. Riddle: worth of the animal.

H841.1. †H841.1. Riddle: what animal is good living but not dead? (Ass.) *Wesselski Arlotto I 215ff. No. 64.

H841.2. †H841.2. Riddle: what animal is good dead but not living? (Hog.) *Wesselski Arlotto I 215ff. No. 64.

H841.3. †H841.3. Riddle: what animal is good living and dead? (Cow.) *Wesselski Arlotto I 215ff. No. 64.

H841.4. †H841.4. Riddle: what animal is not good living or dead? (Wolf.) *Wesselski Arlotto I 215ff. No. 64.

H842. †H842. Riddle: animal qualities.

H842.1. †H842.1. What animal which lives in sea-water will drown if taken out of it? (Gním Abraein.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H842.2. †H842.2. What animal which lives in fire will burn if taken out of it? (Tegillus, now called salamander.) (Cf. †B768.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H842.3. †H842.3. What animal has one voice living and seven voices dead? (Ibis, from whose carcass musical instruments are made.) Jewish: Neuman.

H851. †H851. Riddle: what are the two fixed, the two moving, the two joined, the two separated by jealousy, the two eternal enemies? (Heaven and earth; sun and moon; night and day; soul and body; life and death.) Chauvin V 195 No. 114.

H852. †H852. What two trees do not fade until they wither? (Yew and holly.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H853. †H853. What goodness did man find on earth that God did not find? (An overlord.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H861. †H861. Riddle: what are the two combatants without hands or feet or words? (The bull and the buffalo.) Chauvin V 194 No. 114.

H862. †H862. Riddle: what is that which is neither man nor jinn nor beast nor bird? (Louse and ant.) Chauvin V 194 No. 114.

H865. †H865. Riddle: what do crows do when they are five years old? (They start their sixth year.) (Cf. †H826.) Anderson FFC XLII 236 n. 8.

H871. †H871. Riddle: what six things are not worth doing? (Sowing salt, mowing pebbles, drinking from an empty jug, making signs to a blind man, wooing at mealtime, playing a harp in a mill.) Anderson FFC XLII 227, *228 n. 1.

H871.1. †H871.1. Three stupid things for men to do (various answers). Spanish: Childers.

H875. †H875. Riddle: what is the difference between a poor man and a rich? (Riches.) Anderson FFC XLII 229.

H878. †H878. Riddle: what is it that one buys who does not want it or use it? (Coffin.) Fb "ligkiste" II 442b.

H881. †H881. Riddles with "none" as answer. Fb "ingen" II 27.

H881.1. †H881.1. Riddle: how many dead mice go to a feast? (None.) Fb "ingen" II 27.

H882. †H882. Riddle: bottom and top of staff. Of the two ends which is the top and which the bottom? Zachariae 58.

H883. †H883. Riddle: where is the root of the floor? Below. India: Thompson-Balys.

H885. †H885. Riddles about flax. Taylor English Riddles from Oral Tradition (Berkeley, California, 1951) 250; Jewish: *Neuman.

H886. †H886. Riddles about naphtha. Jewish: Neuman.

†H900-†H1199. Tests of prowess: tasks.

†H900-†H999. Assignment and performance of tasks.

†H900-†H949. Assignment of tasks.

H900. †H900. Tasks imposed. A person's prowess is tested by assigning him certain tasks (usually impossible or extremely difficult) to be performed either to escape punishment or to receive a valuable reward. *Penzer X 330 s. v. "tests"; *Chauvin VI 200 No. 372. --Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "épreuves"; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 184 n. 1 (Hercules), Fox 80ff. (Hercules), ibid. 98 (Theseus); N. Am. Indian: **Lowie The Test Theme in North American Mythology (JAFL XXI 97ff.).

H901. †H901. Tasks imposed on pain of death. Types 306, 851; BP I 188; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 53, 83--84, 179, *Boberg; French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

H901.0.1. †H901.0.1. Tasks imposed on pain of death of relative (friend, hostage, etc.). Irish myth: Cross.

H901.0.2. †H901.0.2. Bird must bring orphan to king or bird will be killed. Chinese: Graham.

H901.1. †H901.1. Heads placed on stakes for failure in performance of task. Unsuccessful youths are beheaded and heads exposed. Hero sees them when he sets out to accomplish his task. *Types 329, 507A; *BP III 368; *Taylor Romanic Review IV 21ff.; *Brown Iwain 137 n. 1; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 119, Frazer Apollodorus II 160 n. 2; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H902. †H902. Task assigned the Gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

H910. †H910. Assignment of tasks in response to suggestion.

H911. †H911. Tasks assigned at suggestion of jealous rivals. *Types 328, 501, 531, 725; BP I 109, III 18ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 430; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 22; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 59 No. 425D; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 7, IV No. 5, Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 459.

H911.1. †H911.1. Task (quest) assigned at suggestion of jealous co-wife. Chinese: Graham; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 234.

H912. †H912. Tasks assigned at suggestion of jealous brothers (sisters). *Type 408; Köhler-Bolte I 468; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 49 No. 328*A, Espinosa Jr. No. 81; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Inca) Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 317; West Indies: Flowers 460.

H913. †H913. Tasks assigned by jealous parent.

H913.1. †H913.1. Tasks assigned by jealous mother.

H913.1.1. †H913.1.1. Task assigned at suggestion of jealous mother (of prospective bride). Irish myth: *Cross.

H913.1.2. †H913.1.2. Task suggested by jealous co-wife of mother. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H913.2. †H913.2. Tasks assigned at suggestion of jealous father.

H913.2.1. †H913.2.1. Task assigned at suggestion of jealous father (of prospective bride). Irish myth: *Cross.

H914. †H914. Tasks assigned because of mother's foolish boasting. The mother foolishly boasts to the king that the daughter can perform an impossible task (often spinning). *Type 500, 501; BP I 490, 109; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 4.

H915. †H915. Tasks assigned because of girl's (boy's) own foolish boast. *Type 501, 1525; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 460.

H915.1. †H915.1. Tasks assigned because of man's boast. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

H916. †H916. Tasks imposed at suggestion of spouse (sweetheart).

H916.1. †H916.1. Tasks imposed because of wife's foolish boast. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H916.1.1. †H916.1.1. Malicious wife reports that her husband is a famous doctor: he is commanded to cure the princess. *Crane Vitry 231f. No. 237; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXVI 89 n. 1; Herbert III 19; Japanese: Ikeda.

H916.2. †H916.2. Task imposed because of girl's foolish boast. India: Thompson-Balys.

H916.3. †H916.3. Tasks assigned at suggestion of wife and paramour. India: Thompson-Balys.

H917. †H917. Tasks assigned at own unwitting suggestion. Jason thus sent for the Golden Fleece. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 94 n. 1.

H918. †H918. Tasks assigned at suggestion contained in letter borne by the victim. Greek: Fox 39 (Bellerophon); Japanese: Ikeda.

H919. †H919. Assignment of tasks in response to suggestion -- miscellaneous.

H919.1. †H919.1. Tasks assigned at suggestion of treacherous servants. Icelandic: Herrmann II 583ff., *Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H919.1.1. †H919.1.1. Task upon suggestion of barber. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H919.2. †H919.2. Tasks assigned at suggestion of religious person. India: Thompson-Balys.

H919.3. †H919.3. Task assigned at suggestion of parrot. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H919.4. †H919.4. Impossible task assigned by plaintiff as proof. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H919.5. †H919.5. Task assigned at suggestion of treacherous soldier. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H919.6. †H919.6. Tasks assigned at instigation of queen (disguised ogress). India: Thompson-Balys.

H920. †H920. Assigners of tasks.

H921. †H921. King (father) assigns tasks to his unknown son. *Type 920; De Vries FFC LXXIII 40ff., 323ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132.

H921.1. †H921.1. Task set by king to sons to determine heir to kingdom. India: Thompson-Balys.

H922. †H922. Departing husband assigns his wife tasks. *Köhler-Bolte II 647ff.; Icelandic: Boberg.

H923. †H923. Tasks assigned before man may rescue wife from spirit world. Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 169.

H923.1. †H923.1. Task assigned before wife may rescue husband from supernatural power. Type 316; German: Grimm No. 181.

H924. †H924. Tasks assigned prisoner so that he may escape punishment. De Vries FFC LXXIII 309, 313; India: Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H924.1. †H924.1. Tasks assigned as ransom. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

H927. †H927. Tasks set by deity.

H927.1. †H927.1. Tasks as trial of prowess of mortal by gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

H927.2. †H927.2. Task assigned by angel on God's order. Moreno Esdras (†H928).

H928. †H928. Tasks imposed as tribute. Irish myth: Cross.

H928.1. †H928.1. Tasks imposed as fine. Irish myth: *Cross.

H931. †H931. Tasks assigned in order to get rid of hero. *Types 428, 461; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Grote I 110; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Anesaki 357, Ikeda.

H931.1. †H931.1. Prince envious of hero's wife assigns hero tasks. *Type 465. --Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 170; Japanese: Ikeda.

H931.1.1. †H931.1.1. Husband assigns tasks for king who has stolen his wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

H931.2. †H931.2. Disagreeable tasks set hero to do so that he will disobey and be killed. India: Thompson-Balys.

H932. †H932. Tasks assigned to devil (ogre). Types 812, 1170--1199; *BP III 16.

H933. †H933. Princess sets hero tasks. (Cf. †H335.)

H933.1. †H933.1. Princess throws handkerchief high in tree; asks hero to get it. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 66 No. 554.

H933.2. †H933.2. Maiden queen sets hero three dangerous tasks in order to disenchant her sisters. (Cf. †F565.3.) Icelandic: Boberg.

H933.3. †H933.3. Princess orders hero to bring her rings of another princess. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H933.4. †H933.4. Quest assigned by scorned princess. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H933.5. †H933.5. Queen of Sea sets hero tasks. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/441).

H934. †H934. Relative assigns tasks. (Cf. †H912--†H914.)

H934.1. †H934.1. Wife assigns husband tasks. Irish myth: Cross.

H934.2. †H934.2. Sisters-in-law impose tasks. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H934.3. †H934.3. Tasks assigned by stepmother. Chinese: Graham.

H934.4. †H934.4. Task imposed by elder brothers. India: Thompson-Balys; Irish myth: Cross (†H913.1.3.)

H935. †H935. Witch assigns tasks. Type 480, *Roberts; BP I 207; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1137A*.

H936. †H936. Tasks assigned because of longings of pregnant woman. Irish myth: *Cross; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 4; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H937. †H937. Task assigned by dying child. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H938. †H938. Fairy assigns tasks. (Cf. †H1219.4.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H939. †H939. Other assigners of tasks. Irish myth: Cross.

H939.1. †H939.1. Tasks assigned by druid. Irish myth: Cross.

H939.2. †H939.2. Tests imposed on woman by prospective paramour. Nouvelles de Sens No. 4.

H939.3. †H939.3. Tasks set by cruel sisters-in-law to get tigress. India: Thompson-Balys.

H939.4. †H939.4. Giant assigns task. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H939.4.1. †H939.4.1. Serpent-king assigns task. India: Thompson-Balys.

H940. †H940. Assignment of tasks -- miscellaneous.

H941. †H941. Cumulative tasks: second assigned so that first can be done. *Cosquin Contes indiens 474ff.; Chauvin VI 109 No. 274 n. 3; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 109 n. 4; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H942. †H942. Tasks assigned as payment of gambling loss. (Cf. †H1219.1.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

H945. †H945. Tasks voluntarily undertaken.

H945.1. †H945.1. Warriors go towards strong enemy as consequence of own boast. Icelandic: Boberg.

H945.2. †H945.2. Hero goes north to fight with trolls. (Cf. †F455.) Icelandic: Boberg.

H946. †H946. Task assigned from misunderstanding.

H946.1. †H946.1. Task assigned from misunderstanding: search for prince named Sabr ("wait"). India: Thompson-Balys.

†H950-†H999. Performance of tasks.

H950. †H950. Task evaded by subterfuge.

H951. †H951. Countertasks. When a task is assigned, the hero agrees to perform it as soon as the assigner performs a certain other task. (Cf. †H691.2.1, †H1021.1.1, †H1021.3, †H1021.6.1, †H1021.6.2, †H1022.2.1, †H1022.3, †H1022.9, †H1023.1.1, †H1023.1.2, †H1023.2.2.1, †H1023.9.1, †H1023.10.1, †H1142.3, †H1146.) *Types 531, 875; *BP I 221, II 367, 369, III 18ff.; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 43ff., 145ff., 150ff., 154, 232ff., 241f., 249; *Chauvin VIII 61 No. 26; Zachariae Kleine Schriften 98; *Child V 497 s. v. "tasks"; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda.

H952. †H952. Reductio ad absurdum of task. When an impossible task is given, the hero responds with a countertask so absurd as to show the manifest absurdity of the original task. (Cf. †H1023.3.1, †H1024.1.1.1.) *Type 821B; BP II 368 n. 1; Child I 10f., 13; De Vries FFC LXXIII 265, 269 n. 2; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 237; Chinese: Graham.

H960. †H960. Tasks performed through cleverness or intelligence. Irish myth: Cross.

H961. †H961. Tasks performed by cleverness. *M. Bloomfield in Penzer VII x; S. Am. Indian (Quiché): Alexander Lat. Am. 174.

H962. †H962. Tasks performed by close observation. Type 577; India: Thompson-Balys.

H962.1. †H962.1. Task: sitting on eggs without breaking them; hero perceives trick. Irish myth: Cross.

H963. †H963. Tasks performed by means of secrets overheard from tree. *Type 613; *Christiansen FFC XXIV 96ff.; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda.

H970. †H970. Help in performing tasks. India: Thompson-Balys.

H971. †H971. Task performed with help of old person. Tonga: Gifford 159f.

H971.1. †H971.1. Tasks performed with help of old woman. Types 306, 510, 566, 567; Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 160; German: Grimm Nos. 9, 14, 29, 122, 125, 133, 181, 186; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Japanese: Ikeda.

H971.2. †H971.2. Task performed with help of little old men. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H972. †H972. Tasks accomplished with help of grateful dead. *Type 507A; India: Thompson-Balys.

H972.1. †H972.1. Tasks performed by captive spirits of the dead. Africa (Fang): Einstein 70ff.; Trilles 190ff. No. 11.

H973. †H973. Tasks performed by helpful forest spirits. Maori: Dixon 61.

H973.1. †H973.1. Task performed by fairy. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H973.2. †H973.2. Tasks performed with help of four demons in ring. India: Thompson-Balys.

H973.3. †H973.3. Task performed by dwarfs. (Cf. †F451.5.1.) German: Grimm Nos. 13, 55, 64, 91, 113.

H974. †H974. Task performed with help of supernatural wife. Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Grote I 219; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 357, Ikeda.

H974.1. †H974.1. Task performed with help of mistress. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H975. †H975. Tasks performed by deity. Greek: Grote I 108.

H975.0.1. †H975.0.1. Task performed by deity in answer to prayer. India: Thompson-Balys.

H975.1. †H975.1. Tasks performed by aid of goddess. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

H976. †H976. Task performed by mysterious stranger. Irish myth: Cross.

H981. †H981. Tasks performed with help of brother. Chinese: Graham.

H982. †H982. Animals help man perform task. *Types 300, 329, 531, 550, 552, 554, 665.

H982.1. †H982.1. Pigeons cover the sun's rays with their outstretched wings and lengthen night to six months so that hero's task can be completed in one night. India: Thompson-Balys.

H983. †H983. Task performed with help of angel. (Cf. †N810.) Jewish: *Neuman.

H984. †H984. Tasks performed with help of saint. Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 69 No. 515.

H984.1. †H984.1. Tasks performed with help of Brahmadaitya. India: Thompson-Balys.

H985. †H985. Task performed with help of druid. Irish myth: *Cross.

H986. †H986. Help in performance of tasks: invisible hands. India: Thompson-Balys.

H987. †H987. Task performed with aid of magic object. German: Grimm Nos. 28, 91, 122, 133, 165, 181.

H990. †H990. Performance of tasks -- miscellaneous.

H991. †H991. Unpromising hero last to try task (rescue from animal). India: Thompson-Balys.

†H1000-†H1199. Nature of tasks.

†H1010-†H1049. Impossible or absurd tasks.

H1010. †H1010. Impossible tasks. *Type 428; *Child V 498 s. v. "tasks"; Burton Nights VI 204ff., S VI 4ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchens I s. v. "Aufgaben, schwierige"; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 168; Chinese: Graham.

H1020. †H1020. Tasks contrary to laws of nature.

H1021. †H1021. Task: construction from impossible kind of material.

H1021.1. †H1021.1. Task: making a rope of sand. *Type 1174; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 154, 155 n. 1; BP III 16; *Fb "reb" III 25b; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 431b n. 45; Chauvin VI 40 No. 207 n. 2. --Icelandic: Boberg.

H1021.1.1. †H1021.1.1. Task: making a rope of sand; countertask: first showing the pattern. (Cf. †H951.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 154.

H1021.2. †H1021.2. Task: making a rope of chaff. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "corde"; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1021.3. †H1021.3. Task: making ship of stone. De Vries FFC LXXIII 150ff.; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 235.

H1021.4. †H1021.4. Task: making a knot of spilled brandy. *Type 1173.

H1021.5. †H1021.5. Task: making an invisible knot with an egg. Finnish: Kalevala rune 8.

H1021.6. †H1021.6. Task: weaving a silk shirt from hair. (Cf. †H1022.2.2.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 233.

H1021.6.1. †H1021.6.1. Task: weaving a silk shirt from hair; countertask: making a loom from shavings. (Cf. †H951.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 234.

H1021.7. †H1021.7. Task: taking a stick from the body. (Fingernail.) Type 1181.

H1021.8. †H1021.8. Task: spinning gold. Type 500; BP I 490ff., *495 n. 1.

H1021.9. †H1021.9. Task: sewing a shirt of stone. Fb "sten" III 554a.

H1021.9.1. †H1021.9.1. Task: sewing a shirt from flower petals. German: Grimm No. 49.

H1021.10. †H1021.10. Task: brewing ale from sweet milk. Irish myth: Cross.

H1021.11. †H1021.11. Task: making a peacock of silk. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1022. †H1022. Task: construction from impossible amount of material.

H1022.1. †H1022.1. Task: weaving cloth from two threads. Type 875; *BP II 349ff., 368; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 232.

H1022.2. †H1022.2. Task: making many shirts (clothing an army) from one hank of flax (wool). Köhler-Bolte I 459, 566; *Hdwb. d. Märchens II 151a nn. 503--521.

H1022.2.1. †H1022.2.1. Task: clothing an army from one hank of flax; countertask: making horseshoes for cavalry from one needle. (Cf. †H951.) Köhler-Bolte I 459.

H1022.2.2. †H1022.2.2. Task: weaving a shirt from a piece of thread; countertask: making a loom from a rod. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H1022.3. †H1022.3. Task: making sails for ship from one bundle of linen; countertask: making spindle and loom from one stick of wood. (Cf. †H951.) Köhler-Bolte I 459.

H1022.4. †H1022.4. Task: making shirt from piece of linen three inches square. Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 64; Herbert Catalogue III 206.

H1022.4.1. †H1022.4.1. Task: making shirt derived from a single flax-seed. Irish myth: Cross.

H1022.4.2. †H1022.4.2. Task: weaving mantle from wool of a single sheep. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1022.4.3. †H1022.4.3. Task: making shawl-cloth one hundred cubits in length out of one cocoon of silk. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1022.5. †H1022.5. Task: feeding army from one measure of meal. Köhler-Bolte I 566.

H1022.5.1. †H1022.5.1. Task: making broth for army. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1022.6. †H1022.6. Task: making many kinds of food from one small bird. Fansler MAFLS XII 62.

H1022.6.1. †H1022.6.1. Task: making ale derived from a single grain of corn. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1022.7. †H1022.7. Task: making boat from splinters of a spindle and shuttle. Finnish: Kalevala rune 8.

H1022.8. †H1022.8. Task: brewing impossible amount of ale from one grain of corn. Irish myth: Cross.

H1022.9. †H1022.9. Task: bringing quantity of mosquito bones within month; countertask: furnishing scales with wind as beams and heat as pans. (Cf. †H951.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023. †H1023. Tasks contrary to the nature of objects.

H1023.1. †H1023.1. Task: hatching boiled eggs. *Type 875; BP II 349ff.; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 241.

H1023.1.1. †H1023.1.1. Task: hatching boiled eggs; countertask: sowing cooked seeds and harvesting the crop. (Cf. †H951, †H952.) *Types 821B, 875; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 242; *BP II 368 n. 1.

H1023.1.2. †H1023.1.2. Task: hatching eggs immediately; countertask: sowing seeds and bringing in crop next morning. (Cf. †H951, †H952.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 242; Köhler-Bolte I 459.

H1023.2. †H1023.2. Task: carrying water in a sieve. *Types 480, 1180, Roberts 138, 165; *BP I 5, 215, III 16, 477 n. 1; *Fb "såld" III 750a; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 354; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; S. Am. Indian (Ackawoi): Alexander Lat. Am. 269.

H1023.2.0.1. †H1023.2.0.1. Task: carrying water in sieve; sieve filled with moss. *BP I 5, 215, III 477 n. 1; England: Baughman; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 107 No. 22.

H1023.2.0.2. †H1023.2.0.2. Task: carrying water in sieve; pious child able to do so. BP III 477 n. 1.

H1023.2.1. †H1023.2.1. Task: carrying water in leaky vessel. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "cruche"; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 32 No. 4; (Zulu): Callaway 16, (Basuto): Jacottet 15 No. 10, 202 No. 30, (Kaffir): Theal 15, (Angola): Chatelain 163, 171, 179 No. 21.

H1023.2.1.1. †H1023.2.1.1. Task: carrying water in leaky vessel; vessel repaired with clay or gum. Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 32 No. 4, (Basuto): Jacottet 15 No. 10.

H1023.2.1.2. †H1023.2.1.2. Task: carrying water in leaky vessel; frog sits in hole. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1023.2.2. †H1023.2.2. Hero sets wife to task of filling water-bottle with spout turned downward. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 417.

H1023.2.3. †H1023.2.3. Impossible task: filling a grain-bin through the hole in the bottom. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.2.4. †H1023.2.4. Task: filling a bottomless water tube. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.2.5. †H1023.2.5. Task: filling pots having subterranean outlets. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.3. †H1023.3. Task: bringing berries (fruit, roses) in winter. *Type 403B, 480, *Roberts 134; BP I 99ff., II 232; *Saintyves Perrault 20; De Vries FFC LXXIII 269 n. 2; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 159; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 313 n. 126c.

H1023.3.1. †H1023.3.1. Task: bringing berries in winter. Reductio ad absurdum: father is sick from snake-bite (impossible in winter). (Cf. †H952.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 269 n. 2.

H1023.3.1.1. †H1023.3.1.1. Task: procuring cuckoo to sing in winter. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1023.3.2. †H1023.3.2. Task: making withered flowers green. Jewish: Moreno Esdras.

H1023.4. †H1023.4. Task: straightening a curly hair. Type 1175; BP III 15; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 636; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 314 No. 113, 329 No. 45; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1023.4.1. †H1023.4.1. Task: making a dog's tail straight. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.5. †H1023.5. Task: pumping out a leaky ship. Type 1179; BP III 16.

H1023.6. †H1023.6. Task: washing black wool (cloth, cattle) white. Type 480; *Roberts 165; *Fb "får" I 406b, "hvid" I 700b, "skjorte" III 268a, "sort" III 467b; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 314 No. 113, 328 No. 10.

H1023.6.1. †H1023.6.1. Task: washing large heavy quilt covered with ghi and oil without aid of soap or anything. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.7. †H1023.7. Task: sewing together a broken mill-stone. De Vries FFC LXXIII 152; Jewish: *Neuman.

H1023.7.1. †H1023.7.1. Task: sewing together a broken egg. German: Grimm No. 129.

H1023.7.2. †H1023.7.2. Task: sewing together a broken ship. German: Grimm No. 129.

H1023.8. †H1023.8. Task: fixing the two pieces of a broken sword together. Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 202.

H1023.9. †H1023.9. Task: mending a broken jug. De Vries FFC LXXIII 249; Jewish: Neuman.

H1023.9.1. †H1023.9.1. Task: mending a broken jug; countertask: turning it wrong side out as one does a shoe. (Cf. †H951.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 249.

H1023.10. †H1023.10. Task: skinning a stone. De Vries FFC LXXIII 145 ff.

H1023.10.1. †H1023.10.1. Task: skinning a stone; countertask: first let the stone bleed. De Vries FFC LXXIII 145ff.

H1023.11. †H1023.11. Task: putting a large squash whole into a narrow-necked jar. Filipino: Fansler MAFLS XII 62f.

H1023.12. †H1023.12. Task: catching a noise. Type 1177*.

H1023.13. †H1023.13. Task: catching a man's broken wind. Type 1176; BP III 16.

H1023.14. †H1023.14. Task: splitting a hair with a blunt knife. Finnish: Kalevala rune 8; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.15. †H1023.15. Task: turning fruit into gold. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 5.

H1023.16. †H1023.16. Task: making sun and moon shine in the north. Irish myth: Cross.

H1023.17. †H1023.17. Task: sowing rye and bringing crop next morning. (Cf. †H1023.1.2.) Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H1023.18. †H1023.18. Task: putting peaches back on tree. Chinese: Graham.

H1023.19. †H1023.19. Task: bringing bundle of faggots without rope to tie them. Helpful snake coils himself about them. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1023.20. †H1023.20. Task: fetching water from the well in a bucket without the use of rope to draw it with. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.21. †H1023.21. Task: gathering a necklace of rubies from the sea. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.22. †H1023.22. Task: catching a sunbeam. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.23. †H1023.23. Task: tying the sun with a stone chain. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.24. †H1023.24. Suitor asked to bathe in great cauldron of boiling water without making water lukewarm. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.25. †H1023.25. Task: bringing a well (pond, lake) to king. Hero asks for another lake to tie to it and overawes king. Types 1045, 1650; Zachariae Kleine Schriften 93; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1023.25.1. †H1023.25.1. Task: bringing well to king; countertask: sending his own well to accompany it. (Cf. †H951.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H1024. †H1024. Tasks contrary to the nature of animals.

H1024.1. †H1024.1. Task: milking a bull. De Vries FFC LXXIII 43ff.; Fansler MAFLS XII 63; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1024.1.1. †H1024.1.1. Task: making a bull bear a calf. De Vries FFC LXXIII 43ff., 265.

H1024.1.1.1. †H1024.1.1.1. Task: making a bull bear a calf. Reductio ad absurdum: have a man prepare for childbirth. (Cf. †H952.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 265; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1024.2. †H1024.2. Task: placing frogs in a tree. *BP III 16.

H1024.3. †H1024.3. Task: chasing a hare into every trap in a high tree. *Type 1171; BP III 16.

H1024.4. †H1024.4. Task: teaching an ass to read. Anderson FFC XLII 357 n. 1; cf. Type 1675.

H1024.5. †H1024.5. Task: sowing dragon's teeth. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 109 n. 4.

H1024.6. †H1024.6. Task: procuring bird out of season. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1024.7. †H1024.7. Task: teaching animal to speak.

H1024.7.1. †H1024.7.1. Task: teaching horse to speak. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1024.8. †H1024.8. Task: spinning wool still on goat's back. Jewish: *Neuman.

H1025. †H1025. Task: obtaining fat (bacon) from swine that never was farrowed. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1026. †H1026. Task: changing the course of time.

H1026.1. †H1026.1. Task: naming those things which have not yet happened. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†H1011).

H1026.2. †H1026.2. Task: bringing past time to present. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†H1023.17).

H1030. †H1030. Other impossible tasks.

H1033. †H1033. Task: showing picture of a voice. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†H1013).

H1035. †H1035. Task: eating the moon. Gascon: Bladé I 8 No. 1.

H1036. †H1036. Task: building castle suspended between heaven and earth. *Chauvin VI 38 No. 207 n. 3.

H1038. †H1038. Task: getting fruit from top of tall tree without cutting tree. (Cuts roots of tree.) Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 32 No. 4.

H1041. †H1041. Task: bringing a plantain leaf from the garden without tearing it. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1042. †H1042. Task: recalling a dream someone else has had. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1045. †H1045. Task: filling a sack full of lies (truths). *Type 570; *BP III 273; *Fb "sandhed", "pose"; Russian: Andrejev No. 1630*.

H1045.1. †H1045.1. Task: going to get nothing and bringing it back. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1046. †H1046. Task: carrying woman across river without wetting feet. Hero fails. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1046.1. †H1046.1. Task: dipping water without wetting dipper. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1046.2. †H1046.2. Task: cutting and bringing leaves from thorn thicket without tearing them at all. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1046.3. †H1046.3. Task: drinking beer without touching pot. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1047. †H1047. Task: bringing melon 12 cubits long with seed 13 cubits long. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1049. †H1049. Other impossible tasks -- miscellaneous.

H1049.1. †H1049.1. Task: bringing the foam of the ocean in a large piece of cloth. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1049.2. †H1049.2. Task: growing oil seed on stony ground. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1049.3. †H1049.3. Task: setting back sun. (Cf. †D2146.1.1.) Samoa: Beckwith Myth 439.

H1049.4. †H1049.4. Task: stopping the rain. (Cf. †D2141.1.) Samoa: Beckwith Myth 439.

†H1050-†H1089. Paradoxical tasks.

H1050. †H1050. Paradoxical tasks. *Type 875; *BP II 362; *Gruffydd Math vab Mathonwy (U. of Wales Press, 1928) 307ff.

H1051. †H1051. Task: coming neither on nor off the road. (Comes in the rut or the ditch at side of the road.) *Type 875; BP II 349ff.; De Vries FFC LXXIII 195f.

H1052. †H1052. Task: standing neither inside nor outside of gate. (Forefeet of horse inside, hind feet outside.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 198; BP II 362.

H1053. †H1053. Task: coming neither on horse nor on foot (riding nor walking). *Type 875; *BP II 362; Köhler-Bolte I 446ff.; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 186ff.; Fb "kjöre", "ridende"; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 423; Filipino: Fansler MAFLS XII 63.

H1053.1. †H1053.1. Task: coming neither on horse nor on foot. (Comes on another animal.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 187; Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière.

H1053.2. †H1053.2. Task: coming neither on horse nor on foot. (Comes sitting on animal but with feet reaching ground.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 188; Irish myth: Cross.

H1053.3. †H1053.3. Task: coming neither on horse nor on foot. (Comes with one leg on animal's back, one on ground.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 188.

H1053.4. †H1053.4. Task: coming neither on horse nor on foot. (Coming drawn by an animal on net, trough, or sledge.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 189.

H1053.5. †H1053.5. Task: coming neither on horse nor on foot. (Walks on a stick horse.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 190.

H1053.6. †H1053.6. Task: coming neither on horse nor on foot. (Crawls on all fours.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 190.

H1054. †H1054. Task: coming neither naked nor clad. *Type 875; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 181; BP II 349ff.; Fb "klæder"; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1054.1. †H1054.1. Task: coming neither naked nor clad. (Comes wrapped in net or the like.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 182; Missouri French: Carrière.

H1054.2. †H1054.2. Task: coming neither naked nor clad. (Comes clothed in own hair.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 181.

H1054.3. †H1054.3. Task: coming neither naked nor clad. (Comes with part of body clothed.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 181.

H1054.4. †H1054.4. Task: coming "neither in softness nor in hardness." (Comes clad in garments of mountain down.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H1055. †H1055. Task: coming neither barefoot nor shod. (Comes with one shoe on, one off; or in soleless shoes.) Type 875; *BP II 362; De Vries FFC LXXIII 200.

H1056. †H1056. Task: coming neither with nor without a present (game). (Lets bird fly as the reaches it toward king.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 205.

H1057. †H1057. Task: coming neither by day nor by night. (Comes at twilight.) *De Vries FFC LXXIII 202; *BP II 362; Irish myth: Cross.

H1058. †H1058. Task: standing between summer and winter. (Stands between wagon and sleigh.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 213.

H1061. †H1061. Task: coming neither with nor without a companion. (Comes with an animal.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; De Vries FFC LXXIII 212.

H1062. †H1062. Task: coming neither washed nor unwashed. (Comes partly washed.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 211.

H1063. †H1063. Task: coming neither hungry nor satiated. (Eats a thin soup, a leaf, a single grain, or the like.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 210; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1064. †H1064. Task: coming laughing and crying at once. (Rubs eyes with a twig to simulate crying.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 212.

H1065. †H1065. Task: bringing best friend, worst enemy, best servant, greatest pleasure-giver. (Brings dog, wife, ass, little son respectively.) Köhler-Bolte I 415, 455; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 423; Herbert III 201; Ward II 231; Oesterley No. 124; *Chauvin VIII 199 No. 244; *BP II 365; cf. Type 875; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 220ff.; *Anderson FFC XLII 357 and n. 2; *Wesselski Märchen 237 No. 48; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H1066. †H1066. Task: sweep the floor and do not sweep it. *Köhler in Gonzenbach II 215.

H1067. †H1067. Task: light fire but do not light it. *Köhler in Gonzenbach II 215.

H1068. †H1068. Task: making bed but do not make it. *Köhler in Gonzenbach II 215.

H1071. †H1071. Task: eat bread but bring it back whole. (Center of loaf eaten.) Köhler-Bolte I 437.

H1072. †H1072. Task: give sheep good care but do not let it fatten. (Sheep fed but kept near wolf where it is afraid and does not fatten.) *Chauvin VIII 181 No. 213; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1073. †H1073. Task: filling glasses with water that has neither fallen from heaven nor sprung from the earth. (Uses horse's sweat.) Dh I 329.

H1074. †H1074. Task: furnish beef which is neither male nor female. Countertask: send for it when it is neither night nor day. American Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 118 No. 15.

H1075. †H1075. Task: bringing something ever-increasing (ambition); something ever-decreasing (life); something which neither increases nor decreases (one's fated lot); and something which both increases and decreases (universe). India: Thompson-Balys.

H1077. †H1077. Task: building house neither on ground nor in sky. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1090. †H1090. Tasks requiring miraculous speed. Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1091. †H1091. Task: sorting a large amount of grain (beads, beans, peas) in one night. *Types 313, 554; *BP II 28, 517; *Köhler-Bolte I 397; *Fb "fugl", "gryn"; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 322 No. 87; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "pois"; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 68 No. 513; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: Dixon 226; Chinese: Graham; N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Teit JE VIII 392 No. 100.

H1091.1. †H1091.1. Task: sorting grains: performed by helpful ants. Clouston Tales I 238f.; Köhler-Bolte I 397; French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 130; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 4; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: Dixon 217; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 17.

H1091.2. †H1091.2. Task: sorting grains; performed by helpful birds. *Fb "fugl"; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1091.3. †H1091.3. Suitor test: scattering mountain of mustard seed in one watch gathering it together in another, pressing its oil out in another. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1092. †H1092. Task: spinning impossible amount in one night. (Cf. †H1022.2.) *Types 500, 501, 708; BP I 109ff., 490ff.; *Fb "spinde" III 492a; Hoffmann-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 120 nn. 7, 8; Köhler-Bolte ibid. VI 71; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 4; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1092.0.1. †H1092.0.1. Task: spinning and weaving large amount by specified time. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1092.1. †H1092.1. Helpful animal performs spinning task. (Cf. †B571.) Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 71; Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. 453*, 481*.

H1093. †H1093. Task: embroidering blanket in one day. (Help from animals.) (Cf. †B571.) N. Am. Indian (Crow): Lowie PaAM XXV 121, Simms FM II 309, (Blackfoot): Wissler and Duvall PaAM II 130ff.

H1094. †H1094. Task: unraveling in short time.

H1094.1. †H1094.1. Task: unraveling a net in a short time. Type 1178*.

H1095. †H1095. Task: felling a forest in one night. (Cf. †H1115.) *Type 313; Fb "skov" III 300a; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg (†H322.5); Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "forêt"; Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 7.

H1095.1. †H1095.1. Task: collecting firewood quickly, sufficient to last remainder of one's life. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1095.2. †H1095.2. Task: stacking wood from felled forest in one day. German: Grimm No. 113, 193.

H1096. †H1096. Task: washing enormous number of clothes (and other articles) in short time. Sicilian: Gonzenbach I 97ff. No. 15.

H1097. †H1097. Task: draining sea-covered land in one night. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1097.1. †H1097.1. Task: drying up a lake in one night. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H1097.2. †H1097.2. Task: cleaning enormous cistern in one day. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 7; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1101. †H1101. Task: removing mountain (mound) in one night. *Type 313; Breton: Sébillot Incidents "butte"; Missouri French: Carrière.

H1102. †H1102. Task: cleaning Augean stable. Stable has not been cleaned in years. Must be done in one night. River turned through it. Type 313; Köhler-Bolte I 170; *Fb "stald" III 534a; Greek: Fox 82, Frazer Apollodorus I 195 n. 2; New Zealand: Dixon 71.

H1102.1. †H1102.1. Task: cleaning cowshed. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1102.2. †H1102.2. Task: emptying in one day a barn filled with manure. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1103. †H1103. Task: setting out vineyard in one night. *Type 313.

H1103.1. †H1103.1. Task: making garden quickly in unplanted forest. Kabyle: Frobenius Atlantis II 32 No. 4; Africa (Benga): Nassau 215 No. 33.

H1103.1.1. †H1103.1.1. Task: making garden in three days. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1103.2. †H1103.2. Task: plowing enormous amount of land in one day. Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 72, 73; Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 7; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1103.2.1. †H1103.2.1. Task: preparing and sowing impossible amount of land overnight. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1103.2.2. †H1103.2.2. Task: planting and growing crop overnight. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1103.3. †H1103.3. Task: covering mango tree grove with fruit in a single night. (Cf. †H1023.17.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H1104. †H1104. Task: building castle in one night. Type 313; Fb "slot" III 377a.

H1104.0.1. †H1104.0.1. Task: building castle in three days. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1104.1. †H1104.1. Task: building a lodge entirely of bird's feathers in one night. S. Am. Indian (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 264.

H1104.1.1. †H1104.1.1. Task: in one day feathering a barn, each feather from different bird. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1104.1.2. †H1104.1.2. Task: thatching roof with bird feathers; half blow away while other half are sought. (Cf. †F171.6.6.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H1104.2. †H1104.2. Task: building entire village in one night. Africa (Fang): Einstein 70ff. (= Trilles 190ff. No. 11.)

H1104.3. †H1104.3. Task: building a house of iron in one night. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H1104.4. †H1104.4. Task: erecting marriage hall in one night. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1104.5. †H1104.5. Task: building granary full of grain overnight. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1105. †H1105. Task: digging a pond quickly. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "étang"; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1106. †H1106. Task: shearing flock of sheep in one day. N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Boas JAFL XXXV 77 No. 4.

H1107. †H1107. Task: bringing documents from distant city in one day. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 68 No. 513.

H1108. †H1108. Task: paving great road in short time. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1109. †H1109. Other tasks requiring miraculous speed.

H1109.1. †H1109.1. Task: bringing water from distant fountain more quickly than a witch. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 68 No. 513.

H1109.2. †H1109.2. Task: hauling enormous number of things from one farm to another in one day. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1109.3. †H1109.3. Task: killing enough birds in one day to cover the mountain, each bird to be of a different species. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1109.4. †H1109.4. Task: exterminating mice infesting city in three days. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1110. †H1110. Tedious tasks.

H1111. †H1111. Task: carrying hundreds of sheep across stream one at a time. *BP II 209; cf. Type 2300; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1112. †H1112. Task: herding rabbits. *Type 570; BP III 267ff. (incident C); *Fb "hare".

H1112.1. †H1112.1. Task: keeping four dogs in herd. *Fb "hund" I 678a.

H1112.2. †H1112.2. Task: pasturing a cow which continues to run all day. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1113. †H1113. Task: bailing out a pond. Type 313; German: Grimm No. 113; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "étang"; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 369, 377; Africa (Benga): Nassau 216 No. 33.

H1113.1. †H1113.1. Bailing out pond with thimble. German: Grimm No. 193.

H1114. †H1114. Task: climbing glass mountain. *Type 425; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1114.1. †H1114.1. Task: securing three eggs from top of glass tower. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1114.2. †H1114.2. Task: carrying ever-increasing burden up mountain. German: Grimm No. 179.

H1115. †H1115. Task: chopping down large tree with blunt (fragile) implements. (Cf. †H1095.) Type 313; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "arbres"; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 208; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 251 No. 29.

H1115.1. †H1115.1. Task: cutting down huge tree which magically regrows. Type 577.

H1115.2. †H1115.2. Task: sawing iron tree in two. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1115.3. †H1115.3. Task: cutting down a giant tree. Marquesas: Beckwith Myth 470.

H1116. †H1116. Task: breaking huge rock to pieces. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 208.

H1116.1. †H1116.1. Task: cutting firewood from rocks with brass axe (rock struck to splinters by lightning used). Africa (Ganda): Baskerville 8ff.

H1116.2. †H1116.2. Task: breaking iron with wooden axe. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1116.3. †H1116.3. Task: tearing down a huge wall. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1117. †H1117. Task: bringing as many horses as there are days in the year. (Brings one for each week-day.) Anderson FFC XLII 227 n. 1.

H1118. †H1118. Task: counting hairs in pig's back (feathers in bird). *Fb "tælle" III 922b.

H1118.1. †H1118.1. Task: counting the seeds in a package of mustard. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1118.2. †H1118.2. Task: counting daily how many leaves fall off a tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1118.3. †H1118.3. Task: counting palm trees within view of king's palace. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1121. †H1121. Task: picking all nuts from tall tree. (Performed by grateful squirrel.) Indonesia: *Dixon 217 n. 22.

H1122. †H1122. Task: preparing large quantity of grain. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "grain"; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 71--74; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1122.1. †H1122.1. Task: supplying superhuman amount of grain. Irish myth: Cross.

H1123. †H1123. Task: feeding ravenous beast to satiation. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bête".

H1124. †H1124. Task: gathering all stones from brook or field. Type 1172.

H1125. †H1125. Task: traveling till iron shoes are worn out. *Type 425; *BP II 272; Köhler-Bolte I 317, 512, 573; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 114.

H1125.1. †H1125.1. Task: traveling till two skeins of thread are unwound. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 57 No. 425.

H1127. †H1127. Task: carrying off huge quantity of money. *Type 513.

H1128. †H1128. Task: keeping up a certain work all night. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "ouvrage".

H1129. †H1129. Other tedious tasks.

H1129.1. †H1129.1. Task: filling the yard with manure. Type 1183**.

H1129.1.1. †H1129.1.1. Task: bringing twelve cartloads of mud without the use of buffaloes. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1129.2. †H1129.2. Task: filling twelve bed-ticks with feathers. Done by helpful birds. German: Grimm No. 186; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 4.

H1129.3. †H1129.3. Task: carrying soil to cover stony ground. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1129.4. †H1129.4. Task: filling pot with dew. Africa (Ganda): Baskerville 8ff.

H1129.5. †H1129.5. Task: building a fire; whole tree burns up while man is bringing another. Irish myth: Cross.

H1129.5.1. †H1129.5.1. Task: gathering firewood; bundle continually swept away from swimming man. Irish myth: Cross.

H1129.6. †H1129.6. Task: building causeway, clearing land, etc. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1129.7. †H1129.7. Task: gathering bed-tick full of harp strings. Irish myth: Cross.

H1129.8. †H1129.8. Task: gathering vessel full of nail-scrapings. Irish myth: Cross.

H1129.9. †H1129.9. Task: gathering crow's house full of wren's eggs. Irish myth: Cross.

H1129.10. †H1129.10. Task: gathering fist-full of fleas. Irish myth: Cross.

H1129.10.1. †H1129.10.1. Impossible task: assembling huge quantity of many-colored fleas. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1129.11. †H1129.11. Task: carrying fuel. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1130. †H1130. Superhuman tasks.

H1131. †H1131. Task: building enormous bridge. (Cf. †H359.1.) Irish myth: Cross; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1131.1. †H1131.1. Task: building bridge over land and sea. *Fb "guldæble" I 516a.

H1131.2. †H1131.2. Devil as suitor assigned task to build bridge or dam. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3250, Legends Nos. 343f.

H1132. †H1132. Task: recovering lost objects.

H1132.1. †H1132.1. Task: recovering lost object from sea. Irish: Beal XXI 308, 316, O'Suilleabhain 26.

H1132.1.1. †H1132.1.1. Task: recovering lost ring from sea. *Types 513, 554; *Saintyves Essais 381; BP I 134ff., II 19ff.; *Fb "guldring"; Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Fox 101 (Theseus); Japanese: Ikeda; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 280 No. 91.

H1132.1.1.1. †H1132.1.1.1. Test: recovering ring from water. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1132.1.2. †H1132.1.2. Task: recovering lost key from sea. *Type 554; BP I 134ff., II 19ff.; Fb "guldnøgle" I 514; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 25, 35, Beal XXI 307, 312; Missouri French: Carrière; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1132.1.3. †H1132.1.3. Task: recovering strap from sea. Type 434*; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1132.1.4. †H1132.1.4. Task: recovering pen from sea. *Type 531; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1132.1.5. †H1132.1.5. Task: recovering lost fish-hook. Done by Sea-king. Japanese: Anesaki 266, Ikeda.

H1132.1.6. †H1132.1.6. Task: recovering cooking-spit from sea. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1132.1.7. †H1132.1.7. Task: recovering crown from sea. German: Grimm No. 107.

H1132.2. †H1132.2. Task: recovering object in large fire. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1132.3. †H1132.3. Task: recovering object from python's hole. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1132.3.1. †H1132.3.1. Task: getting ring from python's hole (help from python goddess). India: Thompson-Balys.

H1133. †H1133. Task: building castle (fort). Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière.

H1133.1. †H1133.1. Task: building magic castle. *Type 554; BP II 19ff.

H1133.2. †H1133.2. Task: building castle in air. Fb "slot" III 377a; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 5.

H1133.3. †H1133.3. Task: building castle in sea. Fb "slot" III 377a; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1133.4. †H1133.4. Task: building palace of gold (crystal). India: Thompson-Balys.

H1133.5. †H1133.5. Task: building palace and city. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1133.6. †H1133.6. Task: building exact replica of castle in wax. German: Grimm No. 107.

H1135. †H1135. Task: annihilating (overcoming) army single-handed. Type 513; Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Fox 112 (Jason).

H1136. †H1136. Task: bringing winds from the whole world. Fb "vind" III 1059a.

H1136.1. †H1136.1. Task: bringing back flour scattered by wind. Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 171.

H1136.2. †H1136.2. Task: gathering wind in fists. Jewish: Neuman.

H1137. †H1137. Task: binding waves of the sea. Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 236; Filipino: Fansler MAFLS XII 62.

H1138. †H1138. Task: supplying water in land where it is lacking. *Fb "vand" III 1001b. --Icelandic: Boberg.

H1138.1. †H1138.1. Task: "to turn low stream and fill the high stream." India: Thompson-Balys.

H1141. †H1141. Task: eating enormous amount. *Type 513; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa: Werner African 153.

H1141.1. †H1141.1. Task: eating mountain of bread. *Type 571; Fb "æde" III 1140a.

H1141.2. †H1141.2. Task: eating three hundred fat oxen. Fb "æde" III 1140a.

H1141.3. †H1141.3. Task: eating room-full of salt. (Trickster eats only a pinch. "He who has eaten with a friend as much salt as I have eaten and does not recognize the friendship will not do so though he eat ten rooms full of salt.") *Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 207.

H1141.4. †H1141.4. Task: eating entire goat without leaving a scrap. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1142. †H1142. Task: drinking enormous amount. *Type 513; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1142.1. †H1142.1. Task: drinking wine -- cellar empty. *Type 571; Missouri French: Carrière.

H1142.2. †H1142.2. Task: drinking the sea dry. *Anderson FFC XLII 139, 356; BP II 369; *Chauvin VIII 62 No. 26; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 93 (Thor); Gascon: Bladé I 8 No. 1.

H1142.2.1. †H1142.2.1. Task: drinking the sea dry (illusion produced by magic thread which makes hero think he is drinking from spring). India: Thompson-Balys.

H1142.3. †H1142.3. Task: drinking the sea dry: countertask: stop all the rivers. (Cf. †H951.) BP II 369.

H1143. †H1143. Task: dipping out the sea with a spoon: countertask: stop all the rivers. (Cf. †H1113., †H1142.3.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 251. --French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule (†H1023.2.3.); Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1143.1. †H1143.1. Task: emptying the lake with a pail in one day. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1144. †H1144. Task: measuring ocean. *Hdwb. d. Märchens s. v. "Meer austrinken, ausmessen".

H1144.1. †H1144.1. Task: to collect together all the drops of water. Jewish: Moreno Esdras.

H1144.2. †H1144.2. Task: counting the waves. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1145. †H1145. Tasks: other difficult measurements.

H1145.1. †H1145.1. Task: weighing fire. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†H1023.16).

H1145.2. †H1145.2. Task: measuring a gust of wind. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†H1023.18).

H1146. †H1146. Task: carrying mountain on head. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1147. †H1147. Task: making ladder which whole army cannot set up. De Vries FFC LXXIII 323, 331.

H1149. †H1149. Miscellaneous superhuman tasks.

H1149.1. †H1149.1. Task: yoking together lion and wild boar. Greek: Fox 107 (Admetus), Grote I 108.

H1149.2. †H1149.2. Task: lifting a certain cat. (Is serpent that embraces the earth.) Icelandic: Boberg (Thor and the Midgard serpent).

H1149.3. †H1149.3. Task: defeating a certain old woman. (She is Old Age.) Hdwb. d. Märchens I 445b n. 432; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1149.4. †H1149.4. Task: collecting enormous amount of material (number of rare objects, etc.) Irish myth: Cross.

H1149.5. †H1149.5. Feat on spear point. Hero performs it as task set by otherworld amazon. Irish myth: Cross.

H1149.6. †H1149.6. Task: breaking pigeon's egg on parapet of castle. Pigeon in ferocious serpent. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1149.7. †H1149.7. Task: drawing spear thrust through seven iron plates. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1149.8. †H1149.8. Girl to bring cloth as long as river and raise pig as big as mountain. (Countertask: measure river and weigh mountain.) Chinese: Graham.

H1149.9. †H1149.9. Task: lifting mountain. Countertask: placing it on my shoulders. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1149.10. †H1149.10. Task: jumping across river in one bound. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1150. †H1150. Tasks: stealing, capturing, or slaying. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151. †H1151. Theft as a task. *Type 1525; BP III 379ff.; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 123; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1151.1. †H1151.1. Task: stealing golden apples. *Fb "guldæble" I 516, "æble" III 1135b; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 179, *Boberg Greek: Fox 87, Frazer Apollodorus I 220 n. 1.

H1151.1.1. †H1151.1.1. Task: stealing a golden lotus. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.2. †H1151.2. Task: stealing twelve horses out of stall. (Cf. †H1151.13.3.) *Type 1525; *Fb "hest".

H1151.2.1. †H1151.2.1. Task: stealing horse when owner has been forewarned. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.2.2. †H1151.2.2. Task: stealing king's horse as he rides on it. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.3. †H1151.3. Task: stealing sheet from bed on which person is sleeping. *Type 1525; Missouri French: Carrière.

H1151.3.1. †H1151.3.1. Task: stealing tray from king's bedside. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.4. †H1151.4. Task: stealing ring from finger. *Type 1525.

H1151.5. †H1151.5. Task: stealing belt from queen. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 203 n. 1 (Hercules).

H1151.5.1. †H1151.5.1. Task: stealing girdle of goddess. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/243).

H1151.6. †H1151.6. Task: stealing elephant's tail (tusks). Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 123 No. 22, (Ekoi): Talbot 208.

H1151.6.1. †H1151.6.1. Task: stealing enormous diamond from elephant's forehead. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.7. †H1151.7. Task: stealing the two horns of a savage bull. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1151.7.1. †H1151.7.1. Task: stealing gold-filled horn of wild three-horned ox. (Cf. †H933.2.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1151.8. †H1151.8. Task: stealing cattle which are guarded by a marvelous dog. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 87 n. 3 (Melampus).

H1151.9. †H1151.9. Task: stealing troll's golden horse. *Fb "guldhest".

H1151.10. †H1151.10. Task: bringing branch from tree guarded by ghosts. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.10.1. †H1151.10.1. Task: stealing pears from ingeniously guarded garden. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.11. †H1151.11. Task: bringing a baby lion's tail to use as broom. Africa (Hausa): Mischlich 80ff. No. 5.

H1151.12. †H1151.12. Task: stealing eggs from under bird. Type 653; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa: Weeks Jungle 43, (Madagascar): Renel II 118f. No. 91.

H1151.13. †H1151.13. Task: stealing from a king. Irish myth: Cross.

H1151.13.1. †H1151.13.1. Task: stealing pigskin from a king. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1151.13.2. †H1151.13.2. Task: stealing spear from a king. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1151.13.3. †H1151.13.3. Task: stealing horses (and chariot) from a king. (Cf. †H1151.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H1151.13.4. †H1151.13.4. Task: stealing hound from a king. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1151.13.5. †H1151.13.5. Task: stealing three pearls from king's heavily guarded treasury. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.14. †H1151.14. Task: stealing sword from giant. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1151.15. †H1151.15. Task: stealing goddess Freya's necklace. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1151.16. †H1151.16. Task: stealing the mead of poetry. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1151.17. †H1151.17. Task: stealing the bait of the demon Añan. S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132.

H1151.18. †H1151.18. Task: liberating wife's sister, elephant's captive, who lives in a box in his ear. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.19. †H1151.19. Task: eating only what is stolen without sinning. Irish myth: Cross.

H1151.20. †H1151.20. Task: stealing magic healing apples. (Cf. †H1323.) French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1151.21. †H1151.21. Task: stealing magic healing water. (Cf. †D1500.1.18.) French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1151.22. †H1151.22. Task: stealing laborer's pajamas. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.23. †H1151.23. Task: stealing beautiful clothing of a witch. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.24. †H1151.24. Task: stealing ogress's drum. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.25. †H1151.25. Task: stealing ogre's grain. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1151.26. †H1151.26. Task: bringing ruby in head of devastating serpent. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1152. †H1152. Task: selling an animal and keeping him.

H1152.1. †H1152.1. Task: selling a sheep (goat) and bringing it back along with the money. (Shears and sells wool; brings animal back.) De Vries FFC LXXIII 43ff., 157; Irish: Cross, Baughman.

H1153. †H1153. Task: selling three old women. (Devil finds that no one wants them.) *Type 1170; BP III 16.

H1154. †H1154. Tasks: capturing animals. Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Fox 80ff.

H1154.0.1. †H1154.0.1. Task: bringing head(s) of animal(s). India: Thompson-Balys.

H1154.1. †H1154.1. Task: capturing magic pig carrying scissors, comb, and razors between its ears. Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 187.

H1154.2. †H1154.2. Task: capturing deer from herd watched by giant. English: Wells 115 (Sir Eglamour).

H1154.2.1. †H1154.2.1. Task: capturing ninety pigs, ninety horses, and one hundred wild oxen. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1154.3. †H1154.3. Task: bridling a wild animal.

H1154.3.1. †H1154.3.1. Task: bridling a wild horse. Finnish: Kalevala rune 14; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 74.

H1154.3.2. †H1154.3.2. Task: bridling ferocious bear. Finnish: Kalevala rune 19.

H1154.3.3. †H1154.3.3. Task: capturing and binding ferocious boar. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1154.3.3.1. †H1154.3.3.1. Task: measuring (killing) wild boar. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1154.3.4. †H1154.3.4. Task: capturing wild elephant. Africa (Fang): Einstein 70ff. (= Trilles 190ff. No. 11).

H1154.3.5. †H1154.3.5. Task: loading ferocious camels. Africa (Kordofan): Frobenius Atlantis IV 101ff. No. 11.

H1154.3.6. †H1154.3.6. Task: yoking stags. Irish myth: Cross.

H1154.3.7. †H1154.3.7. Task: bringing tigers.

H1154.3.7.1. †H1154.3.7.1. Task: procuring four full-grown tigers to guard four gates of king's palace. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1154.4. †H1154.4. Task: catching huge fish without nets or tackle. Finnish: Kalevala rune 19.

H1154.5. †H1154.5. Task: capturing elk. Finnish: Kalevala rune 13.

H1154.6. †H1154.6. Task: capturing squirrel and rattlesnake. American Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 203 No. 35.

H1154.7. †H1154.7. Task: capturing bird. Irish myth: Cross.

H1154.7.1. †H1154.7.1. Task: retrieving king's falcon. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H1154.7.2. †H1154.7.2. Task: capturing blackbird (yearly). Irish myth: Cross.

H1154.7.3. †H1154.7.3. Task: procuring four full-grown peacocks to sit one on each of four golden pinnacles of palace room. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1154.8. †H1154.8. Task: capturing magic horse. Type 313.

H1154.9. †H1154.9. Task: capturing pair of every wild animal in the land. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1154.10. †H1154.10. Task: capturing badgers. Irish myth: Cross.

H1154.11. †H1154.11. Task: obtaining marrow of wild pig, lard of wild boar, water bird (coot?). Irish myth: *Cross.

H1154.12. †H1154.12. Task: bringing in fierce lion alive. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1155. †H1155. Task: taming wild animals. (Cf. †H1154.3.)

H1155.1. †H1155.1. Riding and taming a wild horse. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1155.1.1. †H1155.1.1. Task: grooming unruly mare. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1155.2. †H1155.2. Task: milking unruly cow. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1155.3. †H1155.3. Task: feeding dangerous man-eating sow. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1155.4. †H1155.4. Task: caring for mad elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1155.5. †H1155.5. Task: riding buffaloes. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1156. †H1156. Task: incurring anger of ferocious animal.

H1156.1. †H1156.1. Task: setting fire to brush wood near abode of sacred cobra. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1161. †H1161. Task: killing ferocious beast. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 126, *Cross; English: Wells 115 (Sir Eglamour of Artois); Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Kalevala rune 14; Missouri French: Carrière; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 184 n. 2, 187 n. 3, 191 n. 3, 197 n. 3, 199 n. 2, 200 n. 1, 210 n. 1 (Hercules), II 59 n. 1 (Cychreus); Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 3 No. 1.

H1161.1. †H1161.1. Task: killing murderous bird. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1161.2. †H1161.2. Task: overcoming savage buffalo. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1161.2.1. †H1161.2.1. Task: killing ox. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1161.2.2. †H1161.2.2. Task: killing fierce bull. (Cf. †H1151.7.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H1161.3. †H1161.3. Task: overcoming elephant. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1161.3.1. †H1161.3.1. Task: mouse to fight single-handed with king's state elephant and destroy it. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1161.4. †H1161.4. Task: killing golden pig. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1161.5. †H1161.5. Task: killing devastating lion. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1161.6. †H1161.6. Task: killing devastating tiger. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1162. †H1162. Task: killing certain man. (Cf. †H335.3, †H335.5, †H335.6.) Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1162.1. †H1162.1. Task: overcoming robbers. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1162.2. †H1162.2. Task: slaying king's son so that father will not die. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1163. †H1163. Task: uprooting man-devouring tree. (Cf. †H335.) Jewish: Neuman.

H1165. †H1165. Task: bullfight (buffaloes). India: Thompson-Balys.

H1166. †H1166. Task: duel. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1166.1. †H1166.1. Task: wrestling etc. with giant warrior. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1172. †H1172. Task: bringing an ogre to court. Köhler-Bolte I 306.

H1173. †H1173. Task: luring Thor into the power of giants. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1174. †H1174. Suitor test: killing monster. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1174.1. †H1174.1. Task: bringing back two heads of a giant. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1174.2. †H1174.2. Task: overcoming dragon. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 175ff.

H1177. †H1177. Bringing fairies to court.

H1177.1. †H1177.1. Suitor task: to make fairies dance before princess. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1180. †H1180. Miscellaneous tasks.

H1181. †H1181. Task: raising a buried treasure. *Type 613; Christiansen FFC XXIV 92ff.

H1182. †H1182. Task: letting king hear something that neither he nor his subjects have ever heard. (Reads a letter from a foreign king demanding a loan.) Chauvin VI 39 No. 207.

H1182.1. †H1182.1. Task: recovering money owed by a foreign king. *Cosquin Contes indiens 474ff.

H1182.2. †H1182.2. King asks favorite minister to show him a trick that he has never seen before. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1183. †H1183. Task: carrying a wagon axle which has broken a wheel. *BP III 16.

H1184. †H1184. Task: cutting down tree without scratching for stinging insects. (Scratches surreptitiously while gesticulating.) *Jamaica Beckwith MAFLS XVII 250f. No. 29.

H1185. †H1185. Task: preparing the food "Oh my". (Needle put in food which causes eater to say "Oh my!") De Vries FFC LXXIII 250.

H1185.1. †H1185.1. Task: buying a coin's worth of eggs and another of "ay, ay." Servant puts nettles in bag with eggs, and master cries "Ay, ay" when he touches the nettles. Spanish: Childers.

H1186. †H1186. Task: making pigs dance. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "cochons". Cf. Type 850.

H1187. †H1187. Task left by departing husband for virgin wife to accomplish: have a son whose real mother she is and whose real father he is. She accomplishes this by disguising as a girl. Köhler-Bolte II 647ff. *Liungman Två Folkminnesundersökningar 25 n. 1; FSS 7ff. (†H922); India: *Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1188. †H1188. Task: plowing field of vipers. (Puts on iron boots.) Finnish: Kalevala rune 19.

H1191. †H1191. Task: blinding a witch. Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 4.

H1191.1. †H1191.1. Task: beheading witch, and bringing head to king. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1191.2. †H1191.2. Task: catching devastating witch who haunts king's best garden. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1192. †H1192. Task: combing hair of fairies. Type 480; Roberts 168; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 10.

H1193. †H1193. Task: causing dry spring to flow again. *Type 613; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 346a nn. 121--22.

H1194. †H1194. Task: making person laugh. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1194.0.1. †H1194.0.1. Task: causing silent person to speak. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1194.1. †H1194.1. Man whose laughter brings rain will not laugh: brought to laughter when people who, unknown to each other, have gone to sleep in same dark room frighten each other. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1194.2. †H1194.2. Task: making jackal laugh (weep). India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1195. †H1195. Task: having a shirt made by a woman free from trouble and worry. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H1196. †H1196. Task: freeing king from clutches of magic doll. Will marry rescuer if a girl. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H1197. †H1197. Task: crossing weed-filled stream. Hero spreads cloth on weeds and floats across. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1198. †H1198. Task: picking ruby out of a tray filled with identical rubies. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1199. †H1199. Other tasks.

H1199.1. †H1199.1. Task: planting beautiful garden. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1199.2. †H1199.2. Task: healing sick person. Types 551, 610--12; Africa (Tanga): Nassau JAFL XXVIII 30ff. No. 5.

H1199.2.1. †H1199.2.1. Task: causing sickness to come to certain tribe. Irish myth: Cross.

H1199.2.2. †H1199.2.2. Task: curing extraordinarily incurable ulcer. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1199.3. †H1199.3. Task: shouting from forbidden place. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1199.4. †H1199.4. Task: engraving shield with unique pattern. Irish myth: Cross.

H1199.5. †H1199.5. Task: disenchantment. (Cf. †D700.) Irish myth: Cross.

H1199.6. †H1199.6. Task: swine to shake bole of certain tree. Irish myth: Cross.

H1199.7. †H1199.7. Task: swine to eat fish of certain waters. Irish myth: Cross.

H1199.8. †H1199.8. Task: defending oneself alone against fifteen ships, sixty men. (Cf. †H915.1.) Icelandic: Boberg.

H1199.9. †H1199.9. Task: ridding city of thieves. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1199.9.1. †H1199.9.1. Task: discovering ring-thief. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1199.10. †H1199.10. Task: jumping over fire. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1199.11. †H1199.11. Task: going to bed with Odin, the underworld's king. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1199.12. †H1199.12. Task: unusual pasturing.

H1199.12.1. †H1199.12.1. Task: shepherd in God's service tending sheep and following where they go. On the way, he sees many wonderful things. (Cf. †F171.0.1.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 806*.

H1199.12.2. †H1199.12.2. Task: pasturing witch's cattle (really her daughters). Grateful animals give help (cf. †B571.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 557*.

H1199.13. †H1199.13. Task: squaring the lumber on a stone without blunting the axe. Woman is purposely sent to distract him. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 491f.

H1199.14. †H1199.14. Task: climbing extraordinary (high, thin) cliff. Irish myth: Cross.

H1199.15. †H1199.15. Task: securing dishes which have been locked up in vault. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1199.16. †H1199.16. Task: producing seven pairs of chopsticks in seven plates. (A lacquered plate and pair of chopsticks -- seven coats of lacquer.) Chinese: Graham.

H1199.17. †H1199.17. Task: guarding.

H1199.17.1. †H1199.17.1. Task: guarding palace at night that no one can enter or leave. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1199.17.2. †H1199.17.2. Task: guarding six sisters-in-law so that they do not joke or talk to anyone. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1199.18. †H1199.18. Task: knocking off single fruit from king's tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

†H1200-†H1399. Tests of prowess: quests.

†H1200-†H1249. Attendant circumstances of quests.

H1200. †H1200. Quest.

H1210. †H1210. Quest assigned.

H1210.1. †H1210.1. Quest assigned by father. *Types 402, 550; Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 105; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chile: Pino Saavedra 399, 403, 404; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 350.

H1210.2. †H1210.2. Quest assigned by king. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1211. †H1211. Quests assigned in order to get rid of hero. *Type 650; Dickson 51; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 116, 139--141; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1212. †H1212. Quest assigned because of feigned illness. Lion's milk (or the like) said to be necessary as cure; hero therefore sent on dangerous quest. *Type 590; BP III 1f; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 49 No. 17.

H1212.1. †H1212.1. Quest assigned because of feigned dream. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 330 n. 191g.

H1212.2. †H1212.2. Quest assigned by wife through appeal to husband's love for her. He is sent for liver of dangerous animal. Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 2 No. 1.

H1212.3. †H1212.3. Prince sulks until quest is accomplished. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1212.4. †H1212.4. Quest assigned because of longings of pregnant woman. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1213. †H1213. Quest for remarkable bird caused by sight of one of its feathers. *Type 550; BP I 503ff., *III 33; *Chauvin VI 5 No. 182 n. 1; Köhler-Bolte I 411; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1213.1. †H1213.1. Quest for princess caused by sight of one of her hairs dropped by a bird (or floating on river). *Chauvin VI 5 No. 182 n. 1; *BP III 31, 33; *Cosquin Contes indiens 369ff.; Chavannes III 258f. No. 470 (cf. Wesselski Archiv Orientální I 6); Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1213.1.1. †H1213.1.1. Quest for man caused by sight of one of his hairs dropped by bird (or floating on river). India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1213.1.2. †H1213.1.2. Quest for original of picture. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1213.2. †H1213.2. Quest for strong man caused by sight of his handiwork. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1214. †H1214. Quest assigned because of hero's knowledge of animal languages. BP I 325; Köhler-Bolte II 340.

H1214.1. †H1214.1. Quest for beautiful girl about whom parrots are heard speaking. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1215. †H1215. Quest assigned because of hero's boast. Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Greek: Fox 33 (Perseus).

H1216. †H1216. Mother sends son to find unknown father. (Cf. †H1385.7.) English: Wells 134 (Sir Degare); India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1217. †H1217. Quest assigned because of dream. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1217.1. †H1217.1. Quest for explanation of dream. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1218. †H1218. King possessing one marvelous object sends hero on quest for another like it. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1219. †H1219. Assignment of quests -- miscellaneous.

H1219.1. †H1219.1. Quest assigned as payment for gambling loss. (Cf. †H942.) Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1219.1.1. †H1219.1.1. Quest assigned as payment for magic object. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1219.2. †H1219.2. Quest assigned as punishment for murder. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1219.3. †H1219.3. Quest assigned as punishment by father of abducted girl. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1219.4. †H1219.4. Quest assigned by fairy. (Cf. †H938.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H1219.5. †H1219.5. Quest assigned prisoner. Irish myth: Cross.

H1219.6. †H1219.6. Quest assigned as result of slander. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1219.7. †H1219.7. Quest assigned as payment for hospitality. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1219.8. †H1219.8. Quest assigned as punishment for curiosity. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1220. †H1220. Quests voluntarily undertaken. Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 318, 320; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1221. †H1221. Quest for adventure. *Type 650; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 66 (Ywain and Gawain), 134 (Sir Degare); Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "aventures"; Arabian: Burton Nights VI 1--83, S IV 420, 509ff. This motif is prominent in Romances of Chivalry.

H1221.1. †H1221.1. Old warrior longs for more adventure. Refuses to rest in old age. Chauvin II 152 No. 16, 157 No. 37; cf. Tennyson's "Ulysses."

H1222. †H1222. Prince a-hunting enters on quest. *Type 401; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1223. †H1223. Quest to undertake feats of valor. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1223.1. †H1223.1. Quest to recover one's honor through feats. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1224. †H1224. Quest to distant king for military aid. Africa (Fulah): Frobenius Atlantis VI 182ff. No. 4.

H1225. †H1225. Quest for a strong adversary. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1226. †H1226. Pursuit of rolling cake leads to quest. Type 480; *Roberts 127; BP I 217, II 392, III 458.

H1226.1. †H1226.1. Pursuit of rolling hoop leads to quest. Hindu: Keith 196; N. Am. Indian: Matthews MAFLS V 108, Goddard PaAM VIII 196 No. 3 and numerous other references in Thompson Tales 320 n. 156.

H1226.2. †H1226.2. Pursuit of magic arrow leads to adventures. Hawaii: Dixon 75.

H1226.3. †H1226.3. Pursuit of rolling golden apple leads to quest. Type 480; *Roberts 127.

H1226.4. †H1226.4. Pursuit of rolling ball of yarn leads to quest. Type 480; *Roberts 127.

H1227. †H1227. Quest undertaken before hero will marry. Malone. PMLA XLIII 401.

H1228. †H1228. Quest undertaken by hero for vengeance.

H1228.1. †H1228.1. Quest undertaken by hero to avenge his king. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1228.2. †H1228.2. Son goes out to avenge father's death. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1229. †H1229. Quests voluntarily undertaken -- miscellaneous.

H1229.1. †H1229.1. Quest undertaken by hero to fulfill promises. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1229.2. †H1229.2. Queen writes message on stone which hero finds: he goes in search of her. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1229.3. †H1229.3. Quest for marvelous thing seen in dream. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1230. †H1230. Accomplishment of quests.

H1231. †H1231. Large boot-supply for journey. Quest is to be so long that many boots are to be worn out. Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 4; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 358 n. 287k.

H1232. †H1232. Directions on quest given by sun, moon, wind, and stars. *Types 425, 451; *Tegethoff 44; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 71 No. 551, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 106, 114; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1232.1. †H1232.1. Directions on quest given by herdsmen (peasants). Type 432; MPh. X 625; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1232.2. †H1232.2. Directions on quest given by queen. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1232.3. †H1232.3. Directions on quest given by maiden or woman in castle. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1232.4. †H1232.4. Directions on quest given by peasant and his wife. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1232.5. †H1232.5. Directions on quest given by child(ren) still in mother's womb. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484.

H1233. †H1233. Helpers on quest. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1233.1. †H1233.1. Old person as helper on quest.

H1233.1.1. †H1233.1.1. Old woman helps on quest. Type 400, 425; English: Wells 68 (The Weddynge of Sir Gawen and Dame Ragnell); India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1233.1.2. †H1233.1.2. Old man helps on quest. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1233.2. †H1233.2. Relation as helper on quest.

H1233.2.1. †H1233.2.1. Quest accomplished with aid of wife. *Type 465C; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1233.2.2. †H1233.2.2. Quest accomplished with aid of brother in disguise. Irish myth: Cross.

H1233.3. †H1233.3. Holy man as helper on quest.

H1233.3.1. †H1233.3.1. Ascetic gives directions to hero on quest. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1233.3.2. †H1233.3.2. Fakir as helper on quest. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1233.3.3. †H1233.3.3. Quest accomplished with aid of prophet (sage, druid). Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1233.4. †H1233.4. Supernatural creature as helper on quest.

H1233.4.1. †H1233.4.1. Fairies as helpers on quest. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1233.4.2. †H1233.4.2. Quest accomplished with aid of giantess. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1233.4.3. †H1233.4.3. Griffin as helper on quest. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1233.4.4. †H1233.4.4. Demon as helper on quest. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1233.5. †H1233.5. Deity as helper on quest. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1233.5.1. †H1233.5.1. Goddess as helper on quest. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1233.6. †H1233.6. Animals help hero on quest. *Type 550; Malone PMLA XLIII 444; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 187; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1233.6.1. †H1233.6.1. Horse helper on quest. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1233.6.2. †H1233.6.2. Bird helper (adviser) on quest. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1233.6.3. †H1233.6.3. Porpoise as helper on quest. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1235. †H1235. Succession of helpers on quest. One helper sends to another, who sends to another, etc. (Cf. †H1241.) Types 400, 425, 516, 756B; *BP II 400; *Wesselski Archiv Orientální IV 1; Clouston Tales II 96; W. R. Halliday Indo-European Folk-Tales and Greek Legend (Cambridge, 1933) 132f.; Gaster Oldest Stories 51; Tegethoff 44; Rösch FFC LXXVII 110; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 225 n. --Irish: Cross, Beal XXI 326, O'Suilleabhain 74; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone Introduction, IV No. 8, V Nos. 4, 9; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 336 n. 211.

H1235.1. †H1235.1. Helpers on quest demand pay for advice. Chinese: Graham.

H1236. †H1236. Perilous path traversed on quest. English: Wells 55 (Gawayne and the Grene Knight); India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1236.1. †H1236.1. Quest over path bristling with sharp points (knives, axes, etc.). Irish myth: Cross; Finnish: Kalevala rune 17.

H1236.2. †H1236.2. Quest over path guarded by dangerous animals. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Am. Indian (Quiche): Alexander Lat. Am. 174.

H1236.3. †H1236.3. Quest over path guarded by hags. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1236.4. †H1236.4. Quest over path guarded by giant. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1237. †H1237. Conjuring away obstacles on quest for lost wife. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 75.

H1239. †H1239. Accomplishment of quest -- miscellaneous.

H1239.1. †H1239.1. Prince agrees to marry a servant girl if she will help him on a quest. Malone PMLA XLIII 400.

H1239.2. †H1239.2. Objects of quest found in deserted castle where hero is served by unseen hands. Type 425; Tegethoff 14. --Icelandic: Boberg.

H1239.3. †H1239.3. Quest accomplished by means of objects given by helpers. Type 425; Halliday Indo-European Folk-Tales (Cambridge, 1933) 135f.

H1239.4. †H1239.4. Man with magic knowledge defeats his competitors in quest by misinforming them about the character of country they will be traveling (for a place where there is no water he makes them bring loads of wood; for a place where water is he makes them bring along loads of water). India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1239.5. †H1239.5. Seductive women attempt to divert quester. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1174, 1386; z-G. 13/221, 1241).

H1240. †H1240. Other circumstances of quests.

H1241. †H1241. Series of quests. One quest can be accomplished when a second is finished, etc. (Cf. †H1235.) *Type 550; BP I 503ff.; Wesselski Mönchslatein 91 No. 77; Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 187; Scotch: Campbell II 344; Icelandic: Lagerholm 58--63, 115--118, *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1241.1. †H1241.1. Hero returning from successful quest sent upon another. Irish myth: Cross.

H1241.1.1. †H1241.1.1. Hero returning with berries sent back to bring tree. (Cf. †H561.1.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H1242. †H1242. Youngest brother alone succeeds on quest. *Type 402, 471, 550, 551, 577; BP 260, 503; Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 398; Chile: Pino Saavedra 402--405.

H1242.1. †H1242.1. Unpromising hero succeeds in quest. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1243. †H1243. Riches the reward of questions solved on quests. *Type 461; **Aarne FFC XXII 165; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1244. †H1244. Forgiveness the reward of successful quest. Icelandic: Boberg; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 164.

H1245. †H1245. Quest to be accomplished in one day. Irish myth: Cross.

H1247. †H1247. Sleep forbidden until quest is accomplished. Irish myth: Cross.

H1248. †H1248. Object sought brings about death of assigner of quest. Irish myth: Cross.

†H1250-†H1399. Nature of quests.

†H1250-†H1299. Quests to the other world.

H1250. †H1250. Quests to the other world. *Siuts Jenseitsmotive 226--232; Irish myth: *Cross.

H1250.1. †H1250.1. Test of hero before journey to otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

H1251. †H1251. Quest to other world for samples of magic animals' food. Type 471.

H1252. †H1252. Quest to other world for relative.

H1252.1. †H1252.1. Quest to other world for ancestor. Babylonian: Spence 170.

H1252.1.1. †H1252.1.1. Quest to the other world to receive news of ancestor. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1252.1.2. †H1252.1.2. Quest to the other world to learn whether father is in heaven or hell. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1252.2. †H1252.2. Quest to other world to take letters to dead relatives. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1252.3. †H1252.3. Quest for relatives sold to the otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1252.4. †H1252.4. King sends hero to otherworld to carry message to king's dead father. *Cosquin Contes indiens 405ff.

H1254. †H1254. Journey to otherworld for magic objects. Irish myth: Cross.

H1256. †H1256. Journey to other world to obtain a wife. (Cf. †H1381.3.1.2.) Chinese: Graham.

H1257. †H1257. Quest for the location of paradise. Jewish: *Neuman.

H1260. †H1260. Quest to the upper world. Type 465c; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; West Indies: Flowers 462.

H1261. †H1261. Quest: a crown from heaven. BP III 268.

H1262. †H1262. Quest: God to be brought from heaven. Type 465c.

H1263. †H1263. Quest to God for fortune. *Types 460A, 460B; *Aarne FFC XXIII 124, 127; West Indies: Flowers 462--466.

H1264. †H1264. Quest to upper world for fire. Papua: Ker 77; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 74 No. 16.

H1265. †H1265. Quest to Paradise to get oil to anoint dying father's body. Irish myth: Cross.

H1266. †H1266. Quest of a deity. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1267. †H1267. Pregnant woman craving fish sends husband to heaven after lucky fishhook. (Cf. †H936.) Samoa: Beckwith Myth 25.

H1270. †H1270. Quest to lower world. Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 323; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/276).

H1271. †H1271. Quest for Cerberus in hell: to be brought to earth. Greek: Fox 88.

H1272. †H1272. Quest for devils in hell; hero brings them back with him. *Type 650.

H1273. †H1273. Quest to devil for objects.

H1273.1. †H1273.1. Quest to devil in hell for return of contract. *Type 756B; BP III 465; *Plenzat Die Theophiluslegende in den Dichtungen des Mittelalters (Berlin, 1926); Irish: Beal XXI 311, O'Suilleabhain 33.

H1273.1.1. †H1273.1.1. Quest to hell for return of contract from deceased rich man. *Köhler-Bolte I 133; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 58.

H1273.2. †H1273.2. Quest for three hairs from devil's beard. *Type 461; *Aarne FFC XXIII 126, 131.

H1274. †H1274. Quest in hell for three dragon feathers. (Cf. †B11.) Fb "helvede" I 589a.

H1275. †H1275. Quest for money (treasure) in hell. Fb "gjedebuk" I 440, "helvede" I 589a; Icelandic: Egils saga ok Ásmundar 391, Boberg; Indonesian: De Vries's list 161.

H1276. †H1276. Quest to lower world for lost words. Finnish: Kalevala rune 16.

H1277. †H1277. Quest to confines of hell for blood of sorceress. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 188.

H1278. †H1278. Quest to devil for answer to riddle questions. (Cf. †H1282, †H1283, †H1284, †H1292.) German: Grimm Nos. 29, 125.

H1280. †H1280. Quests to other realms.

H1281. †H1281. Quest to Fortune to seek fortune. *Type 460B; Aarne FFC XIII 124; India: *Thompson-Balys. Cf. Patch PMLA XXXIII 630.

H1282. †H1282. Quest to morning star for answers to questions. Type 702*.

H1283. †H1283. Quest to moon for answers to questions. Type 702*; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 143.

H1284. †H1284. Quest for sun for answer to questions. *Type 460, 461; BP I 292; **Aarne FFC XXIII 115ff.; N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Thompson CColl II 387ff.

H1284.1. †H1284.1. Quest to place where sun sets. Chinese: Graham.

H1285. †H1285. Quest to Mother of Time for answers to questions. Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 8.

H1285.1. †H1285.1. Quest to bring Soma (a wizard woman) from across the seven seas to a wedding. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1286. †H1286. Quests to fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1286.0.1. †H1286.0.1. Quest to fairyland at bottom of lake. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1286.1. †H1286.1. Quest to fairyland for precious jewel. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1286.2. †H1286.2. Quest to fairyland for magic object. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1287. †H1287. Quest to submarine monastery. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1287.1. †H1287.1. Quest to submerged island. Irish myth: Cross.

H1288. †H1288. Quest to Plain of Wonders. Irish myth: Cross.

H1289. †H1289. Quest to different other realms.

H1289.1. †H1289.1. Quest to animal realm. (Cf. †B220.)

H1289.1.1. †H1289.1.1. Quest to lions', elephants', and serpents' land for green stone. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1289.1.2. †H1289.1.2. Quest to land of snakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1289.2. †H1289.2. Quest to Bjarmaland. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1289.3. †H1289.3. Quest to giant's land. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 91ff., Boberg.

H1289.3.1. †H1289.3.1. Quest to land of cannibal giants. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1289.4. †H1289.4. Quest to see deity. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1289.4.1. †H1289.4.1. Quest for thread from lotus stalks growing on Vishnu's navel. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1289.5. †H1289.5. Quest to land where every raja dies. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1289.6. †H1289.6. Quest to the world of rakshasas. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1290. †H1290. Quests to the other world -- miscellaneous motifs.

H1291. †H1291. Questions asked on way to other world. *Type 461; Irish: Cross Beal XXI 318f., O'Suilleabhain 50--52; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

H1292. †H1292. Answers found in other world to questions propounded on the way. (Cf. †H1278, †H1282, †H1283, †H1284.) *Type 461; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

H1292.1. †H1292.1. Question (propounded on quest): Why has spring gone dry? Answer: Animal to be removed from its water-vein. Types 460, 461; *Aarne FFC XXIII 144f.; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 345b. n. 120; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1292.1.1. †H1292.1.1. Question (propounded on quest): Why does no one ever drink water of two certain wells? Answer: In their last birth they had been two Brahman women and whenever they wanted to give alms they gave only to each other. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1292.2. †H1292.2. Question (propounded on quest): Why does not a certain tree flourish? Answer: Gold is hidden under it (or a serpent is under its roots). Types 460, 461; *Aarne FFC XXIII 133, 136; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 256a n. 13; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 8; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1292.2.1. †H1292.2.1. Question (propounded on quest): Why does no one desire to eat fruits of a certain tree? Answer: Tree in its last birth had been a very learned man who gave his knowledge away. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1292.3. †H1292.3. Question (propounded on quest): Why do the live stock die? (Various answers.) Types 460, 461; Aarne FFC XXIII 150; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1292.4. †H1292.4. Question (propounded on quest): How can the prince be cured? Answer: He must remove stone which he has spit out in the church. Types 460, 461; *Aarne FFC XXIII 142f.

H1292.4.1. †H1292.4.1. Question (propounded on quest): How can the princess be cured? Answer: She must recover consecrated wafer which rat has stolen from her first communion. Types 460, 461; *Aarne FFC XXIII 142f.; Irish: Beal XXI 308f., O'Suilleabhain 27f.; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1292.4.2. †H1292.4.2. Question (propounded on quest): How can snake be cured from blindness? Answer: By giving away his gem. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1292.4.3. †H1292.4.3. Question (propounded on quest): How can the cripple be healed? Answer: He must distribute his knowledge. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1292.5. †H1292.5. Question (on quest): How can the girl thus far avoided by suitors marry? (Various answers.) Types 460, 461; Aarne FFC XXIII 149; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 50, Beal XXI 318.

H1292.6. †H1292.6. Question (on quest): Where is the lost key? (Various answers.) Type 460, 461; *Aarne FFC XXIII 148.

H1292.7. †H1292.7. Question (on quest): Where is the lost princess? (Various answers.) Types 460, 461; Aarne FFC XXIII 146ff.

H1292.8. †H1292.8. Question (on quest): When will a ferryman be released from his duty? Answer: When he is able to get out of the boat and leave the oar in another's hand. Types 460, 461; *Aarne FFC XXIII 136ff., 139; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1292.9. †H1292.9. Question (on quest): When will a certain water-animal be freed from an annoyance? (Various answers). Types 460, 461; *Aarne FFC XXIII 136ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 8; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1292.10. †H1292.10. Question (on quest): How can mice rid themselves of cats? (Answer: tie on bell.) Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 8.

H1292.11. †H1292.11. Question (on quest): How can ants secure longer life? (Answer: by doing without wings.) Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 8.

H1292.12. †H1292.12. Question (on quest): Where does Bras-de-Fer (Ver-sous-Terre) live? French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1292.13. †H1292.13. Question (on quest): Have you see my prince? French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1292.14. †H1292.14. Question (propounded on quest): Why can't the dragon king ascend to the sky? Chinese: Graham.

H1292.15. †H1292.15. Question (propounded on quest): Why can't the child talk or the dog bark? Chinese: Graham.

H1292.16. †H1292.16. Question (propounded on quest): Why is the cow so severely beaten every day by her calf? Answer: in her last birth she had been the young of her present calf and had treated it the same way. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1292.17. †H1292.17. Question (propounded on quest): Is a poor shepherd known to God? Answer: He had been a very generous god-fearing person in his last birth and God had not forgotten him. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1292.18. †H1292.18. Question (propounded on quest): When can certain structure be finished? Answer: When king's daughter marries. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1292.19. †H1292.19. Question (propounded on quest): How can a man and woman be freed from their annoyance. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1292.20. †H1292.20. Question (propounded on quest): Why does kingdom go well by day and burn by night? India: Thompson-Balys.

H1300. †H1300. Quests for the unique.

H1301. †H1301. Quest for the most beautiful of women. *Fb "kone" II 263a; BP II 19, 34; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 21; West Indies: Flowers 466.

H1301.1. †H1301.1. Quest for the most beautiful bride. Type 402; BP III 18, Fb "brud" IV 65a; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 151 (Richard Coer de Lyon); Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G 3/109, 3/404, z-G. 13/317); Chile: Pino Saavedra 402--405.

H1301.1.1. †H1301.1.1. Quest for bride as handsome as the hero. *Type 516; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 100.

H1301.1.2. †H1301.1.2. Quest for faraway princess. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1301.1.3. †H1301.1.3. Hero visits all islands to see if he can find woman to rival wife's beauty. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 539.

H1302. †H1302. Quest for the most beautiful bouquet. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bouquet".

H1303. †H1303. Quest for the finest of chains. Fb "kjæde" II 145.

H1305. †H1305. Quest for the best of bread. Type 402; BP II 34; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1305.1. †H1305.1. Quest for the best of meat. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 12.

H1305.1.1. †H1305.1.1. Quest for the worst of meat. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 12.

H1305.2. †H1305.2. Quest for best-cooked dish. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1306. †H1306. Quest for the finest of linen. Type 402; BP II 34; *Hdwb. d. Märchens II 150b nn. 452--502; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 21; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 72 No. 557, Espinosa Jr. No. 105; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chile: Pino Saavedra 402--405.

H1306.1. †H1306.1. Quest for best-worked handkerchief. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1307. †H1307. Quest for the smallest of dogs. Type 402; BP II 34.

H1308. †H1308. Quest for the finest of horses. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 21.

H1311. †H1311. Quest for the richest person. Aarne FFC XXIII 127.

H1311.1. †H1311.1. King seeks one richer (more magnificent) than himself. (Cf. †H1395.) English: Child I 275--283 passim, III 17n., 503f.; Pélerinage de Charlemagne; Huet 146; Thien Motive 7; Russian: Andrejev No. 650b*; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Chavannes 500 Contes I 374 No. 107.

H1311.2. †H1311.2. Quest for bride richest and poorest. Type 585; BP III 355.

H1312. †H1312. Quest for the greatest of fools. *Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. No. 74; Herbert III 191; Christensen DF L 91.

H1312.1. †H1312.1. Quest for three persons as stupid as his wife. *Type 1384; BP I 335, II 440; Christensen DF L 35.

H1313. †H1313. Quest for person who can withdraw sword. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1315. †H1315. Quest for the spring of the biggest of three rivers east of Gardariki. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1316. †H1316. Quest for the strongest. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H1317. †H1317. Quest for ornament (jewel, etc.) to match one already at hand. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1318. †H1318. Liar escapes from devil: quest for greater liar. (Cf. †G303.16.19.3, †K210, †X905.) U.S.: *Baughman.

H1319. †H1319. Quests for the unique -- miscellaneous.

H1319.1. †H1319.1. Quest for only person who can cure certain sickness. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1319.2. †H1319.2. Quest for best cap. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1319.3. †H1319.3. Quest for the most beautiful rug. German: Grimm No. 63.

H1319.4. †H1319.4. Quest for the most beautiful ring. German: Grimm No. 63.

H1320. †H1320. Quest for marvelous objects or animals. *Type 550; Dickson 39, 50, 51; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1320.1. †H1320.1. Quest for magic objects. Chinese: Graham.

H1320.2. †H1320.2. Quest for things seen in dream. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1321. †H1321. Quest for marvelous water. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1321.1. †H1321.1. Quest for Water of Life (water which will resuscitate). *Types 550, 707; *BP II 394; MacCulloch Childhood 52ff.; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 72, 257.

H1321.2. †H1321.2. Quest for healing water. Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 59 No. 425D, Espinosa Jr. No. 75; Arabian: Burton Nights S VI 213; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1321.3. †H1321.3. Quest for the water of youth. *Type 551.

H1321.4. †H1321.4. Quest for dancing water. Köhler-Bolte I 143; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H1321.5. †H1321.5. Quest for singing water. *Köhler-Bolte I 118.

H1322. †H1322. Quest for marvelous pillar.

H1322.1. †H1322.1. Quest for silver pillar covered with golden flowers. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1324. †H1324. Quest for marvelous remedy. *Types 513, 551; BP II 394; Hdwb. d. Märchens s. v. "Fahrt nach den Heilmitteln"; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 75, 204; Jewish: Neuman; Arabian: Burton Nights III 259, IX 204; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1324.1. †H1324.1. Quest for magic healing lantern. Irish myth: Cross.

H1324.2. †H1324.2. Quest for draught of healing. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1331. †H1331. Quest for remarkable animal. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 140, 141; Jewish: Neuman; West Indies: Flowers 466.

H1331.1. †H1331.1. Quest for marvelous bird. *Type 550; BP I 503ff., III 33; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 78.

H1331.1.1. †H1331.1.1. Quest for Bird of Truth. *Type 707; India: *Thompson-Balys. See all references to †B131.

H1331.1.2. †H1331.1.2. Quest for three feathers of marvelous bird. *Type 550; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 299 No. 17, 304 No. 29.

H1331.1.2.1. †H1331.1.2.1. Quest for remarkable bird feathers. Maori: Beckwith Myth 260, Clark 265; Marquesas: Handy 130; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1353, 13/276).

H1331.1.3. †H1331.1.3. Quest for golden bird. *Type 550; BP I 503; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1331.1.3.1. †H1331.1.3.1. Quest for jeweled golden cock. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1331.1.3.2. †H1331.1.3.2. Quest for golden peacock. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1331.1.4. †H1331.1.4. Quest for speaking bird. Makes all other birds sing with him. *Chauvin VII 97 No. 375 n. 2; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 138, 141; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H1331.1.5. †H1331.1.5. Quest for fat of water blackbirds. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1331.2. †H1331.2. Quest for marvelous boar (pig). Irish myth: *Cross.

H1331.2.1. †H1331.2.1. Quest for purely white boar. Irish myth: Cross.

H1331.2.2. †H1331.2.2. Quest for pig not farrowed. Irish myth: Cross.

H1331.2.3. †H1331.2.3. Quest for pigs killed by night and revived by day. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1331.3. †H1331.3. Quest for marvelous cattle. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1331.3.1. †H1331.3.1. Quest for bald, white-headed cow. Irish myth: Cross.

H1331.3.2. †H1331.3.2. Quest for cow with liver of tallow. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1331.3.3. †H1331.3.3. Quest for golden calf. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1331.4. †H1331.4. Quest for marvelous horse. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1331.4.1. †H1331.4.1. Quest for blue-eyed horse. Irish myth: Cross.

H1331.4.2. †H1331.4.2. Quest for horse with peacock tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1331.5. †H1331.5. Quest for marvelous goat. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1331.6. †H1331.6. Quest for marvelous dog. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1331.7. †H1331.7. Quest for creature with a single horn mounting to heaven with single red hair on its head. Chinese: Graham.

H1331.8. †H1331.8. Quest for a large-headed worm. Irish myth: Cross (†H1349.4).

H1331.9. †H1331.9. Quest for sheep that is a hound by night and a sheep by day. Irish myth: Cross (†H1349.5).

H1332. †H1332. Quest for marvelous parts or possessions of animals.

H1332.1. †H1332.1. Quest for golden fleece. Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 94 n. 1.

H1332.2. †H1332.2. Quest for vulture's egg figured with golden letters. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1332.3. †H1332.3. Quest for Gorgon's head. Greek: Fox 33 (Perseus), *Frazer Apollodorus I 155 n. 3.

H1332.4. †H1332.4. Quest for animal with golden chain. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1332.5. †H1332.5. Quest for magic pigskin. Irish myth: Cross.

H1332.5.1. †H1332.5.1. Quest for oil of magic pig. Irish myth: Cross.

H1332.6. †H1332.6. Quest for liver of thunder and heart of dragon. Chinese: Graham.

H1332.7. †H1332.7. Quest for honey from the royal bee-hive. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333. †H1333. Quest for extraordinary plants (fruits, trees). Bödker Exempler 274 No. 8; Jewish: Neuman.

H1333.1. †H1333.1. Quest for marvelous tree. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1333.1.1. †H1333.1.1. Quest for singing tree. *Type 425, 707; BP II 380ff.; Chauvin VII 98 No. 375; Tegethoff 11; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 205; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1333.2. †H1333.2. Quest for extraordinary plant.

H1333.2.1. †H1333.2.1. Quest for plant of immortality. Babylonian: Spence 160, 178; Chinese-Persian: Coyajee JPASB XXIV 200f.

H1333.2.2. †H1333.2.2. Quest for magic tobacco. N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 81 No. 2, 580 No. 117.

H1333.2.3. †H1333.2.3. Quest for extraordinary herb. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.2.4. †H1333.2.4. Quest for magic rice. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.3. †H1333.3. Quest for extraordinary fruit. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.3.0.1. †H1333.3.0.1. Quest for rejuvenating fruit. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.3.0.2. †H1333.3.0.2. Quest for marvelous fruit with princess inside. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.3.1. †H1333.3.1. Quest for marvelous apple. Irish myth: Cross.

H1333.3.1.1. †H1333.3.1.1. Quest for magic apple. (Cf. †D981.1.) *Type 590; BP III 1.

H1333.3.1.2. †H1333.3.1.2. Quest for dancing apple. *Köhler-Bolte I 118.

H1333.3.1.3. †H1333.3.1.3. Quest for apple of life. Type 590; BP I 513, II 400, III 1.

H1333.3.1.4. †H1333.3.1.4. Quest for singing apple. Köhler-Bolte I 143; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1333.3.1.5. †H1333.3.1.5. Quest for healing apple. BP III 267; Irish myth: *Cross.

H1333.3.1.6. †H1333.3.1.6. Quest for apples that are under the sea. Irish myth: Cross.

H1333.3.2. †H1333.3.2. Quest for marvelous pear. Japanese: Ikeda.

H1333.3.2.1. †H1333.3.2.1. Quest for red pear. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 256a.

H1333.3.3. †H1333.3.3. Quest for berries from tree guarded by giants. Irish: *Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 176.

H1333.4. †H1333.4. Quest for magic chestnut. N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 149 No. 24, 201 No. 41, 504 No. 109.

H1333.5. †H1333.5. Quest for marvelous flower. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1333.5.0.1. †H1333.5.0.1. Quest for flower that sends forth its fragrance for hundred miles around. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.5.0.2. †H1333.5.0.2. Quest for flower of a tree inside the seventh of a series of forts. India: Thompson-Balys.

,p>H1333.5.0.3. †H1333.5.0.3. Quest for gold flower. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.5.0.4. †H1333.5.0.4. Quest for wonderful but man-killing flower. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.5.1. †H1333.5.1. Quest for lotus flower. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1333.5.2. †H1333.5.2. Quest for sarai flower. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.5.3. †H1333.5.3. Quest for bakali flower. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.5.4. †H1333.5.4. Quest for jasmine flower. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1333.6. †H1333.6. Quest for branches of tree guarded by dragon. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1335. †H1335. Quest for the living harp. *Type 465B.

H1335.1. †H1335.1. Quest for gold mouth-harp. Fb "guldmundharpe"

H1336. †H1336. Quest for magic cauldron. Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 192; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1337. †H1337. Quest for sword of light. Malone PMLA XLIII 433; Irish myth: *Cross.

H1337.1. †H1337.1. Quest for Thunder Sword. Africa (Swahili): Büttner 113ff.

H1338. †H1338. Quest for axe which sticks in beam outside a tower. *Fb "økse" III 1171b.

H1341. †H1341. Quest for magic lantern. Irish myth: Cross.

H1342. †H1342. Quest for magic iron rod. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 234.

H1342.0.1. †H1342.0.1. Quest for magic wand. Irish myth: Cross.

H1343. †H1343. Quest for castle of jewels. Arabian: Burton Nights V 358.

H1344. †H1344. Quest for ferule to fit staff. Irish myth: *Cross (†H1317).

H1345. †H1345. Quest for magic spear (sword, etc.). Irish myth: *Cross.

H1346. †H1346. Quest for lost magic mirror. *Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 203; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1346.1. †H1346.1. Quest for stolen mirror. *Type 434.

H1347. †H1347. Quest for comb. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 22.

H1348. †H1348. Quest for marvelous gems. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1348.1. †H1348.1. Quest for covering that is kept in an emerald box by the well. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1348.2. †H1348.2. Quest for unpierced pearls. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1351. †H1351. Quest for magic stone. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1352. †H1352. Quest for magic ring. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1353. †H1353. Quest for Life Index. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1355. †H1355. Quest for marvelous cloth (garment). (Cf. †H1306.)

H1355.1. †H1355.1. Quest for garment of spider web. Irish myth: *Cross (†H1349.1).

H1355.2. †H1355.2. Quest for beautiful saree for the queen. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1355.3. †H1355.3. Quest for silken turban on tree sixteen rivers and seven seas away. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1355.4. †H1355.4. Task: achieving kingship by bringing silk from bazaar. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1355.5. †H1355.5. Quest for roll of cotton driven by the wind. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1359. †H1359. Quest for marvelous objects or animals -- miscellaneous. Irish myth: Cross (†H1349).

H1359.1. †H1359.1. Quest for marvelous golden wood for knife handle. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1359.2. †H1359.2. Quest for golden spinning equipment. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1359.3. †H1359.3. Quest for great tank of Indra (god). India: Thompson-Balys.

H1359.4. †H1359.4. Quest for mountain of gold. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1359.5. †H1359.5. Quest for marvelous game-board. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1360. †H1360. Quest for dangerous animals. Irish myth: Cross; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 312 n. 126; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 2 No. 1.

H1361. †H1361. Quest for lion's milk. *Type 590; BP III 2; *Wesselski Märchen 242 No. 53; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "lait"; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1361.0.1. †H1361.0.1. Cubs furnish lion's (tiger's, etc.) milk to hero. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1361.1. †H1361.1. Quest for tiger's milk. India: Thompson-Balys; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H1361.2. †H1361.2. Quest for bear's milk. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1361.3. †H1361.3. Quest for wolf's milk. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H1361.4. †H1361.4. Quest for wild dog's milk. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H1361.5. †H1361.5. Quest for hare's milk. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

H1361.6. †H1361.6. Quest for cheese made from milk of wild white buffaloes. (Cf. †H1362.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H1362. †H1362. Quest for devastating animals.

H1362.1. †H1362.1. Quest for devastating buffaloes. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1363. †H1363. Quest for wonderful but vicious horse.

H1364. †H1364. Quest for demon-owned cows. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1370. †H1370. Miscellaneous quests.

H1371. †H1371. Impossible quests. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 313 n. 126b.

H1371.1. †H1371.1. Quest for the world's end. BP I 231.

H1371.1.1. †H1371.1.1. Quest for place where sun comes up. Africa (Swahili): Büttner 113ff.

H1371.2. †H1371.2. Quest for the bottom of the sea. *Chauvin VII 83 No. 373bis n. 3.

H1371.3. †H1371.3. Quest for tears shed into the sea. Finnish: Kalevala rune 41.

H1371.4. †H1371.4. Quest for ornaments bride has worn in former birth. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1376. †H1376. Allegorical quests.

H1376.1. †H1376.1. Quest: learning what death is. *BP I 29.

H1376.2. †H1376.2. Quest: learning what fear is. *Type 326; BP I 22; Fb "ræd".

H1376.2.1. †H1376.2.1. Quest: learning what fear of Death is. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

H1376.3. †H1376.3. Quest: learning what anger is. (Cf. †H1394.) BP I 37.

H1376.3.1. †H1376.3.1. Quest for the anger of God. Man is so fortunate that people say that he has everything but the anger of God. He seeks it and finds it with much misfortune. *Wesselski Märchen 241 No. 50.

H1376.4. †H1376.4. Quest for bag of truths (lies). Types 513, 570; BP III 267ff., 273.

H1376.5. †H1376.5. Quest for trouble. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 871*; Chinese: Chavannes 500 Contes I 384 No. 113; West Indies: Flowers 466--470.

H1376.6. †H1376.6. Quest for happiness. Gesta Romanorum No. 101.

H1376.7. †H1376.7. Quest for immortality. Róna-Sklarek Ungarische Volksmärchen (Leipzig, 1909) No. 1; Babylonian: Gilgamesch-Epos.

H1376.8. †H1376.8. Quest for wisdom. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

H1376.9. †H1376.9. Quest for luck. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1377. †H1377. Enigmatical quests.

H1377.1. †H1377.1. Quest for glass of all waters. (Sea water.) Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 105 No. 860.

H1377.2. †H1377.2. Quest for bouquet of all flowers. (Beehive.) Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 105 No. 860.

H1377.3. †H1377.3. Quest for the hazelnuts of ay, ay, ay. (Brings hazelnuts with thorns so that the king cries "Ay, ay, ay" when he takes them.) Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 105 No. 860; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas@2 III 114, *Neuman; West Indies: Flowers 470.

H1377.4. †H1377.4. Quest for dusty cloth. (Barren woman assigns quest. Dusty cloth is one made dusty by the feet of a child.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H1378. †H1378. Paradoxical quests. (Cf. †H1050.)

H1378.1. †H1378.1. Quest for wood neither crooked nor straight. (Sawdust.) Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 25.

H1378.2. †H1378.2. Quest for king's joy and woe. (King tells of adventures in which his brothers are all killed. They were a joy to him but their death a woe.) Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 17.

H1381. †H1381. Quest for unknown person.

H1381.1. †H1381.1. Quest for unknown parents. Dickson 25, 183; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

H1381.2. †H1381.2. Quest for unknown father. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1381.2.1. †H1381.2.1. Woman seeks unknown father of her child. *Type 551; BP II 394ff.; Icelandic: Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484; (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132.

H1381.2.1.1. †H1381.2.1.1. Quest for unknown, vanished beloved. Icelandic: Hálfdanar saga Eyst. ch. VIIIff., Boberg.

H1381.2.2. †H1381.2.2. Child seeks unknown parent.

H1381.2.2.1. †H1381.2.2.1. Son seeks unknown father. *Type 707; BP II 380ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 134 (Sir Degare); India: Thompson-Balys; Marquesas: Handy 61, 131; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 86, 514, 479; Tonga: Gifford 112.

H1381.2.2.1.1. †H1381.2.2.1.1. Boy twitted with illegitimacy seeks unknown father. *Type 873; *Chauvin V 72 No. 21 n. 1; **Potter Sohrab and Rustem 9ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 139; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 263.

H1381.2.2.2. †H1381.2.2.2. Child seeks unknown mother. Maori: Beckwith Myth 481.

H1381.2.2.2.1. †H1381.2.2.2.1. Boy twitted with illegitimacy seeks unknown mother. Chinese: Graham.

H1381.3. †H1381.3. Quest for unknown woman. (Cf. †H1385, †M55.)

H1381.3.1. †H1381.3.1. Quest for bride. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1381.3.1.1. †H1381.3.1.1. Quest for bride for king (prince). *Type 531; *Schoepperle I 188 n. 3; Thien Motive 7; BP III 18; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Bósa saga 49, *Boberg; Hindu: Tawney I 380; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries's list No. 218.

H1381.3.1.1.1. †H1381.3.1.1.1. Quest for bride for king like picture he has seen. (Cf. †H1381.3.1.2.1.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1381.3.1.2. †H1381.3.1.2. Quest for bride for oneself. Type 585; BP III 355; Fb "hår" I 771b; Dickson 184; Irish myth: *Cross; Finnish: Kalevala runes 5, 11; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 9; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/900); N. Am. Indian (Ojibwa): Thompson CColl II 403.

H1381.3.1.2.1. †H1381.3.1.2.1. Quest for unknown woman whose picture has aroused man's love. (Cf. †H1381.3.1.1.1.) Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys (†T11.2).

H1381.3.1.2.2. †H1381.3.1.2.2. Quest for girl hero has seen in dream. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1381.3.1.2.3. †H1381.3.1.2.3. Quest for dangerous maiden as bride. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1381.3.1.3. †H1381.3.1.3. Quest for bride for dwarf. Irish myth: Cross.

H1381.3.2. †H1381.3.2. Quest for Glass Princess. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1381.3.3. †H1381.3.3. Quest for clever woman. De Vries FFC LXXIII 43ff.

H1381.3.4. †H1381.3.4. Quest for princess transformed into skein of silk. Fb "silke" III 204a.

H1381.3.5. †H1381.3.5. Quest for woman exactly like another. Irish myth: Cross.

H1381.3.6. †H1381.3.6. Quest for persecuted woman. Irish myth: Cross.

H1381.3.7. †H1381.3.7. Quest for princess hidden by father. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1381.3.8. †H1381.3.8. Quest for queen of fairies. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1381.4. †H1381.4. Quest for son of sinless couple. Irish myth: Cross.

H1381.5. †H1381.5. Hero seeks his equal. (Cf. †H1311.1.) Icelandic: Boberg.

H1381.6. †H1381.6. Quest for unknown son. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1381.7. †H1381.7. Quest for unknown bridegroom who has certain name and is only son among seven children of father. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1382. †H1382. Quest for unknown objects or places. Kittredge Gawain 5ff.

H1382.1. †H1382.1. Quest for unknown magic words. Hero seeks them on the heads of swallows, the necks of swans, the backs of geese, and the tongues of reindeer. Finnish: Kalevala rune 16.

H1382.2. †H1382.2. Quest for unknown story (epic). Irish myth: *Cross.

H1382.2.1. †H1382.2.1. Quest for unknown lines of poem. Irish myth: Cross.

H1382.3. †H1382.3. Quest for unknown wonder. Irish myth: Cross.

H1383. †H1383. Quest for unknown animal. Irish myth: Cross.

H1383.1. †H1383.1. Quest for unknown puppy-hound. Irish myth: Cross.

H1385. †H1385. Quest for lost persons. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

H1385.0.1. †H1385.0.1. Unspelling quest: journey to disenchant (free) captives. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1385.1. †H1385.1. Quest for stolen princess. *Types 301, 408, 506; Aarne FFC XXIII 126; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1385.2. †H1385.2. Quest for vanished daughter. Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 34 n. 3; Hindu: Tawney II 166; West Indies: Flowers 470f.

H1385.3. †H1385.3. Quest for vanished wife (mistress). *Type 400; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Hindu: Tawney I 407ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Oceanic: Dixon 70--72 (New Zealand, Mangaia, Nieue, Chatham Island, Hawaii, New Britain, Admiralty Islands), 139 (New Hebrides), 220 (Indonesia), De Vries's list No. 221 (Indonesia); Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 222, III 75, Rink 145, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 180.

H1385.3.1. †H1385.3.1. Quest for vanished wife and son. Husband seeks wife and son in many countries. Nouvelles de Sens No. 12.

H1385.4. †H1385.4. Quest for vanished husband. *Types 425, 890; Tegethoff 42; Icelandic: Boberg; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V Nos. 3, 4; India: *Thompson-Balys; Oceanic: Beckwith Myth 169ff.

H1385.4.1. †H1385.4.1. Quest for husband who has been reincarnated as cat. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1385.5. †H1385.5. Quest for vanished lover. (Cf. †H1381.2.1.1.) *Type 432; Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 59, 61 Nos. 425D, 445A; Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 2; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1385.6. †H1385.6. Quest for lost sister. Type 47; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1385.7. †H1385.7. Quest for lost father. (Cf. †H1216.) Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1385.7.1. †H1385.7.1. Quest for lost grandfather. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1385.8. †H1385.8. Quest for lost brother(s). Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 452*; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; German: Grimm Nos. 9, 25, 49, 60, 85, 96; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1385.9. †H1385.9. Quest for lost (stolen) family. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1385.10. †H1385.10. Quest for lost prince (king). India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1385.11. †H1385.11. Quest for lost uncles. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1385.12. †H1385.12. King in quest of his prime minister who has left him in anger. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1386. †H1386. Quest for lost object. Missouri French: Carrière.

H1386.1. †H1386.1. Quest for lost horn. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1386.2. †H1386.2. Quest for missing ring. Fb "ring" III 61a; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1386.3. †H1386.3. Quest for lost bird. *Type 480; Roberts 131.

H1386.4. †H1386.4. Quest for lost ecclesiastical rule. Irish myth: Cross (†H1382.3).

H1388. †H1388. Quest: answer to certain question. De Vries FFC LXXIII 43ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1388.1. †H1388.1. Question: What is it women most desire. Answer: Sovereignty. English: Wells 68 (The Weddynge of Sir Gawen and Dame Ragnell), Child I 289--294, Chaucer's "Wife of Bath's Tale."

H1392. †H1392. Quest for armor from a grave mound. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1392.1. †H1392.1. Quest for gold from a grave mound. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 153, 160, 165, 355ff., (1928) 107, 115, 117, 231ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1393. †H1393. Quest to distant sage for advice. *Wesselski Arlotto II 240 No. 133.

H1394. †H1394. Quest for person who has not known sorrow. Clouston Tales II 323ff.

H1395. †H1395. Heroes seek judgment as to which is greatest. (Cf. †H1311.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

H1396. †H1396. Quest for light-giving child. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1397. †H1397. Quest for enemies.

H1397.1. †H1397.1. Quest for witch stepmother. (Cf. †S31.) Icelandic: Boberg.

H1397.2. †H1397.2. Quest for enemy's children. Icelandic: *Boberg.

†H1400-†H1599. Other tests.

†H1400-†H1449. Tests of fear.

H1400. †H1400. Fear test. A person is put to various tests in the attempt to make him show fear. *Type 326; *BP I 22ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1401. †H1401. Deity assumes frightful guises to frighten child. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1401.1. †H1401.1. Chief of dead assumes frightful guises to frighten visitors. New Guinea: Beckwith Myth 508, 512.

H1401.2. †H1401.2. Ogress assumes frightful guises to frighten messengers. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 174, 194.

H1405. †H1405. Fear test: behaving as if enemy is coming in order to see who will flee and who will stay and fight. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1406. †H1406. Suitor tested by apparent threats to his person. Heptameron No. 16.

H1407. †H1407. Fear test: serpent put in flour so that fearless youth kneads it into the dough. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1408. †H1408. Test: going without fear through a wilderness filled with all manner of beasts. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1410. †H1410. Fear test: staying in frightful place.

H1411. †H1411. Fear test: staying in haunted house. Type 326; Irish: Cross, O'Suilleabhain 53, Beal XXI 319; England: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 686; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 73.

H1411.1. †H1411.1. Fear test: staying in haunted house where corpse drops piecemeal down chimney. Dead man's members call out to hero, "Shall we fall, or shall we not?" *Type 326; *Taylor MPh XVII 321 n. 1; Scott "Marmion" note H; BP I 30 n. 1; Köhler-Bolte I 130; Fb "menneske" II 577b; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 241 n. 1.

H1411.1.1. †H1411.1.1. Fear test: staying in haunted house where horse carcass drops down chimney. *Taylor MPh XVII (1919) 321 n. 1; Scott "Marmion" Note H; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 41 No. 46**.

H1411.2. †H1411.2. Fear test: staying in haunted house infested by cats. Type 326; BP I 22ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

H1411.2.1. †H1411.2.1. Fear test: night watch with magic cats. Irish myth: Cross.

H1411.3. †H1411.3. Fear test: staying in enchanted castle at night where the devil gives a moral speech and prophesies. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1411.4. †H1411.4. Fear test: spending night in house (hall) haunted by demon (monster). Irish myth: *Cross.

H1412. †H1412. Fear test: spending night in church. Fb "kirke" II 126a.

H1412.1. †H1412.1. Fear test: going into the church at night and ringing the bell. German: Grimm No. 4.

H1415. †H1415. Fear test: staying under gallows at night. Type 326; Norwegian: Christiansen Norske Eventyr 42.

H1416. †H1416. Fear test: spending night by grave. Fb "først" I 404; Jewish: Neuman.

H1418. †H1418. Fear test: taking boy to frightful enemy's tent. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1420. †H1420. Fearless traffic with devils.

H1421. †H1421. Fear test: playing cards with devil in church. Type 326; BP I 22f.; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 42.

H1421.1. †H1421.1. Hero plays skittles with demons. German: Grimm No. 4.

H1422. †H1422. Fear test: cutting devil's fingernails. Type 326; BP I 22ff.; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 42.

H1423. †H1423. Fear test: fighting with spirits. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1423.1. †H1423.1. Fear test: passing through door guarded by savage hound and armed soldier. Irish myth: Cross.

H1423.2. †H1423.2. Fear test: undergoing terrifying experience out of doors on Hallowe'en. Irish myth: Cross.

H1423.3. †H1423.3. Fear test: bringing from a hill, seized by a demon, the fattest of goats. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1430. †H1430. Fearless traffic with ghosts.

H1431. †H1431. Fear test: stealing clothes from ghosts. Type 326; BP I 34 n. 1.

H1433. †H1433. Fear test: playing game with reassembled dead man. (Cf. †H1411.1, †H1421.) Type 326; BP I 22ff.

H1434. †H1434. Fear test: eating and drinking from skulls. Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 47 No. 326.

H1435. †H1435. Fear test: fetching skulls from a charnel house. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 324 No. 146.

H1436. †H1436. Fear test: keeping goal in hurling-match for corpses. Irish: Read FL XXVII 277f., Knortz Irländische Märchen (Zürich, 1886) 23.

H1440. †H1440. The learning of fear. Missouri French: Carrière; Japanese: Ikeda.

H1441. †H1441. Fearless hero frightened by being awakened with cold water. Type 326.

H1441.1. †H1441.1. Fearless hero frightened by being awakened by eels put down his back. Type 326.

†H1450-†H1499. Tests of vigilance.

H1450. †H1450. Vigilance test.

H1450.1. †H1450.1. Waking contest. Type 513; *De Vries FFC LXXIII 311 n. 2; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 314 n. 137.

H1451. †H1451. Test: speechless vigil in church. Wesselski Mönchslatein 101 No. 86; cf. Type 307.

H1460. †H1460. Test: vigil at tomb.

H1461. †H1461. Test: sitting up with corpse. Wake. Type 480; *Roberts 177.

H1462. †H1462. Vigil for dead father. *Type 530; *BP III 111 n. 3; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 365B*.

H1462.1. †H1462.1. Vigil for dead father: youngest son alone endures frightful experiences. Ceiling, floors, and walls knock together. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 42 No. 302A*.

H1463. †H1463. Three-night watch over grave to guard man from devil. *BP III 420; Scotch: Campbell Tales I 220; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3365, Legends Nos. 693--697, 700f.; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 201.

H1470. †H1470. Other vigilance tests.

H1471. †H1471. Watch for devastating monster. Youngest alone successful. *Types 301, 550; BP I 503, *514; MacCulloch Childhood 350; *Hdwb. d. Märchens I 207b; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 148f., *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 334ff.

H1471.1. †H1471.1. Watch for thieves in the king's garden. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1472. †H1472. Test: sleeping by princess three nights without looking at her or disturbing her. *Type 400; BP II 335ff.

H1480. †H1480. Accomplishment of vigilance test.

H1481. †H1481. Thumb cut and salt put on it in order to remain awake. Köhler-Bolte I 561; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1482. †H1482. Dirk stuck into thigh in order to keep from sleeping. Japanese: Mitford 245ff.

H1483. †H1483. Grains slowly munched in order to keep from sleeping. (Cf. †H1471.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H1484. †H1484. Continual pricking with pin in order to remain awake. Irish myth: Cross.

H1484.1. †H1484.1. Large fire and water for washing eyes as device of expectant lover. Irish myth: *Cross.

†H1500-†H1549. Tests of endurance and power of survival.

H1500. †H1500. Tests of endurance.

H1501. †H1501. Endurance test: long dancing. Girl tires out many partners. English: Child II 102--110, IV 214f.; West Indies: Flowers 471.

H1502. †H1502. Test: enduring hardship. Tested by making girl serve woman who has leprosy, etc. Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 43ff. No. 1.

H1503. †H1503. Endurance test: scalding mush scattered on heroine's naked body; rasp-tongued dogs lick wounds. N. Am. Indian (Iroquois): Alexander N. Am. 35.

H1504. †H1504. Test: sleeping naked on floor in cold. (Suitor test.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H1505. †H1505. Test: sewing clothes into boy's hands and tearing them off together with the skin. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1506. †H1506. Endurance test: hero maintains silence in the snake pit. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1507. †H1507. Hero pursues and kills fugitive in spite of bleeding wounds. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1508. †H1508. Test: long praying.

H1508.1. †H1508.1. Test: repeating incantation continuously for months. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1510. †H1510. Tests of power to survive. Vain attempts to kill hero. *Types 461, 516 930; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 120ff.; Chauvin VIII 145 No. 145C; *Oesterley No. 20; *Herbert III 198. --Icelandic: Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 22; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; S. Am. Indian (Central Brazil): Ehrenreich International Congress of Americanists XIV 662; Africa: Werner African 214, (Ekoi): Talbot 208.

H1511. †H1511. Heat test. Attempt to kill hero by burning him in fire. Type 513; German: Grimm No. 71; Finnish: Kalevala rune 31; Chinese: Graham; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 311 n. 120; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 72 No. 11.

H1511.1. †H1511.1. Heat test: swallowing red-hot stones. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 312 n. 120c.

H1511.1.1. †H1511.1.1. Test: swallowing heated brass and iron ornaments. Chinese: Graham.

H1511.2. †H1511.2. Burning food test. Attempt to kill hero by feeding him burning food. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 312 n. 120b.

H1511.3. †H1511.3. Smoke test. Attempt to kill hero by smoke. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 312 n. 120a.

H1511.4. †H1511.4. Smoking test. Attempt to kill hero by having him smoke fatal pipe. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 330 n. 191d.

H1512. †H1512. Cold test. Attempt to freeze hero to death. *Type 513; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1515. †H1515. Poisoned food test. Attempt to kill hero by feeding him poisoned food. Type 516; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 123; Hertz Gesammelte Abhandlungen "Die Sage vom Giftmädchen"; BP I 42ff.; Herrmann Saxo II 139; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 314 n. 140.

H1515.1. †H1515.1. Attempt to poison by druids. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1515.2. †H1515.2. Poisoned drink test. Attempt to kill saint by giving him poisoned drink. Irish myth: Cross.

H1515.3. †H1515.3. Test: food with thorns. Hero given food in which thorns are hidden. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1516. †H1516. Poisoned clothing test. Attempt to kill hero by poisoning clothing. *Type 516; *Rösch FFC LXXVII 124.

H1517. †H1517. Test: bite of poisonous snake. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1521. †H1521. Clam test. Hero is sent to capture a giant clam, so that he can be killed. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 313 n. 130.

H1522. †H1522. Killing trees threaten hero. India: *Thompson-Balys; Tahiti: Dixon 64; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 322 n. 160.

H1522.1. †H1522.1. Bent tree test. Bent tree is released so as to tear hero to pieces. Greek: Fox 98 (Theseus); Oceanic: Dixon 321 n. 71.

H1525. †H1525. Clashing rocks test: hero to pass between them. S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132.

H1531. †H1531. Spine test. Attempt to kill hero by throwing him on sharp spine or spike. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 324 n. 168.

H1531.1. †H1531.1. Test: dancing on sharp instruments. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1531.2. †H1531.2. Vain attempt to kill hero on stairway set with razors. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1532. †H1532. Wedge test. Hero is caught in cleft of tree. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 313 n. 129.

H1533. †H1533. Hanging test. Unavailing attempt to kill hero by hanging. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 44, 50, Beal XXI 316, 318; Finnish: Kalevala rune 31.

H1534. †H1534. Plank test. Attempt to kill hero by letting plank fall on him. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 47 No. 325A*.

H1535. †H1535. Precipice test. Hero is pushed over a precipice. Irish myth: Cross; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 312 n. 122, (California): Gayton and Newman 95; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 72 No. 11.

H1535.1. †H1535.1. Pit test. Hero thrown into pit. Africa (Benga): Nassau 217 No. 33, (Basuto): Jacottet 72 No. 11.

H1536. †H1536. Toboggan test. Attempt to kill hero on dangerous toboggan. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 326 n. 173.

H1537. †H1537. Test: playing game with ferocious beast.

H1537.1. †H1537.1. Bear demands that heroine play Blindman's Buff. Type 480; *Roberts 175.

H1538. †H1538. Drowning test. Unavailing attempt to drown hero. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Kalevala rune 31; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 85; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 312 n. 124.

H1540. †H1540. Contests in endurance. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1541. †H1541. Contest in enduring cold. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1541.1. †H1541.1. Contest in enduring cold: frost and the hare. Hare tries to deceive frost by lying on frozen snow and saying, "Oh, how warm!" *Type 71; Dh III 23.

H1541.2. †H1541.2. Contest in enduring cold: wind overcomes frost. Type 1097*.

H1542. †H1542. Contest in enduring heat. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 194a n. 14; Icelandic: *Boberg; Melanesia: Wheeler 66.

H1542.1. †H1542.1. Contest in crossing river of fire. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1543. †H1543. Contest in remaining under water. (Cf. †H1538.) Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Madagascar): Renel I 168ff. No. 30.

H1544. †H1544. Contest in enduring thirst. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1545. †H1545. Contest in fasting. *Loomis White Magic 130.

†H1550-†H1569. Tests of character.

H1550. †H1550. Tests of character. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "épreuves"; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1550.1. †H1550.1. Bad character shown by the eyes. Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

H1552. †H1552. Tests of generosity. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1552.1. †H1552.1. Which was the most generous -- husband, robber, or lover? Woman has promised her lover to go to him on her wedding night. Husband lets her go. On way she meets robbers and tells her story. Robbers take her to her lover. She tells what has happened. Lover returns her immediately to her husband. *Type 976; *Köhler-Bolte I 214--216; *Chauvin VIII 123f. No. 110; Penzer VII 7ff.; Chaucer's "Franklin's Tale"; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1552.1.1. †H1552.1.1. Which was most generous -- husband, lover, or magician (similar)? Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H1552.2. †H1552.2. Contest in generosity. Ruler vies with minister in generosity. Minister declared loser and condemned to die. Pardoned on acknowledging defeat. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H1553. †H1553. Tests of patience. Gaster Exempla 202 No. 84; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 37, Beal XXI 314.

H1553.1. †H1553.1. Philosopher teaches son to beg before stone statues. In this way he will acquire patience. Spanish: Childers.

H1553.2. †H1553.2. Test of patience: king accepts strong reproof and criticism. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1553.3. †H1553.3. Test of patience: those who wish to enter city gate must endure insults of old men there who mock them. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1553.4. †H1553.4. Man shows his patience by accepting blow in face with stool thrown by his superior in monastery. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1553.5. †H1553.5. Monk fails in test of patience. He tries to live alone to test it. One day he loses his temper at a cup which overturns and he breaks it. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1553.6. †H1553.6. Test of patience by asking irrelevant riddles. Jewish: Neuman.

H1554. †H1554. Test of curiosity. (Cf. †H1557.)

H1554.1. †H1554.1. Test of curiosity: mouse in jug. The new Eve. A woman has boasted of a lack of curiosity and blamed Mother Eve. The king entertains her in his castle. She may see everything but must not look into a certain silver jug. She does so and finds a mouse in it. (Cf. †H1557.2.) *Type 1416; *BP III 543 n. 1; *Crane Vitry 139 No. 13; Alphabet No. 575; *Fb "Adam" IV 3b; H. C. Andersen "Krøblingen", Danish Fairy Tales and Legends; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

H1554.2. †H1554.2. Test of curiosity: the clock. A man is promised a beautiful clock if he can mind his own business for a whole year. He does. The giver tells him he is the second man who almost made sure of getting the clock. The man asks how the other missed getting it; he loses the clock himself. England: Baughman.

H1554.3. †H1554.3. Test of curiosity: the paternoster. Plowman is promised a horse if he can say a paternoster without thinking of anything else. In the midst of the recitation, he asks if he will get the saddle and bridle too. He loses bargain. England: Baughman.

H1555. †H1555. Tests of honesty. Irish myth: Cross.

H1555.1. †H1555.1. Test of honesty: man entrusted with treasure. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1556. †H1556. Tests of fidelity. Irish myth: Cross; Hindu: Tawney I 86 n., 196, 357, II 57, 71, 606; Arabian: Burton Nights V 144, IX 325.

H1556.0.1. †H1556.0.1. Fidelity of servant tested. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1556.0.2. †H1556.0.2. Test of fidelity (loyalty) of guard. (Faithful unto death.) India: Thompson-Balys.

H1556.1. †H1556.1. Test of fidelity by feigning death. English: Wells 129 (Sir Orfeo); Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 4; India: Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 473.

H1556.1.1. †H1556.1.1. Cock feigns death to see what hens will say about him. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1556.2. †H1556.2. Test of fidelity through submitting hero to temptations. Kittredge Gawain and the Green Knight 6ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1556.3. †H1556.3. Test of fidelity through offering suspected assassin opportunity to commit the murder. Heptameron No. 17.

H1556.4. †H1556.4. Fidelity in love tested. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1556.4.1. †H1556.4.1. Lover's fidelity tested by going to bed with mistress and only kissing. Heptameron No. 18.

H1556.4.2. †H1556.4.2. Lover's fidelity tested by making love to maid. Heptameron No. 18.

H1556.4.2.1. †H1556.4.2.1. Wife tests her husband's fidelity by tempting him in the guise of another woman. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1556.4.3. †H1556.4.3. Lover's fidelity tested by substituting maid in mistress's bed at assignation. He must refuse her. Heptameron No. 18.

H1556.4.4. †H1556.4.4. Old uncle tests nephew's fidelity by sleeping with his beloved. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1556.4.5. †H1556.4.5. Husband's (wife's) willingness to die for mate disappears when Death seems to arrive. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1355*.

H1556.4.5.1. †H1556.4.5.1. Old woman's willingness to die for daughter disappears when Death seems to arrive. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1556.4.6. †H1556.4.6. Rose given by supernatural wife to husband when he leaves for home will shed as many petals as times he thinks of her. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1556.5. †H1556.5. Test of fidelity by feigning sleep in same bed as calumniated hero or alone in the forest with him. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1557. †H1557. Tests of obedience. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1557.1. †H1557.1. Obedience of sons tested by offering them apple. They are each offered a slice of apple. The king says, "Open your mouth and receive what I give you". Eldest son insulted; youngest obeys and receives kingdom as reward. (Cf. †H1558.0.1.1.) *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 368; *Crane Vitry 187 No. 123; BP III 236; Wesselski Mönchslatein 8 No. 3; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 93a n. 7.

H1557.2. †H1557.2. Adam's (Eve's) disobedience blamed: blamer immediately disobeys orders. (Cf. †H1554.1.) Alphabet Nos. 574, 575.

H1557.3. †H1557.3. Old man contented till forbidden to leave city. Immediately disobeys. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 319; Wesselski Märchen 220 No. 33.

H1557.4. †H1557.4. Pope tests women's disobedience: not to look into box. (Cf. †H1554.1.) They do so and are not allowed to hear confession. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 398.

H1557.5. †H1557.5. Obedience of king's subjects tested by willingness to allow spear to be carried crosswise into houses. Way must be hewn. Irish myth: Cross.

H1557.6. †H1557.6. King tests gardener's obedience by playing thief. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1558. †H1558. Tests of friendship. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1558.0.1. †H1558.0.1. Test of worthiness for friendship.

H1558.0.1.1. †H1558.0.1.1. Apple test of worthiness for friendship. Father gives son three apples to offer to those he meets. If the man eats all, avoid him; if he divides, make friends with him. (Cf. †H1557.1.) *BP II 39 n. 2, III 236; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 92b. n. 3.

H1558.1. †H1558.1. Test of friendship: the half-friend. A man kills a hog and tells his friends that he has killed a man and asks where he can hide the body. All of them drive him away and only his father's half-friend remains true to him in his feigned trouble. *Type 893; *Basset RTP XXII 10; *Crane Vitry 185f. No. 120; Herbert III 10, 55, 205; *Penzer V 87 n. 1; Alphabet No. 59; Chauvin IX 15f.; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 94b; Oesterley No. 129; Scala Celi 9a, 11b Nos. 60, 69. --Icelandic: Sveinsson FFC LXXXIII p. xix, *Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 32, *274.

H1558.1.1. †H1558.1.1. Of three friends the least loved proves true in emergency. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas IV 32, 275; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1558.2. †H1558.2. Test of friendship: substitute as murderer. A man in misery gives himself up as a murderer rather than endure further misery. His friend tries to take on himself the guilt and be substituted. The real murderer, touched by the generosity, confesses. *Chauvin IX 16 No. 2; Schiller's "Burgschaft"; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1558.3. †H1558.3. Test of friendship: to go with one to death. Everyman. He calls in Riches, Family, etc. Only Good Deeds remains with him. *Chauvin III 101 No. 7; Jewish: *Bin Gorion Born Judas IV 226, 275; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1558.4. †H1558.4. The hare with many friends. In the final test none help and only her legs save her. Jacobs Aesop 216 No. 70.

H1558.5. †H1558.5. Test of friendship: death feigned to test debtor friends. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H1558.6. †H1558.6. Test of friendship: the imagined refusal. Man wonders if his friend would lend him his palfrey. Decides he would refuse. Imagines that he has actually asked for the palfrey and has been refused. Cools toward his friend. The owner of the horse asks for an explanation. He agrees to lend him the horse and they are reconciled. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

H1558.7. †H1558.7. Test of friendship: the power of money. Spendthrift loses his friends in poverty. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1558.7.1. †H1558.7.1. Sultan takes disguise of beggar to test friends. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1558.7.2. †H1558.7.2. Friends desert when man reports loss of his money. England: Baughman.

H1558.8. †H1558.8. Friends refuse to fight against each other. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1558.8.1. †H1558.8.1. Sword too heavy to lift against a friend. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1558.9. †H1558.9. Pregnant wife left in charge of friend. Icelandic: Lagerholm 129ff., Boberg.

H1558.10. †H1558.10. Friendship kept up even during sons' jealousy and enmity. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1558.11. †H1558.11. Test of friendship: to take a slap publicly from friend. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1558.12. †H1558.12. Test of friendship: mourner says dead husband can be touched only by sinless person; volunteers for cremating body immediately disperse. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1558.13. †H1558.13. Test of friendship: loyalty to condemned friend. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1561. †H1561. Tests of valor. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1561.1. †H1561.1. Tests of valor: tournament. English: Hibbard 229, Wells 151 (Coer de Lyon); Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

H1561.2. †H1561.2. Single combat to prove valor. *Chauvin V 21 n. 1; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

H1561.2.1. †H1561.2.1. Holmgang. Single combat on an island. *Schoepperle II 338ff.; English: Wells 32 (Layamon's Brut); Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1561.2.2. †H1561.2.2. Fight with father's old friend, though only to mention who he is would assure the youth a friendly reception. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 222--32, Boberg.

H1561.2.3. †H1561.2.3. Combats at fords. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1561.3. †H1561.3. Test of valor: not flinching under a blow. Kittredge Gawain 7ff.; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1561.4. †H1561.4. Test of valor: rousing servant's anger. Nobleman, when examining servants for hire, bids each stand before him and comb his long beard. Occasionally he snaps at them as if to bite them. Those who dodge he lets go; those who offer fight he employs. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 862.

H1561.5. †H1561.5. Test of valor worthy for kingship: taking possession of royal insignia placed between two ferocious lions. Chauvin II 183 No. 24.

H1561.6. †H1561.6. Test of valor: fight with giant. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

H1561.7. †H1561.7. Test of valor: attack by warrior and hound. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1561.8. †H1561.8. Warriors battle against leader as test of valor. Irish myth: Cross.

H1561.9. †H1561.9. Prince chooses shorter but more dangerous road. Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1561.10. †H1561.10. Master tests disciple by asking him if he will be willing to plunge with him into the Indus. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1562. †H1562. Test of strength. *Type 650; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

H1562.1. †H1562.1. Test of strength: pulling up tree by roots. See all references to †F621.

H1562.1.1. †H1562.1.1. Test of strength: cutting tree with one stroke. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1562.2. †H1562.2. Test of strength: lifting stone (fireplace, etc.) English: Wells 59 (The Turke and Gowin), 114 (Sir Isumbras); Icelandic: *Boberg; Danish: Schmidt DF XXXIX 55.

H1562.2.1. †H1562.2.1. Test of strength: lifting sword. Chinese: Graham.

H1562.2.2. †H1562.2.2. Before undertaking rescue, bat tests strength by lifting stone. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 95.

H1562.3. †H1562.3. Test of strength: breaking heavy glass bottle over loaf of rye bread. *Fb "flaske" I 309.

H1562.4. †H1562.4. Test of strength: prodigious jump. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1562.5. †H1562.5. Test of strength: heavy stone flung at boaster; he throws it back. Irish myth: Cross.

H1562.6. †H1562.6. Test of strength: breaking spirited horse. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1562.7. †H1562.7. Strength contest: contestants stand with back to rock on opposite side, an iron ring around neck of each connected by chain. They tug until ring severs neck of one. Irish myth: Cross.

H1562.8. †H1562.8. Test of strength: breaking witch's back. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1562.9. †H1562.9. Test of strength: wrestling. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1562.10. †H1562.10. Test of strength: pushing out heavy ferry. Icelandic: Boberg.

H1562.11. †H1562.11. Test of strength: pulling in two iron bars passing through hole. Irish myth: Cross.

H1562.12. †H1562.12. Task: destruction of iron castle. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

H1562.13. †H1562.13. Test of strength: shooting through seven iron plates with arrow. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1562.14. †H1562.14. Mighty-of-His-Mouth and Mighty-of-His-Hands decide to live together to test strength. Strength of mind is winner. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1563. †H1563. Test of skill. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1564. †H1564. Test of hospitality. English: Wells 64 (Avowynge of King Arthur etc.); Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

H1565. †H1565. Tests of gratitude.

H1565.1. †H1565.1. Test of gratitude: magician makes pupil believe himself superior. Though he has promised magician great rewards he forgets his promise. Wealth removed. Alphabet No. 62; Scala Celi 12a No. 72; Wesselski Mönchslatein 13 No. 7; Herbert 83 No. 7; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

H1566. †H1566. Test for admission to warrior band. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1567. †H1567. Test of leadership. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1567.1. †H1567.1. Frightful meal as test of leadership. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1567.1.1. †H1567.1.1. Test of leadership (obedience): swallowing mouse without vomiting. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1568. †H1568. Test of the champion. Irish myth: Cross.

H1568.1. †H1568.1. Test of championship: sitting on pillow covering egg without breaking egg. Irish myth: Cross.

H1569. †H1569. Tests of character -- miscellaneous.

H1569.1. †H1569.1. Test of industry. (Cf. †H382.)

H1569.1.1. †H1569.1.1. Man tests industry of prospective servant girl. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

†H1570-†H1599. Miscellaneous tests.

H1571. †H1571. Test of sensitiveness. (For details see †F647.) *BP III 238; Penzer VII 10ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 64; Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 120.

H1572. †H1572. Test of fertility. Irish myth: Cross.

H1572.1. †H1572.1. Stone under fertile woman produces milk; under barren woman produces blood. Irish myth: Cross.

H1573. †H1573. Religious tests. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

H1573.0.1. †H1573.0.1. Angel helpers in religious test. Irish myth: Cross.

H1573.1. †H1573.1. Belief in Christianity tested. (Cf. †V300.) Irish myth: Cross.

H1573.1.1. †H1573.1.1. Heathen swallowed by earth. Proof of his belief. Irish myth: Cross.

H1573.1.2. †H1573.1.2. Loathly deed performed as evidence of Christian virtue. Irish myth: Cross.

H1573.1.3. †H1573.1.3. Druid attempts to shake king's faith by magic manifestation. Irish myth: Cross.

H1573.1.4. †H1573.1.4. Man commanded by saint to leap into fiery furnace: unharmed. Irish myth: Cross.

H1573.2. †H1573.2. Religious personages tested. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

H1573.2.1. †H1573.2.1. Magic manifestation required as proof in test of saintliness. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

H1573.2.2. †H1573.2.2. Saint tested by visit of deity in disguise. Irish myth: Cross.

H1573.2.3. †H1573.2.3. Test of worthiness for bishop: plowing without plowshare. Irish myth: Cross.

H1573.3. †H1573.3. Power of Christianity tested. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1573.3.1. †H1573.3.1. Saint drinks poison without injury as proof of power of Christianity. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1573.3.2. †H1573.3.2. Saint's horse miraculously preserved as proof of power of Christianity before fairy. Irish myth: Cross.

H1573.3.3. †H1573.3.3. Transformation by saint as proof of Christianity before druid. Irish myth: Cross.

H1573.3.4. †H1573.3.4. Wizard (druid) burned, saint saved in test of power of Christianity. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1573.4. †H1573.4. Power of other religions tested.

H1573.4.1. †H1573.4.1. Power of Judaism tested. Jewish: Neuman.

H1573.5. †H1573.5. Test of steadfastness of love for God: though warned in dream man refuses to part with sacred stone. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1573.6. †H1573.6. Test of righteousness.

H1573.6.1. †H1573.6.1. Ability to cross bridge as test of righteousness. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1573.7. †H1573.7. Test of repentance.

H1573.7.1. †H1573.7.1. Test of repentance: culprit exposed to situation identical to that in which he sinned. (Cf. †H1573.) Jewish: *Neuman.

H1574. †H1574. Tests of social position. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1574.0.1. †H1574.0.1. Social rank determined according to portion taken from cauldron of food. Irish myth: Cross.

H1574.1. †H1574.1. Tests for noble blood. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1574.2. †H1574.2. Fruitfulness of nature as proof of kingly right. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1574.3. †H1574.3. King chosen by test. Irish myth: Cross.

H1574.3.0.1. †H1574.3.0.1. Test imposed on young princes as candidates for throne. Irish myth: Cross.

H1574.3.0.2. †H1574.3.0.2. Two deities test virtues of a king. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1574.3.1. †H1574.3.1. The burning forge (smithy): he who salvages anvil will be king. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1574.3.2. †H1574.3.2. He who wins maiden queen is king. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1575. †H1575. Tests of sight. Irish myth: Cross.

H1575.1. †H1575.1. Test of sight: stepping stones. Captives re-blinded if they cross stepping-stones without stumbling. Irish myth: Cross.

H1576. †H1576. Tests of possession of magic powers. Irish myth: Cross.

H1576.1. †H1576.1. Test of magic powers: telling sex of unborn goat. India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1576.2. †H1576.2. Test of skill for a fakir: heating iron and passing it through hands without burning them.

H1577. †H1577. Test of divine favor.

H1577.1. †H1577.1. Test of goddess' favor: man throws away his wife's jewel-box to see if she can regain it with the aid of goddess. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1577.2. †H1577.2. Test of goddess's favor: husband drowns his son to see if his wife's tutelary goddess can bring him back to life. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1578. †H1578. Test of sex: to discover person masking as of other sex. *Dh I 329; Köhler in Gonzenbach II 216 No. 17.

H1578.1. †H1578.1. Test of sex of girl masking as man. BP II 57f., III 236; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 6; India: Thompson-Balys.

H1578.1.1. †H1578.1.1. Test of sex of girl masking as man: peas spread on floor. Men tread firmly; women slip. BP II 57 n. 2; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 92b. n. 6; *Zachariae Kleine Schriften 58.

H1578.1.1.1. †H1578.1.1.1. Test of girl masking as man: nuts and corn spread on floor. Jewish: *Neuman (†J1661.1.)

H1578.1.2. †H1578.1.2. Test of sex of girl masking as man: spinning wheel brought. Men take no notice; women interested. BP II 57 n. 2.

H1578.1.3. †H1578.1.3. Test of sex of girl masking as man: choosing flowers. Girl will choose a carnation; man a rose. Sicilian: Gonzenbach No. 17.

H1578.1.4. †H1578.1.4. Test of sex of girl masking as man: ball thrown into lap. Girls spread legs to catch it; men not. Fb "kvinde" II 339a.

H1578.1.4.1. †H1578.1.4.1. Woman throws apple to man in woman's dress. He puts his legs together to catch it. (Cf. †H1578.1.4.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

H1578.1.4.2. †H1578.1.4.2. Test of sex of man masking as girl: jumping over pit (only man succeeds). India: Thompson-Balys.

H1578.1.5. †H1578.1.5. Test of sex of girl masking as man: nuts and apples offered. Men put them in their shirts, girls into their handkerchiefs. *BP II 58; Bolte Wickram's Rollwagenbüchlein 384 n. 2; FL I 133, 354; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 92b. n. 6.

H1578.1.6. †H1578.1.6. Test of sex of girl masking as man: warned by a parrot, she picks only one flower. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1578.2. †H1578.2. Test of sex of man masking as girl: arms placed among baskets and war-trumpet sounded. Man snatches arms. Greek: * Frazer Apollodorus II 74 n. 1.

H1581. †H1581. Test of heirship. German: Grimm Nos. 63, 106, 124, 151, 152, 179.

H1582. †H1582. Health test. Penzer III 272 n. 1.

H1582.1. †H1582.1. Recognition of good health by hearing voice. Chauvin V 45 No. 18.

H1582.2. †H1582.2. Recognition of good health by smoke rising from chimney. Irish myth: Cross.

H1583. †H1583. Tests of time.

H1583.1. †H1583.1. Time measured by worn iron shoes. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H1583.2. †H1583.2. Time measured by fit of ring. Irish myth: Cross.

H1584. †H1584. Tests of space. Irish myth: Cross.

H1584.1. †H1584.1. Land measured according to amount within person's view. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1584.2. †H1584.2. Land measured according to amount encompassed during certain hours. Irish myth: Cross.

H1585. †H1585. Test of cleanliness by being shaken to see if lice fall off. Chinese: Graham.

H1588. †H1588. Contest of dogs. Two opponents test their powers by having their dogs fight. N. Am. Indian: *Kroeber JAFL XXI 224.

H1588.1. †H1588.1. Litter of puppies tested by throwing them one by one at hanging hide of wild beast, and keeping the one that grips hide. Puppy grows up to be great hunting dog. Irish myth: Cross.

H1588.2. †H1588.2. Man and king compete by letting their domestic animals fight. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1591. †H1591. Shooting contest. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 74.

H1591.1. †H1591.1. Contest: spear-casting. India: Thompson-Balys.

H1592. †H1592. Hunting contest. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1593. †H1593. Goaling match between fairies and mortals as test of supremacy. Irish myth: Cross.

H1594. †H1594. Foot-racing contest. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

H1594.0.1. †H1594.0.1. Death as penalty for losing foot-race. Irish myth: Cross.

H1594.1. †H1594.1. Foot-race between fairy and mortal. Irish myth: *Cross.

H1594.2. †H1594.2. Foot-race between giant and mortal. Irish myth: Cross.

H1595. †H1595. Test of memory.

H1595.1. †H1595.1. Test of memory: Solomon asks Marchus question, receives answer; fourteen months later he asks second question based on first, again receives correct answer; four months later asks third question based on first two, again receives correct answer. Nouvelles de Sens. No. 31.

H1596. †H1596. Beauty contest. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

H1596.0.1. †H1596.0.1. Test for attractiveness to men. Irish myth: Cross.

H1596.1. †H1596.1. Golden apple as prize in beauty contest. Judgment of Paris. Scala Celi 22b, 27a Nos. 146, 175; Greek: Fox 124.

H1596.2. †H1596.2. Strangers umpire beauty contest. Africa (Madagascar): Sibree Madagascar before the Conquest (London, 1896) 239ff.

H1596.3. †H1596.3. Women to appear naked in beauty contest. Jewish: Neuman.

H1598. †H1598. Contest between man and other being.

H1598.1. †H1598.1. Contest between man and angel. Jewish: *Neuman.