S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958. • Main page


Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, ÐÔÔÈ #06-06-80-420a, ÐÔÔÈ #07-06-00441-à



F. MARVELS

DETAILED SYNOPSIS

†F0.--F199. Otherworld Journeys

†F0. Journey to otherworld

†F10.--F79. The upper world

†F10. Journey to upper world

†F30. Inhabitant of upper world visits earth

†F50. Access to upper world

†F60. Transportation to or from upper world

†F80.--F109. The lower world

†F80. Journey to lower world

†F90. Access to lower world

†F100. Visit to lower world -- miscellaneous motifs

†F110.--F199. Miscellaneous otherworlds

†F110. Journey to terrestrial otherworlds

†F130. Location of otherworld

†F140. Bounds of the otherworld

†F150. Access to otherworld

†F160. Nature of the otherworld

†F170. Otherworld -- miscellaneous motifs

†F200.--F699. MARVELLOUS CREATURES

†F200.--F299. Fairies and elves

†F200. Fairies (elves)

†F210. Fairyland

†F220. Dwelling of fairies

†F230. Appearance of fairies

†F240. Possessions of fairies

†F250. Other characteristics of fairies

†F260. Behavior of fairies

†F300.--F399. Fairies and mortals

†F300. Marriage or liaison with fairy

†F310. Fairies and human children

†F320. Fairies carry people away to fairyland

†F330. Grateful fairies

†F340. Gifts from fairies

†F350. Theft from fairies

†F360. Malevolent or destructive fairies (pixies)

†F370. Visit to fairyland

†F380. Defeating or ridding oneself of fairies

†F390. Fairies -- miscellaneous motifs

†F400.--F499. Spirits and demons

†F400. Spirits and demons (general)

†F420. Water-spirits

†F430. Weather-spirits

†F440. Vegetation-spirits

†F450. Underground-spirits

†F460. Mountain-spirits

†F470. Night-spirits

†F480. House-spirits

†F490. Other spirits and demons

†F500.--F599. Remarkable persons

†F500. Remarkable persons

†F510. Monstrous persons

†F530. Exceptionally large or small men

†F540. Remarkable physical organs

†F560. Unusual manner of life

†F570. Other extraordinary human beings

†F600.--F699. Persons with extraordinary powers

†F600. Person with extraordinary powers

†F610. Remarkably strong man

†F640. Extraordinary powers of perception

†F660. Remarkable skill

†F680. Other marvellous powers

†F700.--F899. Extraordinary places and things

†F700. Extraordinary places

†F710. Extraordinary bodies of water

†F720. Submarine and subterranean world

†F730. Extraordinary islands

†F750. Extraordinary mountains and other land features

†F760. Extraordinary cities

†F770. Extraordinary buildings and furnishings

†F790. Extraordinary sky and weather phenomena

†F800. Extraordinary rocks and stones

†F810. Extraordinary trees, plants, fruit, etc.

†F820. Extraordinary clothing and ornaments

†F830. Extraordinary weapons

†F840. Other extraordinary objects and places

†F900.--F1099. Extraordinary occurrences

†F910. Extraordinary swallowings

†F930. Extraordinary occurrences concerning seas or waters

†F940. Extraordinary underground (underwater) disappearances

†F950. Marvellous cures

†F960. Extraordinary nature phenomena -- elements and weather

†F970. Extraordinary behavior of trees and plants

†F980. Extraordinary occurrences concerning animals

†F990. Inanimate objects act as if living

†F1010. Other extraordinary events

F. MARVELS.

†F0-†F199. Other world journeys.

F0. †F0. Journey to other world. *Patch Some Elements in Mediaeval Descriptions of the Otherworld (PMLA XXXIII 601--643); *Wimberly 108ff.; *Ward II 396ff.; *von Negelein Zs. f. Vksk. XI 16ff., 149ff., 263ff; *Encyc. Rel. Ethics s. v. "Other world"; *Henne-am Rhyn Das Jenseits (1881). --Irish: Nutt The Irish Vision of the Happy Otherworld and the Celtic Doctrine of Rebirth (in Meyer, The Voyage of Bran), *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 114ff.; Brown Iwain 56ff.; Icelandic: Gould Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX (1927) 190; German: *Siuts Jenseitmotive im deutschen Volksmärchen; Jewish: *Neuman; Hindu: Tawney I 58f., 417ff., 526f., II 267ff., 288ff.; Arabian: Burton Nights VIII 70, IX 181ff., S II 85ff., S IV 443ff.; Russian: Kuzenow Ueber den Glauben vom Jenseits und den Todtenkultus der Tcheremissen (Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie IX No. 4, X No. 2); Melanesia (Ysabel): Codrington 365, (Mono-Alu-Fauru): Wheeler 21f., 33, (Buin): ibid. 47, (Papua): Ker 7; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 330 n. 192.

F0.1. †F0.1. Names for otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F1. †F1. Journey to otherworld as dream or vision. *Loomis White Magic 52. --Irish myth: *Cross; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 25.

F2. †F2. Translation to otherworld without dying. (Cf. †F12.3.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F2.1. †F2.1. Supernatural husband takes mortal wife with him to heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.

F3. †F3. Journey to otherworld as invasion. Irish myth: *Cross.

F4. †F4. Journey to otherworld as hunt. Irish myth: *Cross.

F5. †F5. Journey to otherworld as penance. Irish myth: Cross.

F6. †F6. Departure to otherworld (fairyland) attributed to death. Irish myth: *Cross.

F7. †F7. Journey to otherworld with angel. Jewish: Neuman.

†F10-†F79. THE UPPER WORLD.

F10. †F10. Journey to upper world. Most references for †F0 discuss this motif. Chauvin VII 54ff. No. 77. --Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 332 n. 2 (Dionysus and Semele); India: *Thompson-Balys, Tawney II 483; Chinese: Werner 224, 282; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 460, 515; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 311 n. 118; S. Am. Indian (Kariri, Shipaya): Métraux MAFLS XL 25; Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 97 No. 18, (Fjort): Dennett 74 No. 16, (Ekoi): Talbot 71, 184, 344, (Congo): Weeks 202 No. 1, 217 No. 12, (Zulu): Callaway 147, (Ila [Rhodesia]): Smith and Dale II 348.

F10.1. †F10.1. Return from upper world. Indonesia: De Vries' list No. 165.

F10.2. †F10.2. Man taken to upper world sees all that happens on earth. Jewish: Neuman.

F11. †F11. Journey to heaven (upper-world paradise). Types 800--809; K. Kahler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York, 1923). --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Hartland Science 193; Jewish: *Neuman; Arabian: Burton Nights II 197n.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 606, II 294; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 183; Korean: Zong in-Sob 171; Melanesia: Wheeler 21f., Codrington II 1, Ker 7; N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Teit MAFLS XI 53 No. 34; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 177.

F11.1. †F11.1. Journey to heaven in trance. Hartland Science 189; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

F11.2. †F11.2. Man goes to heaven without dying. (Cf. †D1856, †F2.) Jewish: *Neuman.

F11.3. †F11.3. Man goes to heaven for limited time. Jewish: *Neuman.

F12. †F12. Journey to see deity. Usually to the upper world. *Type 460A; *Aarne FFC XXIII 124. --Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/79); Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 18, 184.

F12.1. †F12.1. Journey to sky-god. Chinese: Graham.

F12.2. †F12.2. Grieving mortal taken by god of the dead up to otherworld to identify his son, who has just died. India: Thompson-Balys.

F12.3. †F12.3. Men taken by Brahma to Siva so they can petition him personally. India: Thompson-Balys.

F12.4. †F12.4. Journey to heaven to see Buddha. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 183.

F13. †F13. Man admitted into heaven but must not find fault. *Type 801; BP III 297.

F15. †F15. Visit to star-world. Chinese: Graham; N. Am. Indian: **Thompson The Star-Husband Tale 93--163; *Thompson Tales 311 n. 118c; S. Am. Indian (Cherentes, Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 308, (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 41, (Chaco): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 369.

F15.1. †F15.1. Man seeks his mother (star-maiden) in upper world. Chinese: Graham.

F16. †F16. Visit to land of moon. India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 515, (Greenland): Rasmussen II 30, Rink 440, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 598; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 131 No. 12.

F17. †F17. Visit to land of the sun. *Type 461; *Aarne FFC XXIII 115ff. --N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 311 n. 118b; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 82, 90; Africa: Werner African 233, (Angola): Chatelain 131 No. 12.

F30. †F30. Inhabitant of upper world visits earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

F31. †F31. Child of deity visits earth. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 342, 359, 389, (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 347.

F31.1. †F31.1. Child of deity stolen and brought down to earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

F32. †F32. God visits earth. Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1003; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 3; Africa (Fang): Einstein 94, Trilles 137, (Ila [Rhodesia]): Smith and Dale II 348.

F32.1. †F32.1. God descends to found royal dynasty. Tonga: Gifford 28.

F33. †F33. Cloud-folk visit earth. Africa (Congo): Weeks 205 No. 3.

F34. †F34. Temptress sent from upper world by deity (Pandora). Greek: Grote I 72.

F35. †F35. Divine animal visits earth.

F35.1. †F35.1. Divine cow descends to earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

F35.2. †F35.2. Divine elephant comes down from heaven to feed and disport himself. India: Thompson-Balys.

F50. †F50. Access to upper world.

F51. †F51. Sky-rope. Access to upper world by means of a rope. BP II 511 (Gr. No. 112); Fb "reb" III 25b. --Icelandic: Gering Islensk Æventyri II 166f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 24, 227; Oceanic (Indonesia, Melanesia, Polynesia): Dixon 66, 156f, 160, Beckwith Myth 255, (Tonga): Gifford 20; N. Am. Indian: Hatt Asiatic Influences 48ff., *Thompson Tales 283 n. 48, (California): Gayton and Newman 78; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 153; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880, Alexander Lat. Am. 271, (Toba, Mataco): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 448, MAFLS XL 101--103; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 10, 12.

F51.0.1. †F51.0.1. Sky-rope shot by means of arrow. Indonesia: Kruyt Het animisme 494.

F51.0.2. †F51.0.2. Four sky-ropes. Irish myth: *Cross.

F51.1. †F51.1. Special kinds of sky-rope.

F51.1.1. †F51.1.1. Spider-web sky-rope. (Cf. †F101.7.) Spider makes web on which ascent or descent is accomplished. India: Thompson-Balys; Oceanic (Hawaii, New Zealand, New Hebrides, Caroline Is.): Dixon 59, 66, (Maori): Clark 163f., (Hawaii): Beckwith Myth 254f., 530; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 332 n. 201; Arawak and Carib: Alexander Lat. Am. Myth. 274; Africa: Werner African 132ff., (Baluyi, Basubiya, Congo, Angola): Chatelain 135, (Fjort): Dennett 74 No. 16.

F51.1.2. †F51.1.2. Vine as sky-rope. Indonesia: Dixon 66; Mono-Alu, Fauru: Wheeler 21f.; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 33; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Star Husband 130; S. Am. Indian (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 434.

F51.1.3. †F51.1.3. Stalk as sky-rope. *Type 804.

F51.1.4. †F51.1.4. Chaff sky-rope. Fb "hakkelse" I 535.

F51.1.5. †F51.1.5. Rope of god's own hair. India: Thompson-Balys.

F51.1.5.1. †F51.1.5.1. Heavenly being's hair as sky-rope. Australia: Howitt-Siebert JAI XXXIV (1904) 121.

F51.1.6. †F51.1.6. Iron chain hanging from heaven. Korean: Zong in-Sob 10.

F51.1.7. †F51.1.7. Sky-rope of mucus. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 504.

F51.2. †F51.2. Sky-basket. Ascent to or descent from upper world in a basket. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 355 n. 283.

F51.2.1. †F51.2.1. Ascent to upper world on seat attached to cord. Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 110.

F52. †F52. Ladder to upper world. *Frazer Old Testament II 52ff.; *Toldo IV 59; Gaster Thespis 400. --Irish myth: Cross; Egyptian: Müller 176; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 126; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 333 n. 204; Hatt Asiatic Influences 48ff.; S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 109; Africa: Werner African 136, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 97 No. 18; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 11 n. 2.

F52.1. †F52.1. Ladder of glass to upper world. Irish myth: *Cross.

F52.2. †F52.2. Columns of smoke as ladder to upper world. (Cf. †F61.3.1.) Jewish: Neuman.

F53. †F53. Ascent to upper world on arrow chain. Hero shoots arrows which join one another in the air to form a chain. *Pettazzoni The Chain of Arrows, the Diffusion of a Mythical Motive (FL XXXV 151); --Indonesia. Voorhoeve 142; Oceanic (Australia, New Hebrides, Aurora, Whitsuntide, Torres Is., New Guinea): Dixon 139 n. 19, 293f.; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 333 n. 203, Hatt Asiatic Influences 40ff.; S. Am. Indian: *Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 55, *Ehrenreich Mythen u. Legend der südamerikanischen Urvölker 50, (Guarayú): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 438, RMLP XXXIII 147, (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 156, 164, BBAE CXLIII (3) 484, (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132, (Jibaros, Ecuador): Karsten Myths of the Jibaros (cited from Boas JAFL XXXII 446).

F54. †F54. Tree to upper world. Type 1960G; *BP II 511; Köhler-Bolte I 322; S. Solymossy Revue des études hongroises VI (1928) 311--336 No. 2. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "branche", "paradis"; Egyptian: Müller 176; Sumatra: Dixon 160; Tonga: Gifford 25, 39, Beckwith Myth 482; Hawaii: ibid. 232; Samoa: ibid. 486; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 332 n. 200; S. Am. Indian (Cariri): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 559, Métraux MAFLS XL 26, (Langua): Métraux ibid. 106, (Toba): Métraux ibid. 45; Africa: Werner African 136f.

F54.1. †F54.1. Tree stretches to sky. Type 1960G; BP II 511. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: De Vries Volksverhalen II 381 Nos. 146, Dixon 239; Tonga, Dobu, San Cristobal: Beckwith Myth 486; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 332 n. 199, Alexander N. Am. 48, Hatt Asiatic Influences 48ff. (Zuñi): Parsons JAFL XXIX 392; S. Am. Indian (Charentes): Alexander Lat. Am. 308; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 344, (Congo): Weeks 202 No. 1, (Boloki): Weeks Cannibals 202; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 9.

F54.2. †F54.2. Plant grows to sky. (Jack and the Beanstalk). *Types 328A, 555, 852; BP I 147, *II 511; *MacCulloch Childhood 432ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 102; *Fb "træ" III 867b; Fischer Zs. f. Ethnographie LXIV 236. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "fève"; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1416A; England, U.S., Australia: Baughman (Type 328A); Chinese: Graham; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 286; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 283 No. 114.

F55. †F55. Mountain reaches to sky. *Holmberg Baum 39f., 42f.; *Patch PMLA XXXIII 617 n. 56; MacCulloch Childhood 437; Wimberly 405. --German: *Siuts Jenseitsmotive 57; Egyptian: Müller 176; Maori: Clark 158; S. Am. Indian (Mundurucu): Alexander Lat. Am. 308, (Ackawoi): ibid. 270; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 184.

F55.1. †F55.1. Mountain stretches to sky. India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Maidu): Powers Contributions to N. Am. Ethnology III 341, (Ts'ets'aut): Boas JAFL X 38.

F55.2. †F55.2. Rocks piled up to sky. India: Thompson-Balys.

F56. †F56. Sky-window. An opening into the sky gives access to upper world. Gaster Thespis 181; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Werner 225; Melanesian: Codrington 365; Indonesia: Voorhoeve 64, (Sumatra, Kei Island): Dixon 156; Tonga: Gifford 149; Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 301, 307; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 339, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 599, (Greenland): Rink 468, Rasmussen III 165, 170, Holm 80; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 278 n. 28, Hatt Asiatic Influences 64; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Alexander Lat. Am. 271, Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880, (Mojo): ibid (3) 424, (Sherente): Lowie ibid. (1) 515.

F56.1. †F56.1. Sky-window from digging or uprooting plant (tree) in upper world. Chinese: Werner 224f.; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 332 n. 197.

F56.2. †F56.2. Bird pecks hole in sky-roof to give access to upper world. Africa (Fjort): Dennett DFLS XLI 74ff. No. 16.

F56.3. †F56.3. Sky-window at horizon. Tonga: Gifford 149; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 467.

F57. †F57. Road to heaven. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa: Werner African 233.

F57.1. †F57.1. Narrow road to heaven. Wimberly 405. --Irish: O'Suilleabhain 63, Beal XXI 324; Kachin: Scott Indo-Chinese 265; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153.

F57.2. †F57.2. Person's tongue as path to sky. India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 499.

F57.3. †F57.3. Path to heaven on beard. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 256.

F57.4. †F57.4. Wall as path to upper world. Polynesia: Beckwith Myth 255.

F58. †F58. Tower (column) to upper world. *Holmberg Baum 9ff., 33ff.

F59. †F59. Access to upper world -- miscellaneous.

F59.1. †F59.1. Man stretches self till he reaches other world. Greek: Fox 36 (Dionysus); Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 476.

F59.2. †F59.2. Pursuit of game leads to upper world. N. Am. Indian (Iroquois): Alexander N. Am. 26.

F59.3. †F59.3. Gate to upper world. Jewish: *Neuman.

F60. †F60. Transportation to or from upper world.

F61. †F61. Person wafted to sky.

F61.1. †F61.1. Ascent to sky on cloud. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 271 n. 2 (Hercules); Jewish: *Neuman; Chinese: Werner 282.

F61.2. †F61.2. Ascent to sky on feather. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 311 n. 118a.

F61.2.1. †F61.2.1. Ascent to sky by sticking to magic feather. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 311 n. 118a (a large proportion of the references given).

F61.2.1.1. †F61.2.1.1. Descent from upper world on magic feather (like ladder). Africa (Shangani): Bourhill and Drake 43ff. No. 5.

F61.2.2. †F61.2.2. Ascent to sky on eagle-down rope. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 66.

F61.3. †F61.3. Transportation from heaven in mist. Irish myth: Cross.

F61.3.1. †F61.3.1. Ascent to upper world in smoke. India: Thompson-Balys; Caroline Islands: H. Damm Zentralcarolinen (Hamburg, 1938) II 88; New Hebrides: C. B. Humphreys The Southern New Hebrides (Cambridge (Eng.), 1926) 98; Yap: W. Müller Yap (Hamburg, 1918) II 666, 685, 695.

F62. †F62. Bird carries person to or from upper world.

F62.0.1. †F62.0.1. Bird flies to upper world. Chinese: Graham.

F62.1. †F62.1. Birds carry person to upper world. *Chauvin VII 84 No. 373bis n. 2. --India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 18.

F62.2. †F62.2. Birds carry person from upper world. N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 460 No. 98.

F62.3. †F62.3. Cock carries god to upper world. India: Thompson-Balys.

F63. †F63. Person carried to upper world by deity (spirit). India: *Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Tapirape): Wagley-Baldao BBAE CXLIII (3) 178; Africa (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 348.

F63.1. †F63.1. Mortal taken to heaven by heavenly maidens. India: Thompson-Balys.

F63.2. †F63.2. Mortal taken to heaven by angel. Jewish: *Neuman.

F63.3. †F63.3. Mortal taken to heaven by sun. Melanesia (Ysabel): Codrington 357.

F63.4. †F63.4. Ascent to upper world by holding on to morning star. Papua: Ker 7.

F64. †F64. Journey to upper world by keeping thoughts continually on heaven. N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Teit MAFLS XI 56 No. 34.

F65. †F65. Giant shot into upper world by means of magic bow. N. Am. Indian: Alexander N. Am. 163.

F65.1. †F65.1. Ascent to upper world on arrow. (Cf. †F53.) New Hebrides: Beckwith Myth 487.

F66. †F66. Journey to upper world on horseback. Jewish: *Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 441.

F66.1. †F66.1. Journey to upper world in chariot. Jewish: *Neuman.

F66.1.1. †F66.1.1. Journey to sky-world by riding unseen in supernatural wife's chariot. India: Thompson-Balys.

F67. †F67. White sheep carries to upper world, black to lower. *Cosquin Contes indiens 486ff.

F68. †F68. Ascent to upper world by magic. India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Maori: Beckwith Myth 250; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Star Husband 120f.; Africa: Werner African 136.

F75. †F75. Ascent to heaven by holding on to elephant's tail. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F76. †F76. Time involved in upper world journey.

F76.1. †F76.1. Five hundred years to journey from earth to heaven. Jewish: Neuman.

†F80-†F109. THE LOWER WORLD.

F80. †F80. Journey to lower world. *Types 301, 650, BP II 300; *Siuts Jenseitsmotive 50ff.; Wimberly 128; Jacob's list s. v. "Underworld"; Tylor Primitive Culture 4th ed. (1903) II 65. --Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 321, *Hilda R. Ellis The Road to Hell, a Study in the Conception of the Dead in Old Norse Literature (London, 1943), 170ff., *Boberg; Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "souterrain"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 25; Finnish: Kalevala rune 25; *Fb "underjordiske" III 975b; Greek: Grote I 189; Jewish: *Neuman; Gaster Oldest Stories 51, Thespis 183ff., 195; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: Dixon 213 n. 12, 215, De Vries' list No. 161; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 199f.; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 151, Thalbitzer 7, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 241; N. Am. Indian (Arikara): Alexander N. Am. 108; S. Am. Indian (Quiché): Alexander Lat. Am. 170; Africa (Zanzibar): Bateman 201 No. 10, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 89 No. 16, (Zulu): Callaway 317f.

F80.1. †F80.1. Physical features of underworld. Note: physical features of underworld of dead (†F81) are listed under †A671-†A679. Some features of the underworld also appear in †F130ff.

F80.1.1. †F80.1.1. Castle in lower world. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "château".

F80.1.2. †F80.1.2. Darkness of lower world. Jewish: *Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 78, III 58, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 154B.

F81. †F81. Descent to lower world of dead (Hell, Hades). Andrejev FFC LXIX 71f., *231n.; *MacCulloch Encyc. Rel. Ethics IV 648ff.; Oertel Studien zur vgl. Literaturgeschichte VIII 123; Aarne FFC XXIII 115ff., 129ff.; BP III 465; Köhler-Bolte I 133; Zemmrich Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie IV 217; Hull FL XVIII 121; *Fb "helvede" I 589a, "gjedebuk" I 440b, "Cyprianus" I 166b. --Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 320, 324, O'Suilleabhain 53, 63; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "visite", "enfer"; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 299 No. 17, 313 No. 79; Finnish: Kalevala rune 16; Greek: Roscher Lexikon I 22 s. v. "Archilleus", Fox 105, 137, 145, Frazer Apollodorus I 234 nn. 1, 2, 332 n. 2; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; New Guinea: Ker 81; Mono-Alu: Wheeler 33; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 464; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 165, 180, (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 489; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 337 n. 216; Araucanian: Alexander Lat Am. 330f.; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 225 No. 40, 249 No. 50, (Ekoi): Talbot 7, 34, 46, 56, 63, 99, 233, 238, 280, (Yoruba): Ellis 244 No. 1, (Bantu): Einstein 194f.

F81.1. †F81.1. Orpheus. Journey to land of dead to bring back person from the dead. **E. Maass Orpheus (München, 1895); Frazer Pausanias V 154; Cosquin Études 188ff. --Irish myth: *Cross; England: Child I 215ff., Wells 128 (Sir Orfeo); Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 130; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 17 n. 7, von den Steinen Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 260; Babylonian: Spence 125ff. (Ishtar); Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 491; India: Thompson-Balys, Keith 161 (Savitri); Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 198f., Graham; Japanese: Anesaki 223; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 160; Oceanic (New Zealand, Mangaia, Hawaii, Samoa, New Hebrides, Bankes Island, German New Guinea): Dixon 72--78; Maori: Clark III; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 269, 298, Rasmussen III 59, 167; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 337 n. 215, Hatt Asiatic Influences 65ff., **Gayton The Orpheus Myth in North America (JAFL XLVIII 263--293), E. W. Voegelin JAFL LX 52--58, (California): Gayton and Newman 99; Surinam: Alexander Lat. Am. 275; Africa: Werner African *138ff., 196.

F81.1.1. †F81.1.1. Wife goes to land of dead to procure dead husband's heart. India: Thompson-Balys.

F81.1.2. †F81.1.2. Journey to land of dead to visit deceased. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 199f.

F81.2. †F81.2. Journey to hell to recover devil's contract. Type 756B; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 71ff.

F81.3. †F81.3. Journey to hell to circumcize child. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas VI 63ff., 308.

F81.4. †F81.4. Journey to hell to retrieve soul of mother. Irish myth: Cross.

F81.5. †F81.5. Journey to lower world to get treasures. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 583ff.

F81.6. †F81.6. Souls redeemed from hell in shape of sheep. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *730.

F83. †F83. Hell of women in south of otherworld. India: Thompson-Balys.

F85. †F85. Ishtar unveiled. Goddess going to lower world passes through seven gates, at each of which she is divested of a garment till she is entirely unclothed. Babylonian: Spence 130.

F87. †F87. Journey to otherworld to secure bride. Africa (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 41ff.

F90. †F90. Access to lower world. **Hilda R. Ellis, The Road to Hell (London, 1943) 170ff.

F91. †F91. Door (gate) entrance to lower world. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 33, 58, Beal XXI 311, 323; Gaster Oldest Stories 152; Jewish: *Neuman; New Zealand: Dixon 73; Africa: Werner African 184.

F91.1. †F91.1. Slamming door on exit from mountain otherworld. It (almost) injures the hero because he has failed to bring back the talisman which opened the mountain. *Krappe Balor 108ff.; Gaster Oldest Stories 46.

F92. †F92. Pit entrance to lower world. Entrance through pit, hole, spring, or cavern. *Type 301; *BP II 300ff.; Penzer VI 108f.; *Siuts Jenseitsmotive 50; *Roberts 140. --Irish myth: Cross (†F158), Beal XXI 311, 324, 329, O'Suilleabhain 33, 91; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 103, MacCulloch Eddic 320; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "puits"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 25; Greek: Fox 88, 143; Gaster Thespis 183f.; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 167; Marquesas: Handy 110; Maori: Clark 100; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XV 153; S. Am. Indian (Tereno): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367; Africa: Werner African 175, 184, 195.

F92.1. †F92.1. Visit to lower world through hole made by lifting clumps of grass. Type 425, 480; *Roberts 140; Tegethoff 15. --Greek: Fox 227 (Proserpine); Oceanic (New Zealand, Samoa, Nieue Island): Dixon 47f.

F92.2. †F92.2. Person swallowed up by earth and taken to lower world. India: Thompson-Balys.

F92.2.1. †F92.2.1. Girl gathering flowers swallowed up by earth and taken to lower world. Greek: Fox 227 (Proserpine); Oceanic (Mangaia [Cook Group]): Dixon 74.

F92.3. †F92.3. Visit to lower world through opening rocks. Rocks open with a charm. Oceanic (New Zealand, Samoa, Mangaia): Dixon 48.

F92.4. †F92.4. Entrance to lower world through mountain. Patch PMLA XXXIII 614 n. 48. --Irish myth: Cross; Babylonian: Gilgamesch-Epos IX; Chinese: Graham.

F92.5. †F92.5. Entrance to lower world by making hole in ground. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F92.6. †F92.6. Entrance to lower world through cave. England: *Baughman.

F92.7. †F92.7. Hole to underworld kingdom of snakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

F93. †F93. Water entrance to lower world. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F93.0.1. †F93.0.1. Boat to lower world. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

F93.0.1.1. †F93.0.1.1. Ferryman to lower world. Feilberg Sjæletro 65ff.; Frobenius Erlebte Erdteile VI 278f. --Icelandic: Boberg; Greek: Fox 142.

F93.0.2. †F93.0.2. Under-water entrance to lower world. *Siuts 54.

F93.0.2.1. †F93.0.2.1. Well entrance to lower world. Type 480; *Roberts 140.

F93.1. †F93.1. River entrance to lower world. Wimberly 108ff.; Kruyt Het Animisme 357ff., Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 1157, IV 196; Frobenius Erdteile III 69, 73, 76. --Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 103, MacCulloch Eddic 320, Boberg; Finnish: Kalevala rune 16; Greek: Roscher Lexikon s. v. "Acheron" I 9; Egyptian: Müller 176; Aztec: Krickeberg Märchen der Azteken 146, 215.

F93.1.1. †F93.1.1. Dead place net across river to prevent living man from returning to earth. (Cf. †F105.) Finnish: Kalevala rune 16.

F93.2. †F93.2. Lake entrance to lower world. Africa: Werner African 186.

F94. †F94. Stair to lower world. *Siuts 54.

F95. †F95. Path to lower world. *Siuts 53; Child V 500 s. v. "Ways". --Icelandic: Boberg.

F95.0.1. †F95.0.1. Path to world of dead. India: Thompson-Balys.

F95.1. †F95.1. Path from grave to lower world. Africa (Angola): Chatelain 224 No. 40.

F95.2. †F95.2. Broad path to hell. Kachin: Scott Indo-Chinese 265.

F95.3. †F95.3. Perilous path to hell. Icelandic: Boberg.

F95.4. †F95.4. Path to underworld marked by knots tied in grass by spirits. Maori: Clark 48.

F95.5. †F95.5. Tree as roadway to underworld. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 156.

F96. †F96. Rope to lower world. *Type 301; *BP II 300ff. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 147.

F98. †F98. Descent to lower world on animal.

F98.1. †F98.1. Trip to lower world on tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.

F100. †F100. Visit to lower world -- miscellaneous motifs.

F101. †F101. Return from lower world. Indonesia: De Vries's list Nos 162, 164.

F101.1. †F101.1. Return from lower world up steep slope. New Zealand: Dixon 73.

F101.2. †F101.2. Return from lower world by being slung by bent tree. New Zealand: Dixon 78.

F101.3. †F101.3. Return from lower world on eagle. *Type 301; *BP II 300; Penzer VI 122 n. 2. See references under †B322.1, nearly all of which refer to escape from lower world. Indonesia: De Vries Volksverhalen I 161ff. No. 35.

F101.3.1. †F101.3.1. Return from lower world on vulture. India: Thompson-Balys.

F101.4. †F101.4. Escape from lower world by magic. Thompson CColl II 336ff. (Tehuano, Shuswap).

F101.5. †F101.5. Escape from lower world on miraculously growing tree. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F101.6. †F101.6. Ascent from lower world on animal. (Cf. †F98.).

F101.6.1. †F101.6.1. Escape from lower world on bird. India: Thompson-Balys.

F101.6.2. †F101.6.2. Escape from lower world on horse of lightning. India: Thompson-Balys.

F101.7. †F101.7. Escape from lower world by spider's thread. India: Thompson-Balys.

F101.8. †F101.8. Man returning from hell brings heat with him. Jewish: *Neuman.

F102. †F102. Accidental arrival in lower world.

F102.1. †F102.1. Hero shoots monster (or animal) and follows it into lower world. *Type 301; *Krappe Balor 100 nn. 22, 23; *De Vries Nederlandsche Tijdschrift voor Volkskunde (1924) 97--123. --Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 163, Dixon 213 n. 12; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 99.

F102.2. †F102.2. Sound of drum followed into ghost town. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 7, 34.

F102.3. †F102.3. Rescued princess leaves her necklace behind in flight; hero returns for it and is left in underworld. India: Thompson-Balys.

F102.4. †F102.4. Boy follows nut into lower world. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 226f.

F105. †F105. Dead oppose return of living from land of the dead. (Cf. †F93.1.1.) Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 596--97, 602, MacCulloch Eddic 321, Boberg; Finnish: Kalevala rune 16.

F106. †F106. Youths grind in mill of underworldlings. Fb "male".

F107. †F107. Youths tutored by Vulcan, smith of Hell. Irish myth: Cross.

F108. †F108. Nature of underworld inhabitants.

F108.1. †F108.1. People in lower world tall as a broom. Chinese: Graham.

F108.2. †F108.2. People of lower world come out in the evenings to drink and dance. India: Thompson-Balys.

F109. †F109. Visit to lower world -- additional motifs.

F109.1. †F109.1. Visit to lower world made head first. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 148.

F109.2. †F109.2. Hell shown to Jonah by fish. Jewish: Neuman.

†F110-†F199. MISCELLANEOUS OTHERWORLDS.

F110. †F110. Journey to terrestrial otherworlds. *Graf Miti, leggendi e superstizioni de medio evo I 1ff.; Gaster Oldest Stories 51, 168. --Irish myth: *Cross.

F110.1. †F110.1. Wonder voyages. **Jacobs Book of Wonder Voyages; *Chauvin VII 77ff.; Ward II 516ff.; Krappe Philological Quarterly XXIII (1944) 97--107. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Japanese: Anesaki 363; Indonesian: De Vries's list No. 183; Africa (Benga): Nassau 208 No. 33.

F111. †F111. Journey to earthly paradise. Land of happiness. (Cf. †F132.1.) **Nutt in Meyer Voyage of Bran I 105ff.; Patch *Other World 381 s. v. "paradise"; *Graf La leggenda del paradiso terrestre (Torino, 1878); *BP IV 269 n. 1; Gaster Oldest Stories 48; Norlind Skattsägner 88ff.; Hartland Science 194, 199, 202; *Loomis White Magic 116. --Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 145 (Parthenope of Blois); *Celtic: K. Zimmer Brendans Meerfahrt (Zeitschrift für deutsche Altertum XXXIII [1889] 129--220, 257--338); Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; Hindu: Tawney I 525; Chinese: Giles 8ff., 397ff.

F111.0.1. †F111.0.1. Four earthly paradises. Irish myth: *Cross.

F111.0.2. †F111.0.2. Swineherd finds terrestrial paradise while looking for lost sow. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

F111.1. †F111.1. Journey to Isle of Laughter. Irish myth: *Cross.

F111.2. †F111.2. Voyage to Land of Promise. Irish: Plummer xxxvii, xli, *Cross.

F111.2.1. †F111.2.1. Island of Tir Tairngire (Land of Promise) cannot be reached in boat made of "dead soft skins of animals." Irish myth: Cross.

F111.3. †F111.3. Voyage to Land of Lotus Eaters. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 280 n. 2.

F111.4. †F111.4. Paradise of the Blessed, a subterranean world. India: Thompson-Balys.

F111.5. †F111.5. Land where all creatures are friendly to one another. India: Thompson-Balys.

F111.6. †F111.6. Voyage to land without evil. S. Am. Indian (Guaraní): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 94.

F112. †F112. Journey to Land of Women. Island of women, land of maidens, country of the Amazons, etc. *Patch PMLA XXXIII 624 n. 81, Other World *381 s. v. "maidenland"; Hartland Science 202. --Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Fox 109, 111; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 390f.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth XXXVI; Marquesas: Handy 56, Beckwith Myth 472, 502; West Indies: Flowers 432.

F112.0.1. †F112.0.1. Fairyland (Ireland) inhabited (settled) by women only. Irish myth: *Cross.

F112.0.1.1. †F112.0.1.1. Journey to island inhabited by only one (beautiful) woman. Irish myth: *Cross.

F112.0.2. †F112.0.2. Separation of sexes in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F112.1. †F112.1. Man on Island of Fair Women overcome by loving women. Irish myth: *Cross; Oceanic: Dixon 66, 140, 141 n. 22; N. Am. Indian (Assiniboin): Lowie PaAM IV 106 No. 6, (Cree): Skinner PaAM IX 87.

F112.2. †F112.2. City of women. (Cf. †F566.2.) Jewish: *Neuman.

F113. †F113. Land of men. Irish myth: Cross.

F114. †F114. Journey inside the earth. Chinese: Graham.

F115. †F115. Journey to the Land of the Unborn. Zemmrich Internationales Archiv für Ethnologie IV 231. Cf. Maeterlinck's "L'Oiseau Bleue".

F116. †F116. Journey to the Land of the Immortals. Type 313*; Irish myth: *Cross.

F116.1. †F116.1. Voyage to the Land of Youth. Irish myth: *Cross.

F117. †F117. Journey to the Land of the Thunders. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 334 n. 206, (Cherokee): Alexander N. Am. 69; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 202, 359.

F118. †F118. Journey to Mother of Time. Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 8.

F121. †F121. Journey to world of spirits. India: Thompson-Balys.

F122. †F122. Journey to land of giants. Irish myth: Cross (†F129.10); Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 17; India: Thompson-Balys.

F123. †F123. Journey to land of little men (pygmies). Irish myth: Cross; Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 17.

F124. †F124. Journey to land of demons. India: Thompson-Balys.

F125. †F125. Journey to otherworld where people are made whole (cured). Jewish: *Neuman; American Indian: Thompson Tales 349 n. 256; Africa: Werner African 204.

F126. †F126. Journey to land without sky: takes whole life. Premature aging. India: Thompson-Balys.

F127. †F127. Journey to animal kingdom. Usually underground. India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Eskimo (Mackenzie area): Jenness 154; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 348 nn. 252, 253.

F127.1. †F127.1. Journey to serpent kingdom.

F127.1.1. †F127.1.1. Subterranean palace at bottom of lake belonging to king of serpents. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 390.

F127.2. †F127.2. Journey to land of elephants. India: Thompson-Balys.

F127.3. †F127.3. Journey to land of crocodiles. India: Thompson-Balys.

F129. †F129. Miscellaneous otherworlds. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 141, 1002, II 1369.

F129.1. †F129.1. Journey to Land of Men of Heads only. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 273.

F129.2. †F129.2. Voyage to Land of Mossynoikoi. (People of topsy-turvy morals.) Greek: Fox 111.

F129.3. †F129.3. Voyage to the Land of the Cimmerians. People who dwell amid clouds of gloom and never see sun. Greek: Fox 145.

F129.4. †F129.4. Journey to otherworld island. (Cf. †F111.1, †F112.1, †F134.)

F129.4.1. †F129.4.1. Journey to Isle of Tears. Irish myth: Cross.

F129.4.2. †F129.4.2. Voyage to Isle of Truth. People cannot lie. Irish myth: *Cross.

F129.4.3. †F129.4.3. Voyage to Isle of Shape. Visitors become beautiful. Irish myth: Cross.

F129.4.4. †F129.4.4. Voyage to Isle of the Dead. Visitors who sleep there die. Irish myth: *Cross.

F129.4.5. †F129.4.5. Voyage to Island of Darkness. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 500.

F129.4.6. †F129.4.6. Voyage to Island of Silence. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 500.

F129.5. †F129.5. Journey to land of no return. India: Thompson-Balys.

F129.5.1. †F129.5.1. Hero takes a mare to ride to land of no return: mare has just foaled and brings him back in her anxiety over her foal. India: Thompson-Balys.

F129.6. †F129.6. Land where everyone is wise, from the raja on his throne to the beggar in the bazaar. India: Thompson-Balys.

F129.7. †F129.7. Journey to land of naked people. India: Thompson-Balys.

F130. †F130. Location of otherworld. *Wimberly 121ff. --Irish myth: *Cross.

F130.1. †F130.1. Land of India (Greece) as otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F130.2. †F130.2. Spain as otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F130.3. †F130.3. Ancient Ireland as location of otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F131. †F131. Otherworld in hollow mountain. *Patch PMLA XXXIII 612f., Other World *381 s. v. "Mountain"; Wimberly 130. --Irish myth: *Cross; German: Grimm No. 127; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3594.

F131.1. †F131.1. Mountain of Venus. Hollow mountain otherworld where men live a life of ease and lustful pleasure in company with beautiful women. **Barto Tannhäuser and the Mountain of Venus; *Patch PMLA XXXIII 612f.; *Meyer Zs. f. Vksk. XXI 1ff.; Bockel Alemannia XIII (1885) 142; *Norlind Skattsägner 88ff. --Icelandic: Boberg.

F131.1.1. †F131.1.1. Mountain of fair-haired women. Irish myth: Cross.

F132. †F132. Otherworld on lofty mountain. *Patch PMLA XXXIII 606ff., Other World *381 s. v. "mountain, on the"; Wimberly 132.

F132.0.1. †F132.0.1. Otherworld visible from high mountain. Patch PMLA XXXIII 615.

F132.1. †F132.1. Earthly paradise on mountain. (Cf. †F111.) Patch PMLA XXXIII 618 n. 57.

F132.1.1. †F132.1.1. Earthly paradise in air over mountain. Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 76.

F132.2. †F132.2. Dwelling of Fortune on lofty mountain. Patch PMLA XXXIII 609ff., Fortuna 132ff. --India: Thompson-Balys.

F133. †F133. Submarine otherworld. Patch PMLA XXXIII 627 n. 92, Other World *380 s. v. "Land-beneath-the-waves"; Wimberly 134; Ward II 525; Chauvin V 151 No. 73; Penzer VI 280; Smith Dragon 109. --Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Campbell Tales III 420; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 112f.; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 636; Breton: *Le Braz Légende de la Mort II 37ff.; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Slavic: Máchal 270; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 69; Maori: Clark III; N. Am. Indian (Klikitat): Jacobs U Wash II 7; Africa: Werner African 188, 206, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 39 No. 4, (Basuto): Jacottet 122 No. 17, 204 No. 30, 224 No. 33.

F133.1. †F133.1. Marine counterpart to land. All that exists on earth has its parallel in the sea. *Chauvin VII 54 No. 241 B n. 1. --Irish myth: *Cross; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 636.

F133.2. †F133.2. Empty under-water house. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 81.

F133.3. †F133.3. Submarine monastery. (Cf. †F725.6.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F133.4. †F133.4. Otherworld at bottom of pond. German: Grimm No. 181.

F133.5. †F133.5. Otherworld at bottom of well. *Type 480.

F134. †F134. Otherworld on island. *Patch PMLA XXXIII 628f. nn. 93--96, Other World 379 s. v. "island". --Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 55, Beal XXI 321; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 72, 79; Samoa, Fiji: ibid. 76.

F134.0.1. †F134.0.1. Series of otherworld islands. Irish myth: *Cross.

F134.1. †F134.1. Hebrides, Isle of Man (Falga) as otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F134.2. †F134.2. Otherworld island disappears leaving voyagers in boat at sea. Irish myth: Cross.

F134.3. †F134.3. Otherworld island divided into four parts. Irish myth: Cross.

F134.4. †F134.4. Divine swans are on an inaccessible island in middle of seven seas. India: Thompson-Balys.

F135. †F135. Bruidhen (banqueting-hall) as otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F136. †F136. Direction of otherworld. Jewish: Neuman.

F136.1. †F136.1. Otherworld in east. Jewish: Neuman; Marshall Islands: Davenport 223.

F136.2. †F136.2. Otherworld in west. Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 79.

F136.3. †F136.3. Otherworld in northwest. Jewish: Neuman.

F137. †F137. Distance of otherworld. *Siuts 19ff. --Irish myth: *Cross.

F140. †F140. Bounds of the otherworld. *Siuts 44.

F140.1. †F140.1. Guardian of spirit-land boundary. Maori: Clark 135.

F141. †F141. Water barrier to otherworld. Wimberly 110. --Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F141.0.1. †F141.0.1. Otherworld beyond water confused with otherworld under water. Irish myth: *Cross.

F141.0.2. †F141.0.2. Otherworld beyond water confused with otherworld under hill. Irish myth: *Cross.

F141.1. †F141.1. River as barrier to otherworld. (Cf. †F162.2.) Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F141.1.1. †F141.1.1. Perilous river as barrier to otherworld. (Cf. †F767.1.) *Patch PMLA XXXIII 630, 638ff.; Alphabet No. 603. --Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 78, III 165; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 140; Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 245 No. 1.

F141.1.2. †F141.1.2. River that cannot be crossed by mortals. Hindu: Penzer II 15.

F141.1.3. †F141.1.3. River between the realms of giants and gods never freezes. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 276.

F141.2. †F141.2. Mist as barrier to otherworld. Patch XXXIII 627 n. 91. --Irish myth: *Cross.

F141.2.1. †F141.2.1. Storm (snow, hail) as barrier to otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F141.3. †F141.3. Waves form high wall around otherworld isle. Irish myth: Cross.

F141.4. †F141.4. Waterfall as barrier to otherworld. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 95.

F142. †F142. River of fire as barrier to otherworld. (Cf. †A671.2.2.3.) Patch PMLA XXXIII 638f.; Krappe Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen (1937) 172ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F143. †F143. Wood at borders of otherworld. *Siuts 30ff.; MLN XXXIV 321; Irish: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 245 No. 1.

F144. †F144. Plain (field) at borders of otherworld. *Siuts 36ff.

F144.1. †F144.1. Forked glen full of toads, lions on way to otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F145. †F145. Mountain at borders of otherworld. *Siuts 42ff.; Patch Other World 381 s. v. "mountain"; Gaster Thespis 184f.; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

F145.1. †F145.1. Glass mountain at borders of otherworld. Mountain is extremely slippery. *Siuts 43; Patch PMLA XXXIII 610 n. 30, Other World 381 s. v. "mountain."

F147. †F147. Houses at border of otherworld. (Cf. †F163.3.) *Siuts 44ff.

F147.1. †F147.1. Tenantless houses at border of otherworld. *Siuts 44f.

F147.2. †F147.2. Hermit's hut at border of otherworld. *Siuts 45.

F147.3. †F147.3. Witch's house at border of otherworld. *Siuts 45.

F147.4. †F147.4. Inn at border of otherworld. *Siuts 46.

F148. †F148. Wall around otherworld. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 209a s. v. "Baum bewacht"; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

F148.1. †F148.1. Fiery rampart revolves around otherworld isle. Irish myth: *Cross.

F148.2. †F148.2. Wall of silver around otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F148.3. †F148.3. Otherworld surrounded by palisade of gold and silver. Irish myth: Cross.

F148.4. †F148.4. Palisade of bronze around otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F148.5. †F148.5. Otherworld surrounded by seven walls and locks of iron and doors of iron. Irish myth: *Cross.

F149. †F149. Bounds of the otherworld -- miscellaneous.

F149.1. †F149.1. Stone barrier to otherworld. (Cf. †F150.3.2.) Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 95, III 165, Rink 461.

F150. †F150. Access to otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F150.1. †F150.1. Way to otherworld hard to find. Siuts 29; English: Gawain and the Green Knight; Chinese: Graham.

F150.2. †F150.2. Entrance to other world guarded by monsters (or animals). Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Babylonian: Spence 171; Jewish: *Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 47, 74, 80, Rasmussen I 81.

F150.2.1. †F150.2.1. Entrance to otherworld guarded by giant (champion). Irish myth: *Cross.

F150.2.2. †F150.2.2. Entrance to otherworld guarded by spirits. Jewish: Neuman; Maori: Clark 37.

F150.2.3. †F150.2.3. Entrance to otherworld guarded by north and south winds. Tonga: Gifford 171.

F150.3. †F150.3. Challenge at entrance of otherworld. The adventurer challenges or is challenged. Irish myth: *Cross.

F150.3.1. †F150.3.1. Shield hung on pole in front of otherworld palace as signal that adventurer must fight with owner. Irish myth: Cross.

F150.3.2. †F150.3.2. Standing stone surrounded by withe as challenge at entrance of otherworld. (Cf. †F149.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F151. †F151. Road to otherworld. Siuts 29f. --Irish myth: Cross.

F151.0.1. †F151.0.1. Hospitable host entertains (guides, advises) adventurer on way to otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F151.1. †F151.1. Perilous path to otherworld. Patch Other World 382 s. v. "path"; Irish myth: *Cross; N. Am. Indian: Alexander N. Am. 147, 164, 273 n. 8, (California): Gayton and Newman 101; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 78, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 586.

F151.1.1. †F151.1.1. Perilous valley. Irish myth: *Cross.

F151.1.2. †F151.1.2. Perilous glen on way to otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F151.1.3. †F151.1.3. Perilous forest on way to otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F151.1.4. †F151.1.4. Perilous ford on way to otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F151.1.5. †F151.1.5. Place in underworld beyond which hero cannot pass without being tatooed. Maori: Clark 136.

F151.1.6. †F151.1.6. Path to otherworld over sharp rocks. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 186, Rink 326.

F151.2. †F151.2. Mountain pass to otherworld. Africa: Bourhill and Drake 237ff. No. 20.

F152. †F152. Bridge to otherworld. *Type 471; Encyc. Rel. Ethics II 852ff.; Patch PMLA XXXIII 630ff., Other World 374 s. v. "bridge"; Ward II 399, 441; Róheim Animism 39ff.; Fb "bro" IV 62b; Darmesteter Sacred Books of the East IV 212f.; Alphabet No. 603. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 130, 305; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 488ff.; Melanesia: Codrington 257; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153; N. Am. Indian: Brinton Myths of the New World (New York, 1868) 248, (Menomini): Skinner PaAM XIII 86.

F152.0.1. †F152.0.1. Bridge to otherworld guarded by animals. Patch PMLA XXXIII 635ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F152.1. †F152.1. Materials of bridge to otherworld.

F152.1.1. †F152.1.1. Rainbow bridge to otherworld. Fb "regnbue" III 32a; RTP VI 361, X 596; Mélusine II 16; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 329; Celebes: Dixon 156; Hawaii, Indonesia: ibid. 67, Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 38, 321; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 333 n. 204a.

F152.1.2. †F152.1.2. Bridge of sunbeams to otherworld. (Cf. †F154.) Wimberly 114; Patch Other World 248, 254.

F152.1.3. †F152.1.3. Golden bridge to otherworld. Patch PMLA XXXIII 639 n. 130, Other World 374 s. v. "bridge."

F152.1.4. †F152.1.4. Glass bridge to otherworld. Patch PMLA XXXIII 636 n. 118, Other World 125f.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F152.1.5. †F152.1.5. Rope bridge to otherworld. Patch PMLA XXXIII 636 n. 118. --Irish myth: *Cross.

F152.1.6. †F152.1.6. Sword bridge to otherworld. Hibbard Romanic Review IX (1913) 166; Patch PMLA XXXIII 635ff., Other World 374 s. v. "bridge"; Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 197.

F152.1.6.1. †F152.1.6.1. Bridge to otherworld covered with knives. BP III 43; Von Hegelein Zs. f. Vksk. XI 150 n. 2.

F152.1.7. †F152.1.7. Bridge of thread on way to world of dead. India: Thompson-Balys.

F152.1.8. †F152.1.8. Aurora as bridge to otherworld. Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153.

F152.2. †F152.2. Slamming drawbridge to otherworld. Slams as hero leaves and (almost) injures him. He has failed to do the one compulsory thing. (Percival.) *Krappe Balor 106ff.; Patch Otherworld 204f., 319 n. 64.

F153. †F153. Otherworld reached by diving into water (of well or lake). *Brown Iwain 76; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 148; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 3/1301).

F153.1. †F153.1. Underground channel to otherworld. India: Thompson-Balys.

F154. †F154. Path to sun on sun's rays (eyelashes). (Cf. †F152.1.2.) N. Am. Indian (Bella Coola): Boas JE I 83.

F155. †F155. Journey to otherworld by clinging magically to an object. *Brown Iwain 110 n. 1; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

F156. †F156. Door to otherworld. (Cf. †F91.) Patch Other World 377 s. v. "gate"; Irish myth: *Cross.

F156.1. †F156.1. Door to otherworld island sounds sleep-bringing music. Irish myth: Cross.

F156.2. †F156.2. Door to otherworld island in supporting pedestal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F156.3. †F156.3. Perilous revolving wheel at entrance to otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F156.4. †F156.4. Slamming (falling) door to otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F156.5. †F156.5. Eleven portals to otherworld. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 46.

F157. †F157. Journey to otherworld in boat. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

F157.1. †F157.1. Journey to otherworld in crystal (glass) boat. Irish myth: *Cross.

F158. †F158. Pit entrance to otherworld. (Cf. †F92.) Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

F159. †F159. Other means to reach the otherworld.

F159.1. †F159.1. Otherworld reached by hunting animal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F159.2. †F159.2. Journey to otherworld on horseback. Irish myth: *Cross.

F159.3. †F159.3. Wheel (apple) to be followed to otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F159.4. †F159.4. Demon guide on otherworld journey. India: Thompson-Balys.

F160. †F160. Nature of the otherworld. Wimberly 139ff. --Irish myth: *Cross, Beal XXI 329; Jewish: Neuman.

F160.0.1. †F160.0.1. Otherworld overseas confused with otherworld underground. Irish myth: Cross.

F160.0.1.1. †F160.0.1.1. Otherworld overseas confused with otherworld under water. Irish myth: Cross.

F160.0.2. †F160.0.2. Fairy otherworld confused with land of the dead. (Cf. †A671.0.4.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F160.0.3. †F160.0.3. Pagan otherworld identified with Christian paradise (heaven). (Cf. †A694.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F160.1. †F160.1. Otherworld as great plain. (Cf. †A663.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F160.2. †F160.2. Otherworld as valley. Irish myth: Cross.

F161. †F161. Weather in otherworld.

F161.1. †F161.1. Perpetual summer in otherworld. No storms. Patch PMLA XXXIII 606; Irish myth: *Cross.

F161.1.1. †F161.1.1. Summer in otherworld when it is winter in world of mortals. Irish myth: *Cross.

F162. †F162. Landscape of otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.0.1. †F162.0.1. Objects of crystal in otherworld. *Patch PMLA XXXIII 606 n. 11, 610 n. 30, Other World 375 s. v. "crystal". --Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.0.1.1. †F162.0.1.1. Island of glass in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.0.1.2. †F162.0.1.2. (Luminous) precious stones in otherworld (dwelling). (Cf. †A661.0.7.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.1. †F162.1. Garden in otherworld. Patch Other World 377 s. v. "garden"; *Siuts 68ff. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

F162.1.1. †F162.1.1. Everblooming garden in otherworld. *Wimberly 148; Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.1.2. †F162.1.2. Contrasting qualities found in otherworld garden.

F162.1.2.1. †F162.1.2.1. Sweet and bitter fountain in otherworld garden. Patch PMLA XXXIII 620 n. 65, Other World 266; Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.1.2.2. †F162.1.2.2. Cool and boiling fountain in otherworld garden. (Cf. †F162.8.) Patch PMLA XXXIII 620 n. 65, Other World 133, 144, 177.

F162.1.2.3. †F162.1.2.3. Objects on one side of palisade in otherworld garden black, on other white. Patch PMLA XXXIII 620 n. 65. --Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.1.2.4. †F162.1.2.4. Tree half green and half in flame in otherworld garden. Patch PMLA XXXIII 620 n. 65.

F162.1.2.5. †F162.1.2.5. Island in otherworld garden inhabited half by dead and half by living. Patch PMLA XXXIII 620 n. 65.

F162.1.3. †F162.1.3. Trees bloom, others bear concurrently in otherworld garden. Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.1.3.1. †F162.1.3.1. All-yielding tree in otherworld. India: Thompson-Balys.

F162.2. †F162.2. Rivers in otherworld. (Cf. †A671.2.2.6, †F141.1.) Patch PMLA XXXIII 621ff., Other World 382f. s. v. "river"; Gaster Oldest Stories 50, Thespis 171; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 321.

F162.2.1. †F162.2.1. The four rivers of Paradise. *Patch PMLA XXXIII 622, Other World 383 s. v. "rivers, four"; Albright Am. Jour. Semitic Languages XXXIX 40ff.; Gaster Thespis 171. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 359.

F162.2.2. †F162.2.2. Rivers of wine in otherworld. Wimberly 159; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

F162.2.3. †F162.2.3. Rivers of honey in otherworld. Wimberly 159; Gaster Thespis 200f., Oldest Stories 233; Africa (Hausa): Werner African 141 (milk and honey).

F162.2.4. †F162.2.4. Rivers of mead in otherworld. Wimberly 159.

F162.2.5. †F162.2.5. Rivers of balsam and attar in otherworld. *Patch PMLA XXXIII 621 n. 70; Irish: Beal XXI 319, O'Suilleabhain 52; Jewish: *Neuman.

F162.2.6. †F162.2.6. Rivers of oil, milk, wine, and honey in otherworld. *Patch PMLA XXXIII 623 n. 78; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

F162.2.7. †F162.2.7. Thirteen rivers of balm in otherworld. Gaster Exempla 219 No. 154 (153).

F162.2.8. †F162.2.8. River in paradise with terrible roar. Robs people of hearing. *Hertz Abhandlungen 86 n. 1.

F162.2.9. †F162.2.9. Flowing stream forms arc over otherworld isle. Irish myth: Cross.

F162.2.10. †F162.2.10. Jewels in streams of otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F162.2.11. †F162.2.11. Perilous river in otherworld. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 918.

F162.2.12. †F162.2.12. River in underworld from tears of living. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 488.

F162.2.13. †F162.2.13. Underworld river from blood of sick mortals. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 24.

F162.3. †F162.3. Tree in otherworld. (Cf. †F162.1.2.4, †F162.1.2.5, †F162.1.3.) Patch PMLA XXXIII 624, Other World 384 s. v. "tree"; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 286; Tonga: Gifford 149.

F162.3.0.1. †F162.3.0.1. Marvelous tree grown from otherworld fruit. Irish myth: Cross.

F162.3.1. †F162.3.1. Tree of Life in otherworld. Nourishes mankind. Patch PMLA XXXIII 625 n. 83, Other World 385 s. v. "Tree of Life"; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Penzer I 8 n., 144.

F162.3.2. †F162.3.2. Wishing-tree in otherworld. Penzer I 8 n., 144.

F162.3.3. †F162.3.3. Tree in otherworld in perpetual fruit. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 355.

F162.3.4. †F162.3.4. Magic apple tree in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.3.4.1. †F162.3.4.1. Magic apples (trees) under the sea. Irish myth: Cross.

F162.3.5. †F162.3.5. Tree of knowledge of good and evil in otherworld. Jewish: *Neuman.

F162.3.6. †F162.3.6. Tree with golden top in otherworld. Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 33.

F162.4. †F162.4. Sea of glass in otherworld. Patch PMLA XXXIII 610 n. 30. --Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.4.1. †F162.4.1. Sea of ice in otherworld. Jewish: Neuman.

F162.5. †F162.5. Wells in otherworld. Patch Other World 386 s. v. "well".

F162.5.1. †F162.5.1. Well (of wine) in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.5.2. †F162.5.2. Head in otherworld well emits stream of water from mouth. Irish myth: Cross.

F162.5.3. †F162.5.3. Well containing "salmon of knowledge" in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.6. †F162.6. Lakes in otherworld. Patch Other World 380 s. v. "lake"; German: Grimm No. 133.

F162.6.1. †F162.6.1. Lake of fire in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F162.6.2. †F162.6.2. Lake with water of life in otherworld. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 492; Maori: Clark 182.

F162.7. †F162.7. Rainbow of honey appears regularly in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F162.8. †F162.8. Magic fountain in otherworld. (Cf. †F162.1.2.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.8.1. †F162.8.1. Fountain of any temperature desired in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.8.2. †F162.8.2. Fountains in otherworld -- one or more streams flow into each, one or more out. Irish myth: Cross.

F162.8.3. †F162.8.3. Musical fountain in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F162.9. †F162.9. Mountains in otherworld. Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 19; Marquesas: Handy 119.

F163. †F163. Buildings in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F163.1. †F163.1. Castle in otherworld. Patch Other World 375 s. v. "castle"; Siuts 58ff.; Dickson 94 n. 76; Irish myth: *Cross.

F163.1.1. †F163.1.1. Revolving castle in otherworld. Patch PMLA XXXIII 617 n. 54. --Irish myth: *Cross.

F163.1.2. †F163.1.2. Golden castle in otherworld. Wimberly 146; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F163.1.3. †F163.1.3. Castles thatched with golden shields in otherworld. Icelandic: Snorra Edda Gylf. II, XVII, MacCulloch Eddic 329 (Valhalla and Gimlé), Boberg.

F163.1.4. †F163.1.4. Castles of gold and silver in otherworld. Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 71 (Glitnir), Snorra Edda Gylf. XVII (Breidablik), Boberg.

F163.1.5. †F163.1.5. Castles thatched with silver in otherworld. (Cf. †F163.3.2.) Icelandic: Snorra Edda Gylf. XVII, MacCulloch Eddic 329 (Valaskjalf and Hlidskjalf), Boberg.

F163.2. †F163.2. Church (chapel) in otherworld. Siuts 62. --English: Gawayne and the Green Knight.

F163.2.1. †F163.2.1. Temple in otherworld. Jewish: Neuman.

F163.2.1.1. †F163.2.1.1. Temple of jewels in otherworld. Jewish: Neuman.

F163.2.2. †F163.2.2. Fiery temple in otherworld: Jewish: Neuman.

F163.3. †F163.3. House in otherworld. (Cf. †F147.) Siuts 63ff.

F163.3.1. †F163.3.1. House of gold and crystal in otherworld. (Cf. †F169.2.) Wimberly 146; Irish myth: *Cross.

F163.3.2. †F163.3.2. House of silver in otherworld. (Cf. †F163.1.5.) Irish myth: *Cross; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F163.3.2.1. †F163.3.2.1. House in underworld lined with human eyes. Tonga: Gifford 168.

F163.3.2.2. †F163.3.2.2. House in underworld made of bones of dead. Tonga: Gifford 171.

F163.4. †F163.4. Gigantic mill in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F163.5. †F163.5. Fortress in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F163.5.1. †F163.5.1. Fortress of metal (gold, silver, etc.) in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F163.6. †F163.6. Stronghold in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F163.7. †F163.7. Tower in otherworld. Patch Other World 384 s. v. "tower".

F163.7.1. †F163.7.1. Tower hanging in the air in the otherworld. (Cf. †H1036.) Icelandic: Flateyjarbók I 33, *Boberg.

F164. †F164. Habitable caves and mounds in otherworld. Siuts 65ff.; Patch Other World 375 s. v. "cave".

F165. †F165. Characteristics of otherworld dwellings.

F165.1. †F165.1. Doors in otherworld. Siuts 70ff.; Patch Other World 376 s. v. "doors"; Irish myth: *Cross.

F165.1.0.1. †F165.1.0.1. One hundred doors in palace of otherworld king. Irish myth: Cross.

F165.1.0.2. †F165.1.0.2. Magic revolving wheel at door of otherworld dun (stronghold). Irish myth: *Cross.

F165.1.1. †F165.1.1. Doors of gold (crystal) in otherworld dwelling. Irish myth: *Cross.

F165.2. †F165.2. Otherworld dwellings open only at certain times. Siuts 73f.

F165.3. †F165.3. Rooms in otherworld dwellings. Siuts 74ff.

F165.3.1. †F165.3.1. Hall of glass in otherworld. Jewish: Neuman.

F165.3.1.1. †F165.3.1.1. Chamber with crystal ceiling in otherworld. Patch PMLA XXXIII 610 n. 30.

F165.3.2. †F165.3.2. Jewelled walls in otherworld dwelling. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

F165.3.3. †F165.3.3. Floors of silver in otherworld dwelling. Irish myth: Cross.

F165.3.4. †F165.3.4. Wattling of silver in otherworld dwelling. Irish myth: Cross.

F165.3.5. †F165.3.5. Windows in otherworld. (Cf. †A661.0.6.) Irish myth: Cross.

F165.3.5.1. †F165.3.5.1. Crystal bower with "bright windows" as otherworld dwelling. Irish myth: *Cross.

F165.4. †F165.4. Table always set in otherworld dwellings. Siuts 79.

F165.5. †F165.5. House in otherworld thatched with wings of birds. Irish myth: *Cross.

F165.6. †F165.6. Only joy felt in otherworld dwelling. Irish myth: *Cross.

F165.6.1. †F165.6.1. Otherworld (fairyland) as place of sorrowful captivity. Irish myth: *Cross.

F165.7. †F165.7. Fire in otherworld dwelling. Irish myth: Cross.

F165.7.1. †F165.7.1. Four columns around fire in otherworld castle. Irish myth: *Cross.

F165.8. †F165.8. Copper-colored house in lower world. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F166. †F166. Furniture and objects in the otherworld. Siuts 83.

F166.0.1. †F166.0.1. All furniture and objects in otherworld of gold. Jewish: *Neuman.

F166.1. †F166.1. Treasure and jewels in otherworld. Siuts 83ff.; Patch Other World 379 s. v. "jewels"; Jewish: *Neuman.

F166.1.1. †F166.1.1. "Silver Bowl" (Grail) in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F166.2. †F166.2. Gold-producing spring in otherworld. Siuts 85f.

F166.3. †F166.3. Extraordinary clothes in otherworld. Siuts 86f.

F166.3.1. †F166.3.1. Otherworld clothing never wears out. Irish myth: *Cross.

F166.4. †F166.4. Magic objects in otherworld. Siuts 89ff.

F166.4.1. †F166.4.1. King's crown in well in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F166.4.2. †F166.4.2. Magic cauldron (vessel) in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F166.5. †F166.5. Altar in otherworld. Jewish: *Neuman.

F166.6. †F166.6. Thrones in otherworld. Jewish: *Neuman.

F166.7. †F166.7. Curtains in otherworld. Jewish: *Neuman.

F166.8. †F166.8. Beds in otherworld. Jewish: *Neuman.

F166.9. †F166.9. Canopies in otherworld. Jewish: *Neuman.

F166.10. †F166.10. Tables in otherworld. Jewish: Neuman.

F166.11. †F166.11. Abundant food in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F167. †F167. Inhabitants of otherworld. *Siuts 107ff.

F167.1. †F167.1. Animals in otherworld. Siuts 107ff.; Patch Other World 373 s. v. "animals"; Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 55, Beal XXI 321.

F167.1.1. †F167.1.1. Beasts in otherworld.

F167.1.1.1. †F167.1.1.1. Dogs in otherworld. (Cf. †A673.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1032.

F167.1.2. †F167.1.2. Birds in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F167.1.2.1. †F167.1.2.1. Otherworld islands of birds. Irish myth: *Cross.

F167.1.3. †F167.1.3. Insects in otherworld.

F167.1.3.1. †F167.1.3.1. Bees in otherworld. Jewish: *Neuman.

F167.1.4. †F167.1.4. Other animals in otherworld.

F167.1.4.1. †F167.1.4.1. Giant clams in otherworld. Tonga: Gifford 169.

F167.2. †F167.2. Dwarfs in otherworld. (Cf. †F451.) Siuts 153ff.; Irish myth: Cross.

F167.3. †F167.3. Giants in otherworld. (Cf. †F531.) Siuts 161ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F167.4. †F167.4. People in otherworld walk on their heads. Jewish: *Neuman.

F167.4.1. †F167.4.1. People in otherworld stand on their heads and pound yams with their heads. Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 245 No. 1.

F167.5. †F167.5. Headless people in otherworld. Siuts 218.

F167.6. †F167.6. Handless people in otherworld. Siuts 218.

F167.7. †F167.7. Footless people in otherworld. Siuts 218.

F167.8. †F167.8. Otherworld people unacquainted with fire. Polynesian: Dixon 72, 78; Africa (Wachaga): Werner African 137.

F167.9. †F167.9. Otherworld people ever young, ever beautiful. Irish myth: *Cross.

F167.9.1. †F167.9.1. Otherworld people rejuvenated on reaching old age. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

F167.10. †F167.10. No carnal sin in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F167.11. †F167.11. Monstrous creatures in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F167.11.1. †F167.11.1. Serpents (monsters) in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross

F167.11.2. †F167.11.2. Hogs with bath of molten lead (iron) in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F167.12. †F167.12. King of otherworld. Icelandic: Boberg.

F167.12.1. †F167.12.1. Mortal marries king of otherworld. India: Thompson-Balys.

F167.13. †F167.13. Angels in otherworld. (Cf. †V230.) Jewish: *Neuman.

F167.14. †F167.14. Otherworld inhabitants segregated. Jewish: *Neuman.

F167.14.1. †F167.14.1. Portion of otherworld for women. Jewish: *Neuman.

F167.15. †F167.15. Great tattooer in otherworld. Maori: Clark 136.

F167.16. †F167.16. Beings born in otherworld suffer from excessive heat. Buddhist. myth: Malalasekera II 794.

F168. †F168. Villages in otherworld. Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 154.

F169. †F169. Nature of the otherworld -- miscellaneous.

F169.1. †F169.1. Pillars of silver and glass in otherworld. Patch PMLA XXXIII 610 n. 30, Other World 382 s. v. "pillar", Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

F169.1.1. †F169.1.1. Pillars of bronze in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F169.1.2. †F169.1.2. Pillars of gold in otherworld. Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 71.

F169.1.3. †F169.1.3. Four-sided silver column on otherworld island. Irish myth: Cross.

F169.2. †F169.2. Walls of crystal in otherworld. (Cf. †F163.3.1.) Patch PMLA XXXIII 610 n. 30, Other World 386 s. v. "wall"; Jewish: *Neuman.

F169.3. †F169.3. Ship of glass in otherworld. Patch PMLA XXXIII 610 n. 30.

F169.4. †F169.4. Silver fishnet in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F169.5. †F169.5. Fence of metal or crystal in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F169.6. †F169.6. Gold chain as support in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F169.7. †F169.7. Coldness of otherworld.

F169.7.1. †F169.7.1. Fire in otherworld makes one feel colder. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 42, 45.

F169.8. †F169.8. Abundance in otherworld. Greek: Grote I 62; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 46.

F169.9. †F169.9. Pleasant fragrance in otherworld. Jewish: *Neuman.

F170. †F170. Otherworld -- miscellaneous motifs.

F171. †F171. Extraordinary sights in otherworld. *Types 470, 471; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 489f; India: Thompson-Balys.

F171.0.1. †F171.0.1. Enigmatic happenings in otherworld, which are later explained. Type 471; *Oertel Studien zur vgl. Literaturgeschichte VIII 123; Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 173 (to Gonzenbach No. 88); Bolte ibid. XVI 460. --Irish: O'Suilleabhain 54, 57, Beal XXI 321f.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *472; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F171.1. †F171.1. Fat and lean kine in otherworld. *Types 470, 471; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 52, Beal XXI 319.

F171.2. †F171.2. Broad and narrow road in otherworld. *Type 470; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 63, Beal XXI 324.

F171.3. †F171.3. People and things that strike one another in otherworld. Type 470.

F171.4. †F171.4. Fighting animals seen in otherworld. Rams and she-goats or wild boars. *Type 471; *Brown Iwain 71ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "boucs".

F171.5. †F171.5. Animals in otherworld pass in and out of church and become human beings. Type 471.

F171.6. †F171.6. Mysterious punishments in otherworld. *BP III 302; Ovid Metamorphoses IV lines 457--463.

F171.6.1. †F171.6.1. Man in otherworld loaded down with wood. Then more and more put on him. *Type 801; *BP III 302; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 55, Beal XXI 321.

F171.6.2. †F171.6.2. People in otherworld pour water into tub full of holes. *Type 801; BP III 297ff., 303.

F171.6.3. †F171.6.3. Trying to get a beam through a door crosswise in otherworld. *Type 801; BP III 303.

F171.6.4. †F171.6.4. People in otherworld with horses both before and behind wagon. They pull against each other. *Type 801; BP III 303.

F171.6.5. †F171.6.5. Man in otherworld kindles fire. It burns out repeatedly while he is gathering more wood. Irish myth: *Cross.

F171.6.6. †F171.6.6. People in otherworld thatch house with birds' wings. Thatch blows away while they go for more. Irish myth: *Cross.

F171.7. †F171.7. Unseen hands lave feet in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F171.8. †F171.8. Demon eats sand; gambler lives wretched life in otherworld. India: Thompson-Balys.

F172. †F172. No time, no birth, no death in otherworld. Hartland Science 194. --Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

F172.1. †F172.1. No gloom, no envy, etc. in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

F173. †F173. Otherworld land of happiness. (Cf. †F165.6, †F167.9, †F169.8.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F173.1. †F173.1. Otherworld land of pleasure. Irish myth: *Cross.

F173.2. †F173.2. Otherworld land of peace. Irish myth: *Cross.

F173.3. †F173.3. Perpetual feasts in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F174. †F174. Hero carried off to otherworld by his supernatural wives. India: Thompson-Balys.

F174.1. †F174.1. Hero forces otherworld person's wife to tell him way to otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross (†F174.2.).

F175. †F175. Magic music lures to otherworld journey. Irish myth: Cross.

F176. †F176. Hero fights in otherworld and overcomes king (queen), or fairy. Irish myth: *Cross.

F176.1. †F176.1. Hero fights giants who ruin fairyland. Irish myth: Cross.

F177. †F177. "Heavenly Academy" in otherworld. Jewish: *Neuman.

F177.1. †F177.1. Court in otherworld. Jewish: *Neuman.

F178. †F178. Colors of the otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F178.1. †F178.1. Red as otherworld color. Irish myth: *Cross.

F178.2. †F178.2. Green as otherworld color. Irish myth: Cross.

F181. †F181. Lovemaking in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F182. †F182. Mortals held by magic in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F183. †F183. Foods in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F183.1. †F183.1. Automatic service in otherworld: any sort of food desired furnished. Irish myth: Cross.

F184. †F184. Otherworld king. Irish myth: Cross.

F184.1. †F184.1. Wounded otherworld king in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

F185. †F185. Otherworld queen. Irish myth: Cross.

F199. †F199. Additional otherworld motifs.

†F200-†F699. MARVELOUS CREATURES.

†F200-†F399. FAIRIES AND ELVES.

F200. †F200. Fairies (elves). See also †F420 (Water Spirits), †F451 (Dwarfs) and †F460 (Mountain Spirits) for many common motifs. **Hartland Science; Brueyre RTP II 74ff.; *Wehrhan Die Sage 74; Doudou RTP XVII 425ff.; Feilberg's MS collection of cards in Copenhagen Nos. 632--925, cf. Ellekilde FFC LXXXV 78 s. v. "Elb" (alf); **Latham The Elizabethan Fairies (New York, 1931); Puckett MPh XVI (1918) 297ff.; De Vries Nederlandsche Tijdschrift voor Volkskunde XXXVI (1931) 3--30; Fb "underjordiske"; Saintyves Contes de Perrault 18, *19. --Irish myth: Cross; Celtic: *H. Schreiber Die Feen in Europa (Freiburg i. Br., 1842), *W. Wentz Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries (Rennes, 1909.); Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 43--45 Nos. 37--40, 41--49, 52--54; Icelandic: *Boberg; *Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 48ff.; Lithuanian: *Balys Die Sagen von den litauischen Feen (Die Nachbarn [Göttingen, 1948] I 31--71); Germanic: MacCulloch Eddic 219ff.; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 13; Armenian: Ananikian 83; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 564; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 326, 328; N. Am. Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 68, 290 n. 36; Africa: Werner African 261, (Ibo [Nigeria]): Basden 278, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 141 No. 27.

F200.1. †F200.1. Pixies (little people unseen but often audible and occasionally caught). India: Thompson-Balys.

F201. †F201. Bongas. Roughly equivalent to fairies. Generally malevolent, but often not. India: Thompson-Balys.

F205. †F205. Little people from the sky. (Cf. †F215.) Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 326--333.

F210. †F210. Fairyland. *Hartland Science 135ff. --Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

F210.1. †F210.1. Tabu: fighting battle in fairyland. Irish myth: Cross.

F211. †F211. Fairyland under hollow knoll. Usually entered under roots of trees. Fb "træ" III 866b; Hartland Science 67, 108, 144ff., 155; Patch PMLA XXXIII 612f. --Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Campbell Tales II 49, Macdougall and Calder 133, 159, 163, 169, 181, 193, 207, 273, 283; Icelandic: *Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3600; German: Grimm Nr. 39; Germanic: De la Saussaye 322; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 10.

F211.0.1. †F211.0.1. Prehistoric burial mounds as dwellings of fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F211.0.2. †F211.0.2. Contrast between people of the fairy mounds and inhabitants of the Land of Promise. Irish myth: *Cross.

F211.0.2.1. †F211.0.2.1. Tuatha Dé Danann, conquerors of Ireland, are overcome by invaders. (Maic Milid, "Milesians," Gaels) and betake themselves into hills. Irish myth: *Cross.

F211.1. †F211.1. Entrance to fairyland through door in knoll. Hartland Science 61; Irish myth: *Cross; England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales: Baughman; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 133, 283.

F211.1.1. †F211.1.1. Door to fairyland opens once a year. Hartland Science 136. --Irish myth: *Cross.

F211.1.1.1. †F211.1.1.1. Fairies emerge on Hallowe'en. Irish myth: *Cross.

F211.1.1.2. †F211.1.1.2. Fairies emerge on St. John's night. Irish myth: *Cross.

F211.2. †F211.2. Fairyland entrance under stone. Hartland Science 184; Fb "sten" III 552b.

F211.3. †F211.3. Fairies live under earth. Icelandic: Boberg.

F212. †F212. Fairyland under water. Krappe Le lac enchanté (Bulletin Hispanique XXXV 107--125); *Cross MPh XIII 731; Irish myth: *Cross, Baughman; Icelandic: Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda.

F212.0.1. †F212.0.1. Water fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F212.1. †F212.1. Fairyland entered through well. Hartland Science 128. --Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F213. †F213. Fairyland on island. Hartland Science 136. --Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F213.1. †F213.1. Magic boat to fairyland. Clouston Tales I 218ff.; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIII 97ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F213.2. †F213.2. Fairies ferried across stream. Meyer Germanische 134; Henne-Am Rhyn Die deutsche Volkssage 2 348 No. 541; Ranke Die deutsche Sage IV 279; Grimm Deutsche Sagen No. 276; Grimm Deutsche Mythologie 3 694.

F213.3. †F213.3. Sea-riding horse carries mortals to fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F214. †F214. Trolls (fairies) live in range of hills. Hartland Science 141.

F215. †F215. Fairies live in star-world. (Cf. †F205.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F215.1. †F215.1. Fairyland in sky. India: Thompson-Balys.

F215.1.1. †F215.1.1. Fairies in heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.

F215.2. †F215.2. Peris in sky-world. India: Thompson-Balys.

F216. †F216. Fairies live in forest. Wimberly 127.

F216.1. †F216.1. Fairies live in trees by stream. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241a; India: Thompson-Balys.

F216.2. †F216.2. Bonga lives in tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

F217. †F217. Congregating places of fairies. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 49 No. 397.

F217.1. †F217.1. Fairy lights seen in low places. Fb "lys" II 481a.

F217.2. †F217.2. Fairies assemble at milestone. Fb "mile" II 591.

F217.3. †F217.3. Fairies assemble at cross-roads. Hartland Science 138.

F219. †F219. Other dwelling places of fairies.

F219.1. †F219.1. Fairies dwell in the next country. England: *Baughman.

F219.2. †F219.2. Garden in fairyland. India: Thompson-Balys.

F219.3. †F219.3. Fairies dwell in land to the east. Maori: Clark 98.

F220. †F220. Dwelling of fairies.

F221. †F221. House of fairy. Missouri French: Carrière.

F221.1. †F221.1. Fairy house disappears at dawn. Irish myth: *Cross. Cf. Boberg.

F221.2. †F221.2. Bonga house filled with snakes, tigers, and lions. India: Thompson-Balys.

F221.3. †F221.3. Fairies have a pretty room in hill. Göngu-Hrólfs saga 276; Feilberg DF V 71.

F221.4. †F221.4. Fairy family lives in neat cottage. England: Baughman.

F221.5. †F221.5. Fairy house without doors. India: Thompson-Balys.

F222. †F222. Fairy castle. Dickson 114 n. 34. --English: Wells 128 (Sir Orfeo); Irish myth: *Cross; Ireland, Wales: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index Nr. 3600.

F222.1. †F222.1. Fairies' underground palace. Irish myth: *Cross; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 10.

F222.1.1. †F222.1.1. Fairies' underground palace cannot be burned by fire nor destroyed by water. Irish myth: *Cross.

F222.2. †F222.2. Fairy stronghold. Irish myth: Cross.

F222.3. †F222.3. Fairy castle of glass. India: Thompson-Balys.

F223. †F223. Fairy hall. Hartland Science 41.

F224. †F224. Shining bower on a pillar for fée in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F225. †F225. Fairy lives in a shell. India: Thompson-Balys.

F230. †F230. Appearance of fairies.

F231. †F231. Fairy's limbs.

F231.1. †F231.1. Fairy's arms.

F231.1.1. †F231.1.1. Fairy's iron arms. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bras".

F231.2. †F231.2. Fairy's feet.

F231.2.1. †F231.2.1. Fairies with bird feet. *Gaster Germania XXV 290ff.

F232. †F232. Body of fairy. Irish: Beal XXI 324.

F232.1. †F232.1. Fairies have hollow backs. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b, "ellepige" I 242a; Elisabeth Hartmann Die Trollvorstellungen in der Sagen und Märchen der skandinavischen Völker (Stuttgart, 1936) 38; Finnish-Swedish: *Wessman 48 Nos. 394, 438.

F232.1.1. †F232.1.1. Fairies have huge hole in each armpit. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F232.1.2. †F232.1.2. Fairy has back rough like pine cone. U.S.: Baughman.

F232.2. †F232.2. Fairies have breasts long enough to throw over their shoulders. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b, "patte" II 791b.

F232.3. †F232.3. Fairies with unusually large ears. Tobler 63.

F232.4. †F232.4. Fairies have long hair. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F232.4.1. †F232.4.1. Fairy as a small pretty girl with blond hair. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F232.4.2. †F232.4.2. Fairy princess with golden hair. India: Thompson-Balys.

F232.5. †F232.5. Fairies have hairy bodies. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F232.6. †F232.6. Fairies as giants. Irish myth: *Cross.

F232.7. †F232.7. Elves have only half a thumb. England: Baughman.

F232.8. †F232.8. Fairy has long tail. (Cf. †F460.1.5, †F518.) England: Baughman.

F233. †F233. Color of fairy. (Cf. †F236.)

F233.1. †F233.1. Green fairy. Wimberly 240 n. 4; Irish myth: *Cross; England, Scotland: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

F233.1.1. †F233.1.1. Fairy has one side green. Irish myth: Cross.

F233.2. †F233.2. Silver-colored fairy. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "argentine".

F233.3. †F233.3. Red fairy. Irish myth: *Cross; England, Wales: Baughman.

F233.3.1. †F233.3.1. Fairy has red eyes. U.S.: Baughman.

F233.4. †F233.4. Fairy's son is pale, dark, and ugly. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 322, 343--44, 351, Boberg.

F233.5. †F233.5. Fairies have yellow (golden) hair (clothing). Irish myth: *Cross; Society Islands: Beckwith Myth 335.

F233.5.1. †F233.5.1. Fairy king with yellow hair. Irish myth: Cross.

F233.6. †F233.6. Fairies fair (fine, white). Irish myth: *Cross.

F233.7. †F233.7. Fairies are multicolored. Scotland: Baughman.

F233.8. †F233.8. Fairies are brown and hairy. (Cf. †F232.5.) Wales: Baughman.

F233.9. †F233.9. Fairies are black. Scotland: Baughman.

F233.10. †F233.10. Gray-bearded fairy. German: Grimm No. 182.

F234. †F234. Transformed fairy. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.0.1. †F234.0.1. Fairy transforms self. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.0.2. †F234.0.2. Fairy as shape-shifter. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.1. †F234.1. Fairy in form of an animal. Irish myth: *Cross; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 32 No. 268, 48 No. 396.

F234.1.0.1. †F234.1.0.1. Fairy in form of giant animal. Irish myth: Cross.

F234.1.1. †F234.1.1. Fairy in form of cow (bull). Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 281ff., 291ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.1.2. †F234.1.2. Fairy in form of goat. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 289.

F234.1.3. †F234.1.3. Fairy in form of swine. Wales: Baughman.

F234.1.3.1. †F234.1.3.1. Fairy in form of wild boar. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 126, *Cross.

F234.1.4. †F234.1.4. Fairy in form of stag. Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 203.

F234.1.4.1. †F234.1.4.1. Fairy in form of doe. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.1.5. †F234.1.5. Fairy in form of toad. *Fb "tudse" III 888b; Hartland Science 52ff.

F234.1.6. †F234.1.6. Fairy in form of frog. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 271.

F234.1.7. †F234.1.7. Fairy in form of worm (snake, serpent). Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F234.1.8. †F234.1.8. Fairy in form of horse. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.1.9. †F234.1.9. Fairy in form of dog.

F234.1.9.1. †F234.1.9.1. Fairy in form of lapdog. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.1.9.2. †F234.1.9.2. Fairy in form of greyhound. Wales: Baughman.

F234.1.10. †F234.1.10. Fairy in form of eel. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.1.11. †F234.1.11. Fairy in form of sheep. Irish myth: Cross; Wales: Baughman.

F234.1.12. †F234.1.12. Fairy in form of hare. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.1.13. †F234.1.13. Fairy in form of wolf. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.1.14. †F234.1.14. Fairy in form of weasel. England: Baughman.

F234.1.15. †F234.1.15. Fairy in form of bird. Irish myth: *Cross; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 56.

F234.1.15.1. †F234.1.15.1. Fairy as swan. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.1.15.2. †F234.1.15.2. Fairy in form of dove. India: Thompson-Balys.

F234.1.15.3. †F234.1.15.3. Fairy in form of sparrow. India: Thompson-Balys.

F234.1.15.4. †F234.1.15.4. Fairy in form of drake. India: Thompson-Balys.

F234.1.16. †F234.1.16. Fairy in form of insect.

F234.1.16.1. †F234.1.16.1. Fairy in form of fly. Irish myth: Cross.

F234.1.16.2. †F234.1.16.2. Fairy in form of moth. England: Baughman.

F234.1.16.3. †F234.1.16.3. Fairy in form of ant. England: Baughman.

F234.2. †F234.2. Fairy in form of person. *Type 480: *Roberts 117. --Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.2.1. †F234.2.1. Fairy in form of hag. Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 227.

F234.2.2. †F234.2.2. Fairy in hideous form. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.2.3. †F234.2.3. Fairy as headless woman. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.2.4. †F234.2.4. Fairy in likeness of another. (Cf. †F239.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.2.4.1. †F234.2.4.1. Clerics mistaken for fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.2.5. †F234.2.5. Fairy in form of beautiful young woman. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.2.6. †F234.2.6. Fairy as messenger from fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.2.7. †F234.2.7. Fairy as guide to fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F234.2.8. †F234.2.8. Fairy assumes shape of woman and frequents bazaars. India: Thompson-Balys.

F234.3. †F234.3. Fairy in form of object.

F234.3.1. †F234.3.1. Fairy disappears in form of a cloud. Tobler 87.

F234.3.2. †F234.3.2. Bonga girl (fairy) appears as flame. India: Thompson-Balys.

F234.3.3. †F234.3.3. Fairy in form of a bundle of rags. England: Baughman.

F234.4. †F234.4. Transformed fairy -- miscellaneous.

F234.4.1. †F234.4.1. Horse used by mortal under fairy spell changes to gray cat. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 271.

F235. †F235. Visibility of fairies.

F235.1. †F235.1. Fairies invisible. Tobler 94f.; Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "invisibilité"; India: Thompson-Balys.

F235.2. †F235.2. Fairies visible only at certain times. Icelandic: Boberg.

F235.2.1. †F235.2.1. Fairies visible only at night. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "nuit".

F235.2.2. †F235.2.2. Fairies visible only at noonday. Fb "middag" II 585.

F235.3. †F235.3. Fairies visible to one person alone. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Sir Launfal (Ritson ed.) line 501.

F235.4. †F235.4. Fairies made visible through use of magic object.

F235.4.1. †F235.4.1. Fairies made visible through use of ointment. (Cf. †E361.3.) *Fb "salve" III 150b; *Hartland Science 59--67; English: Child I 339, II 505b, III 505b, V290a; England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, U.S.: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 449.

F235.4.2. †F235.4.2. Fairies made visible through use of magic soap. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 277; England: Baughman.

F235.4.3. †F235.4.3. Fairies made visible through use of magic stone on eyes. Hartland Science 61.

F235.4.4. †F235.4.4. Fairies made visible through use of magic water. Hartland Science 66; Fb "marelok" II 553; England, Scotland: Baughman.

F235.4.5. †F235.4.5. Fairies made visible through the use of saliva. Hartland Science 62.

F235.4.6. †F235.4.6. Fairies made visible when one carries four-leaf clover. (Cf. †D1323.14.) England: *Baughman.

F235.5. †F235.5. Fairies made visible by stepping on certain spot. Hartland Science 162.

F235.5.1. †F235.5.1. Fairies made visible by standing on another's foot. Hartland Science 162.

F235.5.2. †F235.5.2. Fairies made visible when person steps into fairy ring. (Cf. †F218, †F261.1.) England, Wales: *Baughman.

F235.6. †F235.6. Fairies visible through magic ring. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 47, Cross.

F235.7. †F235.7. Fairies seen as dark shadows. Tobler 89.

F235.8. †F235.8. Fairies lose power of invisibility. Irish myth: Cross.

F235.8.1. †F235.8.1. Fairies lose power of invisibility if mortals gain knowledge of their secret. (Cf. †F361.3.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F235.8.2. †F235.8.2. Fairies made visible by looking with left eye. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F235.9. †F235.9. Fairies made visible when person walks three times around field where cows are grazing at night. (Cf. †D1791.) England: Baughman.

F236. †F236. Dress of fairies. (Cf. †F233.)

F236.0.1. †F236.0.1. Ill-dressed otherworld person. Irish myth: *Cross

F236.1. †F236.1. Color of fairy's clothes. Irish myth: Cross.

F236.1.1. †F236.1.1. Fairies in red clothes. *Fb "blå" IV 52a; England, Ireland, Wales: Baughman.

F236.1.2. †F236.1.2. Fairies in blue clothes. *Fb "blå" IV 52a.

F236.1.3. †F236.1.3. Fairies in white clothes. *Fb "hvid" I 700b; Irish myth: Cross; England, Wales: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 687.

F236.1.4. †F236.1.4. Fairies in gray clothes. *Fb "ellepige" I 242a.

F236.1.5. †F236.1.5. Fairies in gleaming clothes. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b; India: Thompson-Balys.

F236.1.6. †F236.1.6. Fairy in green clothes. Irish myth: Cross; England, Scotland, Wales: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

F236.1.7. †F236.1.7. Fairy wears multi-colored dress. Irish myth: *Cross.

F236.2. †F236.2. Fairies in long robes. *Fb "ellepige" I 242a.

F236.3. †F236.3. Fairies with belts and hats. Fb "ellefolk" I 241b.

F236.3.1. †F236.3.1. Fairies with three-cornered hats. England: Baughman.

F236.3.2. †F236.3.2. Fairies with red caps. (Cf. †F451.2.7.1, †F460.1.4.2.) England, Ireland, Wales: *Baughman.

F236.3.3. †F236.3.3. Fairy wears sugar-loaf hat. U.S.: Baughman.

F236.4. †F236.4. Fairies with gold crowns on head. Fb "ellefolk" I 241b.

F236.5. †F236.5. Fairy wears boorish clothes. Irish myth: *Cross.

F236.5.1. †F236.5.1. Fairies wear patched coats. England: Baughman.

F236.6. †F236.6. Fairies wear gay clothing. England: Baughman.

F237. †F237. Fairies in disguise. Irish myth: Cross.

F238. †F238. Fairies are naked. (Cf. †F420.1.6.7.) Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F239. †F239. Appearance of fairies -- miscellaneous.

F239.1. †F239.1. Fairies tied together by hair. *Fb "hår" I 771b.

F239.2. †F239.2. Fairy women identical in form and feature. (Cf. †F234.2.4.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F239.3. †F239.3. Fairy breathes fire. Irish myth: Cross.

F239.4. †F239.4. Size of fairies.

F239.4.1. †F239.4.1. Fairies are the same size as mortals. England, Wales: *Baughman.

F239.4.2. †F239.4.2. Fairies are the size of small children. England: *Baughman.

F239.4.3. †F239.4.3. Fairy is tiny. Irish myth: *Cross; England, Scotland: Baughman.

F239.5. †F239.5. Elves have faces of wrinkled old men. England, U.S.: Baughman.

F239.6. †F239.6. Fairy's tears pearls. India: Thompson-Balys.

F240. †F240. Possessions of fairies.

F241. †F241. Fairies' animals.

F241.0.1. †F241.0.1. Fairy animal hunted. Irish myth: *Cross.

F241.1. †F241.1. Fairies' horses. Howey 2; Irish myth: *Cross; England, Scotland, Wales: Baughman.

F241.1.0.1. †F241.1.0.1. Fairy cavalcade. Irish myth: *Cross.

F241.1.1. †F241.1.1. Color of fairies' horses. Wales: Baughman.

F241.1.1.1. †F241.1.1.1. Fairies ride white horses. English: Child I 216, 323, 325, 339f.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F241.1.1.2. †F241.1.1.2. Fairies ride dapple-gray horses. English: Child I 324, 326, Baughman.

F241.1.1.3. †F241.1.1.3. Blue, red, yellow horses in fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F241.1.1.4. †F241.1.1.4. Fairies ride cream-colored horses. England: Baughman.

F241.1.2. †F241.1.2. Behavior of fairies' horses.

F241.1.2.1. †F241.1.2.1. Fairies' horses water at peasant's well. *Fb "hest" I 599a.

F241.1.2.2. †F241.1.2.2. Fairies' mare foals every year on first of May. Wales: Baughman.

F241.1.3. †F241.1.3. Fairies ride on three-legged horses. Fb "underjordiske" III 975b.

F241.1.3.1. †F241.1.3.1. Fairy horse one-legged. Irish myth: *Cross.

F241.1.4. †F241.1.4. Fairies' horses have round shoes. Fb "hestesko" IV 213b.

F241.1.5. †F241.1.5. Fairy's horse becomes invisible. Irish myth: *Cross.

F241.1.6. †F241.1.6. Fairy horse pulls chariot by pole which passes through his body. Irish myth: *Cross.

F241.1.7. †F241.1.7. Fairies steal stalks of hemp and turn them into horses. (Cf. †D449.5.) Scotland: Baughman.

F241.1.8. †F241.1.8. Size of fairies' horses.

F241.1.8.1. †F241.1.8.1. Fairies' horses the size of greyhounds. Wales: Baughman.

F241.1.8.2. †F241.1.8.2. Fairies' horses are of normal size. England, Wales: *Baughman.

F241.2. †F241.2. Fairies' cows. (Cf. †F460.2.9.) Irish myth: *Cross; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 57**; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 51 Nos. 430--434.

F241.2.1. †F241.2.1. Color of fairies' cows.

F241.2.1.1. †F241.2.1.1. Fairies have red cows. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b, "rød" III 117a, "ko" II 240b.

F241.2.2. †F241.2.2. Fairies' cattle become invisible. Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bétail".

F241.2.3. †F241.2.3. Fairies' cattle under a lake. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 128.

F241.2.4. †F241.2.4. Fairy cattle graze on earth on Hallowe'en. Irish myth: *Cross.

F241.2.5. †F241.2.5. Woman (fairy) lives only on milk from fairy cow. Irish myth: Cross.

F241.3. †F241.3. Hogs follow fairies. Fb "rakker".

F241.3.1. †F241.3.1. Spirit owns herds of pigs. India: Thompson-Balys.

F241.4. †F241.4. Goats follow fairies. Fb "rakker".

F241.5. †F241.5. Fairies have herds of deer. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 129, Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F241.5.1. †F241.5.1. Fairies own herd of ibexes. India: Thompson-Balys.

F241.6. †F241.6. Fairy dogs. Irish myth: *Cross.

F241.7. †F241.7. Fairies have sheep. Wales: Baughman.

F241.8. †F241.8. Fairies have poultry. Wales: Baughman.

F242. †F242. Fairies' conveyances.

F242.1. †F242.1. Fairy car. Malone PMLA XLIII 421; Irish myth: Cross.

F242.1.1. †F242.1.1. Fairy car becomes invisible. Irish myth: *Cross.

F242.1.2. †F242.1.2. Fairy chariot rides waves. Irish myth: *Cross.

F242.1.3. †F242.1.3. Fairy chariot of precious metal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F242.1.4. †F242.1.4. Glass car. Icelandic: Boberg.

F242.2. †F242.2. Fairy boat. Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 194; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bateau".

F242.2.1. †F242.2.1. Glass boat for fairy. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 84, *Cross.

F242.2.2. †F242.2.2. Fairy boat of bronze. (Cf. †F841.1.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F242.2.3. †F242.2.3. Fairy boat from flax-stem. Maori: Beckwith Myth 335.

F243. †F243. Fairies' food. Irish myth: *Cross.

F243.0.1. †F243.0.1. Christianized fairy woman refuses to eat fairy food. Irish myth: *Cross.

F243.1. †F243.1. Fairies' bread. Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "pain".

F243.2. †F243.2. Fairies eat nuts. Irish myth: Cross; MacCulloch Celtic 121.

F243.3. †F243.3. Fairies eat meat.

F243.3.1. †F243.3.1. Animals eaten by fairies become whole again. England, Ireland, U.S.: Baughman; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "animaux".

F243.4. †F243.4. Fairy food undiminished when eaten. Irish myth: *Cross.

F243.5. †F243.5. Fairies' food gives immortality. Irish myth: *Cross.

F244. †F244. Fairies' treasure. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b; Irish myth: *Cross.

F244.1. †F244.1. "The Four Jewels of the Tuatha Dé Danann" (fairies?). Irish myth: *Cross.

F244.2. †F244.2. Fairy shows hiding place of treasure in return for freedom. (Cf. †N538.) Ireland: Baughman.

F244.3. †F244.3. Fairy fetches mortals to remove treasure hidden by ghosts in their lifetimes. (Cf. †N510.) Wales: Baughman.

F244.4. †F244.4. Fairies scare treasure-seeker away from hoard. They get bigger and bigger, and cause violent storms until seeker leaves. Cf. †D2141.0.2. England: Baughman.

F244.5. †F244.5. Fairies dig for treasure. England: Baughman.

F244.6. †F244.6. Fairies guard giants' treasures. (Cf. †N570.) England: Baughman.

F245. †F245. Fairies' musical instruments.

F245.1. †F245.1. Fairy harp. Irish myth: *Cross.

F246. †F246. Fairy tobacco pipes. England: Baughman.

F250. †F250. Other characteristics of fairies.

F251. †F251. Origin of fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F251.1. †F251.1. Fairies as descendants of early race of gods. Irish myth: *Cross.

F251.1.1. †F251.1.1. Goddess as fairy. Irish myth: *Cross.

F251.1.2. †F251.1.2. Fairies as gods. Irish myth: *Cross.

F251.2. †F251.2. Fairies as souls of departed. (Cf. †E700.) Hartland Science 132f.; von Sydow F ochF XIII--XIV; Slavic: Máchal 256ff.

F251.3. †F251.3. Unbaptized children as fairies. Fb "udøbt" III 960a; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 61, Beal XXI 324; England: Baughman; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 30 No. 262.

F251.4. †F251.4. Underworld people from children which Eve hid from God. *Fb "underjordiske" III 975b; Wales: Baughman; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 30 No. 261; German: Grimm No. 180.

F251.5. †F251.5. Fairies as sprites who have been given immortality. Irish myth: *Cross.

F251.6. †F251.6. Fairies as fallen angels. Irish myth: Cross; Scotland, Ireland, U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 224; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 30 No. 260.

F251.7. †F251.7. Fairies as demons. Irish myth: *Cross.

F251.8. †F251.8. Fairy professes faith in Christianity. Irish myth: *Cross.

F251.9. †F251.9. Fairy gives instructions on means of reaching heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

F251.10. †F251.10. Fairies are not the children of Adam. Scotland: Baughman.

F251.11. †F251.11. Fairies are people not good enough for heaven but not bad enough for hell. England, Wales: *Baughman.

F251.12. †F251.12. Fairies are druids. England, Wales: *Baughman.

F251.13. †F251.13. Fairies are Welsh women cursed by St. Patrick for rebuking him because he left Wales for Ireland. Wales: Baughman.

F251.14. †F251.14. Fairies are outlaws hiding out. Wales: Baughman.

F252. †F252. Government of fairies.

F252.1. †F252.1. Fairy king. Keightley 50ff.; Malone PMLA XLIII 422; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 128 (Sir Orfeo), England, Wales: Baughman; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 225; India: Thompson-Balys; Papua: Ker 73. Cf. Oberon in Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream, and in Huon of Bordeaux.

F252.1.0.1. †F252.1.0.1. Mortal rules fairyland jointly with fairy king. Irish myth: *Cross.

F252.1.0.2. †F252.1.0.2. King of Land under Water. Irish myth: *Cross.

F252.1.1. †F252.1.1. Fairies elect king. Irish myth: Cross.

F252.1.2. †F252.1.2. Indra has control over fairies. India: Thompson-Balys.

F252.2. †F252.2. Fairy queen. T. Keightley The Fairy Mythology (London, 1873) 53ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 225, Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F252.3. †F252.3. Fairy army. Irish myth: *Cross.

F252.3.1. †F252.3.1. Soldiers of fairy king are trees by day and men by night. Fb "træ" III 867b.

F252.4. †F252.4. Fairies banished from fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F252.4.1. †F252.4.1. Fairy banished for adultery. (Cf. †F254.5, †Q241.) Irish myth: Cross.

F252.4.2. †F252.4.2. Fairy banished for falsehood. Irish myth: Cross.

F253. †F253. Extraordinary powers of fairies.

F253.1. †F253.1. Extraordinary physical powers of fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F253.1.1. †F253.1.1. Fairies possess extraordinary strength. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F253.1.1.1. †F253.1.1.1. Fairy as mighty lifter. Irish myth: Cross.

F254. †F254. Mortal characteristics of fairies. (Cf. †F259.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

F254.1. †F254.1. Fairies have physical disabilities. Irish myth: Cross.

F254.2. †F254.2. Fairies not omniscient. Irish myth: Cross.

F254.3. †F254.3. Fairies can be bewitched. Irish myth: Cross.

F254.4. †F254.4. Fairies can be wounded. Irish myth: *Cross.

F254.5. †F254.5. Fairies commit adultery. (Cf. †F252.4.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F255. †F255. Peculiar limitations of fairies.

F255.1. †F255.1. Fairies must trade whenever it is demanded of them. It does not matter how uneven the trade may be. Hartland Science 131.

F255.2. †F255.2. Fairies can set down an object once but cannot raise it again. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 307 No. 22.

F255.3. †F255.3. Fairies once seen by mortals no longer invisible at will. Irish myth: Cross.

F255.4. †F255.4. Fairy army can go among mortals only on Hallowe'en. Irish myth: Cross.

F255.5. †F255.5. Fairies do not bend grass as they walk. (Cf. †F261.2, †F973.2.) Maori: Beckwith Myth 335.

F256. †F256. Fairies read men's thoughts. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 307 No. 22; Japanese: Ikeda.

F256.1. †F256.1. Mortal's coming to fairyland foreknown to fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F257. †F257. Tribute taken from fairies by fiend at stated periods. English: Child V 498 s. v. "Feind".

F258. †F258. Fairies gregarious. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b.

F258.1. †F258.1. Fairies hold a fair. England: *Baughman.

F259. †F259. Characteristics of fairies -- miscellaneous.

F259.1. †F259.1. Mortality of fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F259.1.1. †F259.1.1. Fairies kill each other. Irish myth: Cross.

F259.1.2. †F259.1.2. Fairy becomes mortal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F259.1.3. †F259.1.3. Fairy dies of longing for fairyland. Irish myth: Cross.

F259.1.4. †F259.1.4. Fairies immortal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F259.1.4.1. †F259.1.4.1. Fairies cannot be slain. Irish myth: Cross.

F259.2. †F259.2. Fairies freed from disgrace by bathing in blood of enemy. Irish myth: *Cross.

F259.3. †F259.3. Fairy reveals her true identity when despite heavy rain she remains dry. India: Thompson-Balys.

F260. †F260. Behavior of fairies.

F261. †F261. Fairies dance. *Type 503; *BP III 324ff., 329; *Fb "danse" IV 93a; Hartland Science 162. --Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 127, 163; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 24ff., (1928) 16ff.; Slavic: Máchal 259; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "dance"; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F261.1. †F261.1. Fairy rings on grass. Seen after fairy dance. Irish myth: Cross; English: Brueyre RTP II 74ff.; Slavic: Máchal 259.

F261.1.1. †F261.1.1. Fairies dance by themselves in fairy ring. England: *Baughman.

F261.2. †F261.2. Fairy dances in snow: no tracks left. (Cf. †F255.5.) Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 50 No. 420.

F261.2.1. †F261.2.1. Fairies dance on leaves without disturbing them. Cook Islands: Beckwith Myth 336.

F261.3. †F261.3. Other locations of fairy dancing.

F261.3.1. †F261.3.1. Fairies dance under tree.

F261.3.1.1. †F261.3.1.1. Fairies dance under hawthorn trees. England: Baughman.

F261.3.1.2. †F261.3.1.2. Fairies dance under oak tree. England: Baughman.

F261.3.2. †F261.3.2. Fairies dance on foxglove. England: Baughman.

F261.3.3. †F261.3.3. Fairies dance in orchard. England: Baughman.

F261.3.4. †F261.3.4. Fairies dance in ditches. Scotland: *Baughman.

F261.3.5. †F261.3.5. Fairies dance in hay in barn. Wales: Baughman.

F261.3.6. †F261.3.6. Fairies dance on the green. India: Thompson-Balys.

F261.3.7. †F261.3.7. Fairies dance before Indra. India: Thompson-Balys.

F262. †F262. Fairies make music. Hartland Science 141, 155; Krappe Balor 88; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 165, *Cross; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 163, 209; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 225; India: Thompson-Balys.

F262.1. †F262.1. Fairies sing. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b, "synge" III 706b; Irish myth: *Cross; England: Baughman; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "chant", "chanteuse".

F262.2. †F262.2. Fairies teach bagpipe-playing. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 175.

F262.3. †F262.3. Fairy minstrel. Irish myth: *Cross.

F262.3.1. †F262.3.1. Fairy as harper. Irish myth: *Cross.

F262.3.1.1. †F262.3.1.1. Fairy harper plays two harps at once. Irish myth: *Cross.

F262.3.1.2. †F262.3.1.2. Fairy harper in yew tree. Irish myth: *Cross.

F262.3.1.3. †F262.3.1.3. Fairy harper in tiny bronze boat. Irish myth: *Cross.

F262.3.2. †F262.3.2. Fairy minstrel's birds sing accompaniment. Irish myth: Cross.

F262.3.3. †F262.3.3. Fairy minstrel's music heard far and wide. Irish myth: Cross.

F262.3.4. †F262.3.4. Fairy music causes sleep. Irish myth: *Cross.

F262.3.5. †F262.3.5. Fairy music causes mourning. Irish myth: *Cross.

F262.3.6. †F262.3.6. Fairy music causes joy (laughter). Irish myth: *Cross.

F262.3.7. †F262.3.7. Fairy music causes weakness. Irish myth: Cross.

F262.4. †F262.4. Fairy music compared to music of Heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

F262.5. †F262.5. Fairy music -- person listening is without food or sleep for a year. Irish myth: Cross.

F262.6. †F262.6. Fairy music so potent it would cause wounded men to sleep. Irish myth: Cross.

F262.7. †F262.7. Fairies whistle. England: Baughman.

F262.8. †F262.8. Fairy horns heard by mortals. Scotland: Baughman.

F262.9. †F262.9. Fairy music makes seven years seem like one day to mortal hearer. (Cf. †D2011.1.) England: Baughman.

F262.10. †F262.10. Fairy music -- miscellaneous.

F262.10.1. †F262.10.1. Fairy music issues from stone. England: Baughman.

F262.10.2. †F262.10.2. Fairy music issues from fairy ring. England: Baughman.

F263. †F263. Fairies feast. Hartland Science 144, 155; Keightley 283; Irish myth: *Cross; England: Baughman.

F263.1. †F263.1. Fairy's share of feast a nut. Irish myth: Cross.

F264. †F264. Fairy wedding. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b.

F265. †F265. Fairy bathes. Hoffman-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 120 n. 3; Irish myth: *Cross; England: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

F265.1. †F265.1. Fairies frequently use bath house. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F266. †F266. Fairies warm themselves. Fb "ovn" II 774b; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 56 No. 481.

F267. †F267. Fairies attend games. Irish myth: Cross.

F268. †F268. Burial among underworld folk. *Fb "begravelse" IV 30b; Irish myth: Cross.

F268.1. †F268.1. Burial service for fairy queen is held at night in Christian church. England: *Baughman.

F271. †F271. Fairies as laborers.

F271.0.1. †F271.0.1. Fairies as craftsmen. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 329.

F271.0.2. †F271.0.2. Fairies lacking axes work with their teeth. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 333.

F271.1. †F271.1. Fairies milk cows. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 129ff.

F271.2. †F271.2. Fairies as builders.

F271.2.0.1. †F271.2.0.1. Fairies build great structures in one night. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 333.

F271.2.1. †F271.2.1. Fairies excavate passage. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 173; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "souterrain".

F271.2.2. †F271.2.2. Fairies build causeway. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F271.2.3. †F271.2.3. Fairies build canoe. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 332.

F271.3. †F271.3. Fairies skillful as smiths. *Fb "smed" III 402a; Irish myth: *Cross; England, Scotland, Ireland: Baughman, Boberg DF XLVI 83.

F271.4. †F271.4. Fairies work on cloth.

F271.4.1. †F271.4.1. Fairies bleach linen. Fb "linned" II 435b; England: Baughman; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 182ff., (1928) 128ff.

F271.4.2. †F271.4.2. Fairies skillful as weavers. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F271.4.3. †F271.4.3. Fairies spin. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 56.

F271.5. †F271.5. Fairies clear land. Irish myth: *Cross.

F271.6. †F271.6. Fairy as herdsman. Irish myth: *Cross.

F271.7. †F271.7. Fairies churn. *Boberg DF XLVI 84.

F271.8. †F271.8. Fées engage in needlework. Irish myth: Cross.

F271.9. †F271.9. Fairies wash their clothes: they are heard only at this task. England: *Baughman.

F271.10. †F271.10. Fairies bake bread. **Boberg DF XLVI.

F273. †F273. Fairy shows remarkable skill. Irish myth: Cross.

F273.1. †F273.1. Fairy shows remarkable skill as marksman. Irish myth: Cross.

F273.2. †F273.2. Fairy shows remarkable skill as runner. Irish myth: *Cross.

F274. †F274. Fairy physician. Irish myth: Cross.

F275. †F275. Fairies descend chimney. England, Scotland: Baughman; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "cheminée".

F276. †F276. Fairies call out to mortals. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b.

F277. †F277. Battle of fairies and gods. Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Campbell Tales II 85.

F277.0.1. †F277.0.1. War between fairy settlements. Irish myth: *Cross.

F277.0.2. †F277.0.2. Fairies fight among selves for possession of island. Irish myth: Cross.

F277.0.3. †F277.0.3. Good and bad fairies battle. Irish myth: Cross.

F278. †F278. Fairies' strategy. Irish myth: *Cross.

F278.1. †F278.1. Fairy casts huge stones to keep enemies off. Irish myth: Cross.

F278.2. †F278.2. Fairies create magic concealing mist. Irish myth: *Cross.

F281. †F281. Fairy replaces man's heart with heart of straw. Eyes with wood, etc. English: Child I 343--356 passim.

F282. †F282. Fairies travel through air.

F282.1. †F282.1. Fairies travel in eddies of wind. Irish myth: *Cross.

F282.2. †F282.2. Formulas for fairies' travel through air. England: Baughman.

F282.3. †F282.3. Fairies come from the kingdom of Indra to earth in four flying thrones. India: Thompson-Balys.

F285. †F285. Anchor falls on fairies. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "ancre".

†F300-†F399. FAIRIES AND MORTALS.

F300. †F300. Marriage or liaison with fairy. Irish myth: *Cross, Beal XXI 335, Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 96.

F300.1. †F300.1. Giants guard fairy princess from mortal man. India: Thompson-Balys.

F300.2. †F300.2. Husband pursues fairy wife to heaven. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 55.

F301. †F301. Fairy lover. Fb "underjordiske" III 975a; Dickson 121 n. 65; Hartland Science 64; Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 133ff.; Icelandic: Boberg, *Feilberg DF V 43ff.; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 343.

F301.1. †F301.1. Summoning fairy lover.

F301.1.1. †F301.1.1. Girl summons fairy lover by breaking tabu.

F301.1.1.1. †F301.1.1.1. Girl summons fairy lover by wishing for him. English: Child I 6ff. No. 2.

F301.1.1.2. †F301.1.1.2. Girl summons fairy lover by plucking flowers. English: Child I 360 n.

F301.1.1.3. †F301.1.1.3. Girl summons fairy lover by lying under tree. English: Child V 499 s. v. "trees".

F301.1.1.4. †F301.1.1.4. Girl summons fairy lover by pulling nuts. English: Child I 360 n.

F301.2. †F301.2. Fairy lover entices mortal girl.

F301.2.1. †F301.2.1. Elf-knight produces love-longing by blowing on horn. English: Child I 15ff., 23, 55, 367.

F301.3. †F301.3. Girl goes to fairyland and marries fairy. Hartland Science 64.

F301.4. †F301.4. Tasks set maid by elfin knight before she can marry him. English: Child I 15ff.

F301.5. †F301.5. Elf-knight entices maiden away and kills her. English: Child I 47; Japanese: Ikeda.

F301.6. †F301.6. Fairy lover abducts fairy wife of mortal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F301.7. †F301.7. Girl goes to see her fairy lover on certain nights. Icelandic: Sveinsson FFC LXXXVIII 10f. (Type 306 III).

F301.8. †F301.8. Fairy runs away from wedding with mortal girl. Irish myth: Cross.

F302. †F302. Fairy mistress. Mortal man marries or lives with fairy woman. *Hoffman-Krayer Zs f. Vksk. XXV 120 n. 4; *Puckett MPh XVI 297; Clouston Tales I 212ff.; Malone PMLA XLIII 406; *Grimes The Lays of Desiré, Graelent and Melion (New York, 1928); *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIII 97ff. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Hjálmthèrs saga ok Ölvis 477, Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 56 No. 483; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 44 Nos 42, 43; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 151; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 500.

F302.0.1. †F302.0.1. Bonga mistress. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.1. †F302.1. Man goes to fairyland and marries fairy. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 130ff. (Sir Launfal, Emare); Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F302.1.1. †F302.1.1. Mortals supplied with fairy mistresses during visit to fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.1.2. †F302.1.2. Mortal gives fairy ring after night spent with her in fairyland. Irish myth: Cross.

F302.2. †F302.2. Man marries fairy and takes her to his home. **Köhler Der Ursprung der Melusinensage (1895); *Fränkel Zs. f. Vksk. IV 387; *Fb "menneske" II 577b; see also all references for †C31.1.2; Hartland Science 168; Malone PMLA XLIII 417; Irish myth: *Cross; England, Wales: Baughman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F302.2.1. †F302.2.1. Fairy wife deserts mortal husband for repulsive lover. Malone PMLA XLIII 416ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.3. †F302.3. Fairy wooes mortal man. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.3.0.1. †F302.3.0.1. Fairy visits mortal and becomes his mistress. Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.3.0.2. †F302.3.0.2. Raja refuses to marry a Peri. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.3.1. †F302.3.1. Fairy entices man into fairyland. Hartland Science 41, 163, 184, 202; Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F302.3.1.1. †F302.3.1.1. Bonga girl (fairy) will return stolen goods only if mortal man will go with her. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.3.1.2. †F302.3.1.2. Fairies stop ship to entice man to their land. Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.3.1.3. †F302.3.1.3. Man is carried to fairyland by fairy and marries her. Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.3.1.4. †F302.3.1.4. Fairy abducts whomever she falls in love with. (Cf. †F320.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.3.2. †F302.3.2. Fairy offers gifts to man to be her paramour. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Child I 314, 375f., 384, III 504a, V 214; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

F302.3.2.1. †F302.3.2.1. Fairy offers aid to man if he will marry her. Irish myth: Cross.

F302.3.2.2. †F302.3.2.2. Fairy offers to disenchant mortal wife if man will marry her. (Cf. †F302.5.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

F302.3.3. †F302.3.3. Fairy avenges self on man who scorns her love. English: Child I 376ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.3.3.1. †F302.3.3.1. Fairy avenges herself on inconstant lover (husband). *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b; Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXV (1933) 115ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Child I 372--389.

F302.3.4. †F302.3.4. Fairies entice men and then harm them. Irish myth: *Cross; Japanese: Mitford 243; West Indies: Flowers 433.

F302.3.4.1. †F302.3.4.1. Fairy kisses man. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F302.3.4.1.1. †F302.3.4.1.1. Fairy's kiss fatal. Fb "kys" II 349.

F302.3.4.2. †F302.3.4.2. Fairies dance with youth till he dies (or goes insane). *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b.

F302.3.4.2.1. †F302.3.4.2.1. Pixies win dancing contest with man. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.3.4.3. †F302.3.4.3. Fairy wooes and deserts man. Clouston Tales I 215ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.3.4.4. †F302.3.4.4. Fairy takes lover back to fairyland in magic sleep. *Krappe Romania LX (1934) 79ff.

F302.3.4.5. †F302.3.4.5. Fairies fall in love with prince and charm him into a deathlike sleep. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.4. †F302.4. Man obtains power over fairy mistress. Irish myth: Cross.

F302.4.1. †F302.4.1. Man shoots into wreath of mist and brings down fairy. She becomes his wife. Hartland Science 144.

F302.4.2. †F302.4.2. Fairy comes into man's power when he steals her wings (clothes). She leaves when she finds them. Slavic: Máchal 258; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *404; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 55.

F302.4.2.1. †F302.4.2.1. Fairy comes into man's power when he steals her clothes. She leaves when she finds them. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F302.4.3. †F302.4.3. Hero fights with fairy person, takes his wife and keeps her (for a year). Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.4.4. †F302.4.4. Man binds fairy and forces her to marry him. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.5. †F302.5. Fairy mistress and mortal wife.

F302.5.0.1. †F302.5.0.1. Man deserts wife for fairy. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.5.1. †F302.5.1. Fairy mistress surrenders man to his mortal wife (Wildfrau). *Heltzel Philological Quarterly VIII (1930) 348; Irish myth: *Cross Icelandic: Hálfdanar saga Brönufóstra (whole saga).

F302.5.1.1. †F302.5.1.1. Bonga girl (fairy) surrenders man to his mortal wife if he will name first daughter after her. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.5.2. †F302.5.2. Fairy mistress transforms man's human wife. (Cf. †F302.3.2.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.5.2.1. †F302.5.2.1. Divine damsel converts mortal's first wife into a lovely woman; they all live together. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.5.3. †F302.5.3. Man loses luck when he leaves fairy wife for mortal. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.5.4. †F302.5.4. Fairy mistress demands that man send his mortal wife away. Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.5.5. †F302.5.5. Fairy mistress tries to destroy mortal's wife (mother) by sending her a magic belt. Krappe Revue des Études Grecques LII (1939) 569ff.

F302.6. †F302.6. Fairy mistress leaves man when he breaks tabu. See all references to †C31, †C31.1.2, †C31.2, †C31.4.1, †C31.4.2. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.6.1. †F302.6.1. Celtic fairy mistress dominant. Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.6.2. †F302.6.2. Recovery of fairy mistress.

F302.6.2.1. †F302.6.2.1. Mortal beats drum as fairies dance before Indra; is granted fairy wife permanently. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.6.2.2. †F302.6.2.2. Fairy gives up her fairy nature and becomes mortal to be able to return to her mortal husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.7. †F302.7. Fairy mistress prophesies mortal lover's fate in battle. Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.8. †F302.8. Fairy mistress demands mortal lover deny Christian teachings. Irish myth: *Cross.

F302.9. †F302.9. Fairy mistress rescues hero from battle. Irish myth: Cross.

F302.10. †F302.10. Man to have fairy wife for only seven years. India: Thompson-Balys.

F302.11. †F302.11. Prince married to a she-monkey (really queen of the fairies). India: Thompson-Balys.

F303. †F303. Wedding of mortal and fairy. Feilberg DF V 45ff.; Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 62ff., (1928) 54ff.; Liljeblad 188ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F303.1. †F303.1. Purification in kettle of boiling oil as preparation for marriage to fairy. Tuti-Nameh 10th Night.

F304. †F304. Sexual relations with fairy.

F304.1. †F304.1. Fairy king punishes ravisher of his daughter. Malone PMLA XLIII 406; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F304.2. †F304.2. Fairy queen's beauty temporarily destroyed by intercourse with mortal. English: Child I 327.

F304.3. †F304.3. Beautiful woman found in bed with man after he has plugged keyholes to keep elves out. Tobler 68; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *423.

F304.4. †F304.4. Mortal violates fairy woman. Irish myth: Cross.

F304.4.1. †F304.4.1. Fairy ravished by mortal strikes flesh from his ear. Irish myth: *Cross.

F304.5. †F304.5. Mortal chooses to sleep with fairy as boon for saving her life. Irish myth: Cross.

F304.6. †F304.6. Fée carried off by mortal. Irish myth: Cross.

F305. †F305. Offspring of fairy and mortal. Malone PMLA XLIII 433; *Krappe Études 119ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F305.1. †F305.1. Fairy relative makes gifts to half-mortal child. (Cf. †F340.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F305.1.1. †F305.1.1. Fairy mother bestows magic powers upon half-mortal son. Irish myth: *Cross.

F305.2. †F305.2. Offspring of fairy and mortal extraordinarily beautiful. Irish myth: *Cross.

F305.2.1. †F305.2.1. Right half of son resembles mortal father; left half, fairy father. Irish myth: Cross.

F305.3. †F305.3. Offspring of fairy and mortal has long hair and beard at birth. Irish myth: Cross.

F310. †F310. Fairies and human children.

F311. †F311. Fairies adopt human child. English: Wells 32 (Layamon's Brut).

F311.1. †F311.1. Fairy godmother. Attendant good fairy. *Type 715; Irish myth: Cross; Slavic: Máchal 257f.

F311.1.1. †F311.1.1. Fairy godmother helps girl escape. England: *Baughman.

F311.2. †F311.2. Fairy foster-father. Guardian to mortal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F311.2.1. †F311.2.1. Man killed on night when fairy guardian relaxes vigilance. Irish myth: Cross.

F311.3. †F311.3. Fairy foster-mother. (Cf. †P270.) Irish myth: Cross.

F311.3.1. †F311.3.1. Water fairy as foster-mother. Africa: Weeks Jungle 407.

F312. †F312. Fairy presides at child's birth. Sometimes the Norns, the Fates, etc. *Type 410; BP I 439; *W. B. McDaniel Conception, Birth and Infancy in Ancient Rome and Modern Italy (Coconut Grove, Florida, 1948). --Icelandic: Nornagests þáttr (Bugge ed. 1864) 76, Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 131, *Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda.

F312.1. †F312.1. Fairies bestow supernatural gifts at birth of a child. Hartland Science 204; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

F312.1.1. †F312.1.1. Fairies make good wishes for newborn child. (Cf. †F316.) Italian: Basile Pentamerone II 8.

F312.2. †F312.2. Fairies control destinies of a mortal. Saintyves Perrault 19.

F312.3. †F312.3. Three fairies sent to queen about to give birth to child. India: Thompson-Balys.

F313. †F313. Fairies comb children's hair. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b.

F315. †F315. Fairy predicts birth of child. Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "naissance".

F316. †F316. Fairy lays curse on child. (Cf. †F312.1.1.) *Type 410; Icelandic: Nornagests þáttr (Bugge ed. 1864) 76, Boberg.

F316.1. †F316.1. Fairy's curse partially overcome by another fairy's amendment. *Type 410; Saintyves Perrault 61.

F316.2. †F316.2. Fairy's curse partially overcome by her own amendment after being appeased. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F317. †F317. Fairy predicts future greatness of newborn child. Irish myth: Cross.

F320. †F320. Fairies carry people away to fairyland. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b, "døbe" I 227; Hartland Science 163ff.; Feilberg DF V 55ff. --Irish myth: *Cross; H. Hartmann Ueber Krankheit, Tod und Jenseitsvorstellungen in Irland (Erster Teil: Krankheit und Fairyentrückung, Halle, 1942); India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

F321. †F321. Fairy steals child from cradle. Hartland Science 98--106 passim; Irish myth: *Cross; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 43 No. 35; India: Thompson-Balys.

F321.0.1. †F321.0.1. Child sold to fairies. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "enfant".

F321.1. †F321.1. Changeling. Fairy steals child from cradle and leaves fairy substitute. Changeling is usually mature and only seems to be a child. *BP I 368; **G. Piaschewski Der Wechselbalg (Breslau, 1935); Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 835--864; **E. Hartmann Die Trollvorstellungen in den Sagen und Märchen der skandinavischen Völker (Stuttgart, 1936) 76ff.; *Hartland Science 105--122, 134, 145; *Fb "skifting" III 252b. --Irish myth: Cross; England, Ireland, Wales: Baughman; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 7, 117, 143ff., 149, 155ff., 267, Campbell Tales II 57; Icelandic: *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 10ff., (1928) 11ff.; Norwegian: *Solheim Register 18; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 43 No. 36; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 58 No. 91; Slavic: Polívka Slavische Sagen vom Wechselbalg (Archiv f. Religionswissenschaft VI 151ff.), Máchal Slavic Myth. 260, 264; Armenian: Ananikian 78 (left by dragon); India: Penzer VIII 87 n. 1.

F321.1.1. †F321.1.1. Changeling deceived into betraying his age. *Fb "skifting" III 252b; Rhys Celtic Folk Lore 62, 220, 223, 264, 268; Köhler-Bolte I 220; Zs. f. Vksk. XVI 414; Sikes British Goblins 2, 59f.

F321.1.1.1. †F321.1.1.1. Changeling betrays his age when his wonder is excited. Usually pottage is boiled in an eggshell. The changeling: "I shall soon be a hundred years old but I never saw this done before!" *BP I 368; Hartland Science 113--116; E. H. Meyer Germanische Myth. 79; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 525.

F321.1.1.2. †F321.1.1.2. Changeling plays on pipe and thus betrays his maturity. Hartland Science 111. --Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 155ff.

F321.1.1.2.1. †F321.1.1.2.1. Changeling dances wild dance to music, betrays maturity. England: Baughman.

F321.1.1.3. †F321.1.1.3. Changeling addresses woman in verse and thus betrays maturity. Hartland Science 125.

F321.1.1.4. †F321.1.1.4. Changeling shows supernatural power to work and thus betrays maturity. Hartland Science 113; England, Scotland: Baughman.

F321.1.1.5. †F321.1.1.5. Changeling calculates his age by the age of the forest. "I have seen the forest grow up three times." *BP I 369; Fb "gammel" IV 174a; Hartland Science 113ff.; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 314ff., (1928) 198ff.

F321.1.1.6. †F321.1.1.6. Threat to throw on fire causes changeling to cry out and betray his nature. *BP I 369.

F321.1.1.7. †F321.1.1.7. Whipping causes changeling to betray his nature. *BP I 369.

F321.1.2. †F321.1.2. Characteristics of changeling.

F321.1.2.1. †F321.1.2.1. Changeling has abnormal features or growth. Limbs grow too rapidly, head is too big, or he is slow to learn to walk, or the like. Hartland Science 108.

F321.1.2.2. †F321.1.2.2. Changeling is always hungry, demands food all the time. England, Scotland, Wales: *Baughman.

F321.1.2.3. †F321.1.2.3. Changeling is sickly (often the fairy exchanged for a baby is an elderly, infirm member of the fairy clan whom the fairies are tired of caring for). England: Baughman.

F321.1.3. †F321.1.3. Exorcising a changeling. Hartland Science 122f.; Ireland: Baughman.

F321.1.4. †F321.1.4. Disposing of a changeling. Hartland Science 105, 117ff.; Fb "skifting" III 252b, 253a. --Irish myth: Cross.

F321.1.4.1. †F321.1.4.1. Changeling thrown into water and thus banished. Hartland Science 123f., 129. --England, Ireland: *Baughman; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 149.

F321.1.4.2. †F321.1.4.2. Changeling thrown into ravine and thus banished. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder.

F321.1.4.3. †F321.1.4.3. Changeling thrown on fire and thus banished. (Cf. †F321.1.4.5.) Hartland Science 120f.; England, Scotland, Ireland: *Baughman.

F321.1.4.4. †F321.1.4.4. Changeling left on hill (dunghill, barrow etc.) and thus banished. Hartland Science 118, 126f.

F321.1.4.5. †F321.1.4.5. When changeling is threatened with burning, child is returned. (Cf. †F321.1.4.3.) Scotland: *Baughman; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 116 No. 19; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3692.

F321.1.4.6. †F321.1.4.6. Changeling beaten and left outside; the mortal child is returned. England: *Baughman.

F321.1.4.7. †F321.1.4.7. Mortal mother pays no attention to changeling; the mortal child is returned. Scotland: *Baughman.

F321.1.4.8. †F321.1.4.8. Mother treats changeling so well that her own child is returned. England: Baughman.

F321.1.4.9. †F321.1.4.9. Changeling made to believe that his house is burning up; he leaves. England, Ireland: *Baughman.

F321.1.5. †F321.1.5. Water fairy changeling kept out of water too long, dies. U.S.: Baughman.

F321.2. †F321.2. Charms against theft of children by fairies. Fb "forbytte" I 337b; Irish myth: Cross; Wales, Scotland: *Baughman; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 40 No. 22; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 117 No. 22.

F321.3. †F321.3. Man goes to fairyland and rescues stolen child. (Cf. †F322.2.) Hartland Science 127.

F321.3.1. †F321.3.1. Unbaptized child stolen by fairies found in barn and rescued. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *412.

F321.4. †F321.4. Beggar returns to his mother child stolen by fairies. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 40 No. 21.

F321.5. †F321.5. Fairies appear in house and offer to dance with child. England: Baughman (†F261.5).

F322. †F322. Fairies steal man's wife and carry her to fairyland. *Krappe Études 131 n. 2; Hartland Science 133; *Krappe Revue Celtique XLVIII 94ff.; *Cross and Hitze Lancelot and Guenevere 31ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Scotland: Macdougall and Calder 267, Baughman; England: Wells 128 (Sir Orfeo).

F322.0.1. †F322.0.1. Woman carried off by water-fairy. Hartland Science 65; German: Erk-Böhme Deutsche Liederhort No. 2; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *4250.

F322.1. †F322.1. Changeling bride. Fairies steal bride and leave a substitute. Hartland Science 130, 142; U.S.: Baughman.

F322.1.1. †F322.1.1. Fairy borrows comb from Christian maid to comb hair of changeling bride. (Cf. †F324.1.) *Fb "ellepige" I 242a.

F322.2. †F322.2. Man rescues his wife from fairyland. (Cf. †F321.3.) Hartland Science 133, 142; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 128 (Sir Orfeo); Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

F322.3. †F322.3. Stolen mother returns from fairyland each Sunday to minister to her children. Hartland Science 133; Scotland: *Baughman.

F322.4. †F322.4. Abducted bride hidden in fairyland. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F322.5. †F322.5. Rescue from fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F323. †F323. Fairy women take body of dead hero to fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F324. †F324. Girl abducted by fairy. Irish myth: *Cross.

F324.1. †F324.1. Girl borrows comb and mirror from bonga (fairy): carried to fairyland when she returns them. (Cf. †F322.1.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F324.2. †F324.2. Woman beset by elves (or phantoms) drowns self. Irish myth: Cross.

F324.3. †F324.3. Youth abducted by fairy. Irish myth: Cross.

F325.1. †F325.1. Fairies kidnap boy when he breaks tabu by going outside mansion under earth before 12 years. India: Thompson-Balys.

F326. †F326. Fairy father carries off child of mortal mother. Irish myth: Cross.

F327. †F327. Family carried away to fairyland as part of bargain. Irish myth: *Cross.

F328. †F328. Fairies entice people into their domain. England, Scotland: *Baughman.

F329. †F329. Other fairy abductions.

F329.1. †F329.1. Fairies carry off youth; he has gift of prophecy when he returns to earth (Thomas the Rhymer). Scotland: Baughman.

F329.2. †F329.2. Fairies abduct young woman, return her when fight starts over her. England: Baughman.

F329.3. †F329.3. Fairies take persons up in air in chariots for a fortnight or a month. The lost are finally found in fields bereft of sense and with one of the members missing. Scotland: Baughman.

F329.4. †F329.4. Fairies who stay with mortals. See also †F321.1. Changeling.

F329.4.1. †F329.4.1. Lost fairy child found by mortals. Mortals feed, warm it, keep it until one day it hears voice calling: "Coleman Grey!" It leaves with the remark "Ho! ho! ho! My Daddy's come!" England: *Baughman.

F329.4.2. †F329.4.2. Fairy child found and cared for, but it pines away. England: Baughman.

F329.4.3. †F329.4.3. Fairy captured by mortal escapes. England, Wales: *Baughman.

F330. †F330. Grateful fairies. *Hdwb. d. Märch. s. v. "Geschenke des kleinen Volkes"; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "fées".

F331. †F331. Mortal wins fairies' gratitude by joining in their sport. Ireland, England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman (†F286.2.).

F331.1. †F331.1. Mortal wins fairies' gratitude by joining in their dance. *Type 503; BP III 324ff.; England, Scotland, Wales: *Baughman (†F379.5.); Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bossu"; Japanese: Mitford 191, Ikeda.

F331.2. †F331.2. Mortal wins fairies' gratitude by letting them cut his hair and shave him. *Type 503.

F331.3. †F331.3. Mortal wins fairies' gratitude by joining in their song and completing it by adding the names of the days of the week. *Type 503; *BP III 329; Japanese: Ikeda.

F331.4. †F331.4. Mortal wins fairies' gratitude by playing for their dance. *Type 503; BP III 324ff.; *Fb "spille" III 488b; Hartland Science 180.

F332. †F332. Fairy grateful for hospitality. England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales: *Baughman; Scotch: Campbell Tales II 51, Macdougall and Calder 215, 217.

F332.0.1. †F332.0.1. Fairy grateful to mortal for daily food. Irish myth: Cross.

F333. †F333. Fairy grateful to human midwife. (Cf. †F372.1.) Hartland Science 55f.; Scotland, Ireland, Wales: *Baughman.

F334. †F334. Fairy grateful to mortal for healing. Hartland Science 57; U.S.: Baughman.

F335. †F335. Fairy grateful for loan. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b.

F335.1. †F335.1. Fairy grateful for loan of meal causes the vessel to remain full thereafter. (Cf. †D1652.1.) Canada, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

F336. †F336. Fairies loyal to mortal who owns their knoll. Scotland: Baughman, Macdougall and Calder 193.

F337. †F337. Fairy grateful to mortal for saving his life. (Cf. †F304.5.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F337.1. †F337.1. Fairy grateful to mortal for saving children's life. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F338. †F338. Fairies grateful to man who repairs their utensils or implements. England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.

F339. †F339. Other grateful fairies.

F339.1. †F339.1. Fairy grateful for rides on man's back, warns him his cow is choking. Ireland: Baughman.

F339.2. †F339.2. Fairies care for tulip bed out of gratitude to owner for not plucking any of blossoms. England: *Baughman.

F339.3. †F339.3. Fairy grateful for returning lost fairy child.

F339.3.1. †F339.3.1. Fairies do all house and farm work for family who returns lost child. England: Baughman.

F339.3.2. †F339.3.2. Fairies cause all ewes to have two lambs for owner who has returned fairy child. Wales: Baughman.

F340. †F340. Gifts from fairies. Type 503; BP III 324; Hdwb. d. Märch. s. v. "Elbengeschenke", "Geschenke des kleinen Volkes"; Irish myth: *Cross; French: Saintyves Perrault 72ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone Introduction; India: Thompson-Balys.

F340.1. †F340.1. Parting fairies leave gifts for newborn princess. India: Thompson-Balys.

F341. †F341. Fairies give fulfillment of wishes. Hartland Science 55; Scotch: Campbell Tales II 51; English: Wells 32 (Layamon's Brut); Wales: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

F341.1. †F341.1. Fairies give three gifts. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "dons". Rotunda: Italian Novella.

F341.2. †F341.2. Fairy ransoms self with wish. Irish myth: Cross.

F341.2.1. †F341.2.1. Captured water fairy promises to make ugly man beautiful in return for her release. India: Thompson-Balys.

F342. †F342. Fairies give mortal money. Hartland Science 39, 53, 56; Irish myth: Cross; English: Wells (Sir Launfal); Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bourse"; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3594.

F342.1. †F342.1. Fairy gold. Fairies give coals (wood, earth) that turns to gold. *Type 503; BP I 366, III 324ff.; Hartland Science 57; Fb "kul" II 326b, "guld" I 512, "hövlspån" I 762, "jord" II 45b. --England: Baughman; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 308 No. 2; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 47 No. 388; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 434, Index No. *771, 3648; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F342.2. †F342.2. Man borrows money from fairy (dwarf, devil). When the man brings the money back, he learns that the fairy was killed by thunder. He keeps the money. German, Swedish, Finnish-Swedish, Estonian, Livonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Kashubish, and Wendish: Balys Tautosakos Darbai VI 163--195.

F343. †F343. Other presents from fairies.

F343.0.1. †F343.0.1. Fairy offers mortal choice of magic objects. (Cf. †D813.) Irish myth: Cross.

F343.1. †F343.1. Fairies give woman silver spoons. Hartland Science 38.

F343.2. †F343.2. Fairies give hunter a dog. Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 285ff.

F343.2.1. †F343.2.1. Dogs as gifts from fairy. Irish myth: *Cross.

F343.3. †F343.3. Fairy smith gives knight a magic sword. English: Wells 32 (Layamon's Brut); Scotch: Campbell Tales III 122.

F343.4. †F343.4. Fairies give avaricious man gift of benevolence. Hartland Science 55.

F343.5. †F343.5. Fairies give beautiful clothes. Irish myth: Cross; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 10.

F343.5.1. †F343.5.1. Fairy gives magic cloak (and shirt). Irish myth: *Cross.

F343.6. †F343.6. Bonga lends dishes to mortals. India: Thompson-Balys.

F343.7. †F343.7. Fairy-wife furnishes provisions. India: Thompson-Balys.

F343.8. †F343.8. Fairy leaves goats as purchase price for girl he has carried off. India: Thompson-Balys.

F343.9. †F343.9. Fairy gives man horses, cattle, etc. Irish myth: *Cross; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F343.9.1. †F343.9.1. Horses as fairy gifts. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

F343.10. †F343.10. Fairy gives warrior equipment for soldiers. Irish myth: *Cross.

F343.10.1. †F343.10.1. Fairy gives person magic sword. Irish myth: *Cross.

F343.10.2. †F343.10.2. Fairy gives person magic spear. Irish myth: *Cross.

F343.10.3. †F343.10.3. Fairy gives person invulnerable shield. Irish myth: *Cross.

F343.11. †F343.11. Fairy offers man change of form and feature for aid in battle. Irish myth: Cross.

F343.12. †F343.12. Grateful fairy gives ring. Icelandic: Göngu-Hrólfs saga 277.

F343.13. †F343.13. Fairy gives mortals a child. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

F343.14. †F343.14. Golden cup (bowl, urn) as gifts from otherworld inhabitants. Irish myth: *Cross.

F343.15. †F343.15. Magic apple as fairy gift. Irish myth: *Cross.

F343.16. †F343.16. Gigantic ox rib as gift from fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F343.16.1. †F343.16.1. Gigantic hog rib as gift from fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F343.17. †F343.17. Fairies give haymakers dinner each year until one of men keeps a fairy knife. They give no more food even though the man returns the knife. (Cf. †F353.) England: Baughman.

F343.18. †F343.18. Fairies return hatchet head lost in river. England: Baughman.

F343.19. †F343.19. Fairies give mortals fairy bread.

F343.19.1. †F343.19.1. Fairy bread must be eaten same day it is given or it turns to toadstools. Wales: Baughman.

F343.20. †F343.20. Sack of coals as fairy gift. India: Thompson-Balys.

F344. †F344. Fairies heal mortals. Irish myth: *Cross.

F344.1. †F344.1. Fairies remove hunchback's hump (or replace it). *Type 503; BP III 324ff.; RTP I 129, 186, III 582, V 690, VIII 549, IX 285, X 124, XX 389, XXII 79, XXVII 490; Clouston Tales I 352; FL XIX 324ff. --Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 205ff.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bossu"; cf. Japanese: Mitford 191ff., Ikeda.

F344.2. †F344.2. Fairy physician can heal anyone whose spine is not severed. Irish myth: Cross.

F344.3. †F344.3. Fairies give man white powder to cure mortals, replenish his supply whenever needed. England: Baughman.

F345. †F345. Fairies instructs mortals. Irish myth: *Cross.

F345.1. †F345.1. Fairies teach mortal to walk under water. Irish myth: *Cross.

F345.2. †F345.2. Supernatural person (poet) reveals marital infidelity. Irish myth: *Cross.

F346. †F346. Fairy helps mortal with labor. England, Scotland, Wales: *Baughman; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 187; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3695; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 4; Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 181 No. 36.

F346.0.1. †F346.0.1. Fairy serves mortal. Irish myth: Cross.

F346.1. †F346.1. Fairies make shoes for shoemaker. German: Grimm No. 39; BP I 364.

F346.2. †F346.2. Fairies build house for mortal. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 508, 510.

F347. †F347. Fairy adviser. Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 199, 223; Icelandic: *Boberg; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14f.

F347.1. †F347.1. Bonga made village headman and advice asked. India: Thompson-Balys.

F348. †F348. Tabus connected with fairy gifts.

F348.0.1. †F348.0.1. Fairy gift disappears or is turned to something worthless when tabu is broken. German: Grimm No. 182; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *771.

F348.1. †F348.1. Fairy gift not to be taken to earth. Hartland Science 50.

F348.2. †F348.2. Cup given by fairy not to be broken. Bad luck will follow (Luck of Edenhall). Hartland Science 156f.; Gröning Am Urquell IV 101f., 208f.; Sprenger ibid. V 34, VI 41, *191 n. 1; Grimm Deutsche Sagen No. 547.

F348.3. †F348.3. Fairy gift not to leave possession of mortal's family. Bad luck will follow. Hartland Science 56.

F348.4. †F348.4. Gifts of gold and silver not to be accepted from fairies. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 277.

F348.5. †F348.5. Mortal not to recognize fairy who gives him gift. Hartland Science 57.

F348.5.1. †F348.5.1. Mortal not to betray secret of fairies' gift. Wales, England: *Baughman.

F348.5.1.1. †F348.5.1.1. Mortal not to tell secret of gift of inexhaustible meat. India: Thompson-Balys.

F348.5.2. †F348.5.2. Mortal not to thank fairy for gifts. England: *Baughman (†F451.5.10.9).

F348.6. †F348.6. Gifts of the fairies must never be measured or counted. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3694.

F348.7. †F348.7. Tabu: telling of fairy gifts; the gifts cease. England, Wales: *Baughman.

F348.7.1. †F348.7.1. Abuse of fairy gifts brings about their loss. Wales: Baughman.

F348.8. †F348.8. Tabu: mortal for whom fairy works must not watch him at work. England, Scotland, Wales: *Baughman.

F348.9. †F348.9. Gift barrel of ale which never runs dry goes dry when maid looks into bunghole. England: Baughman.

F348.9.1. †F348.9.1. Fairy gifts turn to paper when shown. (Cf. †F342.1, †F348.0.1.) Wales: Baughman.

F349. †F349. Gifts from fairies -- miscellaneous.

F349.1. †F349.1. Fairy aids mortal in flight. Irish myth: *Cross.

F349.2. †F349.2. Fairy aids mortal in battle. Irish myth: *Cross.

F349.3. †F349.3. Fairies exile devastating host. Irish myth: Cross.

F349.4. †F349.4. Fairy promises abundant crops, etc., to mortal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F350. †F350. Theft from fairies.

F351. †F351. Theft of money from fairies. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F351.1. †F351.1. Theft of money from fairies by joining unperceived in their game of money-throwing. Hartland Science 139; England: *Baughman.

F351.2. †F351.2. Theft of money from fairies by frightening them away from it. Hartland Science 140.

F352. †F352. Theft of cup (drinking horn) from fairies. Fb "guldhorn" I 513; Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 206ff., (1928) 144ff.; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 590, *Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 65 No. 559.

F352.1. †F352.1. Theft of cup (drinking horn) from fairies when they offer mortal drink. Hartland Science 141--159 passim; Boberg Festskrift til Hammerich, 1952, 53--61. --England: *Baughman.

F352.2. †F352.2. Theft of vessel from water-deity. India: Thompson-Balys.

F353. †F353. Kettle borrowed from fairies and not returned. (Cf. †F343.17.) Hartland Science 244; England: *Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

F354. †F354. Fairy's ornament snatched. Irish myth: Cross.

F355. †F355. King's crown stolen from fairyland. Irish myth: Cross.

F356. †F356. Fairy cattle (bull, cow) stolen. Irish myth: *Cross.

F357. †F357. Unsuccessful attempt to steal fairy necklace. Irish myth: *Cross.

F358. †F358. Money borrowed from the fairies and not returned on time. England: *Baughman.

F359. †F359. Theft from fairies -- miscellaneous.

F359.1. †F359.1. Eggs stolen from fairies. India: Thompson-Balys.

F359.2. †F359.2. Theft of golden bird from fairies. India: Thompson-Balys.

F360. †F360. Malevolent or destructive fairies (= pixies). Saintyves Perrault 83ff.; Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 62, Beal XXI 324; Icelandic: Boberg, Papua: Ker 73.

F360.0.1. †F360.0.1. Malevolent or hostile beings in otherworld. Irish myth: *Cross.

F360.1. †F360.1. Fairies pursue unbaptized children. *Fb "udøbt" III 959b.

F361. †F361. Fairy's revenge. Irish myth: *Cross.

F361.1. †F361.1. Fairy takes revenge for being slighted.

F361.1.1. †F361.1.1. Fairy takes revenge for not being invited to feast. *Type 410; BP I 434ff.; Missouri French: Carrière.

F361.1.2. †F361.1.2. Fairy takes revenge for not being offered food (drink). Irish myth: Cross.

F361.1.2.1. †F361.1.2.1. Fairy takes revenge for mortal's failure to bring food and drink to fairy son's wedding. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F361.2. †F361.2. Fairy takes revenge for theft. Hartland Science 141, 143; Jacobs's list s. v. "Red Cap"; Scotch: Campbell Tales II 52.

F361.2.1. †F361.2.1. Fairy recovers stolen cup by posing as a beggar. Hartland Science 141.

F361.2.2. †F361.2.2. Fairies cause man to lose his senses after he steals flower while visiting them. Wales: Baughman.

F361.2.3. †F361.2.3. Fairies bind man fast to ground after he has attempted to capture fairy prince and princess. England: Baughman.

F361.2.4. †F361.2.4. Fairy gifts stop when man steals fairy knife. England: Baughman.

F361.3. †F361.3. Fairies take revenge on person who spies on them. Spy uses magic salve on one eye. Fairies tear out the eye. Hartland Science 66ff.; Jacob's list s. v. "Fairy salve". --Irish: Cross, E. Andrews Ulster Folklore (New York, 1919) 66f.; Welsh: Rhys Celtic Folklore I 63, 98f., 198, 213, 220--228, 241f., 292; English: FLJ II 154; Icelandic: Rittershaus 303; Färoe: Jiriczek Zs. f. Vksk. II 13 No. 14; Danish: Thiele DF II 202f.; German: Meyer Germanen 182; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3276f.; Legends Nos. 429, 431, 433, 438ff., 442, 444, 447; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 47 No. 388; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 308 No. 2; India: Thompson-Balys.

F361.3.1. †F361.3.1. Fairies leave work unfinished when overseen. (Cf. †F271.2.1, †F271.5.) Irish myth: *Cross; England: Baughman.

F361.3.2. †F361.3.2. Fairies chase person who watches them dance. England: Baughman (†F261.4.)

F361.4. †F361.4. Fairies take revenge on trespassers on ground they claim as theirs. *Fb "stald" III 534ab; Irish myth: *Cross; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 191; Scotland, Ireland, U.S.: Baughman.

F361.5. †F361.5. Fairies punish girl who pours hot water into their spring. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 47 No. 392.

F361.6. †F361.6. Fairies slay wooer (or his kin) of fairy maiden. Irish myth: Cross.

F361.7. †F361.7. Fairies take revenge on mortals who hold their king captive. Irish myth: *Cross.

F361.8. †F361.8. Fairy takes revenge for slaying of his relatives. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

F361.9. †F361.9. Fairies take revenge for being dishonored. Irish myth: Cross.

F361.10. †F361.10. Fairies take revenge for being teased. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3693.

F361.11. †F361.11. Fairies threaten watcher of sheep. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3696.

F361.12. †F361.12. Fairies take revenge on mortals who destroy their homes. Irish myth: *Cross; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F361.13. †F361.13. Fairies take revenge for cheating. England: Baughman.

F361.14. †F361.14. Fairy punishes servant girl who fails to leave food for him. England, Wales: *Baughman.

F361.15. †F361.15. Fairies punish mortals who refuse to eat fairy food given them. England, Ireland: *Baughman.

F361.16. †F361.16. Fairies punish person who needs punishing because of his treatment of other mortals. (Cf. †F311.1.) England, Scotland: *Baughman.

F361.17. †F361.17. Other punishments by fairies.

F361.17.1. †F361.17.1. Fairies lame miller who throws sod into his kiln where fairies are cooking oatmeal; the oatmeal scalds them. England: *Baughman.

F361.17.2. †F361.17.2. Fairies take revenge on smith who disturbs them in the smithy when he returns after dark to get medicine. Ireland: Baughman.

F361.17.3. †F361.17.3. Fairies pinch plowboy who breaks their wooden oven as he plows. England: Baughman.

F361.17.4. †F361.17.4. Fairy breaks leg of servant girl who tells lies about him. Scotland: Baughman.

F361.17.5. †F361.17.5. Fairies bathe children in churn when housewife forgets to leave a supply of clear water for the fairies. Ireland: Baughman.

F361.17.6. †F361.17.6. Fairy kills dog that refuses to let fairy sleep in stack. Scotland: Baughman.

F361.17.7. †F361.17.7. Fairy kills man who refuses his hospitality. Man refuses to visit fairy after being invited. (Cf. †F361.15.) England: Baughman.

F361.17.8. †F361.17.8. Fairies chase man who dares them to come chase him. He barely gets home ahead of them; they drive iron javelin through iron-covered door. (Cf. †C20.) England: *Baughman.

F361.17.9. †F361.17.9. Fairy mistress strikes her disobedient human lover on the face and predicts death. India: Thompson-Balys.

F362. †F362. Fairies cause disease. Kittredge Witchcraft 33, 147, cf. 218; Irish myth: *Cross; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 225; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F362.1. †F362.1. Fairies cause blindness. Hartland Science 66ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

F362.2. †F362.2. Fairies cause insanity. *Fb "ellepige" I 242a, "ellefolk" I 241b, "sær" III 723b; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F362.3. †F362.3. Fairies cause weakness. Irish myth: *Cross.

F362.4. †F362.4. Fairy causes mutilation (injury). Irish myth: *Cross.

F363. †F363. Fairies cause death. (Cf. †F364.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F363.1. †F363.1. Fairies, directed by druid, bring about death of king by causing fish-bone to stick in his throat. Irish myth: *Cross.

F363.2. †F363.2. Brownie (Redcap, Redcomb, Bloody Cap) murders travelers, catches their blood in his cap. England: Baughman.

F363.3. †F363.3. Sight of fairies fatal. India: Thompson-Balys.

F363.4. †F363.4. Fairy's look burns mortal to ashes. India: Thompson-Balys.

F363.5. †F363.5. Fairy calls her victim only once or twice. India: Thompson-Balys.

F363.6. †F363.6. Fairies tickle mortals to death. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F364. †F364. War between fairies and mortals. Irish myth: *Cross.

F364.1. †F364.1. Fairy warriors sit upon mortals and thus kill them. Irish myth: *Cross.

F364.2. †F364.2. Fairies wrestle with mortals. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F364.3. †F364.3. War between fairies and giants. India: Thompson-Balys.

F365. †F365. Fairies steal. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b, "stjæle" III 576a; Irish myth: *Cross; England, Scotland, Ireland: *Baughman.

F365.0.1. †F365.0.1. Fairy steals on Hallowe'en. Irish myth: Cross.

F365.1. †F365.1. Fairies steal ass. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "âne".

F365.2. †F365.2. Fairies steal anchor. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "ancre".

F365.3. †F365.3. Fairies occupy peasant's house. *Fb "hus" I 687a.

F365.4. †F365.4. Fairy (bonga) steals part of crop. India: Thompson-Balys.

F365.5. †F365.5. Fairies steal pieces as mortal plays draughts with fairy woman. Irish myth: Cross.

F365.6. †F365.6. Fairies steal cattle (pig). Irish myth: *Cross.

F365.7. †F365.7. Fairies steal cooking. Irish myth: *Cross.

F365.8. †F365.8. Fairies steal wool. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F366. †F366. Fairies abuse livestock.

F366.1. †F366.1. Fairies milk mortal's cows dry. *Kittredge Witchcraft 166, 484 n. 23; Fb "ko" II 240b; England: Baughman.

F366.1.1. †F366.1.1. Fairies milk mortal's mare. Hartland Science 130.

F366.1.2. †F366.1.2. Fairies admit calves to cows, depriving children of milk. Irish myth: *Cross.

F366.1.3. †F366.1.3. Fairies ride farmer's calves. England: *Baughman.

F366.2. †F366.2. Fairies ride mortal's horses at night. *Kittredge Witchcraft 219f., 526ff. nn. 65--77; Fb "marelok" II 553; England, U.S.: *Baughman; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 127 No. 60; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 60.

F366.2.1. †F366.2.1. Fairies plait manes and tails of horses. Canada, England: *Baughman.

F366.2.2. †F366.2.2. Fairy rides behind man on horse. Ireland: Baughman.

F366.3. †F366.3. Fairies in form of devastating animals kill flocks. Irish myth: Cross.

F366.4. †F366.4. Fairies control prosperity. Irish myth: Cross.

F366.5. †F366.5. Fairy hangs on to carriage on road. (Cf. †E272.1.) England: Baughman.

F367. †F367. Destructive fairy drink. Upon returning to earth mortal pours out drink which had been offered by fairies. It burns up whatever it touches. Hartland Science 144.

F368. †F368. Human beings as game in fairy hunt. India: Thompson-Balys.

F369. †F369. Malevolent fairies -- miscellaneous.

F369.1. †F369.1. Fairies set fire to buildings. Irish myth: *Cross.

F369.2. †F369.2. Fairies defile waters Irish myth: *Cross.

F369.3. †F369.3. Fairy kills mortal's hound (horses). Irish myth: Cross.

F369.4. †F369.4. Fairy tricks mortal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F369.4.1. †F369.4.1. Fairy incites mortals to war. Irish myth: *Cross.

F369.5. †F369.5. Fairies destroy crops. Irish myth: *Cross.

F369.5.1. †F369.5.1. Fairies snip corn from stalks. Irish myth: *Cross.

F369.6. †F369.6. Fairy prevents butter coming. (Cf. †D2084.2.) U.S.: Baughman.

F369.7. †F369.7. Fairies lead travelers astray. (Cf. †E272.10, †F401.3, †F491.1.) Canada, England, Ireland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

F369.8. †F369.8. Elephants become lean from listening too much to fairy music; cannot graze. India: Thompson-Balys.

F370. †F370. Visit to fairyland. BP II 329. --Irish myth: *Cross; Danish: Feilberg DF V 55ff.; Norwegian: Solheim Register 18f.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F371. †F371. Human being reared in fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross; Scotland: Baughman.

F372. †F372. Fairies take human nurse to attend fairy child. Irish myth: *Cross; English: *Child I 358 No. 40; England, Scotland: Baughman; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "nourrice".

F372.1. †F372.1. Fairies take human midwife to attend fairy woman. (Cf. †F333.) *Hartland Science 37--92; *Fb "jordemoder"; *BP I 367; Wentz Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries (London, 1911) 49f., 54, 131, 140, 175, 182; Tobler 76. --English: Child I 358ff. No. 40, II 505f., III 505f., IV 459a, V 215b, 290b; Scottish: J. G. Campbell Superstitions 147; England, Scotland, Ireland, U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: Göngu Hrólfs saga 275ff.; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 44 No. 41; Danish: Feilberg DF V 69ff., Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 330ff., (1928) 210ff.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "sage-femme", "fées"; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

F372.2. †F372.2. Fairies seek human godparent. *BP I 366; Hartland Science 170.

F372.2.1. †F372.2.1. Old man as godfather to underground folk. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 43 No. 56; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 126 No. 56.

F373. †F373. Mortal abandons world to live in fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F374. †F374. Longing in fairyland to visit home. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F375. †F375. Mortals as captives in fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F376. †F376. Mortal as servant in fairyland. *Hdwb. d. Märch. I 396 s. v. "Dienst bei elbischen Wesen"; Irish myth: *Cross; Danish: Feilberg DF V 84ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 440.

F376.1. †F376.1. Tailor works in fairyland. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 439, Balys Historical.

F377. †F377. Supernatural lapse of time in fairyland. Years seem days. *Hartland Science 161--195; Jacobs's list s. v. "Time flies"; *Child I 321 n.; *Burnham PMLA XXIII 394 n. 2; Fb "glemme" IV 181a. --Irish myth: *Cross; England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 585; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 265, Ikeda; Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 280; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 157, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 185, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 177.

F377.1. †F377.1. Supernatural lapse of time in paradise. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

F377.2. †F377.2. Year seems few hours in otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F378. †F378. Tabus connected with trip to fairyland. (Cf. †F348.5, †F361.3.)

F378.0.1. †F378.0.1. Mortal expelled from fairyland for breaking tabu. India: Thompson-Balys.

F378.1. †F378.1. Tabu: touching ground on return from fairyland. Hartland Science 164f.; Irish myth: *Cross; England: Baughman.

F378.2. †F378.2. Tabu: bathing or touching water in lake in fairyland. India: Thompson-Balys.

F378.3. †F378.3. Mortal visiting in fairyland must keep his thought on the fairies. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F378.4. †F378.4. Tabu: drinking from certain well in fairyland. Person does, finds himself alone on hillside. (Cf. †C260.) Wales: *Baughman.

F378.5. †F378.5. Tabu: plucking flowers from bed tended by fairies. England: *Baughman.

F378.6. †F378.6. Tabu: using fairy bath water, soap, or ointment on oneself while bathing fairy child. (Cf. †F235.4.) England: Baughman.

F379. †F379. Fairy visits -- miscellaneous.

F379.1. †F379.1. Return from fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F379.1.1. †F379.1.1. No return from fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F379.2. †F379.2. Objects brought home from fairyland.

F379.2.1. †F379.2.1. Book (medical) brought back from otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

F379.2.2. †F379.2.2. Tokens brought back by mortal returning from fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F379.3. †F379.3. Man lives with fairies seven years. Wales: Baughman.

F379.4. †F379.4. Saint visits king of fairies on invitation of fairy king. Saint sprinkles holy water on fairy king, finds himself alone on hill. Wales: Baughman.

F380. †F380. Defeating or ridding oneself of fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F381. †F381. Getting rid of fairies.

F381.1. †F381.1. Fairy leaves when he is named. BP I 366; cf. Type 500.

F381.2. †F381.2. Fairies leaves when mortal strews peas in his path. BP I 365.

F381.2.1. †F381.2.1. Escape from pursuing fairies by strewing path with bananas. Africa (Ashanti): Rattray 55.

F381.3. †F381.3. Fairy leaves when he is given clothes. BP I 364; England, Scotland, U.S.: Baughman.

F381.4. †F381.4. Fairy escaped by learning and using his secrets. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 56 No. 484.

F381.5. †F381.5. Fairy lured away from house by treasure which he claims. India: Thompson-Balys.

F381.6. †F381.6. Fairy leaves when druid utters spell that drowns her voice. Irish myth: *Cross.

F381.7. †F381.7. Fairies leave when people do their needs where they live. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F381.8. †F381.8. Spinning fairies lured away from the house by fire alarm. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3698.

F381.9. †F381.9. Fairies will not approach when dogs are present. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F381.10. †F381.10. Fairies leave when person watches them at work. (Cf. †F348.10.)

F381.11. †F381.11. Fairy leaves when given impossible tasks to do. Scotland: Baughman.

F381.12. †F381.12. Fairies leave when ordered to fight each other. Scotland: Baughman.

F381.13. †F381.13. Fairies leave when thanked for their work. (Cf. †F451.5.10.9.)

F382. †F382. Exorcising fairies. Fairies disappear when some name or ceremony of the Christian Church is used. Hartland Science 107, 127, 130, 138f., 166; Fb "Kristen" II 300, "døbe" I 227, "messevin" II 582, "trold" III 852a; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; England: Baughman; Scotch: Campbell Tales II 74; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 50 No. 416.

F382.1. †F382.1. Fairies fear the cross. England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, U.S.: Baughman; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F382.2. †F382.2. Holy water breaks fairy spell. (Cf. †G303.16.7.) U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

F382.3. †F382.3. Use of God's name nullifies fairies' power. (Cf. †D1766.7, †G303.16.8.) Wales: Baughman.

F382.4. †F382.4. Opening Holy Bible in presence of fairies nullifies their spells. England: Baughman.

F382.5. †F382.5. Chanting song of St. Nicholas drives fairy away. U.S.: Baughman.

F382.6. †F382.6. Asking grace at fairy banquet causes fairies and banquet to disappear. (Cf. †G271.2.3.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

F383. †F383. Fairy rendered powerless.

F383.1. †F383.1. Fairy unable to pass cross-roads. Hartland Science 142.

F383.2. †F383.2. Fairy unable to cross running stream. Hartland Science 144; England, U.S.: Baughman.

F383.3. †F383.3. Fairy unable to cross plowed ground. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b.

F383.4. †F383.4. Fairy must leave at cockcrow. Type 503; Hartland Science 145; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 229.

F383.4.1. †F383.4.1. Fairy prince becomes mortal when surprised by daylight. India: Thompson-Balys.

F383.4.2. †F383.4.2. Fairies leave at rise of morning star. Cook Islands: Beckwith Myth 336.

F383.4.3. †F383.4.3. Sunlight fatal to fairies. Maori: Clark 98.

F383.5. †F383.5. Transformed fairy warriors disenchanted when attacked. Irish myth: *Cross.

F384. †F384. Magic objects powerful against fairies. England: Baughman; Irish: Beal XXI 324.

F384.1. †F384.1. Salt powerful against fairies.

F384.1.1. †F384.1.1. Salt renders fairy mortal. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "sel".

F384.1.2. †F384.1.2. Salt sprinkled on fairy food renders it harmless. Hartland Science 128; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 523f.

F384.2. †F384.2. Steel powerful against fairies. Fb "stål" III 647a; Wales, U.S.: Baughman.

F384.3. †F384.3. Iron powerful against fairies. Hartland Science 163f.; Penzer II 166; Irish myth: Cross, Baughman; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 59 No. 504; Japanese: Ikeda.

F384.4. †F384.4. Wearing flowers on one's ears protects from fairies. India: Thompson-Balys.

F385. †F385. Means of averting fairy spells.

F385.1. †F385.1. Fairy spell averted by turning coat. This is supposed to reverse the spell. *Kittredge Witchcraft 215, 523 n. 21.

F386. †F386. Fairy punished.

F386.1. †F386.1. Fairy imprisoned in tree. (Cf. †F386.5.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F386.1.1. †F386.1.1. Fairy harper enclosed in yew-tree. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 73.

F386.2. †F386.2. Fairy punished for marrying a mortal. India: Thompson-Balys.

F386.3. †F386.3. Troublesome bonga (fairy) pegged to ground and placed under stone. India: Thompson-Balys.

F386.4. †F386.4. Fairy transformed as punishment. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F386.5. †F386.5. Fairy imprisoned as punishment. (Cf. †F386.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F387. †F387. Fairy captured. Irish myth: *Cross.

F388. †F388. Fairies depart.

F388.1. †F388.1. Fairies depart to heaven. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 333.

F388.2. †F388.2. Fairies depart to floating island. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 330.

F389. †F389. Fairies otherwise defeated.

F389.1. †F389.1. Fairies driven off with fire. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b; India: Thompson-Balys.

F389.2. †F389.2. Abduction of Christianized fairy woman by fairies prevented by saint. Irish myth: *Cross.

F389.3. †F389.3. Fairy wounded by mortal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F389.4. †F389.4. Fairy killed by mortal. Irish myth: *Cross.

F389.5. †F389.5. Fairy defeated by druid's magic. Irish myth: *Cross.

F390. †F390. Fairies -- miscellaneous motifs.

F391. †F391. Fairies borrow from mortals. *Fb "ellefolk" I 241b.

F391.1. †F391.1. Animals borrowed by fairies. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "animaux".

F391.1.1. †F391.1.1. Ox lent fairies must not be worked after sunset. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "boeuf".

F391.2. †F391.2. Fairies borrow food from mortals. Scotland, Canada, U.S.: *Baughman.

F391.3. †F391.3. Fairies borrow tools to make coffin. Ireland: Baughman.

F392. †F392. Fairy transforms self to fly, allows self to be swallowed by woman and reborn as fairy. Malone PMLA XLIII 417.

F393. †F393. Fairy visits among mortals. Irish myth: *Cross.

F393.0.1. †F393.0.1. Fairy dissatisfied with fairyland leaves to live among mortals. Irish myth: *Cross.

F393.1. †F393.1. Fairy minstrel lives among mortals to learn of their heroic deeds. (Cf. †F262.3.) Irish myth: Cross.

F393.2. †F393.2. Fairy appears to mortal each Hallowe'en. Irish myth: Cross.

F393.3. †F393.3. Impoverished fairy seeks fortune among mortals. Irish myth: Cross.

F393.4. †F393.4. Otherworld woman appears to mortal in sleep. Irish myth: *Cross.

F394. †F394. Mortals help fairies.

F394.1. †F394.1. Mortal advises fairy. Irish myth: Cross.

F394.1.1. †F394.1.1. Druid directs fairies. Irish myth: *Cross.

F394.2. †F394.2. Mortals aid fairies in war. Irish myth: *Cross.

F395. †F395. Fairy has power to prevent mortal's approach. Irish myth: Cross.

F396. †F396. Mortals place selves under protection of fairies. Irish myth: Cross.

F397. †F397. Fairy woman exhibits her figure to warriors. Is most beautiful of women. Irish myth: Cross.

F398. †F398. Hair burned to summon fairies. India: Thompson-Balys.

F399. †F399. Other fairy motifs.

F399.1. †F399.1. Fairies bear dead warrior to fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F399.2. †F399.2. Fairies protect selves by means of smoke. Irish myth: Cross.

F399.3. †F399.3. Fairies hate clerics. Irish myth: *Cross.

F399.4. †F399.4. Playful or troublesome fairies. England: *Baughman.

F399.4.1. †F399.4.1. Fairies sport with mortal. India: Thompson-Balys.

†F400-†F499. Spirits and demons.

F400. †F400. Spirits and demons (general). *Encyc. Rel. Ethics s. v. "Demons and Spirits"; Roscher s. v. "Daimon" I 938; Pauly-Wissowa s. v. "Daimon" IV 2010; Wehrhan Die Sage 59f.; *Runeberg Witches, Demons and Fertility Magic (Helsinki, 1947); *Hdwb. d. Abergl. s. v. "Dämonen". --Irish myth: *Cross; Dutch: *Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 52ff.; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 37ff. Nos. 1--39; Slovenian: *L. Kretzenbacher Germanische Mythen in der epischen Volksdichtung der Slowenen (Graz, 1941); Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 316, IV passim, Neuman; Chinese: Werner 402; Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 244.

F400.1. †F400.1. Geniti (geilti) glinne, bánánaig, bocánaig, and other supernatural beings associated with confusion or strife. Irish myth: *Cross.

F401. †F401. Appearance of spirits.

F401.1. †F401.1. Spirits dressed in antique clothes. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 309 No. 19. See Irving's Rip Van Winkle.

F401.2. †F401.2. Luminous spirits. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 306 No. 13.

F401.3. †F401.3. Spirit in animal form. West Indies: Flowers 433.

F401.3.0.1. †F401.3.0.1. Demons on animal feet. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 307 No. 33.

F401.3.1. †F401.3.1. Spirit in form of horse. Demon horse. *Howey 35ff.

F401.3.2. †F401.3.2. Ox demon. Chinese: Werner 362.

F401.3.3. †F401.3.3. Spirit as black dog. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 25.

F401.3.3.1. †F401.3.3.1. Waumpaus: monster with huge dog tracks. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 687.

F401.3.4. †F401.3.4. Spirit as fly going into bottle. Fb "lille" II 428.

F401.3.4.1. †F401.3.4.1. Demon in form of wasp. Irish myth: Cross.

F401.3.4.2. †F401.3.4.2. Spirit in ant form. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 75.

F401.3.5. †F401.3.5. Spirits with goose (chicken) feet. Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 225.

F401.3.6. †F401.3.6. Demon in form of hare. Irish myth: Cross.

F401.3.7. †F401.3.7. Spirit in form of a bird.

F401.3.7.1. †F401.3.7.1. Demon in form of crow. Irish myth: Cross.

F401.3.7.2. †F401.3.7.2. Demons in form of black birds. Irish myth: *Cross.

F401.3.8. †F401.3.8. Spirits in form of snake. Mono-Alu: Wheeler 15, 54.

F401.4. †F401.4. Spirits without heads (or with heads under arms). *Grunwald Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXX--XXXI 317 (cf. †F511.0.1., †F531.2.1); Irish myth: *Cross.

F401.4.1. †F401.4.1. Spirit has half head. Irish myth: *Cross.

F401.5. †F401.5. Spirits appear horrible. Irish myth: *Cross.

F401.5.1. †F401.5.1. Spirit in form of horrible head. Irish myth: Cross.

F401.6. †F401.6. Spirit in human form. Irish myth: *Cross.

F401.7. †F401.7. Fire-breathing spirit. Irish myth: Cross.

F401.8. †F401.8. Gigantic spirit. Irish myth: *Cross.

F401.9. †F401.9. Spirit with feet turned wrong way. (Cf. †F451.2.2.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F402. †F402. Evil spirits. Demons. See whole chapter "G" for witches and ogres. --Greek: Grote I 66.

F402.1. †F402.1. Deeds of evil spirits.

F402.1.1. †F402.1.1. Spirit leads person astray. *Kittredge Witchcraft 215, 523 nn. 19, 20. --Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 83; India: Thompson-Balys.

F402.1.2. †F402.1.2. Spirit blocks person's road. Irish myth: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 99, Beal XXI 331; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 12.

F402.1.3. †F402.1.3. Spirits tangle up peasant's cows. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 No. 121.

F402.1.4. †F402.1.4. Demons assume human forms in order to deceive. Kittredge Witchcraft 223f., 530 nn. 98--101. --Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Mono-Alu: Wheeler 4, 6f., 18f., 32, 39, 41f., 46, 49, 51f., 60f., 61, 188.

F402.1.4.1. †F402.1.4.1. Demon takes on form of God to deceive faithful. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

F402.1.5. †F402.1.5. Demon causes disease. Irish myth: *Cross.

F402.1.5.1. †F402.1.5.1. Demons seek to carry off king's soul. Irish myth: *Cross.

F402.1.6. †F402.1.6. Spirit causes weakness. Irish myth: *Cross.

F402.1.7. †F402.1.7. Demon of gluttony devours man's food in his throat. Irish myth: Cross.

F402.1.8. †F402.1.8. Spirits put corpse into river. Irish myth: Cross.

F402.1.9. †F402.1.9. Spirit delivers false message. Irish myth: Cross.

F402.1.10. †F402.1.10. Spirit pursues person. Irish myth: Cross.

F402.1.11. †F402.1.11. Spirit causes death.

F402.1.11.1. †F402.1.11.1. Spirit (devil) sent by druids cause death of Christian king. Irish myth: Cross.

F402.1.11.2. †F402.1.11.2. Evil spirit kills and eats person. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 88.

F402.1.11.3. †F402.1.11.3. Evil spirit harpoons sleepers. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 68.

F402.1.11.4. †F402.1.11.4. Evil spirit's kiss fatal. Korean: Zong in-Sob 18.

F402.1.12. †F402.1.12. Spirit fights against person. Irish myth: *Cross.

F402.1.13. †F402.1.13. Ship held back by otherworld women. Irish myth: Cross.

F402.1.14. †F402.1.14. Spirit and horses. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

F402.1.15. †F402.1.15. Demon suitors of girl. India: Thompson-Balys.

F402.1.15.1. †F402.1.15.1. Demon seduces princess as she bathes at seashore. India: Thompson-Balys.

F402.2. †F402.2. Government of demons.

F402.2.1. †F402.2.1. King of demons (Asmodeus). Jewish: *Ginzberg Jewish Encyclopaedia s. v. "Asmodeus", bin Gorion Born Judas I 230, *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

F402.2.2. †F402.2.2. Queen of demons. Jewish: Neuman, bin Gorion Born Judas II 177, 351.

F402.2.3. †F402.2.3. Child of demon king marries mortal. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 234ff., 243ff., 249, 376f.

F402.3. †F402.3. City of demons. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 229.

F402.4. †F402.4. Demons eat ravenously. Irish myth: *Cross.

F402.5. †F402.5. Creation of demons.

F402.5.1. †F402.5.1. Demon formed from charmed apples. Irish myth: Cross.

F402.6. †F402.6. Dwelling of demons.

F402.6.1. †F402.6.1. Demon lives in tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

F402.6.1.1. †F402.6.1.1. Demon lives at root of tree. Cook Island: Beckwith Myth 252.

F402.6.2. †F402.6.2. Demons live in waste mound. India: Thompson-Balys.

F402.6.3. †F402.6.3. Demons live in well. India: Thompson-Balys.

F402.6.4. †F402.6.4. Demons live in white cliff with hole in it. (Cf. †F460) India: Thompson-Balys.

F402.6.4.1. †F402.6.4.1. Spirits live in caves. Mono-Alu: Wheeler 6f, 18f, 32, 34, 39, 41f., 46, 49, 51f, 60f, 188.

F402.7. †F402.7. Family of demons. India: Thompson-Balys.

F403. †F403. Good spirits. Greek: Grote I 66.

F403.1. †F403.1. Spirits give money to mortal. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 319 No. 24.

F403.2. †F403.2. Spirits help mortal. Familiar spirits. **Feilberg Nissens Historie; *Polívka Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 226 n. 8, XXVIII 41 n. 2; Dickson 121 n. 64, 213 n. 143; Kittredge Witchcraft 613 s. v. "familiars". --Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 97, 267, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 91; West Indies: Flowers 433.

F403.2.1. †F403.2.1. Acquisition of familiar spirit.

F403.2.1.1. †F403.2.1.1. Familiar spirit acquired by carrying egg under left arm-pit. *Polívka Zs. f. Vksk. XXVIII 41ff.

F403.2.2. †F403.2.2. Form of familiar spirit.

F403.2.2.1. †F403.2.2.1. Familiar spirit in animal form. *Kittredge Witchcraft 613 s. v. "familiars"; Tobler 37; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 61.

F403.2.2.2. †F403.2.2.2. Angels as familiar spirits. Act as servants about the house of saints and serve them otherwise. Irish: Plummer clxxxi, *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

F403.2.2.3. †F403.2.2.3. Familiar spirit equivalent to man's soul. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 10f.

F403.2.2.4. †F403.2.2.4. Spirit in bottle (bag) as helper. Norlind Skattsägner 47ff.

F403.2.2.5. †F403.2.2.5. Demon as familiar spirit. Irish myth: *Cross.

F403.2.2.6. †F403.2.2.6. Spirit as small black man. German: Grimm No. 116.

F403.2.3. †F403.2.3. Deeds of familiar spirits.

F403.2.3.1. †F403.2.3.1. Spirit in hornet form guards a treasure. Tobler 37.

F403.2.3.2. †F403.2.3.2. Spirit gives warning. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 22; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 225, Rink 120.

F403.2.3.3. †F403.2.3.3. Spirits teach boy how to sing. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 26.

F403.2.3.4. †F403.2.3.4. Familiar spirit brings news with magic speed. Kittredge Witchcraft 216f., 524 n. 36.

F403.2.3.5. †F403.2.3.5. Familiar spirit reveals infidelity of man's wife. Irish myth: Cross.

F403.2.3.6. †F403.2.3.6. Spirit gives counsel. Irish myth: Cross.

F403.2.3.7. †F403.2.3.7. Army of spirits and ghosts. India: Thompson-Balys.

F404. †F404. Means of summoning spirits.

F404.1. †F404.1. Spirit must speak as soon as addressed. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 No. 125.

F404.2. †F404.2. Conjuring spirits. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 301 No. 22, 304 No. 24, 313 No. 98, 319 No. 31; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 78.

F405. †F405. Means of combating spirits.

F405.1. †F405.1. Priest bans spirit with sword. (Cf. †D1081.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 309 No. 17.

F405.2. †F405.2. Spirits driven off by knife-thrusts and pistol shots. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 97.

F405.3. †F405.3. Spirits deceived by drum-beats and hoodwinkings. Chinese: Werner 163.

F405.4. †F405.4. Spirit (demon) baffled by scolding and getting last word. English: Child I 20--22, 485a, II 496b, 509a, III 496a, IV 440a.

F405.5. †F405.5. Cat, dog, and mouse ward off evil spirit. Man takes these animals along with him as protection. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 297 No. 28.

F405.5.1. †F405.5.1. Dogs protect house from spirits. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 61.

F405.6. †F405.6. Grain scattered as a means of dispersing spirits. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 329 No. 50.

F405.7. †F405.7. Spirit leaves when report is made of the death of one of his kind. *Taylor Washington University Studies X (Humanistic Series) 23--60; **Boberg Sagnet om den Store Pans Død (København, 1934). --Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 45 No. 374; Scandinavian: Hartmann Die Trollvorstellungen (Stuttgart, 1936) 73; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 58 No. 101.

F405.7.1. †F405.7.1. "Tell to mill-mouse that the field-mouse is dead." India: Thompson-Balys.

F405.8. †F405.8. Spirits leave when report is made of fire at their home. Denied readmittance. *Taylor Washington University Studies X (Humanistic Series) 77--79 n. 181.

F405.9. †F405.9. Spirit overcome by driving stake through body it inhabits. Irish myth: *Cross.

F405.10. †F405.10. Demons flee stone (when saint steps upon it). Irish myth: *Cross

F405.11. †F405.11. House spirit leaves when gift of clothing is left for it. (Cf. †F348.11.) England: *Baughman.

F405.12. †F405.12. Demons flee from fire. Chinese: Graham.

F405.13. †F405.13. Man captures spirit by hiding his stick and leg-wrappers of copper. When spirit gets them back by trickery he disappears. India: Thompson-Balys.

F405.14. †F405.14. Evil spirit laid after it is tormented by exorciser. India: Thompson-Balys.

F406. †F406. Spirits propitiated.

F406.1. †F406.1. Doors left open to let night creatures pass to and fro. *Zingerle Sagen aus Tirol@2 590.

F406.2. †F406.2. Food left out for spirits at night. *Fb "offre" II 735a.

F406.3. †F406.3. Spirits allow people with faces to ground to pass. Irish myth: Cross.

F406.4. †F406.4. Demon of gluttony coaxed from man's throat with bits of food. Irish myth: Cross.

F407. †F407. Departure of spirits.

F407.1. †F407.1. Spirit vanishes in smoke. *Kittredge Witchcraft 215f., 524 n. 26.

F407.1.1. †F407.1.1. Spirits ascend to heaven by building fire. New Hebrides: Codrington 379.

F407.2. †F407.2. Spirit fades into air. Irish myth: Cross.

F408. †F408. Habitation of spirit.

F408.1. †F408.1. Demon occupies (speaks from) lance (sword). Irish myth: *Cross.

F408.2. †F408.2. Spirit in heart of man (fairy). Irish myth: Cross.

F411. †F411. How spirits travel.

F411.0.1. †F411.0.1. Spirit travels with extraordinary speed. Irish myth: Cross.

F411.1. †F411.1. Demon travels in whirlwind. *Taylor FFC LXX 24 n. 1; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 190--197.

F411.2. †F411.2. Spirit floats in air. (Cf. †F418.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F411.3. †F411.3. Demon ship sails against the wind. Irish myth: Cross.

F412. †F412. Visibility of spirits.

F412.1. †F412.1. Invisible spirit speaks. Tobler 93.

F412.1.1. †F412.1.1. Spirits visible to only one person. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 172.

F412.2. †F412.2. Spirit made visible by standing on another's foot. Irish: Beal XXI 336; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 297 No. 1, 298 No. 7.

F413. †F413. Origin of spirits. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F414. †F414. Spirit carries people.

F414.1. †F414.1. Lover transported to girl's apartments in fortress by spirit. India: Thompson-Balys.

F414.2. †F414.2. Spirit transports miser to treasure-wood. India: Thompson-Balys.

F415. †F415. Demon occupies oracular artificial head and gives responses to questions. Dickson 193 n. 75, 201 n. 95.

F416. †F416. Spirits set fire to mill. Meet on Christmas (Easter) night. Cease to meet after mortal spies upon them. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 46 No. 379.

F416.1. †F416.1. Spirits keep mill from working. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F417. †F417. Spirits receive their share of everything made at certain specified times. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 46 No. 380.

F417.1. †F417.1. Spirits borrow from mortals at weddings, return goods later. India: Thompson-Balys.

F418. †F418. Spirits (demons) hover in air shrieking over battle. (Cf. †F411.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F418.1. †F418.1. Spirits answer war cry. Irish myth: *Cross.

F419. †F419. Spirits and demons -- miscellaneous.

F419.1. †F419.1. Demons hold horse-race. Irish myth: Cross.

F419.2. †F419.2. Thieving spirit. India: Thompson-Balys.

F419.3. †F419.3. Special spirit for each species of animal to act as its protector. S.A. Indian (Caviña, Tumupasa): Métraux RBAE CXLIII (3) 448.

F420. †F420. Water-spirits.†1 *Wehrhan Die Sage 74; *Meyer 101f.; W. Gregor Guardian Spirits of Wells and Locks (FL III 67--73); Roberts 121; Irish myth: *Cross; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 210; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 142ff., (1928) 100ff., FochF XI 37; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 45f. Nos. 55--65; Finnish: *Holmberg Finno-Ugric 191ff.; Finnish-Swedish: *Wessman 52ff.; Swedish: Hartmann 27; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 52; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40ff. Nos. 23--32; Slavic: Máchal 270ff.; Jewish: Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 298; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff RBAE CXLIII (3) 880, (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 50. See also †F200-†F399 (fairies and elves), †F451 (dwarfs) and †F460 (mountain-spirits) for many common motifs.

SPECIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR †F420, †F451 AND †F531 AND SUBDIVISIONS.

Baader, B., Volkssagen aus dem Lande Baden, Karlsruhe 1951. --Bechstein, L., Die Sagen des Kyffhäusers, 3d. ed., Frankenhausen a. Kyffh., C. Werneburg, 1926. --Bindewald, Th., Oberhessisches Sagenbuch, Frankfurt a. M. 1873. --Böklen, E. Am., Sneewittchenstudien, Berlin 1910. --Brüger, K., Thüringer Sagen, Leipzig 1928. --Calliano, C., Niederösterreichischer Sagenschatz, 2v., Wien, 1924. --Diezel, K., Oberfränkische Sagen, Bayreuth 1924. --Dümke, O., Havelsagen, Leipzig 1924. --Ebermann, O., Donausagen, Leipzig 1927; Elbsagen, Leipzig 1921. --Eckart, R., Südhannoversches Sagenbuch, Leipzig 1921. --Ey, A., Harzmärchenbuch, oder Sagen und Märchen aus dem Oberharz, Stade 1862. --Findeisen, H., Sagen, Märchen und Schwänke von der Insel Hiddensee, Stettin 1925. --Förstner, Clara, Kyffhäusersagen, 2ed ed. 1926. --Förstner, Clara, Aus Sagen u. Märchenwelt des Harzes, Quedlinburg 1922. --Frey, A., Schweizersagen, Leipzig 1921. --Gloning, K. A., Oberösterreichische Volkssagen, 2d ed., Linz 1912. --Gradl, H., Sagenbuch des Egergaues, Eger 1913. --Grässe, J. G., Th., Sagenbuch des Preussischen Staats, 2v., Glogau 1866--71. --Grimm, Brüder, Deutsche Sagen, 4th ed., Berlin 1903. --Haas, A., Greifswalder Sagen, Greifswald 1925; Haas, A., Sagen des Kreises Grimmen, Greifswald 1925; Haas, H., Pommersche Sagen, Berlin 1912. --Handrick, E., Müllersagen, Leipzig 1928. --Heese, Anhaltisches Sagen und Geschichtenbuch, Dessau 1925. --Henne-Am Rhyn, O., Die deutsche Volkssage, Leipzig 1874. --Henninger, K., Niederdeutsche Volkssagen, Hannover 1927. --Hessler, C., Hessischer Sagenkranz, Cassel 1928. --Hohaus, W., Die Sagen der Grafschaft Glatz, Habelschwert 1926. --Huber, H., and Zaural, J., Volkssagen aus dem Bezirk Kornenburg, Gratz 1926. --Jahn, U., Volkssagen aus Pommern und Rügen, 2d ed., Berlin 1890. --Janosh, H., Unsere Hultschiner Heimat, Ratibor 1924,--Kahlo, G., Niedersächsische Sagen, Leipzig 1923, Sagen des Harzes, Leipzig 1923. --Kapff, R., Schwäbische Sagen, Jena 1926. --Karstens, H., Meer, Marsch und Heide, Leipzig 1926. --Karstens-Goslar, H., Vom Harz zur Heide, Leipzig 1926. --Kern, J., Die Sagen des Leitmeritzer Gaues, Reichenberg 1922. --Knoop, O., Sagen u. Erzählungen aus der Provinz Posen, Posen 1893. --Kratzner, A. and Popelka, F., Sagen aus der Lausitz, Leipzig 1928. --Kuhn, A., Sagen, Gebräuche und Märchen aus Westfalen, Leipzig 1859. --Kuhn, A. und Schwartz, W., Norddeutsche Sagen, Märchen und Gebräuche, Leipzig 1848. --Kühnau, R., Schlesische Sagen, 3v., Leipzig 1910--13. --Kühne, H., Ortssagen und geographische Bilder, Leipzig 1884. --Künzig, J., Badische Sagen, Leipzig 1925; Schwarzwald Sagen, Jena 1930. --Kurs, A., Des Rheinlandes Sagen und Legenden, Leipzig 1881. --Lohre, H., Märkische Sagen, Leipzig 1921. --Mackensen, L., Hanseatische Sagen, Leipzig 1928; Niedersächsische Sagen, Leipzig 1925. --Meier, E., Deutsche Sagen, Sitten und Gebräuche aus Schwaben, 2v., Stuttgart 1852. --Müllenhoff, K., Sagen, Märchen und Lieder der Herzogthümer Schleswig-Holstein u. Lauenburg, Kiel, 1845. --Nies, R., Nassauische Sagen, Leipzig 1927. --Paul, R., Sagen und Geschichten des Kreises Beeskow-Storkow, Beeskow 1925. --v. Pfister, H., Sagen und Aberglaube aus Hessen u. Nassau, Marburg 1885. --Plöckinger, H., Sagen der Wachau, Krems 1916--Pröhle, H.C.F., Deutsche Sagen, 2d ed., Berlin 1879; Harzsagen, Leipzig 1886; Unterharzische Sagen, Aschersleben 1856. --Realis, Ranke und Schwänke der heimatischen Vorzeit, Wien 1846. --Richter, J. W. O., Deutscher Sagenschatz: eine Auswahl der schönsten deutschen Sagen, 3v., Glogau 1899--1901. --Rosenow, K., Sagen des Kreises Schlawe, Rügenwald 1924. --Schambach, G., and Müller, W., Niedersächsische Sagen und Märchen, Göttingen 1855. --Schnetzler, F.A.A., Aurelias Zauberkreis, Karlsruhe 1809--1853. --Schöppner, A., Sagenbuch der bayerischen Lande, 3 v., München 1874. --Schultz-Gallara, S. von., Sagen der Stadt Halle, Halle 1922. --Sieber, Fr., Harzland Sagen, Jena 1928. --Siebert, R. and H., Anhalter Sagenbuch, Bernberg 1924. --Sommert, H., Tillenwunder: Ein Sagenkranz aus dem Egerlande, 2d ed., Eger 1924. --Stöber, A., Die Sagen des Elsasses, 3d ed., Strassburg 1892. --Vernaleken, Th., Mythen und Bräuche des Volkes in Österreich, Wien 1859. --Weichelt, H., Hannoverische Geschichten und Sagen, 4v., Norden 1895. --Wiener, O., Röhmische Sagen, Wien 1919. --Winckler, G., Sagenkranz des Kyffhäusers, Querfurt 1927. --Zaunert, P., Westfälische Sagen, Jena 1927; Hessen-Nassauische Sagen, Jena 1929. --Zinck, Paul, Leipzigs Sagen, Leipzig 1924.

F420.1. †F420.1. Form and appearance of water-spirits. See †F420.5.2.7. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 280--81.

F420.1.1. †F420.1.1. Water-spirit as man. Takelau (New Zealand): Beckwith Myth 150.

F420.1.1.1. †F420.1.1.1. Water-spirit appears as handsome man. German: Ebermann Elbsagen 93 (No. 55); French: Sébillot France II 409; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 57 No. 487.

F420.1.1.2. †F420.1.1.2. Water-spirit appears as black man. German: Knoop 89 (No. 145), Sommert 108.

F420.1.1.3. †F420.1.1.3. Water-spirit as small gray man. Has green eyes and gray hair. Tobler 99.

F420.1.1.4. †F420.1.1.4. Water-spirit as man clothed in white and accompanied by a dozen attendants. Chinese: Werner 182.

F420.1.1.5. †F420.1.1.5. Water-spirits have one eye. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F420.1.2. †F420.1.2. Water-spirit as woman (water-nymph, water-nix). (Cf. †F423.1.) *Type 316; *BP III 322; *Fb "nøkke" II 725ab. --England, Ireland, Wales: Baughman, Ireland: Beal VII 11; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 261; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 55 Nos. 468--469; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 58; Germanic: Meyer Germanen 199ff., 202ff., De la Saussaye 323; Slavic: Máchal 254f., 271f.; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 126 No. 58; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 42 No. 30; Armenian: Ananikian 84; Japanese: Ikeda.

F420.1.2.1. †F420.1.2.1. Water-maidens are of unusual beauty. German: Ebermann Elbsagen 115 (No. 66), Meier I 67 (No. 1); French: Sébillot France II 196, 345; Icelandic: Boberg.

F420.1.2.2. †F420.1.2.2. Water-maidens mute. *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXV 107ff.

F420.1.3. †F420.1.3. Water-spirits in animal form. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 53 No. 445; Icelandic: Boberg.

F420.1.3.1. †F420.1.3.1. Water-spirit as toad. German: Künzig Schwarzwald. 170, Kühnau 38 (No. 55).

F420.1.3.2. †F420.1.3.2. Water-spirit as fish. Tobler 97; Icelandic: Boberg, German: Henne-Am Rhyn 113 (No. 216), Ebermann Elbsagen 74 (No. 39); French: Sébillot France II 196.

F420.1.3.2.1. †F420.1.3.2.1. Water-spirit as one-eyed fish. (Cf. †F420.1.1.5.) Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 53.

F420.1.3.3. †F420.1.3.3. Water-spirit as horse. England, Scotland, Ireland: Baughman; Icelandic: Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn (1893) 163ff., (1928) 112ff.; Norwegian: Solheim Register 17; Swedish: Hartmann 27; German: Künzig Badische 31 (No. 87), Karstens Sagen 79.

F420.1.3.4. †F420.1.3.4. Water-spirit as bull. England: Baughman; German: Weichert II 176 (No. 166), Pfeil 292; Icelandic: Boberg.

F420.1.3.5. †F420.1.3.5. Water-spirit as stork. German: Lohre 48 (No. 81).

F420.1.3.6. †F420.1.3.6. Water-spirit as cat. Tobler 97.

F420.1.3.7. †F420.1.3.7. Water-spirit as goat. Tobler 97; French: Sébillot France II 347ff.

F420.1.3.8. †F420.1.3.8. Water-spirit as mouse. Tobler 97.

F420.1.3.9. †F420.1.3.9. Water-spirit as snake. Tobler 97; India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.1.3.10. †F420.1.3.10. Water-spirit as frog. Tobler 97.

F420.1.3.11. †F420.1.3.11. Water-spirit as ape-like creature. Tobler 97.

F420.1.3.12. †F420.1.3.12. Water-spirit as otter. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F420.1.4. †F420.1.4. Water-spirits in abnormal form.

F420.1.4.1. †F420.1.4.1. Body of water-spirit is half human and half fish or snake. Icelandic: *Boberg; German: Künzig Schwarzwald 168, Henninger 72.

F420.1.4.2. †F420.1.4.2. Water-spirits have body covered with fish scales. German: Mackensen Niedersächs 56 (No. 74), Ebermann Donausagen 113 (No. 70).

F420.1.4.3. †F420.1.4.3. Water-spirits as dwarfs. (Cf. †F451.) Austrian: Calliano I 141; German: Henninger 74; French: Sébillot France II 202, 347, 417.

F420.1.4.4. †F420.1.4.4. Water-spirits have hunchback. (Cf. †F451.2.1.4.) German: Plöckinger 87, Ebermann Donausagen 139 (No. 85); French: Sébillot France II 202.

F420.1.4.5. †F420.1.4.5. Water-spirits with human body and webbed feet and hands. Tobler 98; German: Henne-Am Rhyn 113, Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 153 (No. 119); French: Sébillot France II 403.

F420.1.4.6. †F420.1.4.6. Water-spirits with horse feet. German: Handrick 21, Janosch 6.

F420.1.4.7. †F420.1.4.7. Water-spirits with green hair and beard. England, Wales: Baughman; German: Bindewald 95, Siess 1.

F420.1.4.8. †F420.1.4.8. Water-spirits with green teeth. England: Baughman; German: Schöppner I 219--223, Schultze-Gallara 23; French: Sébillot France II 343 (green eyes).

F420.1.4.9. †F420.1.4.9. Water-giants. Icelandic: Boberg.

F420.1.4.10. †F420.1.4.10. Water-spirit with extraordinarily long hair. India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.1.5. †F420.1.5. Water-spirits invisible.

F420.1.5.1. †F420.1.5.1. Invisible water-spirit claps hands and speaks. Tobler 99.

F420.1.5.2. †F420.1.5.2. Mysterious voice -- water-spirit -- is calling from sea. German: Mackensen Hanseat. 22 (No. 32), Schultze 160; French: Sébillot France II 213, 344.

F420.1.5.3. †F420.1.5.3. The seas become heavy without natural cause. (Cf. †F420.2.4.) German: Meier 73 (No. 78).

F420.1.6. †F420.1.6. Dress of water-spirits.

F420.1.6.1. †F420.1.6.1. Water-spirits are dressed like people of surroundings. German: Schultze 69, Künzig Schwarzwald 167; French: Sébillot France II 342.

F420.1.6.2. †F420.1.6.2. Water-spirits are clad in clothes of gold and silver. German: Gradl 33 No. 69, Schnetzler 266 No. 6.

F420.1.6.3. †F420.1.6.3. Water-spirits wear precious adornment. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 261; German: Förstner Märchenwelt 111, Schnetzler 266 No. 6.

F420.1.6.4. †F420.1.6.4. Water-spirits wear wreath of flowers and reed on hair and dress. German: Plöckinger 7, Huber and Zaurel 19.

F420.1.6.5. †F420.1.6.5. Water-maidens have long veil. German: Richter III 236 No. 32, Schnetzler 292.

F420.1.6.6. †F420.1.6.6. Color of water-spirit's clothes.

F420.1.6.6.1. †F420.1.6.6.1. Water-spirits are clad in red. German: Dümke 51, Lohre 43 No. 73.

F420.1.6.6.2. †F420.1.6.6.2. Water-spirits are clad in gray. (Cf. †F236.1.4, †F451.2.7.3.) German: Schnetzler 277 No. 10, Ebermann Donausagen 139 No. 85.

F420.1.6.6.3. †F420.1.6.6.3. Water-spirits are dressed in green. (Cf. †F451.2.7.2.) Scotland: Baughman; Germanic: Calliano 162, Handrick 30; French: Sébillot France II 346.

F420.1.6.6.4. †F420.1.6.6.4. Water-spirits are dressed in white. England: Baughman; Germanic: Kühne 164, Meier 67 No. 1; French: Sébillot France II 199--200.

F420.1.6.6.5. †F420.1.6.6.5. Water-spirits are dressed in blue. Icelandic: Lagerholm 166, Boberg.

F420.1.6.7. †F420.1.6.7. Water-spirits are nude. (Cf. †F238.) German: Meier I 74 No. 81, Kern 85 No. 11; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 53; French: Sébillot France II 197.

F420.1.7. †F420.1.7. Water-spirits appearing like human beings are recognized by traces of water.

F420.1.7.1. †F420.1.7.1. Corner of water-spirits' dress is always wet. German: Zinck 12, Kahlo Niedersächsische 63 No. 107.

F420.1.7.2. †F420.1.7.2. Coat pockets of water-spirits are dripping with water. Wiener 118; Handrick 30.

F420.1.7.3. †F420.1.7.3. Water-spirits leave trace of water when standing or walking. German: Kühnau 39 No. 56, Henne-Am Rhyn 113.

F420.2. †F420.2. Home of water-spirits. (Cf. †F420.7.1.)

F420.2.1. †F420.2.1. Water-spirits live in castles of crystal under water. (Cf. †F451.4.3.4.) Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40 No. 23; Czech: Wiener 114, Gradl 33 No. 69; French: Sébillot France II 196, 200, 343.

F420.2.1.1. †F420.2.1.1. Water-spirits' under-water castle is luxuriously furnished. Austrian: Mailly Niederöst. 33 No. 69, 48 No. 102; Czech: Wiener 114; German: Henne-Am Rhyn 114, Wiechert 73 No. 129.

F420.2.2. †F420.2.2. Water-spirits live in village under water. Icelandic: Lagerholm 167--68, Boberg; Swiss: Frey 5.

F420.2.3. †F420.2.3. Water-spirits have garden. German: Henne-Am Rhyn 117.

F420.2.4. †F420.2.4. When water-spirits are outside their homes the seas are heavy. (Cf. †F420.1.5.3.) *Fb "havfolk" I 569.

F420.2.5. †F420.2.5. Water-spirits have hearth made of three human skulls. India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.3. †F420.3. Social life among water-spirits.

F420.3.1. †F420.3.1. Water-spirits have family life under water. German: Schnetzler 289; French: Sébillot France II 346.

F420.3.2. †F420.3.2. Water-spirits have likings and occupations like human beings.

F420.3.2.1. †F420.3.2.1. Water-spirits dance. India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.3.2.1.1. †F420.3.2.1.1. Water-maidens dance at village fair. German: Janosch 9, Schöppner I 277 No. 235.

F420.3.2.2. †F420.3.2.2. Water-women come to market and store. German: Zinck 12, Kahlo Nieders. 63 No. 107; French: Sébillot France II 344.

F420.3.2.3. †F420.3.2.3. Water-women wash and hang up laundry on beach. German: Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 220 No. 173; French: Sébillot France II 200, 351f.

F420.3.2.4. †F420.3.2.4. Water-spirits bake. German: Meier I 75 No. 82.

F420.3.2.5. †F420.3.2.5. Water-spirits mend clothes. German: Bindewald 95, Kern 85 No. 11.

F420.3.2.6. †F420.3.2.6. Water-maidens spin. German: Baader 100 No. 133, Lohre 50 No. 85.

F420.3.2.7. †F420.3.2.7. Water-man cuts osier to make wicker basket. German: Kern 85 No. 11; Austrian: Calliano 107.

F420.3.3. †F420.3.3. Water-spirits have kingdom under water: queen, king, attendants, vassals. German: Schnetzler 277 No. 10; Czech: Gradl 22 No. 69; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40 No. 23.

F420.3.4. †F420.3.4. Water-spirits have laws.

F420.3.4.1. †F420.3.4.1. Water-spirits must be in water before midnight; delay is punished with death indicated by blood in water. German: Pfister 70, Meier 71 No. 79.

F420.3.4.2. †F420.3.4.2. Water-spirits must be in water before dawn; delay is punished with death. (Cf. †F451.3.2.1. and cross-references there given.) German: Schöppner I 221, 227; French: Sébillot France II 340.

F420.3.5. †F420.3.5. Water-spirits visited by mortal. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 46 No. 56.

F420.4. †F420.4. Characteristics of water-spirits.

F420.4.1. †F420.4.1. Water-spirits possess magic power. German: Weichert II 199 No. 182, Künzig Schwarzwald 168; French: Sébillot France II 197, 347, 410.

F420.4.1.1. †F420.4.1.1. Protean transformation of water-spirit. Greek: Fox 87, 122 (Nereus, Thetis), Frazer Apollodorus II 67 n. 6; Slavic: Máchal 270.

F420.4.2. †F420.4.2. Water-spirits have supernatural lapse of time: days seem like years. (Cf. †F377.)

F420.4.3. †F420.4.3. Water-spirits are cannibals: devour mortal victim, suck blood. German: Meier I 70 No. 6, Lohre 51 No. 87.

F420.4.4. †F420.4.4. Water-spirits are grateful. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 143ff., (1928) 101ff.; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 58 Nos. 495--500; German: Pfister 50; Austrian: Calliano I 141.

F420.4.5. †F420.4.5. Water-spirits are jealous. Paul 14.

F420.4.6. †F420.4.6. Water-man is rendered powerless if kept away from water. German: Kratzer 90 No. 34; French: Sébillot France II 352.

F420.4.6.1. †F420.4.6.1. Water-women are powerless when their garments are taken. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 261.

F420.4.7. †F420.4.7. Seeing and observing of water-spirits has fatal consequences. German: Knoop 150 No. 114, Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 150 No. 114; French: Sébillot France II 198, 345.

F420.4.8. †F420.4.8. Water-spirits have treasures under water. German: Künzig Badische 48 No. 137, Stöber 87 No. 118; French: Sébillot France II 312, 410.

F420.4.9. †F420.4.9. Water-spirit controls water-supply. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Shangang): Bourhill and Drake 78ff. No. 8.

F420.4.10. †F420.4.10. Water-spirits are prophetic. (Cf. †F420.5.1.1.) Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 53 No. 31.

F420.5. †F420.5. Deeds and actions of water-spirits.

F420.5.1. †F420.5.1. Kind water-spirits.

F420.5.1.1. †F420.5.1.1. Water-spirits protect and warn sailor against storm and in tempest. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 58 Nos. 495--500; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 46 No. 58; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 41 No. 29; Austrian: Gloning 37, Ebermann Donausagen 143 No. 88.

F420.5.1.1.1. †F420.5.1.1.1. Water-spirits save shipwrecked people. Icelandic: Lagerholm 167--68, Boberg.

F420.5.1.2. †F420.5.1.2. Water-spirits help poor. German: Schnetzler 273 No. 9, Haas Grimmen 36 No. 75.

F420.5.1.3. †F420.5.1.3. Water-spirits help lovers. Gradl 22 No. 46, Richter III 152 No. 5.

F420.5.1.4. †F420.5.1.4. Water-spirits work as servants for mortal for small compensation. German: Haas Grimmen 36 No. 75, Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 7 No. 9; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 55 No. 475.

F420.5.1.5. †F420.5.1.5. Water-spirits work as servants for mortal but disappear when compensation is offered or origin suspected. *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 44; German: Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 220 No. 173, Meier I 68 No. 5; Czech: Wiener 45.

F420.5.1.6. †F420.5.1.6. Water-spirits work at night in home of mortals. German: Schnetzler 294, Meier I 71 No. 79.

F420.5.1.7. †F420.5.1.7. Water-spirits give gifts to mortals. (Cf. †F342, †F451.5.1.5.)

F420.5.1.7.1. †F420.5.1.7.1. Water-spirits give money, gold, or precious stones. (Cf. †F451.5.1.5.) German: Plöckinger 8, Kern 87 No. 11.

F420.5.1.7.2. †F420.5.1.7.2. Seemingly worthless gifts of water-spirits turn to gold. (Cf. †F451.5.1.4. and cross references there given.) German: Henne-Am Rhyn 119, Meier I 71, 79.

F420.5.1.7.3. †F420.5.1.7.3. Water-spirits give magic gifts. Austrian: Calliano 236, Huber and Zaural 106.

F420.5.1.7.4. †F420.5.1.7.4. Water-spirit returns to the woodchopper a silver axe in place of the one he has lost. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 46 No. 65; Japanese: Ikeda.

F420.5.1.7.5. †F420.5.1.7.5. Water-spirit gives mortal fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.5.1.8. †F420.5.1.8. Water-spirits give advice. Austrian: Calliano I 68.

F420.5.1.9. †F420.5.1.9. Water-spirits adopt human foundling. German: Schnetzler 264 No. 5.

F420.5.1.10. †F420.5.1.10. Water-spirits save man from drowning. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga II 395, Lagerholm 166, Boberg.

F420.5.2. †F420.5.2. Malevolent water-spirits. Icelandic: Grettis Saga ch. 65--66 in RSB VI (1897), Boberg.

F420.5.2.1. †F420.5.2.1. Water-spirits lure mortal into water. Irish myth: *Cross Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn (1893) 163ff., (1928) 112ff.

F420.5.2.1.1. †F420.5.2.1.1. Water-maiden enamors man and draws him under water. (Cf. †F302.3.4, †G264.) U.S.: Baughman; German: *Wehrhan 74, Nies 118 No. 86, Plöckinger 39 No. 31; Icelandic: Boberg; French: Sébillot France II 197, 342, 348, 411; Greek: Fox 110 (Hylas); India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.5.2.1.2. †F420.5.2.1.2. Water-spirits lure children into water, offering objects. Austrian: Calliano II 24, Huber and Zaural 19; French: Sébillot France II 310, 343, 417; England: Baughman.

F420.5.2.1.3. †F420.5.2.1.3. Hero drowned by water-spirits, who draw him down as he crosses ice. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 277 n. 23.

F420.5.2.1.4. †F420.5.2.1.4. Water-goddess allows body of drowning person to come up three times. India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.5.2.1.5. †F420.5.2.1.5. Water-spirit drags children into river. England: *Baughman.

F420.5.2.1.6. †F420.5.2.1.6. Water-spirit claims a life every seven years. England: *Baughman.

F420.5.2.2. †F420.5.2.2. Water-spirits kidnap mortals and keep them under water. Irish: Beal VII 49; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 46 No. 60; German: Paul 46, Brüger 130; French: Sébillot France II 342, 409, 410; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 352; Japanese: Ikeda; Africa (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 46ff.

F420.5.2.2.1. †F420.5.2.2.1. Water-spirit returns kidnapped man in return for release of his long hair. Victim's father has wound the hair around his fingers. India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.5.2.2.2. †F420.5.2.2.2. Mistreated boy sings unto water spirits to take him: waters rise up in tank to engulf him. India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.5.2.3. †F420.5.2.3. Water-spirit keeps souls of drowned persons in dishes in his home. German: Mailly Niederöst. 46 No. 101.

F420.5.2.4. †F420.5.2.4. Water-spirits steal children and leave changeling. German: Kahlo Nieders. I 66 No. 111, Künzig Schwarzwald 171.

F420.5.2.5. †F420.5.2.5. Water-spirits interfere with building bridges, dams. (Cf. †F451.5.2.5.) German: Kratzer 93 No. 36, Ebermann Elbsagen 117 No. 67.

F420.5.2.6. †F420.5.2.6. Water-spirits take revenge on mortals.

F420.5.2.6.1. †F420.5.2.6.1. Water-spirits take revenge if yearly tribute is not given. German: Meier III 428 No. 121, Haas Pommersche 38 No. 78; French: Sébillot France II 338, 339; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 156ff., (1928) 108ff.

F420.5.2.6.2. †F420.5.2.6.2. Water-spirits take revenge for trespassing on ground they claim as theirs. German: Siebert 186.

F420.5.2.6.3. †F420.5.2.6.3. Water-spirits take revenge for being harmed. German: Schultze 140, Dumke 52; French: Sébillot France II 342.

F420.5.2.6.4. †F420.5.2.6.4. Water-spirits avenge selves on mortal who fails to keep promise. German: Realis 163, Kurs 322; French: Sébillot France II 342.

F420.5.2.6.5. †F420.5.2.6.5. Water-maidens avenge selves for scorned love. German: Nies 118 No. 86.

F420.5.2.6.6. †F420.5.2.6.6. Water-spirits take revenge on mortals for pollution of water. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F420.5.2.7. †F420.5.2.7. Water-spirit turns boat in circle. German: Heese 116.

F420.5.2.7.1. †F420.5.2.7.1. Water-spirit crushes boat. Icelandic: Boberg.

F420.5.2.7.2. †F420.5.2.7.2. Water-spirit shakes ship. Icelandic: Ketils saga H. 116, Gríms saga L. 145, Örvar-Odds saga 42, *Boberg.

F420.5.2.7.3. †F420.5.2.7.3. Water-spirit wrecks ship. Icelandic: Lagerholm 164--65, *Boberg; S. Am. Indian (Tiatinagua): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 447.

F420.5.2.7.4. †F420.5.2.7.4. Water-spirit holds ship back. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F420.5.2.8. †F420.5.2.8. Water-spirit splashes passing people. Stöber 37 No. 53.

F420.5.2.9. †F420.5.2.9. Water-spirits lead travelers astray. German: Hartmann 35, Schnetzler 269 No. 8.

F420.5.2.10. †F420.5.2.10. Water-man sits on back of persons as heavy burden. German: Kern 89.

F420.5.2.11. †F420.5.2.11. Water-spirits cause blindness. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F420.5.2.12. †F420.5.2.12. Water-spirit causes illness and death. Africa (Bakuba): Einstein 164.

F420.5.3. †F420.5.3. Other actions of water-spirits.

F420.5.3.1. †F420.5.3.1. Water-spirits sit on beach combing their long hair. Austrian: Mailly Niederöst. 47 No. 101; French: Sébillot France II 340, 346, 411.

F420.5.3.2. †F420.5.3.2. Water-spirit calls human midwife. (Cf. †F372.1, †F451.3.5.5, †F451.5.5.) German: Meier I 68 No. 2, Hessler 143.

F420.5.3.3. †F420.5.3.3. Water-spirits call human godmother. (Cf. †F451.5.6.) German: Künzig Schwarzwald 170, Meier II 69 No. 4.

F420.5.3.4. †F420.5.3.4. Water-spirit flees if holy name, ceremony, or blessed object is used. German: Ebermann Donausagen 120 No. 75, Janosch 13; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn (1893) 163ff., (1928) 114ff.

F420.5.3.5. †F420.5.3.5. Nix flees from benediction in church. English: Child I 366n.

F420.5.3.6. †F420.5.3.6. Water-spirit demands food from those it takes across stream. Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 267 No. 76.

F420.5.3.7. †F420.5.3.7. Water-spirits prophesies. Icelandic: Boberg.

F420.6. †F420.6. Marriage of water-spirits.

F420.6.1. †F420.6.1. Marriage or liaison of mortals and water-spirits. India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer VII 240.

F420.6.1.1. †F420.6.1.1. Water-man woos mortal girl. (Cf. †F451.5.18.) England, Wales: Baughman; German: Pfister 53, Lohre 48 No. 80; India: *Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

F420.6.1.2. †F420.6.1.2. Water-spirit offers gift to mortal to win love. German: Pröhle Deutsche Sagen 213 No. 168, Henne-Am Rhyn 119 No. 347; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 686.

F420.6.1.3. †F420.6.1.3. Mortal goes to home of water-spirits and marries. (Cf. †F301.3.) German: Schultze 25; Czech: Wiener 118; French: Sébillot France II 409; India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.6.1.4. †F420.6.1.4. Water-maiden goes to home of mortal and marries. Icelandic: Boberg.

F420.6.1.5. †F420.6.1.5. Water-maidens make conditions for lovers. German: Kurs 322; French: Sébillot France II 409; India: Thompson-Balys.

F420.6.1.6. †F420.6.1.6. Offspring of marriage between mortal and water-spirit. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F420.6.1.7. †F420.6.1.7. Water-spirit surprises and rapes a mortal woman. A son is born who is sleepless. Krappe Modern Language Review XXIV (1929) 200ff.

F420.6.2. †F420.6.2. Love and marriage between water-spirits and other spirits.

F420.6.2.1. †F420.6.2.1. Water-man marries fairy. German: Schnetzler 266 No. 6, Diezel 1.

F420.6.2.2. †F420.6.2.2. Water-maiden marries giant. (Cf. †F531.5.7.) German: Förstner Märchenwelt 111.

F420.6.2.3. †F420.6.2.3. Water-maiden is wooed by dwarf. (Cf. †F451.5.18.) German: Schöppner I 480 No. 467.

F420.7. †F420.7. Miscellaneous motifs connected with water-spirits.

F420.7.1. †F420.7.1. Visit to water-goddess's underwater home. India: Thompson-Balys.

F421. †F421. Lake-spirit. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 675; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 143; N. Am. Indian (Iroquois): Alexander N. Am. 28.

F421.1. †F421.1. Lady of the Lake. A female lake-spirit. Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXV 112; Hindu: Tawney II 570.

F422. †F422. Marsh-spirit. Meyer 104; *Fb "ellefolk"; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 3ff., 120ff., (1928) 5ff., 90ff., MacCulloch Eddic 224--25; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40 No. 21.

F423. †F423. Sea spirits. Norwegian: Solheim Register 17; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 675, 1160; Japanese: Anesaki 266ff.; Papua: Ker 25; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 37, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 621; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

F423.1. †F423.1. Nereid. A sea-maiden. English: Child V 490 s. v. "Nereid"; Germanic: Meyer Altgermanische 102; Greek: Fox 260, *Frazer Pausanias III 12; Hindu: Penzer VI 209 n. 1.

F424. †F424. River-spirit. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 416; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

F424.1. †F424.1. Spirit of brook. Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 201.

F425. †F425. Fountain spirit. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 53 No. 443; Japanese: Anesaki 267.

F426. †F426. Spirit of water-fall. Icelandic: *Boberg; Germanic: Meyer Altgermanische 103.

F429. †F429. Other water-spirits.

F429.1. †F429.1. Spirit of tide-crack. Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 497, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 60, 510ff.

F430. †F430. Weather-spirits.

F431. †F431. Cloud-spirit. Meyer Altgermanische 100; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 38 No. 8.

F432. †F432. Wind-spirit. German: Laistner I 4, Meyer Altgermanische 97; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 37 No. 6, 38 No. 7; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Werner 181; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 147; N. Am. Indian (Yukon): Alexander N. Am. 78.

F433. †F433. Storm-spirit. Meyer Altgermanische 99; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 64 No. 186; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 37 No. 4; Slovenian: *L. Kretzenbacher Germanische Mythen in der epischen Volksdichtung der Slowenen (Graz, 1941) 36-49.

F433.1. †F433.1. Spirit of snow. Meyer Altgermanische 104; Icelandic: Boberg.

F434. †F434. Spirit of thunder. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 37 Nos. 1, 2, 3; Chinese: Werner 199f.; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 61f., (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 175.

F436. †F436. Spirit of cold. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 38 No. 9; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 nn. 61, 61a.

F437. †F437. Spirit of warmth. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 38 No. 10; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 nn. 61, 61a.

F438. †F438. Spirit of earthquake.

F438.1. †F438.1. Spirit of earthquake lives underground (below earth). India: Thompson-Balys.

F438.2. †F438.2. Spirit of earthquake has very long mouth. India: Thompson-Balys.

F439. †F439. Other weather-spirits.

F439.1. †F439.1. Rainbow spirit. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 135, 152.

F439.1.1. †F439.1.1. Rainbow draws to itself fisherman and his boat. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 37 No. 5.

F439.1.2. †F439.1.2. Rainbow spirit as helper on journey. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 515f.

F439.1.3. †F439.1.3. Rainbow spirit as messenger. Greek: Fox 241 (Iris); Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 521.

F440. †F440. Vegetation spirits. *Kittredge Gawain 195ff.; Frazer Golden Bough XII 510 s. v. "Vegetation"; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F440.1. †F440.1. Green vegetation spirit. *Kittredge Gawain 195ff.; *Fb "grön" I 504.

F441. †F441. Wood-spirit. *Type 667*; *Hdwb. d. Märchen I 198a; *Mannhardt I 87ff., 311ff. --Irish myth: Cross; U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 204f., 226; Swedish: G. Granberg Skogsrået (Stockholm, 1934); Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 177, 185; Estonian: *Loorits Grundzüge I 521f., 546f., 559ff.; Germanic: Meyer Altgermanische 94; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 40 No. 22; Slavic: Máchal 261ff.; Persian: Carnoy 298; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): *Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880, (Tapirapé): Wagley-Baldao ibid. (3) 178, (Pilcomayo, Chaco): Belaieff ibid. (1) 379; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 247, 251. See also †F200-†F399 (Fairies and Elves), †F420 (Water-spirits), †F461 (Dwarfs) and †F460 (Mountain-spirits) for many common motifs.

F441.1. †F441.1. Schrätel. An elf-like, male, malevolent wood-spirit. *Type 1161 (Schrätel instead of ogre in many versions); *Taylor MPh XVII 305ff.; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXXIII--XXXIV 33ff.

F441.2. †F441.2. Tree-spirit. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 207; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 188; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas@2 II 203; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 211, II 44, 67, 126, 507, 574, 675, 811, 820, 898, 1014, 1158, Jataka Index s. v. "Spirits"; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 267, 340; S. Am. Indian (Caviña, Tumapasa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 448.

F441.2.0.1. †F441.2.0.1. Tree-spirit persuades man to spare tree. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F441.2.1. †F441.2.1. Wood-nymph. Type 480; Roberts 121; Swedish: Hartmann 26, 27; Slavic: Máchal 262ff.; Armenian: Ananikian 84.

F441.2.1.1. †F441.2.1.1. Wood-nymph comes to the fire to warm. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 38ff., (1928) 26ff.; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 56**; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 49 No. 398.

F441.2.1.2. †F441.2.1.2. Wood-nymph with breasts so long that she throws them over her shoulder. (Cf. †F232.2, †F460.1.2, †G123.) Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 120ff., (1928) 90ff.; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 321 No. 58.

F441.2.1.3. †F441.2.1.3. Wood-nymph wooes and then deserts man. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 205.

F441.2.1.4. †F441.2.1.4. Tree maidens bathe at midnight in lake. India: Thompson-Balys.

F441.2.2. †F441.2.2. Dryad. Female spirit dwelling among trees. Greek: Fox 270; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 564.

F441.2.3. †F441.2.3. Hamadryad. Female spirit of a particular tree. Greek: Fox 270.

F441.2.3.1. †F441.2.3.1. Man marries tree maiden. India: Thompson-Balys.

F441.2.3.1.1. †F441.2.3.1.1. Man marries spirit of willow tree. She must part from him when tree is cut down. Japanese: Anesaki 333.

F441.2.3.2. †F441.2.3.2. Tree-spirit in elder tree. England: Baughman.

F441.3. †F441.3. Wild man as wood-spirit. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 968--980, 984f.; Dickson 114 n. 37; Irish myth: *Cross; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 280.

F441.4. †F441.4. Form of wood-spirit.

F441.4.1. †F441.4.1. Wood-spirit gigantic with one eye in center of forehead. Cheremis: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 182.

F441.4.2. †F441.4.2. Wood-spirit without hands, feet, or mouth. Africa (Kpelle): Westermann Zs. f. Afrikan. ozean., u. ostasiat. Spr. VII 161 No. 29a.

F441.4.3. †F441.4.3. Forest spirits brighter than moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

F441.4.4. †F441.4.4. Forest-spirits with wings and with backward-pointing fingers and toes. (Cf. †F401.9, †F451.2.2.1.) Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 14, 46.

F441.4.5. †F441.4.5. Wood-spirits with such heavy eyebrows they must lie on backs to see upwards. (Cf. †F571.1.) S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

F441.4.6. †F441.4.6. Wood-spirits with teeth on stomach. S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

F441.5. †F441.5. Size of wood-spirit.

F441.5.1. †F441.5.1. Wood-spirit tiny. (Cf. †F239.4.3, †F535.) S. Am. Indian (Pitcomayo-Chaco): Belaieff BBAE CXLIII (1) 379.

F441.5.2. †F441.5.2. Wood-spirit gigantic. (Cf. †F232.6, †F531.) S. Am. Indian (Pitcomayo-Chaco): Belaieff BBAE CXLIII (1) 379.

F441.6. †F441.6. Deeds of wood-spirits.

F441.6.1. †F441.6.1. Wood-spirits responsible for sickness and failure. S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

F441.6.2. †F441.6.2. Wood-spirits transform men into animals. S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

F441.6.3. †F441.6.3. Sexual relations with wood-spirit fatal. S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

F441.6.4. †F441.6.4. Wood-spirit calls after one in woods (Hehmann). **E. Rath Der Hehmann (Wien, 1953).

F442. †F442. Pan. Wood-spirit (demigod) part goat and part man. Greek: Fox 267.

F442.1. †F442.1. Mysterious voice announces death of Pan. *Taylor Washington University Studies X (Humanistic Series) 3ff.; *Fb "röst"; *Boberg Sagnet om den Store Pans Død (København 1934); Boberg Noch einmal die Sage vom Tode des Grossen Pan (Ciassica et Mediaevalia III 119--132). --Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 45 No. 50; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3908; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 123 No. 45.

F443. †F443. Echo as wood-spirit.

F443.1. †F443.1. Echo as wood-spirit kidnaps and crazes man. India: Thompson-Balys.

F445. †F445. Field-spirits. Meyer Altgermanische 108, Meyer Germanen 209ff.; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 246; Slavic: Máchal 267ff.; Africa (Cameroon): Gantenbein 68.

F445.1. †F445.1. Crop-spirits. Wehrhan 75f.

F445.1.1. †F445.1.1. Tobacco-spirit. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684.

F447. †F447. Flower-spirits. Japanese: Anesaki 342ff.

F450. †F450. Underground spirits. (Cf. †F200-†F399, Fairies and Elves.) Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 4ff., (1928) 9ff.; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 228ff.; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 178; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 45ff.; Persian Carnoy 298.

F450.0.1. †F450.0.1. Voetter (generalized underground spirit). Scandinavian: *Hartmann 30--32.

F450.1. †F450.1. Helpful underground spirit.

F450.1.1. †F450.1.1. Helpful spirit warriors dwell in rocks and hills. N. Am. Indian (Cherokee): Alexander N. Am. 68.

F450.1.2. †F450.1.2. Underground spirit instructs a smith. (Cf. †F451.3.4.2.) Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 126 No. 57.

F451. †F451. Dwarf.†1 (Underground spirit.) The dwarf, especially in Northern Europe, is considered an underground spirit. He is to be distinguished from the other conception of dwarf, viz., a very small person, pigmy, or thumbling (†F535). Types 480, 403B; *Roberts 123; **Lutjens Der Zwerg in der deutschen Heldendichtung des Mittelalters (Breslau, 1911); *Wehrhan 67; *Thien 42; *Gould Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX 190; *De Boor Der Zwerg in Skandinavien (Mogk Festschrift 536); *Ritchie Zwerge in Geschichte u. Überlieferung (Globus LXXXII 101); *Tegethoff Schweiz. Archiv f. Vksk. XXIV 147; Jensen Zs. f. Vksk. II 407; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 1008--1120. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 264ff., 287; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892, new series 1928); Norwegian: Solheim Register 18; French: F. Wolgemuth Riesen u. Zwerge in der altfranzösischen erzählenden Dichtung (Tübingen, 1906); Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 326; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 356 n. 287a. See also †F200-†F399 (Fairies and Elves), †F420 (Water-spirits), and †F460 (Mountain-spirits) for many common motifs.

F451.0.1. †F451.0.1. Luchrupáin (leprechauns) (as fairies). Irish myth: *Cross.

F451.1. †F451.1. Origin of dwarfs. *Fb "dværg" I 220b; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 264f., Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 3ff., (1928) 7ff.

F451.1.1. †F451.1.1. Dwarfs originate from maggots in flesh of giant. Norse: De la Saussaye 318.

F451.1.1.1. †F451.1.1.1. Dwarfs originate from the blood and bones of giant. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 264.

F451.1.2. †F451.1.2. Murderer's children become dwarfs. *Fb "dværg" I 220b.

F451.1.3. †F451.1.3. Dwarfs came after giants had almost died out. German: Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54.

F451.1.4. †F451.1.4. Dwarfs came into the land 1000 years before mortals came. German: Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54.

F451.1.5. †F451.1.5. Dwarf as reincarnation.

F451.1.5.1. †F451.1.5.1. Dwarf as reincarnation of rat. Korean: Zong in-Sob 64.

F451.2. †F451.2. Appearance of dwarf. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 271, *Boberg.

F451.2.0.1. †F451.2.0.1. Dwarfs are ugly. German: Haas Greifswald. 38 No. 41.

F451.2.0.2. †F451.2.0.2. Dwarfs are grown over with moss. German: Pröhle 113 No. 298.

F451.2.0.3. †F451.2.0.3. Dwarfs walk stooped. German: Findeisen 39 No. 43.

F451.2.0.4. †F451.2.0.4. Dwarfs appear nodding and anxious to speak. German: Bindewald 84.

F451.2.0.5. †F451.2.0.5. During the day dwarfs appear in form of toads or other vermin. German: Haas Greifswald. 36 No. 39, 38 No. 40.

F451.2.0.6. †F451.2.0.6. Dwarfs are pale. Icelandic: Boberg.

F451.2.1. †F451.2.1. Body of dwarf.

F451.2.1.1. †F451.2.1.1. Dwarfs are small. (Cf. †F239.4.3, †F441.5.1.) German: Eckart 20, Bindewald 56, 83f, 87, 188, Findeisen 3 No. 5, 39 No. 43, Pröhle Unterharzische 113 No. 298.

F451.2.1.2. †F451.2.1.2. Dwarf with body like tailless hen. Tobler 59.

F451.2.1.3. †F451.2.1.3. Dwarf with small body and large head. *Fb "dværg" I 220b; Zs. f. d. Phil. XXVI 12f.

F451.2.1.4. †F451.2.1.4. Hunchback dwarf. (Cf. †F420.1.4.4.) Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 63 No. 9.

F451.2.2. †F451.2.2. Feet of dwarf.

F451.2.2.1. †F451.2.2.1. Dwarf's feet twisted backward. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 322 No. 86.

F451.2.2.2. †F451.2.2.2. Dwarf with bird feet. (Cf. †F401.3.5. and cross-references.) *Gaster Germania XXV 290ff.; Tobler 60; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 271.

F451.2.2.3. †F451.2.2.3. Dwarfs with goat feet. (Cf. †B24, †F442.) Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 271.

F451.2.3. †F451.2.3. The beards of dwarfs.

F451.2.3.1. †F451.2.3.1. Long-bearded dwarf. (Cf. †F451.6.1.) *Type 426; Köhler-Bolte I 545; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "nain"; Missouri French: Carrière.

F451.2.3.1.1. †F451.2.3.1.1. Dwarfs have long beards in three strands. Tegethoff Schweiz. Archiv f. Vksk. XXIV 148.

F451.2.3.2. †F451.2.3.2. Dwarfs have gray beards. German: Eckart 22, Kahlo Harzes 55 No. 92, Bindewald 56.

F451.2.4. †F451.2.4. The hair of dwarfs.

F451.2.4.1. †F451.2.4.1. Dwarfs have coarse hair. German: Eckart 20, Pröhle Harzsagen No. 137 II.

F451.2.4.2. †F451.2.4.2. Dwarfs have silvery white hair. German: Bindewald 56.

F451.2.5. †F451.2.5. Face of dwarf.

F451.2.5.1. †F451.2.5.1. Dwarfs have old face. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 30 No. 263; German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 137 II.

F451.2.6. †F451.2.6. Other bodily characteristics of dwarfs.

F451.2.7. †F451.2.7. Dress of dwarf.

F451.2.7.1. †F451.2.7.1. Dwarfs with red heads and red caps. (Cf. †F236.3.2, †F460.1.4.2.) Fb "rød" III 116b, "rød dreng" III 117b; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 30 No. 263.

F451.2.7.2. †F451.2.7.2. Dwarf clad in green. (Cf. †F420.1.6.6.3.) English: Wells 134 (Sir Degare); Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 6ff., (1928) 11ff.

F451.2.7.3. †F451.2.7.3. Dwarfs referred to as "gray", not specifying whether as to dress or hair. (Cf. †F236.1.4, †F420.1.6.6.2.) Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 271; German: Schöppner I 169 No. 163, I 354 No. 351, Bindewald 83, 84, 188.

F451.2.7.4. †F451.2.7.4. Dwarfs clad in white. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 266; German: Kahlo Harzes 69 No. 109.

F451.2.7.5. †F451.2.7.5. Dwarfs wear red coats. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 272, *Boberg; German: Kapff 45, Schöppner I 354 No. 351.

F451.2.7.6. †F451.2.7.6. Dwarfs wear peculiar caps. (Cf. †F451.2.7.1.) German: Kapff 45.

F451.2.7.7. †F451.2.7.7. Dwarf king wears costly crown. German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 137 II.

F451.2.7.8. †F451.2.7.8. Dwarf clad in brown. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 266.

F451.2.7.9. †F451.2.7.9. Dwarf clad in black. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 266, 268.

F451.2.7.10. †F451.2.7.10. Dwarfs clad in motley. German: Grimm No. 163.

F451.2.8. †F451.2.8. Voice of dwarfs (echo). Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 269, *Boberg.

F451.3. †F451.3. Characteristics of dwarfs.

F451.3.1. †F451.3.1. Power of dwarf in his belt. *Fb "bælte" IV 84a.

F451.3.2. †F451.3.2. Dwarf rendered powerless.

F451.3.2.1. †F451.3.2.1. Dwarfs turn to stone at sunrise. Hdwb. d. Märchens I 433a nn. 86--91; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 10, 197, 269, 270.

F451.3.2.1.1. †F451.3.2.1.1. Dwarf prevented from getting into his stone before sunrise till he promises to do what hero demands (especially forge weapons). (Cf. †D451.3.4.2, †D451.4.1.12, †F451.5.2.13.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

F451.3.2.1.2. †F451.3.2.1.2. Dwarf otherwise caught and thus forced to procure what hero demands. Icelandic: Völsunga saga ch. 14, Þiðriks saga I 34--38, Boberg.

F451.3.2.2. †F451.3.2.2. Dwarfs must return to spirit world by 1 a.m. German: Eckart 69, Winckler 56 No. 57.

F451.3.2.3. †F451.3.2.3. Dwarfs cannot harm mortal with circle drawn around him. German: Eckart 69.

F451.3.2.4. †F451.3.2.4. Dwarf can be killed only with snowball. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 248.

F451.3.3. †F451.3.3. Dwarf as magician. Dickson 219 n. 8; Icelandic: *Boberg; German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 137 II.

F451.3.3.0.1. †F451.3.3.0.1. Dwarf can take what shape he wants. Icelandic: Völsunga saga ch. 14 (Andvari), Zs. f. d. Phil. XXVI 12--13, Göngu-Hrólfs saga 307ff., Boberg.

F451.3.3.1. †F451.3.3.1. Dwarfs turn peas into gold pieces. German: Karstens-Goslar 102.

F451.3.3.2. †F451.3.3.2. Dwarf turns gold into lead. German: Förstner Kyffhäusersagen 22.

F451.3.3.3. †F451.3.3.3. Dwarfs transform people (animals). German: Ey 9, Kahlo Harzes 30 No. 51.

F451.3.3.4. †F451.3.3.4. Dwarfs free mortals from enchantment. German: Bindewald 56, 142, Findeisen 39 No. 43.

F451.3.3.5. †F451.3.3.5. Dwarfs bewitch cows to give no milk. German: Karstens-Goslar 103.

F451.3.3.5.1. †F451.3.3.5.1. Dwarfs bewitch people. Icelandic: Göngu-Hrólfs saga 300, *Boberg.

F451.3.3.6. †F451.3.3.6. Dwarfs fly through air. German: Pröhle Unterharzische 171 No. 453.

F451.3.3.7. †F451.3.3.7. Dwarfs predict. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 155, Bindewald 188.

F451.3.3.8. †F451.3.3.8. Dwarfs made invisible by magic caps. (Cf. †F451.5.1.7., †F455.5.3.) Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 269; German: Eckart 7, 27, 79, Pröhle Harzsagen Nos. 220, 220 I, 229, Sieber 62, Pröhle Unterharz. 145 No. 368.

F451.3.4. †F451.3.4. Dwarfs as workmen. Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 54 Nos. 52, 53.

F451.3.4.0.1. †F451.3.4.0.1. Dwarf workmen heard at night. Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 55 No. 61.

F451.3.4.1. †F451.3.4.1. Dwarfs as artificers. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 123, 265ff., *Boberg.

F451.3.4.1.1. †F451.3.4.1.1. Dwarfs build tower. Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 54 No. 51.

F451.3.4.2. †F451.3.4.2. Dwarfs as smiths. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 23ff., (1928) 26ff.; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 66, 266ff., *Boberg; German: Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54, Karstens-Goslar 135.

F451.3.4.3. †F451.3.4.3. Dwarfs do farming. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 270; German: Haas Greifswald. 46 No. 54.

F451.3.4.4. †F451.3.4.4. Dwarf sews. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "nain"; Icelandic: Boberg.

F451.3.4.5. †F451.3.4.5. Dwarf bakes bread. *Boberg DF XLVI; Hoffman-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 119 n. 4; German: Schöppner I 186 No. 184.

F451.3.4.6. †F451.3.4.6. Dwarfs spin. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 270, 271; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 53ff., (1928) 46ff.

F451.3.4.7. †F451.3.4.7. Dwarfs churn. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 460.

F451.3.4.8. †F451.3.4.8. Dwarfs carry water. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 47ff., (1928) 42ff.

F451.3.4.9. †F451.3.4.9. Dwarf expert at making palm wine. Africa (Upoto): Einstein 133.

F451.3.4.10. †F451.3.4.10. Dwarf splits wood using penis as wedge. Africa (Fang): Tessman 136.

F451.3.4.11. †F451.3.4.11. Dwarf can draw entrails out of elephant. Africa (Fang): Tessman 139.

F451.3.5. †F451.3.5. Dwarfs are subject to laws of nature.

F451.3.5.1. †F451.3.5.1. Dwarfs die. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 130; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 75ff., 94ff., (1928) 62ff., 76ff.; German: Pröhle Unterharz. 112 No. 292, Sieber 61.

F451.3.5.2. †F451.3.5.2. Dwarfs become ill. German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 189, Sieber 60.

F451.3.5.3. †F451.3.5.3. Dwarf children are hungry. German: Schöppner I 186 No. 184.

F451.3.5.4. †F451.3.5.4. Dwarfs have blood. German: Pröhle Unterharz. 112 No. 294.

F451.3.5.5. †F451.3.5.5. Dwarf women bear children. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 74, (1928) 63.

F451.3.6. †F451.3.6. Dwarfs are sensitive.

F451.3.6.1. †F451.3.6.1. Dwarf is insulted when scolded. Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 55 No. 64; German: Schöppner I 264 No. 271.

F451.3.6.2. †F451.3.6.2. Dwarfs dislike teasing. (Cf. †F451.9.1.7.) German: Sieber 61.

F451.3.6.3. †F451.3.6.3. Dwarfs dislike tobacco smoke. German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 137 IV.

F451.3.6.4. †F451.3.6.4. Dwarfs accept as gift goose but not gander. German: Kapff 45.

F451.3.6.5. †F451.3.6.5. Dwarfs timorous.

F451.3.6.5.1. †F451.3.6.5.1. Dwarfs fear the dark. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 256.

F451.3.6.5.2. †F451.3.6.5.2. Dwarfs fear dogs. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 256.

F451.3.7. †F451.3.7. Dwarfs are particular as to food.

F451.3.7.1. †F451.3.7.1. Dwarfs dislike caraway seed in food. German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 229, Pröhle Unterharz. 145 No. 367, Sieber 61f.

F451.3.7.2. †F451.3.7.2. Dwarfs dislike bread baked without salt. German: Sieber 61.

F451.3.7.3. †F451.3.7.3. Dwarfs given inedible food to eat. Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 55ff. No. 66.

F451.3.8. †F451.3.8. Dwarfs are strong.

F451.3.8.1. †F451.3.8.1. Dwarf carries mortal down from Hibichenstein. German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 137 III.

F451.3.9. †F451.3.9. Dwarfs are weak.

F451.3.9.1. †F451.3.9.1. Dwarf groans while carrying an ear of corn. German: Schöppner I 264 No. 271.

F451.3.10. †F451.3.10. Dwarfs are droll. German: Winckler 34 No. 24.

F451.3.11. †F451.3.11. Great age of dwarfs. BP I 497; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 271; German: Bindewald 56, Pröhle Unterharz. 112 Nos. 293, 295, Pröhle Harzsagen No. 137 II.

F451.3.12. †F451.3.12. Dwarfs are intelligent. Irish myth: *Cross.

F451.3.12.1. †F451.3.12.1. Dwarfs know herbs. German: Kahlo Harz. 26 No. 47, Pröhle Harzsagen No. 137 II, Kapff 44, 45.

F451.3.12.2. †F451.3.12.2. Dwarfs are sensible. German: Pröhle Unterharz. 113 No. 298.

F451.3.12.3. †F451.3.12.3. Dwarfs are wise. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 92, 265, *Boberg.

F451.3.12.4. †F451.3.12.4. Dwarfs cut runes. Icelandic: Boberg.

F451.3.13. †F451.3.13. Dwarfs are ill-mannered.

F451.3.13.1. †F451.3.13.1. Eating dwarfs smack like hogs. German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 229.

F451.3.13.2. †F451.3.13.2. Dwarfs chatter. German: Karstens-Goslar 122.

F451.3.13.2.1. †F451.3.13.2.1. Dwarfs chatter like geese. German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 229, Sieber 62.

F451.3.13.3. †F451.3.13.3. Dwarf breaks wind so hard he capsizes canoes. Marquesas: Handy 126.

F451.3.14. †F451.3.14. Dwarfs are numerous.

F451.3.14.1. †F451.3.14.1. Dwarfs come into the land by the hundreds. German: Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54.

F451.3.15. †F451.3.15. Dwarfs are superstitious.

F451.3.15.1. †F451.3.15.1. Dwarfs are superstitious about the three sevens in 1777. (Cf. †F451.9.1.3.) German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 60.

F451.3.16. †F451.3.16. Dwarfs are artful. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 268--69.

F451.4. †F451.4. Home of dwarfs.

F451.4.1. †F451.4.1. Dwarfs live under the ground. Icelandic: Göngu-Hrólfs saga 308, MacCulloch Eddic 265, 269; German: Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54; Missouri French: Carrière.

F451.4.1.1. †F451.4.1.1. Dwarfs live in caves. German: Schöppner I 186 No. 184, Eckart 7, 27, Pröhle Unterharz. 145 No. 367, Boberg.

F451.4.1.2. †F451.4.1.2. Dwarfs live in underground castle. German: Kapff 44.

F451.4.1.3. †F451.4.1.3. Dwarfs live in luxurious underground palace. German: Pröhle Harzsagen No. 137 III.

F451.4.1.4. †F451.4.1.4. Dwarfs live in underground passage. German: Schöppner I 264 No. 271.

F451.4.1.5. †F451.4.1.5. Dwarf home is underground, beneath cow stable. (Cf. †F451.4.4.3.) Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 46 No. 387; German: Findeisen No. 5.

F451.4.1.6. †F451.4.1.6. Dwarfs undermine lowlands for homes. German: Haas Greifswald 39 No. 42.

F451.4.1.7. †F451.4.1.7. Entrance to dwarf home leads through some filthy place under the swill hole or swill tub. German: Haas Greifswald. 36 No. 39, 38 No. 40.

F451.4.1.8. †F451.4.1.8. Dwarfs live in the high banks of the seashore. German: Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54.

F451.4.1.9. †F451.4.1.9. Burial places (barrows, howes) as homes of dwarfs. *Gould Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX 190; Icelandic: *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) spec. 151ff., (1928) 107ff.

F451.4.1.10. †F451.4.1.10. Snow melts above dwarf's dwelling. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 46 No. 385; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F451.4.1.11. †F451.4.1.11. Dwarfs live in hills and mountains. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 267--70.

F451.4.1.12. †F451.4.1.12. Dwarfs live in stones. (Cf. †F451.3.2.1.1.) *Fb "sten" III 552b; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 265, 268--70, *Boberg; Danish: Schmidt DF XXXIX 27, 108ff.

F451.4.2. †F451.4.2. Dwarfs have homes above the ground.

F451.4.2.1. †F451.4.2.1. Dwarfs live in a cliff. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 269, *Boberg; German: Eckart 20, 22; Pröhle Harz. No. 269.

F451.4.2.2. †F451.4.2.2. Dwarfs live in ravines. German: Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54.

F451.4.2.3. †F451.4.2.3. Dwarfs live in a forest. German: Pröhle Unterharz. 171 No. 453, Kapff 44.

F451.4.2.4. †F451.4.2.4. Dwarfs live in a church. German: Pröhle Unterharz. 112 No. 294.

F451.4.2.5. †F451.4.2.5. Dwarf king lives in a mill. German: Pröhle Unterharz. 145 No. 368.

F451.4.2.6. †F451.4.2.6. Dwarfs seen on a mountain. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 47 No. 393.

F451.4.3. †F451.4.3. Description of dwarf home.

F451.4.3.1. †F451.4.3.1. Dwarf cave closed by iron doors. German: Karstens-Goslar 135.

F451.4.3.1.1. †F451.4.3.1.1. Dwarfs' rock closed by rock-door. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 269.

F451.4.3.2. †F451.4.3.2. Dwarf cave has large square room with little doors leading to all sides. German: Schöppner I 186 No. 184.

F451.4.3.3. †F451.4.3.3. Dwarf cave has ceiling of mineral white as snow. German: Eckart 22.

F451.4.3.4. †F451.4.3.4. Dwarf home has chandelier of crystals and gems. (Cf. †F420.2.1.) German: Eckart 22.

F451.4.3.5. †F451.4.3.5. Floors in dwarf home are covered with pine twigs. German: Eckart 22.

F451.4.3.6. †F451.4.3.6. Dwarfs' castle of gold. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 265.

F451.4.3.7. †F451.4.3.7. Magic flower opens dwarf home. German: Beckstein 6, Winckler 34 No. 24, Karstens-Goslar 41, Schöppner I 165 No. 158.

F451.4.3.8. †F451.4.3.8. Dwarfs' house of reeds. German: Grimm Nos. 55, 163, 169.

F451.4.3.9. †F451.4.3.9. Dwarfs' house covered with skin of fabulous six-legged animal. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 247.

F451.4.4. †F451.4.4. Home of dwarfs is endangered or destroyed.

F451.4.4.1. †F451.4.4.1. Dwarfs resentful that mortals shoot at birds above Hibichenstein, because this crumbles away the cliff. German: Eckart 22, Pröhle Harz. No. 137 III.

F451.4.4.2. †F451.4.4.2. Thirty-Years War destroys home of dwarfs. German: Eckart 22, Pröhle Harz. No. 137 III.

F451.4.4.3. †F451.4.4.3. Dwarfs request that cow stable be moved because it is above their home and the seepage strikes their dining table. (Cf. †F381.7, †F451.4.1.5.) Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 325ff., (1928) 207ff.; German: Findeisen 3 No. 5; Icelandic: Boberg.

F451.4.4.3.1. †F451.4.4.3.1. Dwarf wishes death to mortal who throws water on his dunghill home. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 254.

F451.4.5. †F451.4.5. Government among dwarfs.

F451.4.5.1. †F451.4.5.1. Dwarfs are ruled by a king. Irish myth: *Cross; German: Eckart 7, 20, 22, Ey 29, Kahlo Harz. 30 No. 51, Pröhle Harz. No. 137 II MacCulloch Eddic 266, 271, 272.

F451.4.6. †F451.4.6. In dwarf land sunrise is at midnight. German: Eckart 7.

F451.5. †F451.5. Dwarfs and human beings.

F451.5.1. †F451.5.1. Helpful dwarfs. *Types 403, 709; BP I 450 ff.; Böcklen Sneewittchenstudien 84f.; BP I 99, Dickson 218. --Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 270, 272, *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 53ff., 437--38, (1928) 47ff.; German: Eckart 79, Ey 29, Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54, Haas Greifswald 36 No. 39, Bindewald 56, 84, Kapff 45; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 41 No. 301; Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 63 No. 9.

F451.5.1.1. †F451.5.1.1. Dwarf as godfather. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 308 No. 4.

F451.5.1.2. †F451.5.1.2. Dwarfs adopt girl as sister. *Type 709; BP I 450ff.; *Böcklen Sneewittchenstudien 94ff.

F451.5.1.3. †F451.5.1.3. Dwarfs make new golden hair for woman. Norse: De la Saussaye 239 (Sif, Thor's wife).

F451.5.1.4. †F451.5.1.4. Dwarfs' gold. Seemingly worthless gift given by dwarfs turns to gold. *Type 503; Feilberg DF V 50, 75, 99; Grimm Deutsche Myth. I 228f., 400. --Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 344ff., (1928) 221ff.; German: Eckart 7, 20, 27, 78, Schöppner I 169 No. 163, I 180 No. 175, Bechstein 6, Winckler 34 No. 24, Sieber 63, Kahlo Harz. 26 No. 47, Pröhle Harz. No. 137 II; Russian: Ralston Songs of the Russian People 159; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 303 No. 23, 308 Nos. 2, 4, 326 No. 2; French: Sébillot France I 259; Indonesian: Voorhoeve 116 No. 93.

F451.5.1.5. †F451.5.1.5. Money or treasure given by dwarfs. (Cf. †F420.5.1.7.1.) Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 268; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 46 No. 386; German: Haas Greifswald 38 No. 40, 40 No. 44, Bindewald 188, Pröhle Harz. No. 137 III, No. 168 I, No. 220 II, Schöppner I 165 No. 158, Ey 29.

F451.5.1.5.1. †F451.5.1.5.1. Dwarf king turns mill which produces gold. Krappe Revue Archéologique (1931) 142ff.

F451.5.1.6. †F451.5.1.6. Other gifts from dwarfs. Boberg DF XLVI 49ff.; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 267 (sword), 272, *Boberg; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 57ff. No. 71--105; German: Pröhle Unterharz. 150 No. 379, Karstens-Goslar 155, Ey 9, Kahlo Harz. 67 No. 107, Bechstein 6, Winckler 34 No. 24; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 241, Rink 185, 463.

F451.5.1.6.1. †F451.5.1.6.1. Dwarfs' gifts cease when mortal betrays the source. (Cf. †C420, †F348.5.) Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 463.

F451.5.1.7. †F451.5.1.7. Dwarfs serve mortals. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; German: MacCulloch Eddic 270, Haas Greifswald 36 No. 39, Schöppner I 264 No. 271, I 354 Nos. 35, 35@1, Pröhle Harz. No. 137 II, No. 229, Sieber 60, 283, Kapff 45.

F451.5.1.8. †F451.5.1.8. Dwarf serves king sleeping in mountain (Kyffhäuser). Bechstein II 1, 6, 8, 9, Förstner Kyffhäuser 7, 9, 16f., 21f., Kahlo Harz. 51 No. 86, 71 No. 112.

F451.5.1.9. †F451.5.1.9. Dwarfs direct mortals to treasure. Kahlo Harz. 54 No. 91, 67 No. 107, 69 No. 109, Karstens-Goslar 122.

F451.5.1.10. †F451.5.1.10. Dwarfs heal (give medicine). Icelandic: *Boberg; German: Kahlo Harz. 26 No. 47, Kapff 44, Sieber 283, Eckhart 20.

F451.5.1.11. †F451.5.1.11. Dwarfs lend to mortals. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn (1892) 19ff., (1928) 91ff.; German: Pröhle Harz Nos. 189, 269, Pröhle Unterharz. 145 No. 367.

F451.5.1.12. †F451.5.1.12. Dwarf moves mortal's castle from one mountain to another. German: Kahlo Harz. 55 No. 92.

F451.5.1.13. †F451.5.1.13. Dwarf washes, combs, and braids hair for sleeping maids. German: Hohaus 123.

F451.5.1.14. †F451.5.1.14. Dwarf conducts shepherd to hell to collect debt from nobleman. German: Sieber 100.

F451.5.1.15. †F451.5.1.15. Dwarfs warm heath by underground fire. Karstens-Goslar 103.

F451.5.1.16. †F451.5.1.16. Dwarf king prevents a father from shooting his son. Pröhle Harz. No. 137 III.

F451.5.1.17. †F451.5.1.17. Dwarfs protect the forest. Pröhle Harz. No. 137 II.

F451.5.1.18. †F451.5.1.18. Dwarfs teach mortals. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 267, *Boberg.

F451.5.1.19. †F451.5.1.19. Dwarfs help human beings with spinning. Type 500; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 271.

F451.5.1.20. †F451.5.1.20. Dwarfs help in performing task. German: Grimm Nos. 13, 55, 64, 91.

F451.5.1.21. †F451.5.1.21. House of dwarf's friend spared in fire. Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 57 No. 83.

F451.5.2. †F451.5.2. Malevolent dwarf. *Type 301; BP II 301ff.; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 269f., *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 393ff., (1928) 249ff.; German: Bindewald 87.

F451.5.2.1. †F451.5.2.1. Ungrateful dwarf. *Type 426; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 326 No. 23.

F451.5.2.2. †F451.5.2.2. Dwarfs steal from human beings. Fb "kage" II 72a; Gaster Oldest Stories 156. --Icelandic: *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 129ff., (1928) 93ff., II (1893) 34ff., (1928) 23ff.; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 308 No. 1, 326 No. 23; German: Pröhle Harz. No. 220 I, No. 269, Pröhle Unterharz. 112 No. 291, Sieber 61f., Eckart 7, 27, 79, Karstens-Goslar 102.

F451.5.2.2.1. †F451.5.2.2.1. Dwarfs steal magic objects. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F451.5.2.2.2. †F451.5.2.2.2. Dwarfs steal food and drink. Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 56 No. 70.

F451.5.2.3. †F451.5.2.3. Dwarfs exchange children in cradle. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 272; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 294ff., (1928) 186ff.; German: Haas Greifswald 36 No. 39, 40 No. 43, Sieber 60, Pröhle Harz. Nos. 189, 220 I, 207, 269, Pröhle Unterharz. 145 No. 368.

F451.5.2.3.1. †F451.5.2.3.1. Father given carved wooden image in lieu of son stolen by dwarfs. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 110.

F451.5.2.4. †F451.5.2.4. Dwarfs kidnap mortals. (Cf. †F420.5.2.2. and cross-references there given.) Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 269f., 272, *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 228ff., (1928) 162ff.; German: Eckart 80, Pröhle Harz. No. 229; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 278, 446.

F451.5.2.5. †F451.5.2.5. Dwarfs interfere with mortal's work (destroy buildings, crops, etc.) (Cf. †F420.5.2.5.) *Fb "dværg" I 220; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 437--38; German: Karstens-Goslar 103, Pröhle Unterharz. 113 No. 297.

F451.5.2.6. †F451.5.2.6. Dwarfs punish. Icelandic: Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn (1892) 156ff., (1928) 171ff.; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 55 No. 65; German: Sieber 61f., 283, Winckler 43 No. 36, Karstens-Goslar 41, Kahlo Harz. 30 No. 51, Förstner Kyffhäuser 22, Kapff 45; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 84.

F451.5.2.7. †F451.5.2.7. Dwarfs play pranks. Gaster Oldest Stories 156; German: Bindewald 87, Pröhle Harz. No. 137 II, Kahlo Harz. 30 No. 51, Karstens-Goslar 102, 103.

F451.5.2.8. †F451.5.2.8. Dwarfs threaten mortals. German: Eckart 69, Pröhle Harz. No. 229.

F451.5.2.9. †F451.5.2.9. Dwarfs scold mortals. German: Beckstein 6, Winckler 34 No. 24.

F451.5.2.10. †F451.5.2.10. Dwarfs frighten mortals. German: Eckart 7, Bindewald 84, Kapff 44.

F451.5.2.11. †F451.5.2.11. Dwarfs attack soldier. German: Pröhle Harz. No. 137, Findeisen 39 No. 43.

F451.5.2.12. †F451.5.2.12. Dwarf takes back gifts he gave. German: Schöppner I 264 No. 271.

F451.5.2.13. †F451.5.2.13. Dwarfs curse weapons and treasures which they are forced to give (or which the receiver does not appreciate). Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 268, *Boberg.

F451.5.2.14. †F451.5.2.14. Dwarfs demand gifts. Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 56 No. 69.

F451.5.3. †F451.5.3. Dwarfs are ancestors of mortals. German: Haas Greifswald 40 No. 43.

F451.5.3.1. †F451.5.3.1. Crippled mortals are of dwarf ancestry. German: Pröhle Harz. No. 187.

F451.5.4. †F451.5.4. Mortal goes to land of dwarfs. Type 963*; German: Pröhle Harz. Nos. 137 III, 168 I, II, 229, Eckart 22, 78, 80, Schöppner I 186 No. 184; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 241.

F451.5.4.1. †F451.5.4.1. Ghost conceals herself with dwarfs. Tobler 66.

F451.5.4.2. †F451.5.4.2. Dwarfs suspend large millstone on thin thread over head of mortal, to show what anguish dwarfs felt when mortal endangered their lives. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 337ff.; Lithuanian: Indogermanische Forschungen XXXV 124 No. 18; German: Haas Greifswald. 38 No. 40.

F451.5.4.3. †F451.5.4.3. Enchanted princess lives with dwarfs. German: Pröhle Harz. No. 175 I.

F451.5.5. †F451.5.5. Dwarfs have human woman as midwife. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 330ff., (1928) 210ff.; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 272; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 308 No. 2, 326 No. 2; German: Kahlo Harz. 54 No. 91.

F451.5.6. †F451.5.6. Dwarfs have mortal god-parent. (Cf. †F420.5.3.3.) German: Haas Greifswald. 38 No. 40, Eckart 78.

F451.5.7. †F451.5.7. Dwarfs visit mortal's home. German: Karsten-Goslar 122, Sieber 61, Pröhle Harz. Nos. 137 IV, 229, Bindewald 87.

F451.5.7.1. †F451.5.7.1. Dwarf wants to warm self at fire. German: Sieber 61; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "nain".

F451.5.8. †F451.5.8. Dwarfs associate with mortals. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 40ff., 266ff., (1928) 37ff., 179ff.; German: Schöppner I 186 No. 184, Kapff 45; Pröhle Harz. No. 187; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 480, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 167.

F451.5.8.1. †F451.5.8.1. Dwarf follows countess around like a little dog. German: Bindewald 83.

F451.5.9. †F451.5.9. Dwarfs and Christianity. (Cf. †F420.5.3.4. and cross-references there given. Cf. also †F451.9.1.6.) Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 271.

F451.5.9.1. †F451.5.9.1. Dwarfs fear the cross. German: Karstens-Goslar 155, Findeisen 3 No. 5.

F451.5.9.2. †F451.5.9.2. Dwarfs dislike singing of hymns. German: Karstens-Goslar 155.

F451.5.9.3. †F451.5.9.3. Dwarfs dislike church bells. German: Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54, Karstens-Goslar 103, 155.

F451.5.9.4. †F451.5.9.4. Dwarfs regard Day of St. John the Divine. German: Schöppner I 164 No. 157, 165 No. 158.

F451.5.9.5. †F451.5.9.5. Dwarf seeks to enter church. *Fb "dværg" I 220.

F451.5.9.6. †F451.5.9.6. Murder causes dwarf to lose his soul. (Cf. †E700.) Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 240.

F451.5.10. †F451.5.10. Business relations of dwarfs and mortals. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F451.5.10.1. †F451.5.10.1. Dwarfs accept remuneration. German: Karstens-Goslar 135, 155, Sieber 283, Eckart 67, Pröhle Harz. No. 229, Kapff 45.

F451.5.10.2. †F451.5.10.2. Dwarfs object to rewards. (Cf. †F451.5.10.9.) German: Schöppner I 354 No. 351, Pröhle Unterharz. 150 No. 379.

F451.5.10.3. †F451.5.10.3. Dwarfs borrow from mortals. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 116ff., (1928) 90ff., Boberg DF XLVI 38ff.; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 56 No. 68; German: Eckart 78, Schöppner I 186 No. 184, Findeisen 39 No. 43.

F451.5.10.3.1. †F451.5.10.3.1. Dwarf borrows sledge. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 587--590.

F451.5.10.4. †F451.5.10.4. Dwarfs return what they borrow. Boberg DF XLVI 38ff.; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 116ff., (1928) 90ff.; German: Schöppner I 186 No. 184; Eckart 78.

F451.5.10.5. †F451.5.10.5. Dwarfs buy peas from mortals and pay more than they are worth. German: Eckart 79, Schöppner I 186 No. 184.

F451.5.10.6. †F451.5.10.6. Dwarfs pay for being ferried across water. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 417ff., (1928) 256ff.; German: Karstens-Goslar 155.

F451.5.10.7. †F451.5.10.7. Mortal confiscates property of dwarfs. German: Pröhle Harz. No. 137.

F451.5.10.8. †F451.5.10.8. Dwarfs make promises with mental reservations. German: Eckart 7.

F451.5.10.9. †F451.5.10.9. Ausgelohnt. When dwarfs are paid in full for their work they cease helping mortals. *Hdwb. d. Märch. s. v. "Ausgelohnt"; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 96ff., (1928) 70ff.; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 40 No. 326; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3490.

F451.5.11. †F451.5.11. Dwarfs suffer abuses by mortals. German: Schöppner I 264 No. 271, Pröhle Harz. No. 269, Haas Greifswald. 38 No. 40, Eckart 69, Sieber 61, Ey 29.

F451.5.12. †F451.5.12. Dwarfs thwart efforts of mortals to get additional favors. German: Eckart 7.

F451.5.12.1. †F451.5.12.1. Mortals, informed by those benefited, seek dwarf abode in vain. German: Kahlo Harz. 69 No. 109.

F451.5.13. †F451.5.13. Dwarfs exact promise from mortals. German: Karstens-Goslar 41, Eckart 22.

F451.5.14. †F451.5.14. Dwarfs tease mortals. German: Kapff 44, Pröhle Unterharz. 145 No. 368.

F451.5.15. †F451.5.15. Dwarfs give riddles and questions to mortals.

F451.5.15.1. †F451.5.15.1. Dwarf promises mortal much money if he will guess his name. German: Haas Greifswald. 40 No. 44.

F451.5.15.2. †F451.5.15.2. Dwarf makes return of child dependent upon guessing of riddle. German: Pröhle Harz. No. 220 I.

F451.5.15.3. †F451.5.15.3. Dwarf suitor desists when unwilling maiden guesses his name. (Cf. †C432.1.) German: Haas Greifswald. 38 No. 41.

F451.5.16. †F451.5.16. Dwarfs dislike human vices. German: Sieber 61, Schöppner I 186 No. 184, Pröhle Harz. No. 269, Pröhle Unterharz. 113 No. 298, Karstens-Goslar 135, Förstner Kyffhäuser 22, Winckler 43 No. 36.

F451.5.17. †F451.5.17. Dwarfs invisibly attend wedding or christening feasts of mortals. (Cf. †F451.3.3.8.) Icelandic: *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 135ff., (1928) 96ff.; German: Pröhle Harz. No. 229, Pröhle Unterharz. 145 No. 368.

F451.5.17.1. †F451.5.17.1. Invisible dwarfs at christening feast made to speak by brewing beer in egg-shell. (Cf. †F321.1.1.1, †F481.4.) German: Pröhle Harz. No. 229.

F451.5.18. †F451.5.18. Dwarf loves mortal girl. (Cf. †F420.6.1. and cross references †F451.5.15.3.) Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 270, 272, Boberg; Swiss Jegerlehner Oberwallis 322 No. 86; German: Haas Greifswald. 36 No. 39, 38 No. 44.

F451.5.18.1. †F451.5.18.1. Dwarf promises money and property to mortal father for hand of daughter. German: Haas Greifswald. 38 No. 41.

F451.5.19. †F451.5.19. Dwarfs are bashful or timid. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 44ff., (1928) 41ff.

F451.5.19.1. †F451.5.19.1. Dwarf stays away from house after maid tries to catch and kiss him. German: Hohaus 123.

F451.5.20. †F451.5.20. Dwarfs give orders to mortals. German: Pröhle Unterharz 113 No. 298, Findeisen 39 No. 43.

F451.5.21. †F451.5.21. Six dwarfs listen to singing by confirmed children. German: Kapff 45.

F451.5.22. †F451.5.22. Expelled dwarfs plan to dig underground bed for Rhine. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 303 No. 23.

F451.5.23. †F451.5.23. Dwarfs seek human help in their fights and troubles. Icelandic: Sveinsson FFC LXXXIII xxxviii--xli; German: MacCulloch Eddic 272.

F451.6. †F451.6. Other actions of dwarfs.

F451.6.1. †F451.6.1. Dwarf caught by beard in cleft of tree. (Cf. †F451.2.3.1.) *Type 426; BP III 260; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "nain".

F451.6.2. †F451.6.2. Dwarf rides.

F451.6.2.1. †F451.6.2.1. Dwarf rides on a hare. Köhler-Bolte I 545.

F451.6.2.2. †F451.6.2.2. Dwarf rides through air on wooden horse. Dickson 217.

F451.6.2.3. †F451.6.2.3. Dwarfs are taken for hussars because they ride little horses. (Cf. †F451.7.5.) German: Pröhle Unterharz. 112 No. 294.

F451.6.2.4. †F451.6.2.4. Dwarfs try to kill serpent. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

F451.6.3. †F451.6.3. Dwarfs have festivities. Irish myth: *Cross.

F451.6.3.1. †F451.6.3.1. Dwarfs feast mortals in their home. German: Eckart 22, Ey 29, Pröhle Harz. No. 137 III, No. 168 I, Haas Greifswald. 38 No. 40.

F451.6.3.2. †F451.6.3.2. Dwarfs celebrate weddings and christenings of their own. (Cf. †F451.6.5.) Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 62ff., (1928) 54ff.; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 45 Nos. 375--376; German: Pröhle Harz. No. 229, Haas Greifswald. 38 No. 40.

F451.6.3.3. †F451.6.3.3. Dwarfs have music. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 270--71; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 189ff., (1928) 133ff.; German: Eckart 22, Sieber 62, Pröhle Harz. No. 229, Pröhle Unterharz. 171 No. 453.

F451.6.3.3.1. †F451.6.3.3.1. Dwarf musician (poet). Irish myth: *Cross.

F451.6.3.4. †F451.6.3.4. Dwarf dances. *Fb "danse" IV 93a; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 193ff., (1928) 137ff.; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 58 No. 92; German: Sieber 62.

F451.6.3.5. †F451.6.3.5. Dwarfs play in the moonlight. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 36ff., (1928) 33ff.; German: Haas Greifswald. 38 No. 41.

F451.6.3.6. †F451.6.3.6. Dwarfs hold church services. German: Schöppner I 165 No. 158.

F451.6.4. †F451.6.4. Dwarfs fight with each other. German: Ey 29, Pröhle Unterharz. 112 No. 294.

F451.6.5. †F451.6.5. Dwarfs wed. (Cf. †F451.6.3.2.) Irish myth: *Cross (†F451.3.17); German: Karstens-Goslar 122, Kahlo Harz. 30 No. 51.

F451.6.6. †F451.6.6. Dwarfs laugh. German: Karstens-Goslar 122.

F451.6.7. †F451.6.7. Dwarfs weep. German: Förstner Kyffhäuser 17.

F451.6.8. †F451.6.8. Dwarfs become angry. German: Haas Greifswald 38 No. 41.

F451.6.9. †F451.6.9. Dwarfs dig for treasures. German: Findeisen 3 No. 5.

F451.6.10. †F451.6.10. Frau Holle lives with dwarfs. (Cf. †F475.1.) German: Pröhle Harz. No. 230.

F451.6.11. †F451.6.11. Dwarfs betray. German: Sieber 61.

F451.6.12. †F451.6.12. Dwarf king Hibich comes to surface every 500 years. German: Pröhle Harz. No. 137 II.

F451.6.13. †F451.6.13. Dwarf carries his knocked-off leg on his shoulder. German: Sieber 61.

F451.6.14. †F451.6.14. Dwarfs flee to caves for protection. German: Karstens-Goslar 102.

F451.7. †F451.7. Possessions of dwarfs. Irish myth: *Cross.

F451.7.1. †F451.7.1. Dwarfs possess treasure (gold, jewels, etc.). Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 270; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 172ff. (1928) 221ff.; German: Eckart 22, Schöppner I 164 No. 157, Pröhle Harz. No. 137 IV, Haas Greifswald. 36 No. 39, 38 No. 40.

F451.7.2. †F451.7.2. Dwarfs have ovens. Boberg DF XLVI 16ff.; German: Schöppner I 186 No. 184.

F451.7.3. †F451.7.3. Dwarfs have little lanterns. German: Winckler 56 No. 57.

F451.7.4. †F451.7.4. Dwarf king has silver miner's torch bright as the sun. German: Pröhle Harz. No. 137 II.

F451.7.5. †F451.7.5. Dwarfs have little horses. (Cf. †F451.6.2.3.) Irish myth: *Cross; German: Pröhle Unterharz. 112 No. 294.

F451.7.6. †F451.7.6. Dwarfs have cattle, steeds and wagons. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 31ff., (1928) 32ff.; German: Karstens-Goslar 122.

F451.8. †F451.8. Names for dwarfs. **Gould PMLA XLIV 939.

F451.8.1. †F451.8.1. Common names for dwarfs. German: Haas Grimmen 3, 46 No. 54, Haas Greifswald. 36 No. 39, 38 Nos. 40, 41, Nos. 43, 44, Karstens-Goslar 135, 155, Schöppner I 165 No. 158, I 169 No. 163, I 264 No. 271, I 354 No. 351, Ey 9, 29, Bindewald 83, 87, 142, 188, Findeisen 3 No. 5, 39 No. 43, Kappf 44, 45, Hohaus 123, Eckart 27, 67, 78ff., Bechstein 6.

F451.8.2. †F451.8.2. Proper names for dwarfs. Icelandic: Snorra Edda Gylf. XIV, *Boberg, MacCulloch Eddic 264, 269--70; German: Eckart 20, 22, Pröhle Harz. No. 137 II, III, Pröhle Unterharz. 145 No. 368, Haas Greifswald. 38 No. 41, 40 No. 44.

F451.9. †F451.9. Dwarfs emigrate. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 417ff., (1928) 256ff.; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 59 Nos. 103--105.

F451.9.1. †F451.9.1. Why dwarfs emigrate.

F451.9.1.1. †F451.9.1.1. Dwarfs emigrate because mortals put caraway seeds into bread. German: Sieber 61.

F451.9.1.2. †F451.9.1.2. Dwarfs emigrate because mortals are false. German: Pröhle Unterharz. 113 No. 298.

F451.9.1.3. †F451.9.1.3. The three sevens in 1777 drive dwarfs out of the land. German: Pröhle Harz. No. 60.

F451.9.1.4. †F451.9.1.4. Dwarfs emigrate because of industrial development. German: Schöppner I 186 No. 184.

F451.9.1.5. †F451.9.1.5. Dwarfs promise to emigrate if captured dwarfs are released. German: Sieber 62.

F451.9.1.6. †F451.9.1.6. Dwarfs emigrate because Christianity offends them. (Cf. †F451.5.9.) German: Haas Grimmen 46 No. 54; Icelandic: Boberg.

F451.9.1.7. †F451.9.1.7. Dwarfs emigrate because mortals tease them. (Cf. †F451.3.6.2.) German: Sieber 61.

F451.9.1.8. †F451.9.1.8. Dwarfs emigrate because mortals object to their stealing. German: Pröhle Harz. No. 269.

F451.9.1.9. †F451.9.1.9. Dwarfs emigrate because they dislike peasants' dancing and loud music. German: Karstens-Goslar 103.

F451.9.1.10. †F451.9.1.10. Dwarfs emigrate because mortals curse. German: Schöppner I 186 No. 184.

F451.9.1.11. †F451.9.1.11. Dwarfs emigrate because mortals desecrate holy day. German: Schöppner I 186 No. 184.

F451.9.1.12. †F451.9.1.12. Dwarfs emigrate because of mortals' ingratitude. German: Sieber 61.

F451.9.1.13. †F451.9.1.13. Frederick the Great drove dwarfs across Black Sea. German: Sieber 61.

F451.9.1.14. †F451.9.1.14. Dwarfs forced to flee by deity. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 328.

F451.9.1.15. †F451.9.1.15. Dwarfs emigrate when their king dies. Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 59 No. 102.

F451.9.2. †F451.9.2. The destination of emigrating dwarfs.

F451.9.2.1. †F451.9.2.1. Dwarfs emigrate to unknown place. German: Karstens-Goslar 155.

F451.9.2.2. †F451.9.2.2. Dwarfs emigrate to the Orient. German: Kapff 44.

F451.9.3. †F451.9.3. Dwarfs emigrate New Year's Eve of 1800 to return New Year's Eve of 1900. German: Sieber 61.

F451.9.4. †F451.9.4. As dwarfs emigrate each deposits coin into kettle for mortals. German: Sieber 62.

F451.9.5. †F451.9.5. Emigrating dwarfs are ferried across water. (Cf. †F451.5.10.6.) German: Karstens-Goslar 166.

F451.9.6. †F451.9.6. Dwarfs emigrate unseen but heard. (Cf. †F455.5.1.) Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 59 No. 104; German: Sieber 62.

F451.10. †F451.10. Dwarfs and other supernatural beings.

F451.10.1. †F451.10.1. Giants and heroes created for the protection and aid of dwarfs. (Cf. †F451.1.3.) German: MacCulloch Eddic 265.

F451.10.2. †F451.10.2. Giants and dwarfs in contest. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 53.

F451.10.2.1. †F451.10.2.1. Dwarfs kill giantess by dropping millstone on her head. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 53.

F451.10.3. †F451.10.3. Dwarfs in love with other supernatural beings. (Cf. †F531.7.2.) Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 95, 123, 270 (Freyja); *Boberg.

F451.10.4. †F451.10.4. Dwarfs make weapons and other precious objects for the gods. (Cf. †F451.3.4.2.) Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 266.

F455. †F455. Trolls. Sometimes underground spirits, sometimes also thought of as mountain-spirits. In many tales trolls are ogres. (Cf. †G100, †G400-†G599.) *Fb "trold" III 852a; Scandinavian: **E. Hartmann Die Trollvorstellungen in den Sagen und Märchen der skandinavischen Völker (Stuttgart, 1936); Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 285ff., Boberg; Norwegian: Solheim Register 18, 21; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 60ff.

F455.1. †F455.1. Home of trolls.

F455.1.1. †F455.1.1. Trolls live in howe (barrow, grave). *Fb "trold" III 852a; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F455.1.2. †F455.1.2. Trolls live in cliffs. Icelandic: **Boberg.

F455.2. †F455.2. Appearance of trolls. (Cf. †G304.1.)

F455.2.1. †F455.2.1. Trolls the size of ten or twelve year old child. *Fb "trold" III 852a.

F455.2.2. †F455.2.2. Trolls are usually ugly, hideous, big and strong. Icelandic: *Boberg; Norwegian: Solheim Register 18, Hartmann 48, 52, 65.

F455.2.3. †F455.2.3. Trolls are black (dark). Hartmann 65; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F455.2.4. †F455.2.4. Trolls dressed in skins. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F455.2.5. †F455.2.5. Troll in human form. Hartmann 70.

F455.2.5.1. †F455.2.5.1. Troll in human size. Hartmann 65.

F455.2.6. †F455.2.6. Trolls frightful. Hartmann 52.

F455.2.7. †F455.2.7. Troll with snout for nose. Hartmann 54.

F455.2.8. †F455.2.8. Troll in animal form (cat, dog, pig, hen). Hartmann 67, 70.

F455.2.9. †F455.2.9. Troll as whirlwind. Hartmann 73.

F455.2.10. †F455.2.10. Great age of trolls. Often centuries old. Hartmann 67.

F455.3. †F455.3. Characteristic activities of trolls.

F455.3.1. †F455.3.1. Trolls skillful as smiths. *Fb "smed" III 402a; *Krappe Grinkenschmied (Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literatur CLVIII [1930] 9--23).

F455.3.2. †F455.3.2. Trolls dance. *Fb "danse" IV 93b.

F455.3.3. †F455.3.3. Trolls ride.

F455.3.3.1. †F455.3.3.1. Troll rides on dog. Fb "hund" I 676b.

F455.3.3.2. †F455.3.3.2. Troll rides in whirlwind. (Cf. †F455.2.9.) Fb "hvirvelvind" IV 232a.

F455.3.3.3. †F455.3.3.3. Trolls ride on men and cattle. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F455.3.4. †F455.3.4. Trolls spin and weave fine cloth. Hartmann 72.

F455.3.5. †F455.3.5. Trolls bake. Hartmann 71, *Boberg DF XLVI.

F455.3.6. †F455.3.6. Trolls go about at night. Hartmann 75.

F455.4. †F455.4. Possessions of trolls.

F455.4.1. †F455.4.1. Trolls' riches. Hartmann 70.

F455.4.1.1. †F455.4.1.1. Trolls' riches inside mountain. Hartmann 70.

F455.4.2. †F455.4.2. Trolls' food.

F455.4.2.1. †F455.4.2.1. Trolls' food gives man supernatural strength. Hartmann 72.

F455.4.2.2. †F455.4.2.2. Trolls eat from golden dishes, but food is frogs and snakes. Hartmann 70.

F455.4.2.3. †F455.4.2.3. Trolls live on food humans have failed to bless. Hartmann 70.

F455.5. †F455.5. Visibility of trolls. (Cf. †F235.)

F455.5.1. †F455.5.1. Trolls invisible but heard. (Cf. †F412, †F451.9.6.) Hartmann 69f.

F455.5.2. †F455.5.2. Invisible troll attends wedding and eats food. Hartmann 73.

F455.5.3. †F455.5.3. Trolls have cap of invisibility. (Cf. †F451.3.3.8.) Hartmann 73.

F455.5.4. †F455.5.4. Certain persons can see trolls. (Cf. †F235.3.) Hartmann 74.

F455.5.4.1. †F455.5.4.1. Animals can see trolls. (Cf. †B733.) Hartmann 74.

F455.5.4.2. †F455.5.4.2. Trolls visible to unconfirmed children. Hartmann 83.

F455.5.4.3. †F455.5.4.3. Trolls seen through another's arm (or the like). (Cf. †D1821.3.1, †F235.6.) Hartmann 74.

F455.6. †F455.6. Trolls and men.

F455.6.1. †F455.6.1. Trolls' friendship with men. Hartmann 72.

F455.6.2. †F455.6.2. Trolls' lending and borrowing. Hartmann 72.

F455.6.2.1. †F455.6.2.1. Troll repays loan with costly or magic object. Hartmann 72.

F455.6.3. †F455.6.3. Trolls steal from humans. Hartmann 64, 73.

F455.6.3.1. †F455.6.3.1. Trolls steal fish at Christmas. Hartmann 57.

F455.6.4. †F455.6.4. Theft from troll.

F455.6.4.1. †F455.6.4.1. Troll's costly cup stolen. Hartmann 18, 70.

F455.6.4.2. †F455.6.4.2. Troll's treasure obtained by casting steel on it. Hartmann 20.

F455.6.5. †F455.6.5. Trolls visit men.

F455.6.5.1. †F455.6.5.1. Trolls visit people Christmas Eve. Hartmann 53f., 75.

F455.6.6. †F455.6.6. Trolls carry off people. (Cf. †F320, †F322.) *Hartmann 76, 86ff.; *Feilberg DF V.

F455.6.6.1. †F455.6.6.1. Stolen woman saved from trolls' dance. (Cf. †F322.2.) Hartmann 118ff.

F455.6.7. †F455.6.7. Trolls as changelings. (Cf. †F321.1.) Scandinavian: *Hartmann 76ff.; **Piaschewski Der Wichsetbalg (Breslau, 1935).

F455.6.8. †F455.6.8. Trolls help men.

F455.6.8.1. †F455.6.8.1. Trolls help with grain harvest. Hartmann 72f.

F455.6.9. †F455.6.9. Trolls as the constant enemies of humans. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F455.6.10. †F455.6.10. People possessed by trolls. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F455.7. †F455.7. Trolls and Christianity. (Cf. †G304.2.4.1.)

F455.7.1. †F455.7.1. Trolls flee before Christianity. (Cf. †F382) Hartmann 69.

F455.7.2. †F455.7.2. Troll helpless before sign of Cross. (Cf. †D1766.1.) Hartmann 67.

F455.7.3. †F455.7.3. Trolls may not utter holy names. Hartmann 70.

F455.8. †F455.8. Troll killed.

F455.8.1. †F455.8.1. Trolls turn to stone at sunrise. (Cf. †F531.6.12.2.) Norwegian: Solheim Register 18, Hartmann 68.

F455.8.2. †F455.8.2. Trolls killed by lightning. Hartmann 67.

F455.9. †F455.9. Banning trolls.

F455.9.1. †F455.9.1. Certain persons can ban trolls. Hartmann 74.

F455.10. †F455.10. Recognizing trolls.

F455.10.1. †F455.10.1. Test of troll child. Snake placed in dough she is to knead. She calls it "brother". Hartmann 81.

F455.11. †F455.11. Offspring of trolls. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F456. †F456. Mine spirits. Gnomes. (Cf. †E336.) Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 279, 460.

F456.1. †F456.1. Knockers (Tommy Knockers, spriggins).

F456.1.1. †F456.1.1. Origin of knockers or spriggins.

F456.1.1.1. †F456.1.1.1. Knockers as ghosts of Jews who crucified Christ and who were forced to work Cornish tin mines as punishment. England: *Baughman.

F456.1.1.2. †F456.1.1.2. Knockers as ghosts of giants who formerly lived in area. England: Baughman.

F456.1.1.3. †F456.1.1.3. Knockers as spirits of dead miners. U.S.: *Baughman.

F456.1.2. †F456.1.2. Actions of knockers.

F456.1.2.1. †F456.1.2.1. Malicious actions of knockers.

F456.1.2.1.1. †F456.1.2.1.1. Knockers bring ill luck if one whistles in the mine. (Cf. †G303.16.18.) England: Baughman.

F456.1.2.1.2. †F456.1.2.1.2. Knockers hide tools of miners. U.S.: Baughman.

F456.1.2.1.3. †F456.1.2.1.3. Knockers tamper with dynamite fuses in mine. U.S.: *Baughman.

F456.1.2.1.4. †F456.1.2.1.4. Knockers kick rungs out of ladders, cutting off escape of trapped miners. U.S.: Baughman.

F456.1.2.1.5. †F456.1.2.1.5. Knockers lame miners who bother them unduly. England: *Baughman.

F456.1.2.2. †F456.1.2.2. Helpful actions of knockers. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

F456.1.2.2.1. †F456.1.2.2.1. Knockers lead men to the richest lodes in the mines by knocking in those areas. England: *Baughman.

F456.1.2.2.2. †F456.1.2.2.2. Knockers do miner's work at night while he is gone. England: Baughman.

F456.1.2.2.3. †F456.1.2.2.3. Knockers test entries and supports by tapping them with hammers. U.S.: Baughman.

F456.1.2.2.4. †F456.1.2.2.4. Knockers appear to miners before accidents occur: the sight of one serves as a warning to leave mine. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

F456.1.2.3. †F456.1.2.3. Other actions of knockers.

F456.1.2.3.1. †F456.1.2.3.1. Knockers hold midnight mass deep in mines on Christmas Eve. (Cf. †E492.) England: Baughman.

F456.1.2.3.2. †F456.1.2.3.2. Knockers (ghosts of Jews) are compelled to sing carols in mines at Christmastime. England: Baughman.

F456.1.2.3.3. †F456.1.2.3.3. Knockers refrain from work on Saturdays and other Jewish holidays. England: Baughman.

F456.2. †F456.2. Mining spirit: "Bluecap."

F456.2.1. †F456.2.1. Bluecap moves coal-tubs for miners. England: *Baughman.

F456.3. †F456.3. Mining spirit: "Cutty Soams".

F456.3.1. †F456.3.1. "Cutty" cuts cords by which miners pull tubs full of coal. England: *Baughman.

F456.4. †F456.4. Miscellaneous mine spirit motifs.

F456.4.1. †F456.4.1. Fairies operate coal mine. Wales: Baughman.

F460. †F460. Mountain-spirits. (Huldra.) See also †F200-†F399 (Fairies and Elves), †F420 (Water-spirits), and †F451 (Dwarfs) for many common motifs. Meyer Altgermanische 101; *Fb "vætte" III 1122b, "dværg" I 220b, "höj" I 740a, and especially "bjærgmand" I 41b, 42a; Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 1071 s. v. "Berggeister"; *Wehrhan 80; Scandinavian: **Hartmann 35ff., 57, 64 ("huldra"); *Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 60ff. Nos. 513--564; Slovenian: *L. Kratzenbacher Germanische Mythen in der epischen Volksdichtung der Slowenen (Graz, 1941) 28--35; India: Thompson-Balys.

F460.0.1. †F460.0.1. Mountain spirits as souls of dead. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 76.

F460.1. †F460.1. Appearance of mountain men.

F460.1.1. †F460.1.1. Mountain-man in animal shape. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 60 No. 517.

F460.1.1.1. †F460.1.1.1. Mountain-man in shape of hog. Fb "svin" III 676a.

F460.1.2. †F460.1.2. Mountain-wife has breasts so long that she throws them over her shoulder. (Cf. †F232.2, †F441.2.1.2, †F531.1.5.1, †G123.) Fb "patte" II 791b; Scandinavian: Hartmann 38.

F460.1.3. †F460.1.3. Mountain-man carries shears at side like sword. Fb "saks" III 143a.

F460.1.4. †F460.1.4. Dress of mountain-men. *Fb "bjærgmand" IV 41b.

F460.1.4.1. †F460.1.4.1. Mountain-men in white caps. Fb "hvid" I 700b.

F460.1.4.2. †F460.1.4.2. Mountain-men in red caps. (Cf. †F236.3.2., †F451.2.7.1.) Fb "lue" II 455.

F460.1.4.3. †F460.1.4.3. Huldra-woman's cap. Norwegian: Solheim Register 19.

F460.1.5. †F460.1.5. Huldra-women have cow's tails. (Cf. †F232.8, †F518, †F531.1.6.14.) Norwegian: Hartmann 37.

F460.1.6. †F460.1.6. Huldra-men with long teeth and nose. Norwegian: Hartmann 37.

F460.1.7. †F460.1.7. Huldra invisible. Hartmann 37.

F460.2. †F460.2. Characteristics of mountain-men.

F460.2.1. †F460.2.1. Mountain-folk afraid of thunder. Fb "torden" III 824b.

F460.2.2. †F460.2.2. Mountain-folk ride through air on horses. Fb "luftrejse" II 457a.

F460.2.3. †F460.2.3. Mountain-men cannot enter house till light is quenched. Fb "lys" II 480b.

F460.2.4. †F460.2.4. Mountain-man has stack of butter before his door. Fb "smör" III 413b.

F460.2.5. †F460.2.5. Huldra have lake. Norwegian: Solheim Register 19.

F460.2.6. †F460.2.6. Huldra live like people. Have own churches, king, soldiers, etc. Hartmann 37.

F460.2.8. †F460.2.8. Huldra have drum. Norwegian: Solheim Register 19.

F460.2.9. †F460.2.9. Huldra have cattle. (Cf. †F241.2.) Norwegian: Solheim Register 19.

F460.2.10. †F460.2.10. Huldra have drinking-horn. Norwegian: Solheim Register 19.

F460.2.11. †F460.2.11. Huldra tend herds in mountains. Hartmann 35.

F460.2.12. †F460.2.12. Mountain-man must die six times to be dead. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 273.

F460.2.13. †F460.2.13. Huldra sing songs. Norwegian: Hartmann 35, 37.

F460.2.14. †F460.2.14. Mountain spirits eat raw food. Mono-Alu: Wheeler 6f., 18, 19, 32, 34, 39, 41, 42, 46, 49, 51, 52, 60, 61, 188.

F460.2.15. †F460.2.15. Mountain spirits change sex at will. (Cf. †D10.) Buin: Wheeler 19, 51.

F460.3. †F460.3. Amusements of mountain-folk.

F460.3.1. †F460.3.1. Mountain-folk dance. *Fb "danse" IV 93a; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 302 No. 2.

F460.3.2. †F460.3.2. Mountain-men play games. Hartland Science 166ff., 178; cf. Irving's Rip Van Winkle.

F460.4. †F460.4. Relation of mountain-men and human beings.

F460.4.1. †F460.4.1. Mountain-girl marries mortal man. Supernaturally strong man as offspring. Fb "döjs" I 229b; Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1928) 282--283.

F460.4.1.1. †F460.4.1.1. Mountain-men as lovers of herding-girls. Norwegian: Hartman 37.

F460.4.1.2. †F460.4.1.2. Mountain woman has sex relations with man. Norwegian: Hartmann 104ff.; Solheim Register 19.

F460.4.1.2.1. †F460.4.1.2.1. Child from dreamed sex relations with mountain-woman. Hartmann 121 (cf. Ibsen's Peer Gynt).

F460.4.2. †F460.4.2. Helpful mountain-men. Norwegian: Hartmann 35.

F460.4.2.1. †F460.4.2.1. Mountain-spirits help build palace. Chinese: Werner 181.

F460.4.2.2. †F460.4.2.2. Money left on hill to repay helpful mountain-men. *Fb "penge" II 803a.

F460.4.2.3. †F460.4.2.3. Mountain-spirit teaches hero swordsmanship. Japanese: Anesaki 309.

F460.4.2.4. †F460.4.2.4. Mountain-men give children a book. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 60 No. 514.

F460.4.2.5. †F460.4.2.5. Huldra trade cattle with men. Norwegian: Hartmann 35.

F460.4.3. †F460.4.3. Mountain-men leave broken implement for man to mend. Fb "ovnrage" II 775b; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 271.

F460.4.4. †F460.4.4. Malevolent mountain-men.

F460.4.4.1. †F460.4.4.1. Mountain-men abduct persons. *Fb "karet" II 91; Icelandic: *Boberg; Norwegian: Solheim Register 19, *Hartmann 109, 112; Chinese: Werner 345; Japanese: Ikeda; Mono-Alu: Wheeler 39; New Hebrides: Codrington 409.

F460.4.4.1.1. †F460.4.4.1.1. Woman rescued from mountain-men. Norwegian: Solheim Register 19, *Hartmann 117.

F460.4.4.2. †F460.4.4.2. Mountain-men chain captive peasant. Fb "lænke" II 497.

F460.4.4.3. †F460.4.4.3. Mountain-men throw person over church roof. Fb "kaste" II 103.

F460.4.4.4. †F460.4.4.4. Mountain-men make sausage of Christians. Fb "pölse" II 907.

F460.4.4.5. †F460.4.4.5. Mountain-folk steal from peasant. Fb "lys" II 480b.

F460.4.4.6. †F460.4.4.6. Mountain-men drive off man's herds. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 301f. Nos. 12, 18.

F460.4.4.7. †F460.4.4.7. Mountain-spirit causes shipwreck. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 138.

F460.4.5. †F460.4.5. Mountain-men borrow from peasant. Fb "låne" II 521.

F460.4.6. †F460.4.6. Failure to bless mountains gives mountain-men power. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 301 No. 18; Icelandic: Boberg.

F460.4.7. †F460.4.7. Mountain-man as godfather. Type 1165; Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 441ff., (1928) 264ff.

F460.4.8. †F460.4.8. Visit to mountain-men. Norwegian: Solheim Register 18.

F465. †F465. Rübezahl. A mountain and storm spirit. *Wehrhan 68; **Jungbauer Die Rübezahlsage (Reichenberg, 1923); Koch **Rübezahl (Breslau, n.d.); Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXXV--XXXVI 68; *Loewe Zs. f. Vksk. XVIII 1, 151, XXI 31, 126.

F470. †F470. Night-spirits. Poltergeister; goblins; hobgoblins. *Kittredge Witchcraft 214, 521f. nn. 7, 9ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: *Wessman 30ff.; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 305 No. 4.

F470.0.1. †F470.0.1. Friar Rush as mischief maker. *Kittredge Witchcraft 216, 524 nn. 27--31.

F470.1. †F470.1. Spirits pull off person's bedclothes. *Kittredge Witchcraft 217, 524f. nn. 37--44; England, Scotland, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.

F470.2. †F470.2. Night-spirits dance. Fb "danse" IV 93a.

F471. †F471. Dream demons.

F471.1. †F471.1. Nightmare (Alp). Presses person in dream. **E. Jones Der Alptraum (Leipzig-Wien, 1912); *Tegethoff Amor und Psyche 87ff.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. 1 282 s. v. "Alp"; Laistner Rätsel I 41ff., II 1ff.; Wehrhan 62; Hdwb. d. March. s. v. "Alp"; *Meyer Germanen 129ff.; Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 322; *Fb "mare" II 551f.; *Kittredge Witchcraft 218, 525f. nn. 54--62. --Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 288ff., De la Saussaye 293f., *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 241ff., (1928) 154ff.; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 88 Nos. 748--770; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 63 No. 171; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 60; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 127 No. 60; Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Penzer III 131 n. 3.

F471.1.1. †F471.1.1. Actions of nightmares (alps). Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3690.

F471.1.1.1. †F471.1.1.1. Alp rides horse sweaty at night. *Fb "mare" II 551b, 552a; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 60; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 127 No. 60; Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. 3683f.

F471.1.1.2. †F471.1.1.2. Alps dance. *Fb "danse" IV 93a.

F471.1.2. †F471.1.2. Protection against the nightmare (alp). *Fb "mare" II 551.

F471.1.2.1. †F471.1.2.1. Exorcising the nightmare. Meyer Germanen 132.

F471.1.2.2. †F471.1.2.2. Destruction of an alp. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 309 No. 11.

F471.1.3. †F471.1.3. Unbaptized children as nightmares. When caught, they beg baptism. Usually they are murdered illegitimates. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3685.

F471.1.4. †F471.1.4. Ghost of hunter as nightmare. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3686.

F471.1.5. †F471.1.5. Persons who at night become nightmares. Those who are born on a Thursday and christened on a Sunday must at certain times (on Thursdays) press somebody or something. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3687; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 67 No. 183.

F471.2. †F471.2. Incubus. A male demon who comes in sleep and has sexual intercourse with a woman. *Kittredge Witchcraft 116, 444ff. nn. 103--155 passim; *Loomis White Magic 77; Irish myth: Cross; Welsh: ibid.; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 59; Germanic: De la Saussaye 293f.; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 126 No. 59; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3682; S. Am. Indian (Araucanian): Alexander Lat. Am. 328; Africa (Fang): Einstein 175.

F471.2.0.1. †F471.2.0.1. Demon lover. Irish myth: *Cross.

F471.2.1. †F471.2.1. Succubus: female incubus. *Loomis White Magic 77; Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. *369, *423f., 3681; Armenian: Ananikian 87; West Indies: Flowers 433.

F472. †F472. Huckauf. A goblin which jumps on one's back. *Kittredge Witchcraft 220f., 528f. nn. 78--79; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 68 No. 291; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3425, Legends Nos. 827--832.

F473. †F473. Poltergeist. Invisible spirit (sometimes identified as ghost or witch) responsible for all sorts of mischief in or around a household.

F473.1. †F473.1. Poltergeist throws objects. England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

F473.2. †F473.2. Poltergeist causes objects to behave contrary to their nature.

F473.2.1. †F473.2.1. Chair is rocked by invisible spirit. (Cf. †D1601.28.) U.S.: Baughman, (North Carolina): Brown Collection I 640.

F473.2.2. †F473.2.2. Spirit hides articles in strange places. Canada, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

F473.2.3. †F473.2.3. Spirit puts out lights. U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

F473.2.4. †F473.2.4. House burns for no apparent reason. U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

F473.3. †F473.3. Poltergeist mistreats people. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

F473.4. †F473.4. Poltergeist mistreats animals. U.S.: *Baughman.

F473.4.1. †F473.4.1. Spirit rides horses and mules at night, wears them out. (Cf. †F366.2, †F471.1.1.1, †G265.3.) U.S.: Baughman.

F473.5. †F473.5. Poltergeist makes noises. England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

F473.6. †F473.6. Miscellaneous actions of poltergeist.

F473.6.1. †F473.6.1. Spirit tears new paper off rooms in house. England: Baughman.

F473.6.2. †F473.6.2. Spirit slashes clothing. Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

F473.6.3. †F473.6.3. Spirit takes food from table or cupboard. England, Wales: *Baughman.

F473.6.4. †F473.6.4. Spirit eats food. U.S.: Baughman.

F473.6.5. †F473.6.5. Spirit throws back shots fired at it. (Cf. †G265.8.3.1.2.) U.S.: Baughman.

F473.6.6. †F473.6.6. Spirit makes wheels come off wagon. U.S.: Baughman.

F473.6.7. †F473.6.7. Spirit shoves wagon into ditch. U.S.: Baughman.

F473.6.8. †F473.6.8. Spirit plays man's fiddle at night. Wales: Baughman.

F473.6.9. †F473.6.9. Spirit disturbs coffins in burial vault. England: *Baughman.

F475. †F475. Friendly night-spirits.

F475.1. †F475.1. Dame Berchta. Supposed to travel over the country at night with a troop. (Named from Bertha, the mother of Charlemagne.) Also called Frau Holle. *Meyer Germanen 23ff.; *Wehrhan 85f.; Slovenian: *L. Kretzenbacher Germanische Mythen in der epischen Volksdichtung der Slowenen (Graz, 1941) 84--94.

F480. †F480. House-spirits. *Kittredge Witchcraft 215f., 523f.; Meyer Germanen 213ff.; Meyer Altgermanische 109. --Icelandic: Boberg; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 159ff.; *Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 30ff. Nos. 263--374 passim, 42 Nos. 337, 339; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 324 No. 153; Slovenian: *L. Kretzenbacher Germanische Mythen in der epischen Volksdichtung der Slowenen (Graz, 1941) 49--79; Eskimo: Boas BAM XV 331, RBAE VI 636.

F480.1. †F480.1. House-spirit in form of a sow. Kittredge Witchcraft 216, 524 n.

F480.2. †F480.2. Serpent as house-spirit. Armenian: Ananikian 73ff.

F480.3. †F480.3. Thieving household-spirit. Steals things for its master. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 172; Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. 3468, 3472.

F480.3.1. †F480.3.1. House to make household-spirit (cobold) surrender his booty. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3476.

F480.4. †F480.4. House-spirit in form of baby. India: Thompson-Balys.

F480.5. †F480.5. House-spirit without bones or hair. Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 636.

F481. †F481. Cobold. A house-spirit. **Feilberg Der Kobold in nordischer Überlieferung (Zs. f. Vksk. VIII 1, 130, 264); *Kittredge Witchcraft 215f., 523f. nn. 23, 25. --Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 41ff., (1928) 29ff.; Estonian: L. v. Schroeder Germanische Elben und Götter beim Estenvolke (Wien 1906), Loorits Grundzüge I 266--281, 295--304.

F481.0.1. †F481.0.1. Acquiring a cobold. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3466.

F481.0.1.1. †F481.0.1.1. Cobold hatched out from a seven-year-old cock's egg or a boar's testicle. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3461; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 213 I*.

F481.0.1.2. †F481.0.1.2. Cobold purchased. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3462f.; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 62 No. 159.

F481.0.1.2.1. †F481.0.1.2.1. The purchased cobold discarded. On way home man believes himself cheated, and throws box with fly or piece of charcoal away. Later passing same place he finds a heap of corn or money. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3463; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 125 No. 55.

F481.0.1.3. †F481.0.1.3. Cobold acquired by placing food for him in a certain place. He likes scrambled eggs. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3466.

F481.0.1.4. †F481.0.1.4. Cobold accidently acquired. A rope or chicken is found and taken home. Found to be a cobold. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3464.

F481.1. †F481.1. Cobold avenges uncivil answer (or treatment). Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 43 Nos. 53, 54; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3477; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 124f. Nos. 53, 54.

F481.2. †F481.2. Cobolds furnish supplies to their masters. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 43 No. 54; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 125 No. 55; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3471.

F481.2.1. †F481.2.1. Cobold furnishes inexhaustible grain to grinder of handmill. Latter kills him in disgust. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3478.

F481.2.2. †F481.2.2. House-spirit furnishes inexhaustible supply of food. India: Thompson-Balys.

F481.3. †F481.3. Impossible to rid oneself of cobold. (Cf. †F482.3.1.) *Taylor MPh XV 736 n. 2; *BP II 422 n. 1; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3467.

F481.4. †F481.4. Brewing in eggshell to drive away cobold. (Cf. †F321.1.1.1, †F451.5.17.1.) *BP 368; Keightley 126, 418, 436, 473; Germania V 376; Kristensen Danske Sagn I (1892) 314--24 Nos. 1049--1075; Jahn 72 No. 87; Euphorion III 784; Zs. f. Vksk. XVI 414; Zs. f. deutsche Mythol. I (1853) 290.

F482. †F482. Brownie (nisse). **Feilberg Nissens Historie; *Fb "nisse" II 688; Norwegian: *Solheim Register 19; *Hartmann 28.

F482.1. †F482.1. Appearance of brownie.

F482.1.1. †F482.1.1. Brownie with red hair. *Fb "nisse" II 688a.

F482.2. †F482.2. Clothing of brownie. Scandinavian: Hartmann 28.

F482.2.1. †F482.2.1. Brownie dressed in green. Fb "nisse" II 688a.

F482.3. †F482.3. Home of brownies.

F482.3.1. †F482.3.1. Brownies live in house. Move when persons move. (Cf. †F481.3.) Fb "nisse" II 688b.

F482.3.1.1. †F482.3.1.1. Farmer is so bothered by brownie that he decides he must move to get rid of the annoyance. He piles all furniture on wagon and starts for new home, meets acquaintance who remarks: "I see you're flitting." Brownie sticks his head out of the churn on top of the load, answers: "Yes, we're flitting." Farmer goes back to former home. England, Ireland, Wales: *Baughman.

F482.3.2. †F482.3.2. Brownies live in knoll. *Fb "høj" I 740a.

F482.3.3. †F482.3.3. Nisser belong to particular farm. Norwegian: Solheim Register 19.

F482.4. †F482.4. Possessions of brownies.

F482.4.1. †F482.4.1. Various-colored horses of brownie. *Fb "hest" I 598.

F482.4.2. †F482.4.2. Nisser have oxen. Norwegian: Solheim Register 19.

F482.5. †F482.5. Deeds of brownies.

F482.5.1. †F482.5.1. Brownies dance. (Cf. †F471.1.1.2. and cross-references there given.) *Fb "danse" IV 93a.

F482.5.2. †F482.5.2. Brownies sew by moonlight. Fb "måne" II 659b.

F482.5.3. †F482.5.3. Brownies tease. Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 80ff., (1928) 61ff.

F482.5.4. †F482.5.4. Helpful deeds of brownie or other household spirit. (Cf. †F403.2.) England, Scotland: *Baughman.

F482.5.4.1. †F482.5.4.1. Brownie rides for midwife when needed. England, Scotland: *Baughman.

F482.5.4.2. †F482.5.4.2. Brownie restores stolen property, gives thief a twitch in eyelid. England: Baughman.

F482.5.5. †F482.5.5. Malicious or troublesome actions of brownies. England, Scotland, Wales: *Baughman.

F482.6. †F482.6. Origin of household spirits. England: *Baughman.

F482.7. †F482.7. House spirits fight each other. Norwegian: Solheim Register 19.

F482.8. †F482.8. House spirit as suitor. (Cf. †F301.) Norwegian: Solheim Register 19.

F485. †F485. Ship-spirit. (Klabautermann, Kabonterken.) Similar to house-spirit. Meyer Altgermanische 110; Zs. f. Vksk. II 409, 416, IV 299f., VIII 14 n. 4, 277, XXI 178, XXIX 68; Anglia Beiblatt VI 144, XVII 73; Frischbier Am Urquell I 134; Mitteilungen d. Schles. Ges. f. Vksk. Heft XII 76; Basset Legends and Superstitions of the Sea (New York, 1885). --Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 32 No. 273, 35 Nos. 295--296, 37, 41; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 44ff., (1928) 32ff.

F488. †F488. The stupid house spirit.

F488.1. †F488.1. Household spirit herds sheep, has great trouble coralling the lambs (rabbits). (Cf. †J1757.) England: *Baughman.

F488.2. †F488.2. Mowing contest with household spirit. Farmer puts harrow teeth in plot spirit is to mow. Spirit mows through them, thinking they are dock weeds. Type 1090 (†K42.2). England: Baughman.

F490. †F490. Other spirits and demons.

F491. †F491. Will-o'-the-Wisp. (Jack o' Lantern.) Light seen over marshy places. Kittredge Witchcraft 215, 523 n. 22; *Fb "lygtemand" II 473; Icelandic: Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 51 No. 438; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 63f.; India: Thompson-Balys; U.S. (Georgia): Harris Nights No. 28; Africa (Fang): Einstein 96.

F491.1. †F491.1. Will-o'-the-Wisp leads people astray. *Fb "lygtemand" II 473b; England, Scotland, U.S.: Baughman.

F491.2. †F491.2. Will-o'-the-Wisp lights people to their homes. *Fb "lygtemand" II 473b. --England: Baughman.

F491.3. †F491.3. Will-o'-the-Wisp exorcised. *Fb "lygtemand" II 473b; England, U.S.: Baughman.

F491.3.1. †F491.3.1. Person led astray by Will-o'-the-Wisp turns garment inside out. Will-o'-the-Wisp exorcised. (Cf. †F369.7, †F385.1.) England: *Baughman.

F491.3.2. †F491.3.2. Power of Will-o'-the-Wisp over person neutralized if person sticks his knife into the ground. England: *Baughman.

F491.3.3. †F491.3.3. Steel protects person from Will-o'-the-Wisp. U.S.: Baughman.

F491.4. †F491.4. Will-o'-the-Wisp hops about. *Fb "lygtemand" II 473b.

F491.5. †F491.5. Will-o'-the-Wisp's revenge. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3538.

F492. †F492. Death on horseback. Fb "hvid" I 700b; von Negelein Zs. f. Vks. XIII 257ff., 368ff.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "mort". Cf. the "four horsemen" in Revelation.

F493. †F493. Spirit of plague. Irish myth: *Cross; Dutch: Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 67f. Nos. 251--283; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Yukon): Alexander N. Am. Myth. 78.

F493.0.1. †F493.0.1. Pestilence in animal form. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 28 Nos. 244--245.

F493.0.1.1. †F493.0.1.1. Plague as monster. Irish myth: Cross.

F493.0.1.2. †F493.0.1.2. Spirit enters princess' body and she falls ill. India: Thompson-Balys.

F493.0.2. †F493.0.2. Pestilence in human form. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 28f. Nos. 246--252; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3494.

F493.0.3. †F493.0.3. Pestilence in form of object. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 29 No. 254.

F493.0.3.1. †F493.0.3.1. Pestilence in form of a head. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 29 No. 253.

F493.0.4. †F493.0.4. Pestilence in visible form. Irish myth: *Cross.

F493.1. †F493.1. Spirits of various kinds of disease. India: Thompson-Balys.

F493.1.1. †F493.1.1. Demon of Consumption. N. Am. Indian (Cherokee): Terrell JAFL V 125.

F493.1.2. †F493.1.2. Demon of colic. Irish myth: Cross (†F497).

F493.2. †F493.2. Experiences with pestilence spirit.

F493.2.1. †F493.2.1. Person who speaks with pestilence dies. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 29 No. 256.

F493.2.2. †F493.2.2. Two pestilence spirits speak together. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 29 No. 255.

F493.3. †F493.3. Protection against pestilence spirit.

F493.3.1. †F493.3.1. Upon destruction of pestilence-spirit, plague ceases. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 29 No. 259.

F493.3.2. †F493.3.2. Pestilence-spirit "bound" by magic. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 29 No. 258.

F493.3.3. †F493.3.3. Magic protection against pestilence-spirit. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 29 No. 257.

F493.4. †F493.4. Demons spread pestilence by means of "heat and fury". Irish myth: Cross.

F493.5. †F493.5. Sign of great plague: sky seems afire. Irish myth: Cross.

F494. †F494. Land-spirits.

F494.1. †F494.1. Guardian spirit of land. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 228, Herrmann Saxo II 22ff., *Boberg; Danish: Ellekilde Ellekongen i Stevns, Danske Studier 1929, 10ff.

F494.1.1. †F494.1.1. Swamp spirit guards buried treasure. India: Thompson-Balys.

F494.2. †F494.2. Spirit of boundaries. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 173.

F494.3. †F494.3. Earth spirit. India: Thompson-Balys.

F495. †F495. Stone-spirit. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas@2 II 205; India: Thompson-Balys.

F496. †F496. Demon of gluttony. Irish myth: *Cross.

F496.1. †F496.1. Saint possessed by demon of gluttony. Irish myth: *Cross.

F497. †F497. Fire-spirits. Dutch: *Sinninghe FFC CXXXII 64ff Nos. 191--220; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 111, III 64, 88, 176--178.

F497.1. †F497.1. Conversation of two fire-spirits. Shall house be burned? *O. Loortis Das misshandelte und sich rächend Feuer (Tartu, 1935).

F499. †F499. Sundry other spirits.

F499.1. †F499.1. Sky-spirit. German: Grimm No. 166; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

F499.1.1. †F499.1.1. Spirit of light. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 62.

F499.2. †F499.2. Nymphs of Paradise (houris). India: Thompson-Balys.

F499.3. †F499.3. Jinns.

F499.3.1. †F499.3.1. Jinns have no bones in their arms: they have only four fingers and no thumbs. India: Thompson-Balys.

F499.3.2. †F499.3.2. Jinns entitled to share in fruits of the earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

F499.3.3. †F499.3.3. Jinns frequent graveyards, ruined houses, or an altar of sacrifice. India: Thompson-Balys.

†F500-†F599. Remarkable persons.

F500. †F500. Remarkable persons. Extraordinary size, form, appearance, or habits. **DeCock Volkssage 99ff.; Chinese: Werner 386.

F501. †F501. Person consisting only of head. (Cf. †F511.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F510. †F510. Monstrous persons. *Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 175; Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 464, 469.

F510.1. †F510.1. Monstrous races. India: Thompson-Balys.

F511. †F511. Person unusual as to his head. (Cf. †F501.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F511.0.1. †F511.0.1. Headless person. (Cf. †F401.4, †F531.1.2.1.) *Chauvin VII 77 No. 121; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

F511.0.1.1. †F511.0.1.1. Headless person with eyes (eye) and mouth on breast. *Chauvin VII 87 No. 373 bis n. 2; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg. Chinese: Werner 387.

F511.0.1.2. †F511.0.1.2. Headless persons cannot smell or hear. Chinese: Werner 387.

F511.0.2. †F511.0.2. Person with more than one head.

F511.0.2.1. †F511.0.2.1. Two-headed person. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman N. Am. Indian (Quinault): Farrand JE II 124 No. 14.

F511.0.2.2. †F511.0.2.2. Three-headed person. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F511.0.2.2.1. †F511.0.2.2.1. Three-headed woman. Irish myth: *Cross.

F511.0.2.3. †F511.0.2.3. Four-headed person. Irish myth: *Cross.

F511.0.2.4. †F511.0.2.4. Six-headed man. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F511.0.3. †F511.0.3. Persons whose heads are stone-hammers. Koryak and American Indian: *Jochelson JE VI 375.

F511.0.3.1. †F511.0.3.1. Person with iron head. Jewish: Neuman.

F511.0.4. †F511.0.4. Man carries his head under his arm. Loomis White Magic 54, 93, 125; Irish myth: *Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda (†F1041.14); Africa (Kaffir): Theal 51.

F511.0.4.1. †F511.0.4.1. Man cuts off own head and throws it against enemy. India: Thompson-Balys.

F511.0.5. †F511.0.5. Man with half a head. Irish myth: *Cross.

F511.0.6. †F511.0.6. Beheaded man's head replaced crooked. Irish myth: *Cross.

F511.0.7. †F511.0.7. Man with venomous worm in his head. Irish myth: Cross.

F511.0.8. †F511.0.8. Gigantic skull of ancient king discovered. Irish myth: Cross.

F511.0.9. †F511.0.9. Person with animal's head. (Cf. †F511.1.3, †F526.)

F511.0.9.1. †F511.0.9.1. Person with horse's head. India: Thompson-Balys.

F511.0.9.2. †F511.0.9.2. Person with calf's head. Jewish: Neuman.

F511.0.9.3. †F511.0.9.3. Person with serpent's head. Jewish: Neuman.

F511.1. †F511.1. Person unusual as to his face.

F511.1.0.1. †F511.1.0.1. Person without features (with flat face). Irish myth: *Cross.

F511.1.1. †F511.1.1. Two-faced person. Janus. Roman: Fox 297; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 49 No. 327F*; N. Am. Indian (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II 151ff., (Ponka): Dorsey Contr. to N. Am. Ethnology VI 207; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 85.

F511.1.2. †F511.1.2. Three-faced person. Irish myth: Cross.

F511.1.3. †F511.1.3. Person with animal face. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

F511.1.3.1. †F511.1.3.1. Person with face of ape. Jewish: Neuman.

F511.1.4. †F511.1.4. Person with green face. Jewish: Neuman.

F511.2. †F511.2. Person unusual as to his ears. (Cf. †F542.)

F511.2.1. †F511.2.1. Person with ears on breast. Persian: Carnoy 298.

F511.2.2. †F511.2.2. Person with ass's (horse's) ears. Midas. Köhler-Bolte I 383 n. 1, 511, 587; RTP I 327, VII 356; *Zs. d. deutschen morgenländ. Gesel. XL 549; Crooke FL XXII 183; *BP IV 147 n. 7 (Celtic); *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 397; Huet 45; Penzer III 188 n., VII n. 1, VI 26 n. 1; Irish myth: *Cross, *Porter Proc. Royal Irish Academy (1932) 142.

F511.2.2.1. †F511.2.2.1. Person with cat's ears. Irish myth: *Cross.

F511.2.3. †F511.2.3. Person with many ears. Irish myth: Cross.

F511.2.4. †F511.2.4. Person without ears. India: Thompson-Balys.

F511.3. †F511.3. Person with horns. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F511.3.1. †F511.3.1. Person with horns of silver. Irish myth: *Cross.

F512. †F512. Person unusual as to his eyes. (Cf. †F531.1.1, †F541.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F512.1. †F512.1. Person with one eye. *Type 511; Herbert III 238; Oesterley No. 175; Laistner Rätsel II 48ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 206 No. 154.

F512.1.1. †F512.1.1. Person with one eye in center of forehead. (Cf. †F441.4.1, †F531.1.1.1.) *Krappe Balor 5 n. 19, 9 nn. 33--35; Fb "menneske" II 577b, "öje" III 1165b; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 4 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 389.

F512.1.2. †F512.1.2. Three women have but one eye among them. Pass it around. (Cf. †F513.1.1.) *Fb "öje" III 1166a; Greek: Fox 33, *Frazer Apollodorus I 155 n. 4.

F512.1.3. †F512.1.3. Person with one eye in back of head. Krappe Balor 7 n. 22.

F512.1.4. †F512.1.4. Doorkeeper with one human eye, one cat's eye. Irish myth: Cross.

F512.2. †F512.2. Person with many eyes.

F512.2.1. †F512.2.1. Persons (animals) with four (six) eyes. *Chauvin VII 82 No. 373bis; Krappe Balor 19 n. 69.

F512.2.1.1. †F512.2.1.1. Three-eyed person. *Type 511; Cosquin Contes Indiens 520; Jacob's list s. v. "Three-eyed stepsister"; India: Thompson-Balys.

F512.2.1.2. †F512.2.1.2. Eight-eyed person. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 233; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/15).

F512.2.1.3. †F512.2.1.3. Person with twelve eyes. Irish myth: Cross.

F512.2.2. †F512.2.2. Argos. Has eyes all over body. Krappe Balor 19 n. 69; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 130 n. 3, Fox 29, 193.

F512.3. †F512.3. Person with eyes in stomach. (Cf. †F511.0.1.1.) *De Cock Volkssage 102ff.; *Chauvin VI 66 No. 233; Persian: Carnoy 298.

F512.4. †F512.4. Person with eyes in back of head. Krappe Balor 19 n. 69; S. Am. Indian (Fuegian): Alexander Lat. Am. 340, (Yuracare): ibid. 314.

F512.5. †F512.5. Person without eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.

F513. †F513. Person unusual as to his mouth. (Cf. †F544.)

F513.0.1. †F513.0.1. Person with mouth in stomach. (Cf. †F511.0.1.1.) *Chauvin VII 87 No. 373bis n. 2.

F513.0.2. †F513.0.2. Person with mouths all over body. Africa (Hausa): Tremearne Hausa Superstitions (London, 1913) 424ff. No. 93.

F513.0.3. †F513.0.3. Mouthless people. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 78.

F513.0.4. †F513.0.4. Person with mouth in breast. Irish myth: *Cross.

F513.1. †F513.1. Person unusual as to his teeth. (Cf. †F544.3, †F531.1.6.2.)

F513.1.1. †F513.1.1. Three women have but one tooth among them. Pass it around. (Cf. †F512.1.2.) *Fb "øje" III 1166a; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 155 n. 4, Fox 33.

F513.1.2. †F513.1.2. Person with many teeth.

F513.1.2.1. †F513.1.2.1. Person with three rows of teeth. Irish myth: *Cross.

F513.1.3. †F513.1.3. Person with poisonous tooth. Poison dissolves flesh. Irish myth: Cross.

F513.1.4. †F513.1.4. Person without teeth. India: Thompson-Balys.

F513.2. †F513.2. Person without tongue. India: Thompson-Balys.

F513.3. †F513.3. People who leave lower jaws at home when they go to market to prevent quarrels. Africa: Weeks 126ff.

F514. †F514. Person unusual as to his nose. (Cf. †F531.1.6.6, †F543).

F514.1. †F514.1. Noseless person. Herbert III 238; Oesterley No. 175; Tobler 63; Jewish: Neuman.

F514.2. †F514.2. Men with birds' beaks. DeCock Volkssage 105; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 599, Boberg.

F514.3. †F514.3. Person with cat's snout. (Cf. †F511.2.2.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

F514.4. †F514.4. Person with crook(s) on end of the nose. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F514.5. †F514.5. Person grows a second nose. German: Grimm No. 201.

F515. †F515. Person unusual as to his hands. (Cf. †F552.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F515.0.1. †F515.0.1. Person without hands. Siuts 218.

F515.0.2. †F515.0.2. Persons with many hands.

F515.0.2.1. †F515.0.2.1. Hundred-handed giants. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 3 n. 2.

F515.1. †F515.1. Person with unusual fingers.

F515.1.1. †F515.1.1. Person's fingers not separated from one another. Jewish: Neuman.

F515.2. †F515.2. Person with unusual fingernails.

F515.2.1. †F515.2.1. Fingernail that can conceal basin-load of food. India: Thompson-Balys.

F515.2.2. †F515.2.2. Person with very long fingernails. Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 170.

F515.3. †F515.3. Men with tails on their hands. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 79.

F515.4. †F515.4. Boy with seal flippers. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XXII 20.

F515.5. †F515.5. Tribe of left-handed people. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 99.

F516. †F516. Person unusual as to his arms. Irish myth: *Cross.

F516.1. †F516.1. Armless people. Chinese: Werner 388.

F516.1.1. †F516.1.1. Armless people have legs growing from their shoulders. Use toes in place of fingers. Chinese: Werner 388.

F516.2. †F516.2. People with many arms. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F516.2.1. †F516.2.1. Six-armed earthborn men. Greek: Fox 110.

F516.2.2. †F516.2.2. People with four arms. Jewish: Neuman.

F516.2.3. †F516.2.3. Man with a thousand arms. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 39.

F516.3. †F516.3. Long-armed people. Irish myth: *Cross; Chinese: Werner 388f.

F516.4. †F516.4. Man with elastic reach. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 263.

F517. †F517. Person unusual as to his legs. Irish myth: Cross.

F517.0.1. †F517.0.1. Person with one leg. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Persian: Carnoy 298.

F517.0.2. †F517.0.2. Long-legged people. Chinese: Werner 388f.

F517.0.2.1. †F517.0.2.1. Man with legs so long he can steady boat as he stands in ocean. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 354.

F517.1. †F517.1. Person unusual as to his feet. (Cf. †F551.)

F517.1.1. †F517.1.1. Person without feet. (Cf. †F167.7.) Siuts 218.

F517.1.1.1. †F517.1.1.1. Person with one foot. Irish myth: *Cross.

F517.1.2. †F517.1.2. Person with many feet.

F517.1.2.1. †F517.1.2.1. Four-footed man. Sikes FL XX 421. --India: Thompson-Balys.

F517.1.3. †F517.1.3. Men with sponge-feet. *Chauvin VII 24 No. 373E n. 1.

F517.1.4. †F517.1.4. Person with claws on the feet. Icelandic: Boberg.

F517.1.5. †F517.1.5. Person with knees backwards. Irish myth: *Cross.

F517.1.5.1. †F517.1.5.1. Men whose feet turn backward so that they will not stub toes. Africa: Weeks Jungle 126ff.

F517.1.6. †F517.1.6. Person with horse's hoofs. India: Thompson-Balys.

F517.1.7. †F517.1.7. Person with feet like elephant's. India: Thompson-Balys.

F517.1.8. †F517.1.8. Soles of man's feet covered with hair. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 789.

F518. †F518. Persons with tails. Chauvin V 7 No. 3. --Persian: Carnoy 298.

F521. †F521. Person with unusual covering. India: Thompson-Balys.

F521.1. †F521.1. Man covered with hair like animal. *Williams 17ff.; Gaster Oldest Stories 43; Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 189; India: Thompson-Balys; Persian: Carnoy 298.

F521.1.1. †F521.1.1. Woman with animal hair. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 189 No. 130; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 213.

F521.2. †F521.2. Feathered people. Irish myth: *Cross; Chinese: Werner 390; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 3/1353, z-G 13/380); Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 109.

F521.3. †F521.3. Men of metal.

F521.3.1. †F521.3.1. Man of bronze. (Talos). Has single vein from neck to ankle and bronze nail at end of vein. This is the only vulnerable spot. Frazer Apollodorus I 118 n. 1.

F521.3.2. †F521.3.2. Man of iron. India: Thompson-Balys.

F521.3.3. †F521.3.3. Person with body of gold. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 214, 468, 742, 761, 1293; India: Thompson-Balys.

F521.3.3.1. †F521.3.3.1. Girl's body-dirt is golden. India: Thompson-Balys.

F521.3.3.2. †F521.3.3.2. Person with golden anus. Africa (Hausa): Equilbecq II 83 No. 24.

F521.3.4. †F521.3.4. Person with body of silver.

F521.3.4.1. †F521.3.4.1. Silver king with silver attendants. Is on a silver horse accompanied by silver cock, bird, and dog. Czech: Tille FFC XXXIV 96.

F522. †F522. Person with wings. Greek: Grote I 216; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 390; Persian: Carnoy 298.

F522.1. †F522.1. Person with wings on feet (head). Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 106 n. 1.

F523. †F523. Two persons with bodies joined. Siamese twins. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 248 n. 2.

F524. †F524. Person with several bodies.

F524.1. †F524.1. Person with three bodies. Body of three men grown together in one at waist but parted in three from flanks and thighs. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 211 n. 2, Fox 86 (Geryoneus).

F525. †F525. Person with half a body. As if body has been split in two. *DeCock Volkssage 99ff.; Votiak, Ostiak: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 181f.; Indonesian: De Vries's list No. 166; Dixon 216; Chinese: Werner 389; Marquesas: Handy 137; N. Am. Indian: Hatt Asiatic Influences 87ff., *Thompson Tales 357 n. 287d; Africa: Werner 244, (Basuto): Jacottet 160 No. 23, (Zulu): Callaway 202, (Luba): De Clerq Zs. f. Kolonialsprachen IV 187, 190.

F525.1. †F525.1. One-sided man. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 13, III 75, Rink 237, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 171.

F525.1.1. †F525.1.1. Man with one side of stone (iron). Fb "jærn" IV 249b; Hawaii: Dixon 89 (stone); Africa (Kaffir): Theal 129 (iron).

F525.2. †F525.2. Man splits into two parts. Chauvin VII 40 No. 153 n. 1; Tonga: Gifford 32.

F525.3. †F525.3. Tribe of one-eyed, one-footed, one-handed men. Irish myth: Cross.

F525.3.1. †F525.3.1. Person with one foot (one hand, and one eye). Irish myth: *Cross.

F525.4. †F525.4. Person (Antichrist) with flat body. Irish myth: Cross.

F525.5. †F525.5. Giant with limbs and organs only on his left side. India: Thompson-Balys.

F525.6. †F525.6. Person without back. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 49 (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 179, 181.

F526. †F526. Person with compound body.

F526.1. †F526.1. Typhon. Human down to thighs; coil of vipers below. Dragon heads from his hands. Bigger than mountains. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 47 n. 4.

F526.2. †F526.2. Scylla. Breast and face of woman. From flanks has six heads and twelve feet of dogs. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 293 n. 4.

F526.3. †F526.3. Gorgon. Head turned about, scales of dragon, tusks of swine brazen hands, golden wings. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 153 n. 3.

F526.4. †F526.4. Beast-like anchorite. Walks on all fours; covered with hair like beast; has horns like beast. (Cf. †F521.1.) Williams 17ff., 25.

F526.5. †F526.5. Men with two faces, three legs, and seven arms (or other such combinations). Hindu: Keith 41f.

F526.6. †F526.6. Cecrops. Body compounded of man and serpent. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 76 n. 3.

F527. †F527. Person of unusual color.

F527.1. †F527.1. Red person. Africa (Fang): Einstein 179.

F527.1.1. †F527.1.1. Red knight. Types 300, 303; *Ranke FFC CXIV 236; Fb "Ridder Rod"; Hartland Perseus III 207ff. --Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 73 (Sir Percyvelle of Galles); Icelandic: *Boberg.

F527.2. †F527.2. Green knight. *Kittredge Gawain passim; BP II 262f.; Dickson 180ff.; Irish myth: Cross.

F527.3. †F527.3. Blue man. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 547.

F527.4. †F527.4. Brown man with white back. Irish myth: Cross.

F527.5. †F527.5. Black man. (Cf. †F548.1, †F573.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F527.6. †F527.6. Half red and half blue strong man. Icelandic: Hálfdanar saga Br. 561, Boberg.

F529. †F529. Other monstrous persons.

F529.1. †F529.1. Persons with punctured bodies. May be carried on a pole put through the orifice; may be hung up on a peg. Chinese: Werner 390.

F529.2. †F529.2. People without anuses. India: Thompson-Balys.

F529.2.1. †F529.2.1. People without anuses make them by sitting on pegs. Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 364; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 79, 204, Holm 89, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 171, 538, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 89.

F529.3. †F529.3. Man with grass growing from his joints. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 488.

F529.4. †F529.4. Person has small animal within his body. Irish myth: Cross.

F529.5. †F529.5. Person with transparent body. Irish myth: Cross.

F529.6. †F529.6. Person with enormous belly. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 155.

F529.7. †F529.7. Boneless person. Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

F529.7.1. †F529.7.1. Person without joints. Irish myth: Cross.

F529.8. †F529.8. Monkey-like little people. India: Thompson-Balys.

F530. †F530. Exceptionally large or small men. Krappe Neuphilologische Mitteilungen XXIV 1--10.

F531. †F531. Giant.†1 A person of enormous size. (For giants who are primarily ogres see †G100 and †G400-†G599.) *BP III 375; *Fb "kjæmpe" II 149, "Langben Rise" II 377b; Lorenz Das Titan-Motiv in der allgemeinen Mythologie (Imago II 1913] 22--72); Weinhold Die Riesen des germanischen Mythus (Sitzungsberichte d. kais. Akad. d. Wiss. XXVI [1858] 225--306); Laistner Nebelsagen (Stuttgart, 1860); Schoning Dödsriger i Nordisk Hedentro (København, 1903); **Von Sydow Jätterna i Mytologi och Folktro (F och F [1919] 52--96); Ahrendt Die Riese in der mittelhochdeutschen Epik (Rostock, 1923); **F. Wolgemuth Riesen u. Zwerge in den altfranzösischen erzählenden Dichtung (Tübingen, 1906); **V. Höttges Typenverzeichnis der deutschen Riesen; und riesischen Teufelssagen FFC CXXII (Helsinki, 1937); Tegethoff Schweiz. Archiv f. Vksk. XXIV (1922) 137ff.; Borgese Giganti e Serpenti (Archivio per lo studio delle Tradizioni popolari XX 507ff., XXI 90ff., 161ff.); *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 1120--1138. --Irish myth: *Cross; U.S. (lumbermen): *Folk-Say I 62 (bibliography of "Paul Bunyan" stories); Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 66 Nos. 565--592; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 465--490; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3720; Germanic: Meyer Germanen 226ff.; French: Sébillot France IV 455 s. v. "Géants", >>Gargantua", Sébillot **Gargantua dans les Traditions Populaires; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 32f.; Jewish: *Neuman Arabian: Burton Nights I 65n., V 316, VI 24n., 84, 265n., 268ff., VII 84n.; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 47, 430, Holm 7, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 656, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 167; N. Am. Indian (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXIV 346ff. Nos. 69, 70, 73, (Kaska): Teit JAFL XXX 446 No. 7, (Aztec): Alexander Lat. Am. 92f.

F531.0.1. †F531.0.1. Biblical worthy as giant. Jewish: *Neuman.

F531.0.2. †F531.0.2. Giant as Creator's servant. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.0.3. †F531.0.3. Generation of men at the Deluge gigantic. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.0.4. †F531.0.4. Giant woman. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.1. †F531.1. Appearance of giant. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.0.1. †F531.1.0.1. Beauty of giant. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.1.0.1.1. †F531.1.0.1.1. Beautiful giantess. Broderius § 37; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: De la Saussaye 329, *Boberg; Swedish: Nyare Bidrag till Kännedom om de svenska Landsmålen och svenskt Folklif IX 35 No. 80; Denmark: Thiele Danmarks Folkesagn X 164.

F531.1.0.2. †F531.1.0.2. Hideous giant. Broderius § 37; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 360, *Boberg; Tirol: Zingerle Nos. 172, 181.

F531.1.1. †F531.1.1. Eyes of giant. *Höttges FFC CXXII 184.

F531.1.1.1. †F531.1.1.1. Giant with one eye in middle of forehead. (Cf. †F512.1.1.) Broderius § 37; *BP III 375; *Höttges FFC CXXII 191; Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 191; Icelandic: Boberg; Faröe: Zs. f. Vksk. II 6; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 67 No. 573; Tirol: Zingerle (1891) No. 2; Greek: Fox 6, Grote I 5, 287; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 10.

F531.1.1.1.1. †F531.1.1.1.1. Giant with one eye in the neck which he covers with his lower lip. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.1.2. †F531.1.1.2. Giant with large gleaming eyes. Broderius § 37; *Höttges FFC CXXII 192; Icelandic: Boberg; Norway: Faye Norske Folke-Sagn (Christiania, 1814) 19; Tirol: Zingerle (1891) Nos. 193, 201.

F531.1.1.2.1. †F531.1.1.2.1. Giant with eyes as big as cauldrons. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.1.1.2.2. †F531.1.1.2.2. Giant with eyes like ponds. Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.1.1.3. †F531.1.1.3. Blind giant. Broderius § 37; Icelandic: *Boberg; Sweden: Runa III (1843) 41 No. 74, IV 37 No. 53; Hanover: Schambach u. Müller Niedersächsische Sagen (Göttingen, 1854) No. 165.1.

F531.1.1.4. †F531.1.1.4. Giant sees great distance. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.1.1.5. †F531.1.1.5. Giant with many eyes.

F531.1.1.5.1. †F531.1.1.5.1. Giant with eight eyes. Polynesia: Beckwith Myth 210.

F531.1.1.6. †F531.1.1.6. Giantess with green eyes. Icelandic: Illuga saga Gr. 653, Boberg.

F531.1.2. †F531.1.2. Head of giant. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.1.2.0.1. †F531.1.2.0.1. Gigantic head. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.1.2.1. †F531.1.2.1. Headless giant. (Cf. †F511.0.1.) Broderius § 37; Irish myth: Cross; Hanover: Kuhn u. Schwarz Norddeutsche Sagen (Leipzig, 1848) No. 167.3; Pomerania: Rosenow 51 No. 46; N. Am. Indian (Navaho): Alexander N. Am. 163.

F531.1.2.2. †F531.1.2.2. Many-headed giant. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: De la Saussaye 329, MacCulloch Eddic 87, 173, Boberg.

F531.1.2.2.1. †F531.1.2.2.1. Two-headed giant. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.1.2.2.2. †F531.1.2.2.2. Three-headed giant. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 111 *Boberg.

F531.1.2.2.3. †F531.1.2.2.3. Five-headed giant. Irish myth: Cross; English: Child II 59.

F531.1.2.2.4. †F531.1.2.2.4. Six-headed giant. English: Child V 184.

F531.1.2.2.5. †F531.1.2.2.5. Nine-headed giant. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 91, Boberg; Korean: Zong in-Sob 166.

F531.1.2.2.6. †F531.1.2.2.6. Ten-headed giant. Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 125.

F531.1.2.2.7. †F531.1.2.2.7. Many-headed giant -- miscellaneous. Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.1.2.3. †F531.1.2.3. Giant's self-returning head. Korean: Zong in-Sob 72.

F531.1.2.4. †F531.1.2.4. Giant with horse head. Tirol: Zingerle (1891) 26 No. 41.

F531.1.2.5. †F531.1.2.5. Giant with stone head. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 83, 279, Boberg (Hrungnir); Oceanic: Beckwith Myth 88.

F531.1.3. †F531.1.3. Feet (legs) of giant.

F531.1.3.1. †F531.1.3.1. Giant with dragon-scales for feet. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 43 n. 2.

F531.1.3.2. †F531.1.3.2. Giant with heels in front. (Cf. †A526.8, †F451.2.2.1, †F517.1.5, †G303.4.5.6.) Irish myth: Cross.

F531.1.3.3. †F531.1.3.3. One-footed giant. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.1.3.3.1. †F531.1.3.3.1. One-legged giant. Irish myth: *Cross; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 170.

F531.1.3.4. †F531.1.3.4. Giant's step leaves deep furrows. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.1.3.5. †F531.1.3.5. Giant fleet of foot despite size. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.1.3.6. †F531.1.3.6. Giant with feet so large they cannot be moved. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.1.4. †F531.1.4. Lips of giant.

F531.1.4.1. †F531.1.4.1. Giant with upper lip reaching heaven; lower earth. Olrik Ragnarök 94f.; Cosquin Études 537; India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.1.4.1.1. †F531.1.4.1.1. Giant with lower lip reaching earth. Gaster Thespis 190.

F531.1.4.2. †F531.1.4.2. Giant (giantess) with lips hanging down on the breast. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.5. †F531.1.5. Breasts of giantess.

F531.1.5.1. †F531.1.5.1. Giantess throws her breasts over her shoulders. Her two sons can run after her and suck. Fb "givkone" I 438; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V 4.

F531.1.6. †F531.1.6. Other bodily characteristics of giant.

F531.1.6.1. †F531.1.6.1. Giant with nails like claws. Icelandic: *Boberg; Chinese: Werner 387.

F531.1.6.1.1. †F531.1.6.1.1. Giantess with iron nails. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.6.1.2. †F531.1.6.1.2. Giant with crooked nails. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.6.2. †F531.1.6.2. Giant with teeth like those of saw. Chinese: Werner 387.

F531.1.6.2.1. †F531.1.6.2.1. Giants (giantesses) with long teeth. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.6.2.2. †F531.1.6.2.2. Giant with very broad teeth. Chinese: Graham.

F531.1.6.3. †F531.1.6.3. Giants with shaggy hair on their bodies. Broderius § 37; Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 150, Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 153, Boberg; Tirol: Zingerle (1891) Nos. 180, 186, 190; Babylonian: Gilgamesch-epos I 86ff., cf. 95ff.

F531.1.6.3.1. †F531.1.6.3.1. Giant (giantess) with particularly long hair. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.6.3.2. †F531.1.6.3.2. Giant without hair. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.6.4. †F531.1.6.4. Giant with long beard. Broderius § 37. --Icelandic: *Boberg; Swedish: Runa IV (1843) 41 No. 71; Finnish-Swedish: Landtmann Finlands Svenska Folkdiktning VII 537; Tirol: Zingerle (1891) No. 193.

F531.1.6.5. †F531.1.6.5. Giant with golden hair on forehead. *Fb "guldhår".

F531.1.6.6. †F531.1.6.6. Giant with peculiar nose. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.6.6.1. †F531.1.6.6.1. Giant with crook on end of his nose. Icelandic: *Boberg; Herrmann Saxo II 599.

F531.1.6.7. †F531.1.6.7. One-armed giant. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.1.6.7.1. †F531.1.6.7.1. Three-armed giant. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.1.6.7.2. †F531.1.6.7.2. Giant with six or eight arms. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 422, MacCulloch Eddic 277, *Boberg; Polynesia: Beckwith Myth 210 (eight).

F531.1.6.7.3. †F531.1.6.7.3. Giantess with burned arms. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.6.8. †F531.1.6.8. Giant's peculiar cheeks. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.6.9. †F531.1.6.9. Giant rooted to ground because his nails and hair have grown into the earth on account of his great age. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.1.6.10. †F531.1.6.10. Giant with unusual heart.

F531.1.6.10.1. †F531.1.6.10.1. Giant with stone heart. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 279.

F531.1.6.11. †F531.1.6.11. Giant (giantess) with hump. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.6.12. †F531.1.6.12. Giant with one hand and one foot. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.1.6.13. †F531.1.6.13. Giant's strength in hair. (Cf. †D1831, †G221.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

F531.1.6.14. †F531.1.6.14. Giantess with a tail (many tails). Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.1.7. †F531.1.7. Color of giant.

F531.1.7.1. †F531.1.7.1. Green giant. *Kittredge Gawayne 195ff.

F531.1.7.2. †F531.1.7.2. Black giant. BP II 253; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 588, 593, 599, MacCulloch Eddic 276, *Boberg.

F531.1.8. †F531.1.8. Giant in animal form. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 279.

F531.1.8.1. †F531.1.8.1. Giant as wolf. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 279f., Boberg.

F531.1.8.2. †F531.1.8.2. Giant as serpent. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 279f., Boberg.

F531.1.8.3. †F531.1.8.3. Giant as eagle. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 179, 276, 279, Herrmann Saxo II 599, Boberg.

F531.1.8.4. †F531.1.8.4. Giantess in crow's shape. Icelandic: Völsungasaga ch. 1, Boberg.

F531.1.8.5. †F531.1.8.5. Giantess transforms self to fly in order to tear woman's stomach. Icelandic: Egils saga ok Asm. ch. XII 9f., Boberg.

F531.1.8.6. †F531.1.8.6. Giant in a gam's shape. Icelandic: Hjálmtèrs saga ok Ölvers 506, Egils saga Einhenda ch. I 4, II 6, XIV 4, Boberg.

F531.1.8.7. †F531.1.8.7. Giant as eagle. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.8.8. †F531.1.8.8. Giant (giantess) as sea-mammal. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.1.9. †F531.1.9. Frost-giants. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 580, MacCulloch Eddic 278f., 324, Boberg.

F531.1.10. †F531.1.10. Fire giants. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 592.

F531.1.11. †F531.1.11. Giants and giantesses dressed as human beings. Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.1.12. †F531.1.12. Giant bride's equipment. Icelandic: Thrymskvida, MacCulloch Eddic 79, *Boberg.

F531.2. †F531.2. Size of giant. *Broderius § 37. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 120 ff.; MacCulloch Eddic 277, *Boberg; Norwegian: Norske Folkminnelag XIII 26; Finnish-Swedish: Landtmann Finlands Svenska Folkdiktning VII 537; Swiss: Henne-Am Rhyn No. 454.

F531.2.1. †F531.2.1. Extremely tall giant. (Cf. †F533.) Jewish: *Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 736; Fiji: Beckwith Myth 210.

F531.2.1.1. †F531.2.1.1. Giant fifteen feet tall with three feet between the eyes. Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.2.1.2. †F531.2.1.2. Giants fifty feet tall with footprints six feet long. Chinese: Werner 387.

F531.2.1.3. †F531.2.1.3. Waters of Deluge reach to giant's ankles. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.2.1.4. †F531.2.1.4. Giant extends across whole island. Head against stone in west and feet against another in east. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 150, *Cross.

F531.2.1.5. †F531.2.1.5. Giant reaches to the sky. Must lean over to keep from touching. N. Am. Indian: *Boas BBAE LIX 289 n. 2, (Kaska): Teit JAFL XXX 445 No. 6.

F531.2.1.6. †F531.2.1.6. Giantess is twice as tall as tall man. Icelandic: Övar-Odds saga 121.

F531.2.2. †F531.2.2. Giant with three spans between brows and three yards between shoulders. English: Child I 332, II 394.

F531.2.2.1. †F531.2.2.1. Giant girl's face is an elbow length wide. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.2.2.2. †F531.2.2.2. Giant's ears six hundred feet long. Korean: Zong in-Sob 15.

F531.2.3. †F531.2.3. Giant's skull holds a man seated. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.2.3.1. †F531.2.3.1. Giant's skull so large fowl can pass through eye-hole. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.2.3.2. †F531.2.3.2. Giant's skull holds three hounds. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.2.4. †F531.2.4. Giant's large footprints. (Cf. †F531.2.1.2.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.2.5. †F531.2.5. Extremely fat giant. (Cf. †F532.) German: Grimm No. 134.

F531.2.5.1. †F531.2.5.1. Giantess is more broad than tall. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.2.6. †F531.2.6. Giant lies underground with trees growing all over his body. When his mouth is opened man falls into it and is swallowed. Finnish: Kalevala rune 17.

F531.2.7. †F531.2.7. Giant so large he cannot be carried by a horse. Dickson 173 n. 33.

F531.2.8. †F531.2.8. Giant can find only one horse able to carry him. Dickson 173 n. 33; Icelandic: Þiðriks saga II 380f., Boberg.

F531.2.9. †F531.2.9. Giant occupies space of thrice nine men. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.2.10. †F531.2.10. Giant must rest on elbow while speaking to be audible to mortal. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.2.11. †F531.2.11. Demon looks like a mountain. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.2.12. †F531.2.12. Man with eyes the size of brass pots, teeth like axeheads, ears like elephant's ears. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.2.13. †F531.2.13. Giantess so heavy that boat almost sinks. Icelandic: Sturlaugs saga St. 620, Boberg.

F531.2.14. †F531.2.14. Baby giants four months old "two feet broad in the chest and twelve feet high." Irish myth: Cross.

F531.2.15. †F531.2.15. Sack of earth in giant's hand looks no bigger than a pea in hand of a man. Scotland: Baughman.

F531.3. †F531.3. Gargantuan feats. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.3.1. †F531.3.1. Giant wades the ocean. *Krappe Études 79ff.; Broderius § 21. --England: Baughman; Icelandic: *Boberg; Norwegian: Norske Folkminnelag I 65 No. 47, IX 99; German: Grimm Deutsche Sagen (Berlin, 1905) No. 319; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 31 n. 4; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 737.

F531.3.1.1. †F531.3.1.1. Water enters into giant's boots from above. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 66 No. 571; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 62; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 128 No. 62.

F531.3.1.2. †F531.3.1.2. Giant's leg stops ship at sea. Hindu: Penzer II 72.

F531.3.1.2.1. †F531.3.1.2.1. Giant holds back water of river with his foot. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.3.1.3. †F531.3.1.3. Thor carries giant in basket across icy stream. Icelandic: Snorra Edda Skaldsk XVII, Boberg.

F531.3.1.4. †F531.3.1.4. Giant blows to prevent approach of ship. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.3.2. †F531.3.2. Giant throws a great rock. Broderius § 8; **Höttges FFC CXXII 21ff., 196f. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 590, *Boberg; Norwegian: Norske Folkminnelag VI 142; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 61; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 47 No. 67; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 127 No. 61; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 32f.

F531.3.2.1. †F531.3.2.1. Giants throw stones after churches. *Fb "sten" 552ab; **Höttges FFC CXXII 31ff., 199ff.; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 27ff., (1931) 17ff., Schmidt DF XXXIX 70 ff.; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 70 No. 598, 71 No. 604.

F531.3.2.2. †F531.3.2.2. Giant slings stone with his garters (hair ribbon, etc.) Broderius § 20. --Swedish: Hofberg Svenska Folksägner (Stockholm, 1882) 132; Danish: Thiele Danmarks Folkesagn (København, 1843) I 46; Holstein: Müllenhoff Sagen der Herzogthümer Schleswig-Holstein u. Lauenborg (Kiel, 1921) No. 423.

F531.3.2.3. †F531.3.2.3. Giants throw tools back and forth. Explains rocks, etc. Broderius § 14; England: Baughman.

F531.3.2.4. †F531.3.2.4. Giant hurls mountain. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.3.3. †F531.3.3. Giant astride a church-roof. Rides it like a horse. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 44 No. 61**.

F531.3.4. †F531.3.4. Giant eats (drinks) prodigious amount. Broderius § 23. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 86, 89, 171, 275, *Boberg; Norwegian: Norske Folkminnelag II 28, XIII 23; Swedish: Sydow Jättarna; Westphalia: Kuhn No. 129; Swiss: Henne-Am Rhyn 2 No. 596; Tirol: Zingerle (1891) No. 217; Gaster Thespis 329; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F531.3.4.1. †F531.3.4.1. Giant eats a thousand cattle. Type 701*.

F531.3.4.2. †F531.3.4.2. Giant drinks up a river (lake, sea). German: Grimm No. 134; India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.3.4.3. †F531.3.4.3. Giant eats whales as small fry. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 449, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 638, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 196, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 66.

F531.3.5. †F531.3.5. Giant steps prodigious distance. Broderius § 21; *Höttges FFC CXXII 165ff., 281f. --Irish myth: Cross; England: Baughman; Norwegian: Norske Folkeminnelag I 61, 65, II 30, 118, IV 101, XIII 26; Finnish-Swedish: Landtmann Finlands Svenska Folkdiktning VII 539, 540, 549, Wessmann 66 No. 570; Danish: Ohrt Danmarks Folkeminder XXI 22; Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 474; Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 638.

F531.3.5.1. †F531.3.5.1. Giant bestrides mountain. Chinese: Graham.

F531.3.5.2. †F531.3.5.2. Giant's mighty stride spans earth's width. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.3.5.3. †F531.3.5.3. Giant stands astride river. England: Baughman.

F531.3.6. †F531.3.6. Giants carry church across a stream. Broderius § 22; Westphalia: Kuhn No. 387a; Hanover: Schambach u. Müller Nos. 165.1, 165.2.

F531.3.7. †F531.3.7. Giant comes to bake too soon; spills dough. Giant who has common oven with another thinks he hears companion in next valley scraping the kneading trough. He bakes his dough but finds he is too early and that he has only heard himself scratching. He spills the dough: hence fruitful soil. (Cf. †F451.7.2, †F455.3.5.) Broderius § 15; *Höttges FFC CXXII 124. Westphalia: Grässe I 835, Zaunert Westfälische 6.

F531.3.8. †F531.3.8. Giants' shouts are storms or great noise. Broderius § 16. --Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 166; Norse; Norsk Folkekultur IX 99; Swedish: Feilberg Jul II 56; Westphalia: Zaunert Westfälische 6, 11. Cf. Rip Van Winkle.

F531.3.8.1. †F531.3.8.1. Giant's snoring as thunder or storm. Icelandic: Snorra Edda Gylf. XLVI, MacCulloch Eddic 92, *Boberg.

F531.3.8.2. †F531.3.8.2. Giant's snoring felt as rain. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.3.8.3. †F531.3.8.3. Homecoming giant heard far away. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.3.8.4. †F531.3.8.4. Giantess sings so that it gives echo in all cliffs. Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.3.8.5. †F531.3.8.5. Earthquake as giant falls down. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga II 384, Boberg.

F531.3.8.5.1. †F531.3.8.5.1. Earthquake by giant's wrestling. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.3.9. †F531.3.9. Giants sit on mountains and wash feet in stream below. Broderius § 21; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 285, *Boberg; Danish: Danmarks Folkeminder No. 40 (1933) 71; Norse: Norsk Folkminnelag XIII 28; Swiss: Henne-Am Rhyn No. 611; French: Sébillot France I 232.

F531.3.10. †F531.3.10. Giants carry trees. (Cf. †F631.) Irish myth: Cross; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 12; Missouri French: Carrière.

F531.3.11. †F531.3.11. Giant swallows men. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.3.12. †F531.3.12. Giant's hunting (fishing).

F531.3.12.1. †F531.3.12.1. Giant threads an elephant on a fish-hook. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.3.12.2. †F531.3.12.2. Giant fishes whales. Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 233, MacCulloch Eddic 277, Snorra Edda Skalksk XLVI, Boberg; Maori: Clark 51.

F531.3.12.3. †F531.3.12.3. Giantess kills monstrous bear. Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 197.

F531.3.13. †F531.3.13. Giant (giantess) carries prodigious burden. Icelandic: Hálfdanar saga Br. 577, Boberg.

F531.3.13.1. †F531.3.13.1. Giant carries prodigious hunting-prey (whales, bear). Danish: Grundtvig DgF No. 18; Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 223, *Boberg.

F531.3.13.2. †F531.3.13.2. Giant allows others to cling to him while he swims with them safely across the rivers. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.3.14. †F531.3.14. Beam breaks at giant's glance. Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 221. Boberg.

F531.3.15. †F531.3.15. Giants' awful amusements, playing with men's lives. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.4. †F531.4. Gigantic possessions of giant.

F531.4.1. †F531.4.1. Giant with mill-wheel as shield. Malone PMLA XLIII 401.

F531.4.2. †F531.4.2. Giant with gigantic chain as belt. Elephant can go through each link. Malone PMLA XLIII 401.

F531.4.3. †F531.4.3. Knights drink from a huge nine-gallon cup. English: Wells 60 (Syre Gawene and the Earle of Carelyle).

F531.4.4. †F531.4.4. Giant with club as large as wheelshaft of mill. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.4.5. †F531.4.5. Giant's enormous weapons.

F531.4.5.1. †F531.4.5.1. Giant with iron club as weapon. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.4.5.2. †F531.4.5.2. Giant with iron bar as weapon. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.4.5.3. †F531.4.5.3. Giant has stone club. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 282, Snorra Edda Skaldsk. XVII, Boberg.

F531.4.5.4. †F531.4.5.4. Giant has stone shield. Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.4.5.5. †F531.4.5.5. Giant has enormous spear. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.4.6. †F531.4.6. Giant wears enormous jewel. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.4.7. †F531.4.7. Giant's clothes.

F531.4.7.1. †F531.4.7.1. Giants dressed in skin. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 80ff., *Boberg.

F531.4.7.1.1. †F531.4.7.1.1. Giants wear skins with flesh still on. Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 210.

F531.4.7.1.2. †F531.4.7.1.2. Giantess in obscenely shriveled skin skirt. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.4.7.2. †F531.4.7.2. Giants wear long coats with lamps under them. Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 634.

F531.4.7.3. †F531.4.7.3. Giantess in red dress. Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.4.8. †F531.4.8. Giant has stone as boat. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.4.9. †F531.4.9. Giant's huge kettle. Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 220, MacCulloch Eddic 86, *Boberg.

F531.4.10. †F531.4.10. Giant's enormous bed. Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

F531.4.11. †F531.4.11. Giant's enormous animals.

F531.4.11.1. †F531.4.11.1. Giants have wolf and bears as dogs. Icelandic: Örvar-Odds saga 122--24, Boberg.

F531.4.11.2. †F531.4.11.2. Foxes as giant's lice. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 150.

F531.4.12. †F531.4.12. Giant's net can hem in whole forest. Africa (Fang): Trilles 202.

F531.5. †F531.5. Giants and men. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.5.1. †F531.5.1. Giant friendly to man. Broderius § 24. --Irish myth: *Cross; U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 148, *Boberg; Norse: Feilberg Jul II 56; Tirol: Zingerle (1891) Nos. 40. 172, 183, 186, 199, 200, 220.

F531.5.1.1. †F531.5.1.1. Giant carries man in his pocket (glove, bosom). (Cf. †F531.5.3.) German: Grimm No. 193; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "géant"; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 358 n. 287 I, (Ojibwa): Jones-Michelson PAES VII (2) 171ff.

F531.5.1.1.1. †F531.5.1.1.1. Giant carries man in sack. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 39.

F531.5.1.1.2. †F531.5.1.1.2. Giant carries man on his back. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 245.

F531.5.1.1.3. †F531.5.1.1.3. Giant carries man on brim of his hat. German: Grimm No. 193.

F531.5.1.1.4. †F531.5.1.1.4. Giant carries man under his belt. Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.5.1.2. †F531.5.1.2. Giants and men fraternize at Christmas. Liestøl Festskrift til Feilberg 195ff.

F531.5.2. †F531.5.2. Man mistakes giant's glove for house. *Von Sydow Danske Studier (1910) 154; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.5.3. †F531.5.3. Giant's toy. A young giantess picks up a man plowing. Wants him as a toy. Her mother says, "Take him back. He will drive us away." (Cf. †F531.5.1.) **V. Höttges Die Sage vom Riesenspielzeug (Jena, 1931); Höttges FFC CXXII 172; Broderius § 29; Type 701*; *Fb "kjæmpe" II 149a; "plove" II 848; *Tegethoff Schweiz. Archiv f. Vksk. XXIV 139 n. 14. --Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 67 No. 575; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 47 No. 73; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3712; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 73 No. 225; Flemish: Meyer FFC XXXVII No. 701*; Missouri French: Carrière.

F531.5.4. †F531.5.4. Giant thinks hammer-blow on head is a nut falling. Man strikes with all his might. *Von Sydow Danske Studier (1910) 159; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 92; N. Am. Indian (Seneca): CurtinHewitt RBAE XXXII 213 No. 41; Africa (Fang): Einstein 47.

F531.5.4.1. †F531.5.4.1. Giant thinks shower of stones is snowfall. Wales: Baughman.

F531.5.4.2. †F531.5.4.2. Giant's head gnawed by foxes: thinks soot is falling on him. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 150.

F531.5.5. †F531.5.5. Giants repay loan with large interest. Cask of gold for ale, etc. Icelandic: Feilberg Jul II 56; Swedish: Runa IV (1843) 29, 30, 38, 45.

F531.5.6. †F531.5.6. Giants' gifts to men.

F531.5.6.1. †F531.5.6.1. Giants' magic gifts return to original form in hands of men. (Cf. †F451.5.1.4. and cross-references.) Broderius § 33; Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 148; German: Jahn Nos. 29, 217.

F531.5.6.2. †F531.5.6.2. Giant's present: magic loaf producing inexhaustible harvest. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.5.6.3. †F531.5.6.3. Giant's presents cease when source is disclosed. (Cf. †F348.5.) Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 235.

F531.5.7. †F531.5.7. Giants marry human beings. (Cf. †F420.6.1, †F460.4, and cross references.) Broderius § 30. --Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 135, MacCulloch Eddic 278, 175, *Boberg; Norse: Norsk Folkminnelag I 63; Swedish: Runa IV (1843) 41 No. 72.

F531.5.7.0.1. †F531.5.7.0.1. Giant wooes mortal woman. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.5.7.0.2. †F531.5.7.0.2. Giant demands girl, but is killed in duel about her. (Cf. †F610.3.4.2.1.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.5.7.0.3. †F531.5.7.0.3. Giantesses pursue men in order to marry them. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.5.7.1. †F531.5.7.1. Mortal son of giant. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.5.7.1.1. †F531.5.7.1.1. Mortal son of man and giantess. Icelandic: Flateyjarbók I 23, Boberg.

F531.5.7.1.2. †F531.5.7.1.2. Giantess daughter of giant and abducted maiden (therefore helps hero). Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.5.8. †F531.5.8. Giants and Christians.

F531.5.8.1. †F531.5.8.1. Giants hostile to Christianity. Broderius § 25.

F531.5.8.2. †F531.5.8.2. Giants exorcised by clergy. Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 138; West Indies: Flowers 435.

F531.5.8.3. †F531.5.8.3. Giants Christianized. Broderius § 25; Irish myth: *Cross; Norwegian: Norske Sagn (Christiania, 1902) 119; German: Grimm Deutsche Sagen (1905) No. 137.

F531.5.9. †F531.5.9. The giant on the ark. Noah saves a giant on the ark. Cannot enter but stays in the rigging. Noah sends him food through a hole. Dh I 283; Jewish: *Neuman.

F531.5.10. †F531.5.10. Giant as servant to man. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.5.10.1. †F531.5.10.1. Giant driven by girl. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.5.10.2. †F531.5.10.2. Giant maidens grind gold, peace, soldiers, salt, etc., on large stone mill. BP II 438ff.; Type 565; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 140ff.; MacCulloch Eddic 282--83, Boberg.

F531.5.11. †F531.5.11. Giant in contest with man. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.5.11.1. †F531.5.11.1. Giant wins walking contest against man. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.5.11.2. †F531.5.11.2. Footrace between giant and mortal. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.5.12. †F531.5.12. Giant insults hero by shaving his head and smearing it with cow dung. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.5.13. †F531.5.13. Giants like butter more than anything else. Get trough of butter in return for help. Icelandic: Egils saga einhenda 79, Boberg.

F531.5.14. †F531.5.14. Man kills giant's baby. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 83, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 539.

F531.5.15. †F531.5.15. Giants cause men to sin. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.6. †F531.6. Other giant motifs.

F531.6.1. †F531.6.1. Origin of giants. (Cf. †F531.5.7.1.2.) Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 275.

F531.6.1.1. †F531.6.1.1. Sons of God and Daughters of men. Before the flood angels have relations with human women: origin of giants. Dh I 294; Krappe Studi e Materiali di Storia delle Religioni IX (1933) 157--172.

F531.6.1.2. †F531.6.1.2. Giant is transformed man. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.1.3. †F531.6.1.3. Giant son of black cat. Icelandic: Flateyjarbók I 529, Boberg.

F531.6.1.4. †F531.6.1.4. Gigantic son of king and mermaid. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 73, Boberg.

F531.6.1.5. †F531.6.1.5. Giants as personifications. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 580, MacCulloch Eddic 281.

F531.6.1.6. †F531.6.1.6. Giant made of the venom from Elivagar. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 326, Boberg.

F531.6.1.7. †F531.6.1.7. Giants as sons of Ymir or Aurgelmir. (Cf. †A642, †A831.2.)

F531.6.1.8. †F531.6.1.8. Giants as reincarnated animals. Korean: Zong in-Sob 64.

F531.6.1.9. †F531.6.1.9. Giants as descendants of Cain. (Cf. †F535.0.1.) Jewish: Neuman.

F531.6.2. †F531.6.2. Haunts of giants.

F531.6.2.0.1. †F531.6.2.0.1. Giants in "Risaland" or "Jotunheimar" without nearer definition. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.2.1. †F531.6.2.1. Giants live in mountains or caves. Broderius § 11. --Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg, Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) 135; Finnish-Swedish: Wessmann 67 No. 572; Jewish: Neuman.

F531.6.2.2. †F531.6.2.2. Giants live under water.

F531.6.2.2.1. †F531.6.2.2.1. Giants live under sea. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.6.2.2.2. †F531.6.2.2.2. Giant lives under lake. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.6.2.2.3. †F531.6.2.2.3. Giant's home beneath waterfall in lake. Icelandic: *Boberg. Cf. Beowulf.

F531.6.2.3. †F531.6.2.3. Giants' live in the east. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 81, *Boberg.

F531.6.2.4. †F531.6.2.4. Giants live in the utmost northwest. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.2.5. †F531.6.2.5. Giants live at the world's end. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.2.6. †F531.6.2.6. Giants in a region of darkness and cold. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 321, Herrmann Saxo II 583ff., 601.

F531.6.2.7. †F531.6.2.7. Giants in wild forests. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 280.

F531.6.3. †F531.6.3. Homes of giants. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 586ff., 595, MacCulloch Eddic 276, Boberg.

F531.6.3.0.1. †F531.6.3.0.1. Men not to disclose giant's home. (Cf. †C420.) Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 231.

F531.6.3.1. †F531.6.3.1. Giants live in castles (raths, duns) (ruins of which may still be seen). Broderius § 11; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 59 (The Turke and Gowin); Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 282; German: Grimm Deutsche Sagen (1905) Nos. 16, 20.

F531.6.3.2. †F531.6.3.2. Giant lives in fairyland. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.6.4. †F531.6.4. Age of giants.

F531.6.4.1. †F531.6.4.1. Giants have great age. Calculated by age of wood. Broderius § 35; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 276, Boberg; Tirol: Zingerle (1891) Nos. 173, 187, 190; Jewish: *Neuman.

F531.6.4.2. †F531.6.4.2. Giants live to be eighteen thousand years old. Chinese: Werner 387.

F531.6.4.3. †F531.6.4.3. Giant immortal. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.6.5. †F531.6.5. Giants as magicians. Broderius § 33; *Höttges FFC CXXII 145; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 122, 131, 148, *Boberg; German: Grimm Deutsche Sagen (1907) No. 318.4.

F531.6.5.1. †F531.6.5.1. Giants can make selves invisible. (Cf. †F531.6.12.1.1.) Irish myth: *Cross; Norwegian: Norsk Folkminnelag XIII 23; Finnish-Swedish: Landtmann Finlands Svenska Folkdiktning VIII 538.

F531.6.5.2. †F531.6.5.2. Giants large or small at will. Broderius § 17; Icelandic: Saxo ed. Elton 26, MacCulloch Eddic 277, *Boberg; German: Henne-Am Rhyn Nos. 441, 562, 225, 365, 444.

F531.6.5.3. †F531.6.5.3. Giant has wound-healing balm. Dickson 187 nn. 61--62; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 230, *Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière.

F531.6.5.4. †F531.6.5.4. Giants as controllers of the elements. *Höttges FFC CXXII 72f., 256; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 75ff., 276, *Boberg.

F531.6.6. †F531.6.6. Giants as builders of great structures. Broderius § 2; Wünsche Teufel 19; **Höttges FFC CXXII 49ff., 218ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 80 (Sir Tristrem); Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 49, MacCulloch Eddic 276, 278, 286, Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 25ff., (1931) 15ff. (churches); Fb "kirke" II 124a; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 67 No. 580, 68 No. 582, 69f. Nos. 593--97; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3714.

F531.6.6.1. †F531.6.6.1. Giants by night move buildings built by men in day. Broderius § 3. --Norwegian: Norsk Folkminnelag II 28; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1892) 174ff., (1931) 127ff. (churches); Fb "kirke" II 124a; Finnish-Swedish: Landtman Finlands Svenska Folkdiktning VII (Helsingfors 1919) 553.

F531.6.6.2. †F531.6.6.2. Giant builds hill for his home. England: Baughman.

F531.6.6.3. †F531.6.6.3. Giant digs trench for course of Severn River. England: Baughman.

F531.6.6.4. †F531.6.6.4. Giant makes cleft in rock when he misses another giant with spade blow. England: Baughman.

F531.6.6.5. †F531.6.6.5. Giant and his wife build Roman road in a trice. Giant paves; wife brings stones. England: Baughman.

F531.6.7. †F531.6.7. Giant's treasure. (Cf. †F531.6.8.3.1.) *Höttges FFC CXXII 143; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 583ff., MacCulloch Eddic 277 (Sutting's poetic mead, runes), Snorra Edda Gylf. IV and XV (Mimir's well), Snorra Edda Skald. XXXII (gold); Estonian: Veckenstedt Sagen der Zamaiten (Heidelberg, 1883) II 141 No. 4, 200 No. 24; Hesse-Nassau: Zaunert 61.

F531.6.7.1. †F531.6.7.1. Giant possesses treasure. Broderius § 13. --Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 279 (Alvaldi's gold), 84 (magic objects); Norwegian: Norske Folkminnelag XIII 29; Faröe: Zs. f. Vksk. II 6 No. 6; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 92 No. 117; Styria: Henne-Am Rhyn No. 225.

F531.6.7.1.1. †F531.6.7.1.1. Giants have animals (dogs, etc.) Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 591, 593, 595; MacCulloch Eddic 66, 85, 88, 111, 230, 276--77, *Boberg.

F531.6.7.1.2. †F531.6.7.1.2. Giants' ship (Naglfar). Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 340.

F531.6.7.2. †F531.6.7.2. Giant obtains treasure from man. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.6.7.2.1. †F531.6.7.2.1. Giant steals from man (fish, sheep, sword). Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.8. †F531.6.8. Mutual relations of giants.

F531.6.8.1. †F531.6.8.1. Giant in love with giantess. Broderius § 30; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Norse: Norsk Folkminnelag XIII 29; Danish: Thiele Danmarks Folkesagn (København, 1843) II 47; German: Grimm Deutsche Sagen (1907) No. 319.

F531.6.8.2. †F531.6.8.2. Giants pursue giant women. Broderius § 30; Irish myth: *Cross; Swedish: Runa IV (1843) 27 No. 10; German: Grimm Deutsche Sagen (1907) No. 318.4; Tirol: Zingerle (1891) 176--180.

F531.6.8.3. †F531.6.8.3. Enmity (competition) between giants. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.8.3.1. †F531.6.8.3.1. Giants and giantesses fight about treasures. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.8.3.2. †F531.6.8.3.2. Giant steals from giant. Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.6.8.3.3. †F531.6.8.3.3. Giants wrestle with each other. India: Thompson-Balys.

F531.6.8.4. †F531.6.8.4. Giants' festivities. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.8.4.1. †F531.6.8.4.1. One giant invites another to a feast (wedding). Latter must be satisfied that food is plentiful. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3713.

F531.6.8.5. †F531.6.8.5. Giants' social relations.

F531.6.8.5.1. †F531.6.8.5.1. Giants have king, queen. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.8.5.2. †F531.6.8.5.2. Giants have parliament. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.8.6. †F531.6.8.6. Giants have children. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.8.7. †F531.6.8.7. Giants meet successively larger giants. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 261.

F531.6.8.8. †F531.6.8.8. Giant does not grow until another giant causes him to do so. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 8.

F531.6.9. †F531.6.9. Giants as warriors (in army). Broderius § 32; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Bohemian: Jungbauer Böhmerwald Sagen (Jena, 1924).

F531.6.10. †F531.6.10. Other occupations of giants.

F531.6.10.1. †F531.6.10.1. Giant as smith. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 282, *Boberg.

F531.6.11. †F531.6.11. Antipathies of giants.

F531.6.11.1. †F531.6.11.1. Giants fear lightning. Broderius § 27; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 278, 285; Swedish: Henne-Am Rhyn No. 609; German: Zaunert Westfäliche 1.

F531.6.12. †F531.6.12. Disappearance or death of giants. **Höttges FFC CXXII 75; Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.6.12.1. †F531.6.12.1. Disappearance of giants. Broderius § 28.

F531.6.12.1.1. †F531.6.12.1.1. Giant disappears in mist. (Cf. †F531.6.5.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

F531.6.12.1.2. †F531.6.12.1.2. Giant cursed. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.6.12.2. †F531.6.12.2. Sunlight turns giant or troll to stone. Broderius § 7; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 277, 282, 285, Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 154, Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 124, Boberg.

F531.6.12.3. †F531.6.12.3. Slain giant turns to salt stone. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.12.4. †F531.6.12.4. Giants killed by lightning or thunder (personified in the thunder-god). (Cf. †F531.6.11.1.) Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 592, MacCulloch Eddic 69ff., Boberg.

F531.6.12.5. †F531.6.12.5. Giant killed by earthquake. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 80, Boberg.

F531.6.12.6. †F531.6.12.6. Giant slain by man. (Cf. †F531.6.9, †F628.2.3, †G500.) Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 374f.; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 83, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 315, 537f.

F531.6.12.6.1. †F531.6.12.6.1. Giant destroyed by army. Jewish: Neuman.

F531.6.12.7. †F531.6.12.7. Giants driven away by men. Icelandic: Boberg.

F531.6.12.8. †F531.6.12.8. Giant drowned.

F531.6.12.8.1. †F531.6.12.8.1. Giants drowned (in Ymir's blood). Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 324, Snorra Edda skaldsk. ch. II, Boberg.

F531.6.12.8.2. †F531.6.12.8.2. Giant drowned in Deluge. (Cf. †A1010.) Jewish: Neuman.

F531.6.13. †F531.6.13. Graves of giants. Broderius § 12; **Höttges FFC CXXII 75ff., 256f.; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Arnason Legends of Iceland (London, 1864) I 40, 51, 53, 148; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 13ff., (1931) 8ff., VI 74; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 67 No. 577; Faröe: Zs. f. Vksk. II 18.

F531.6.13.1. †F531.6.13.1. Giants enchanted in caverns. Broderius § 34; Swedish: Runa (1847) 34 No. 9; Tirol: Henne-Am Rhyn 2 No. 628.

F531.6.13.2. †F531.6.13.2. Giant enchanted in car. Icelandic: Hálfdanar saga Br. 574, Boberg.

F531.6.14. †F531.6.14. Ghost of giant. Broderius § 17; *Höttges FFC CXXII 133; Westphalia: Zaunert Westfälische 5; Ditmarsch: Zs. f. Vksk. VIII 210; Tirol: Zingerle (1891) Nos. 41, 206, 357.

F531.6.15. †F531.6.15. Giants and supernatural beings.

F531.6.15.1. †F531.6.15.1. Giants and gods in fight. Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 151, MacCulloch Eddic 83--84, 91, 179, 275 ff.

F531.6.15.2. †F531.6.15.2. Love relations between giants and other supernatural beings. (Cf. †F531.6.8.1.) Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 119, cf. O. Lundberg in Arctos Svecica 2, Ups. 1944, 5ff., Herrmann Saxo II 97ff., MacCulloch Eddic 47ff., 82, 91, 110, 158, 181, Boberg.

F531.6.15.3. †F531.6.15.3. Giants and dwarfs friendly. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 83, (Central): Boas RBAE VI 635.

F531.6.16. †F531.6.16. Attendants of the giants.

F531.6.16.1. †F531.6.16.1. Giants' watchman (Eggther). Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 276, Boberg.

F531.6.16.2. †F531.6.16.2. Giant's animals help him in fight. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.16.3. †F531.6.16.3. Man as servant of giant. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F531.6.17. †F531.6.17. Other acts of giants.

F531.6.17.1. †F531.6.17.1. Giants dance. *Fb "danse" I 93a.

F531.6.17.2. †F531.6.17.2. Giant inflates self and floats through air. (Cf. †F531.6.5.2.) Malone PMLA XLIII 412.

F531.6.17.2.1. †F531.6.17.2.1. Giant flies over water like bird. Irish myth: *Cross.

F531.6.17.3. †F531.6.17.3. Eagle carries giant to its nest. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "aigle".

F531.6.17.4. †F531.6.17.4. Giant plays musical instrument. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.6.17.5. †F531.6.17.5. Giant herdsman. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.6.17.6. †F531.6.17.6. Giant rolls like wheel. Irish myth: Cross.

F531.6.17.7. †F531.6.17.7. Giants are wise. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 277, 127, *Boberg.

F532. †F532. Remarkably broad man. Köhler-Bolte I 403; Jewish: Neuman.

F533. †F533. Remarkably tall man. (Cf. †F531.2.1.) Köhler-Bolte I 403; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Þiðriks saga I 345, Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; Marquesas: Handy 126; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 392; Fiji: ibid. 472; Tuamotu: ibid. 471.

F535. †F535. Pygmy. Remarkably small man. Also called "dwarf". To be distinguished from the dwarfs who live in the woods and inhabit underground places (†F451). *Schoepperle Tristan and Isolt I 242 n. 6; *Frazer Pausanias II 107; *Chauvin VII 15 No. 373C n. 1; Irish myth: *Cross; English: Hartland Science 179; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 256; Arabian: Burton Nights V 252 n; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 386; N. Am. Indian (Cherokee): Alexander N. Am. 68; African: *Werner African 258ff.

F535.0.1. †F535.0.1. Pygmies descendants of Cain. (Cf. †F531.6.1.9.) Jewish: Neuman.

F535.1. †F535.1. Thumbling. Person the size of a thumb. *Types 327B, 700; *BP I 361, 389; Fb "tomling"; Saintyves Contes de Perrault 245ff., 314ff.; *Hdwb. d. Märch. s. v. "Daumling"; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F535.1.1. †F535.1.1. Adventures of thumbling. See Type 700 for detailed adventures.

F535.1.1.1. †F535.1.1.1. Thumbling drives wagon by sitting in horse's ear. Type 700; BP I 389.

F535.1.1.1.1. †F535.1.1.1.1. Thumbling drives mule. India: Thompson-Balys.

F535.1.1.2. †F535.1.1.2. Thumbling carried up chimney by steam of food. *Type 700; BP I 389.

F535.1.1.3. †F535.1.1.3. Thumbling lies by sleeping man. Is blown to window by man's breath. BP I 397.

F535.1.1.4. †F535.1.1.4. Thumbling in danger of being sucked in by man's breath. BP I 397.

F535.1.1.5. †F535.1.1.5. Thumbling lost in animal track. India: Thompson-Balys.

F535.1.1.6. †F535.1.1.6. Thumbling has cat as riding-horse. India: Thompson-Balys.

F535.1.1.7. †F535.1.1.7. Thumbling swallowed by animals. German: Grimm No. 37, 45.

F535.1.1.8. †F535.1.1.8. Thumbling imprisoned in a sausage. German: Grimm No. 45.

F535.1.1.9. †F535.1.1.9. Thumbling sold as freak. German: Grimm No. 37.

F535.1.1.10. †F535.1.1.10. Thumbling hides in small place.

F535.1.1.10.1. †F535.1.1.10.1. Thumbling hides under thimble in table drawer. German: Grimm No. 45.

F535.1.1.10.2. †F535.1.1.10.2. Thumbling hides in a snail shell, in a mouse hole. German: Grimm No. 37.

F535.1.1.11. †F535.1.1.11. Thumbling as accomplice to robbers. German: Grimm No. 37, 45.

F535.1.1.11.1. †F535.1.1.11.1. Thumbling steals by entering keyhole. German: Grimm No. 37, 45.

F535.1.1.12. †F535.1.1.12. Thumbling carries needle as sword. German: Grimm No. 45.

F535.1.1.13. †F535.1.1.13. Thumbling carried in pocket. German: Grimm No. 90.

F535.1.1.14. †F535.1.1.14. Thumbling carried on hat brim. (Cf. †F531.5.1.1.3. for a similar motif.) German: Grimm No. 37.

F535.2. †F535.2. Pygmies of various sizes.

F535.2.1. †F535.2.1. Pygmies nine inches tall. Chinese: Werner 386.

F535.2.2. †F535.2.2. Man so small he can go through eye of needle. BP I 397.

F535.2.3. †F535.2.3. Man so small he dances in spider web. BP I 397.

F535.2.4. †F535.2.4. Man so small he can put his head through a mote in a sunbeam. BP I 397.

F535.2.5. †F535.2.5. Man so small that he rides on an ant. Ant treads him underfoot. BP I 397.

F535.2.6. †F535.2.6. Pygmy stands on man's hand. Irish myth: *Cross.

F535.2.7. †F535.2.7. Person (poet, child) only "fist high." Irish myth: *Cross.

F535.2.8. †F535.2.8. Little soldiers with officer on rabbit (long needles and knives for weapons). Chinese: Graham.

F535.3. †F535.3. Dress of pygmies.

F535.3.1. †F535.3.1. Pygmies dressed in copper. Finnish: Kalevala rune 2.

F535.3.2. †F535.3.2. Pygmies dressed in red. Chinese: Werner 386.

F535.4. †F535.4. Characteristics of pygmies.

F535.4.1. †F535.4.1. Sexes of pygmies distinguished. A slight beard on men; long tresses on women. Chinese: Werner 386.

F535.4.2. †F535.4.2. Pygmies with upturned feet. S. Am. Indian: Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 712.

F535.4.3. †F535.4.3. Noseless pygmies. (Cf. †F514.1.) Jewish: Neuman.

F535.5. †F535.5. Deeds of pygmies.

F535.5.1. †F535.5.1. War of pygmies and cranes. Greek: *Frazer Pausanias II 107; *Fb "trane" III 835b.

F535.5.1.1. †F535.5.1.1. Battle between giants and dwarfs; dwarfs win. (Cf. †F531.) Africa (Fang): Einstein 71.

F535.6. †F535.6. Kingdom of pygmies.

F535.6.1. †F535.6.1. Underground pygmy kingdom. Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 17.

F540. †F540. Remarkable physical organs.

F541. †F541. Remarkable eyes. (Cf. †F512.) Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F541.1. †F541.1. Flashing eyes. Irish myth: Cross.

F541.1.1. †F541.1.1. Eyes flash fire. Greek: Fox 9 (Typhon).

F541.1.2. †F541.1.2. Eyes flash lightning. N. Am. Indian (Navaho): Matthews MAFLS V 123.

F541.1.3. †F541.1.3. Eyes of live coals. Köhler-Bolte I 403.

F541.1.4. †F541.1.4. Serpent-eye. Eyes so keen that man is supposed to have serpents in them. De Vries Zs. f. deutsche Philologie XIII (1928) 289; Icelandic: Sörlaþáttr (FAS I) 406, Völundarkvida, stanza 16, Ragnars saga Loðbrókar 136, *Boberg.

F541.2. †F541.2. Eye with picture in the pupil. Witch with picture of cat (dog) in pupil. *Fb "øje" III 1166a, "kattekilling" II 111.

F541.3. †F541.3. Eye with several pupils.

F541.3.1. †F541.3.1. Eye with two pupils. Fb "øje" III 1166a. --Chinese: Ferguson

F541.3.2. †F541.3.2. Eye with three pupils. Irish myth: *Cross.

F541.3.3. †F541.3.3. Eye with four pupils. Irish myth: *Cross.

F541.3.4. †F541.3.4. Eye with seven pupils. (Cf. †A526.5.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F541.4. †F541.4. Eye must be rubbed before it can see. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "oeil".

F541.5. †F541.5. One of man's (giant's) eyes protrudes, other recedes. (Cf. †F1041.16.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F541.5.1. †F541.5.1. Single eye protrudes from forehead. Irish myth: *Cross.

F541.6. †F541.6. Eyes remarkable as to color.

F541.6.1. †F541.6.1. One eye brown, other blue. Irish myth: Cross.

F541.6.2. †F541.6.2. Person has red eye. Irish myth: Cross.

F541.7. †F541.7. Eye with remarkably heavy lid. Requires four men to lift it, or the like. (Cf. †F511.1, †G631.) Irish myth: Cross.

F541.8. †F541.8. Eye recedes into head. Irish myth: *Cross.

F541.9. †F541.9. Eyes shed tears of blood. (Cf. †H71.8.) Jewish: Neuman.

F541.10. †F541.10. Eyes impervious to iron lances. Jewish: Neuman.

F541.11. †F541.11. Removable eyes. Jewish: Neuman; Africa: Weeks Jungle 126ff.

F542. †F542. Remarkable ears. (Cf. †F511.2.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F542.1. †F542.1. Long ears. People must hold them up so as not to impede walking. Liebrecht 90f.; Cosquin Contes indiens 179; Chinese: Werner 389; Indonesian: Kruyt Het Animisme 350; Malay: Gerth van Wijk Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde XXXV 272; Papua: Landtman Nos. 135, 145, 163.

F542.2. †F542.2. Big ears. One used as mattress and one as a covering, and the like. India: Thompson-Balys; New Guinea: Rutland Journal of the Polynesian Society VI (1897) 213--215.

F543. †F543. Remarkable nose. (Cf. †F514.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F543.1. †F543.1. Remarkably long nose. *Fb "næse" II 716b, "kjælling" II 146b.

F543.1.1. †F543.1.1. Long nose used as poker. Fb. "næse" II 716b.

F543.1.2. †F543.1.2. Long nose used as hen roost. Fb "næse" III 716b.

F543.1.3. †F543.1.3. Remarkably long, hooked nose. Irish myth: Cross.

F543.2. †F543.2. Remarkably large nose. Tobler 63.

F543.3. †F543.3. Nose turned upside down. India: Thompson-Balys.

F543.4. †F543.4. Remarkable nostrils. Jewish: Neuman.

F544. †F544. Remarkable mouth. (Cf. †F513, †F531.1.4, †F531.1.6.2.)

F544.0.1. †F544.0.1. Remarkably large mouth. Irish myth: *Cross.

F544.0.1.1. †F544.0.1.1. Mouth opens so wide that lungs (gullet) may be seen. Irish myth: *Cross.

F544.0.2. †F544.0.2. Man's mouth, from fear of sea-monster under lake, "distended to both his ears." Irish myth: *Cross.

F544.0.3. †F544.0.3. Mouth of man emits flames when open for speech. Jewish: *Neuman.

F544.0.4. †F544.0.4. Mouth open to drink for forty days. Jewish: Neuman.

F544.1. †F544.1. Remarkable lips.

F544.1.1. †F544.1.1. Upper lip curls over nostril; lower hangs down to neck. Malone PMLA XLIII 401.

F544.1.2. †F544.1.2. When sad, man lets one lip fall to stomach; other makes hood over his head. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 190.

F544.1.3. †F544.1.3. Lips on side of face. Irish myth: *Cross.

F544.1.4. †F544.1.4. Lips used as a spear. Oceanic: Beckwith Myth 200.

F544.2. †F544.2. Remarkable tongue. Irish myth: Cross.

F544.2.1. †F544.2.1. Golden tongue. Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 278 No. 90.

F544.2.2. †F544.2.2. Long tongue. India: Thompson-Balys.

F544.2.2.1. †F544.2.2.1. Long tongue cut out and used to bridge a stream. *Penzer VI 10 n. 4.

F544.2.3. †F544.2.3. Tongue with hair growing from it. India: Thompson-Balys.

F544.2.4. †F544.2.4. Tongue with thorns. India: Thompson-Balys.

F544.3. †F544.3. Remarkable teeth. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

F544.3.1. †F544.3.1. Golden teeth. Icelandic: Boberg; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 278 No. 90.

F544.3.2. †F544.3.2. Teeth of angered saint give off sparks. (Cf. †F552.1.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

F544.3.2.1. †F544.3.2.1. Luminous tooth of saint. Irish myth: *Cross.

F544.3.3. †F544.3.3. Blue teeth. Jewish: Neuman; Icelandic: Boberg.

F544.3.3.1. †F544.3.3.1. Blue, protruding teeth of one and a half elbow-length. Icelandic: Boberg.

F544.3.4. †F544.3.4. Saints' teeth last for 300 years. Irish myth: Cross.

F544.3.5. †F544.3.5. Remarkably long teeth. Jewish: Neuman.

F544.3.6. †F544.3.6. Tooth travels automatically. Africa (Dzalamo): Meinhof ZsES XI 283.

F545. †F545. Other facial features. Irish myth: Cross.

F545.1. †F545.1. Remarkable beard. Jewish: *Neuman.

F545.1.0.1. †F545.1.0.1. Beardless man. Irish myth: Cross.

F545.1.1. †F545.1.1. Blue beard. *Type 312.

F545.1.1.1. †F545.1.1.1. Green beard. Moe Samlede Skrifter III 289f.; English: Gawayne and the Green Knight.

F545.1.1.2. †F545.1.1.2. Golden mustache. India: Thompson-Balys.

F545.1.2. †F545.1.2. Beard projected over beams of great hall. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 190.

F545.1.3. †F545.1.3. Beard grows through table. (Usually told of king asleep in mountain.) Hartland Science 217; *BP III 460; Fb "sten" III 554a.

F545.1.4. †F545.1.4. Beard shelters fifty men from rain. Irish myth: Cross.

F545.1.5. †F545.1.5. Bearded woman. (Cf. †T321.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

F545.1.5.1. †F545.1.5.1. Enormously fat woman with beard. India: Thompson-Balys.

F545.1.6. †F545.1.6. Beard travels detached from owners. Africa (Dzalamo): Meinhof ZsES XI 284.

F545.2. †F545.2. Remarkable forehead. Jewish: Neuman.

F545.2.1. †F545.2.1. Gold star on forehead. *Type 400, 533; *Roberts 188; BP I 102, II 275; Köhler-Bolte I 420; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "étoiles"; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 2.

F545.2.2. †F545.2.2. Horns on forehead. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G 2/27).

F545.2.3. †F545.2.3. Man with inscription on forehead. Jewish: Neuman.

F545.2.4. †F545.2.4. Man with forehead of iron. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 75f.

F545.3. †F545.3. Remarkable cheek.

F545.3.1. †F545.3.1. One cheek white, other red. Irish myth: *Cross.

F545.3.2. †F545.3.2. Yellow, green, blue, purple spot on cheek. Irish myth: *Cross.

F545.4. †F545.4. Face covered with long moss. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

F546. †F546. Remarkable breast. (Cf. †F232.2, †F441.2.1.2, †F460.1.2, †F531.1.5.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F546.1. †F546.1. Breast broad and made of glittering metal. Africa (Kaffir): Theal 150.

F546.2. †F546.2. Woman with three breasts. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F546.3. †F546.3. Star (cross) on breast. Panzer Hilde-Gudrun 207; Dixon 48; Icelandic: Lagerholm Drei Lygisögur 87, Boberg.

F546.4. †F546.4. Thorns around nipples. India: Thompson-Balys.

F546.5. †F546.5. Woman with breasts hot enough to cook food. (Cf. †F593.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F546.6. †F546.6. Milk in man's breast. Jewish: Neuman.

F547. †F547. Remarkable sexual organs. Irish myth: *Cross.

F547.1. †F547.1. Toothed private parts. (Cf. †F547.3.3.) N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 309 n. 115.

F547.1.1. †F547.1.1. Vagina dentata. Woman kills her husbands with her toothed vagina. India: *Thompson-Balys; Marquesas: Handy 100; Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 289; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 305, Holm 87; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 309 n. 115, Hatt Asiatic Influences 85ff., (California): Gayton and Newman 72.

F547.2. †F547.2. Hermaphrodite. Person with both male and female sexual organs. Greek: *Pauly-Wissowa s. v. "Hermaphroditos"; N. Am. Indian (Navaho): Matthews MAFLS V 70; Icelandic: Boberg.

F547.2.1. †F547.2.1. Hermaphrodite pygmies. N. Am. Indian (Tsimshian): Alexander N. Am. 257.

F547.3. †F547.3. Extraordinary penis. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.3.1. †F547.3.1. Long penis. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F547.3.2. †F547.3.2. Penis that eats and drinks. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.3.3. †F547.3.3. Toothed penis. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.3.4. †F547.3.4. Penis tatooed with name of God. Jewish: Neuman.

F547.3.5. †F547.3.5. Man's genitals hidden in his body. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 31.

F547.3.6. †F547.3.6. Penis cuts down trees. N. Am. Indian (Klikitat): Jacobs U Wash II 29.

F547.4. †F547.4. Extraordinary clitoris. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.5. †F547.5. Extraordinary vagina. (Cf. †F547.1.1.)

F547.5.1. †F547.5.1. Removable vagina. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 113, 186.

F547.5.2. †F547.5.2. Enormous vagina. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.5.3. †F547.5.3. Eye in vagina. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.5.4. †F547.5.4. Double vagina. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.5.5. †F547.5.5. Vagina as bag. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.5.6. †F547.5.6. Vagina in forehead. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.5.7. †F547.5.7. Vagina in armpit. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.5.8. †F547.5.8. Saw in vagina. (Cf. †F547.1.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.5.9. †F547.5.9. Hair in vagina which becomes a mantis. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.5.10. †F547.5.10. Woman with privates like dog's. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 111.

F547.6. †F547.6. Remarkable pubic hairs. India: Thompson-Balys.

F547.6.1. †F547.6.1. Remarkably long pubic hair. Irish myth: *Cross.

F547.7. †F547.7. Enormous testicles. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 75.

F548. †F548. Remarkable legs. Irish myth: Cross.

F548.0.1. †F548.0.1. Pointed leg. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 75f.

F548.1. †F548.1. Person with black knee. (Cf. †F527.5.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F548.1.1. †F548.1.1. Person with white knee. Irish myth: Cross.

F551. †F551. Remarkable feet. (Cf. †F517.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

F551.1. †F551.1. Animal foot on human being.

F551.1.1. †F551.1.1. Man with snake-like feet. Greek: Fox 68 (Erichtheus).

F551.1.2. †F551.1.2. Person with horse's foot. Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 62; Icelandic: Boberg.

F551.1.2.1. †F551.1.2.1. Woman with horseshoe on one foot. *Fb "hestesko" I 604a.

F551.1.3. †F551.1.3. Man with dog's feet. Icelandic: Hrólfs saga Kr. 54ff., Boberg.

F551.2. †F551.2. Feet with unusual number of toes. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 143 (seven), *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

F551.3. †F551.3. Remarkably pretty white feet. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 103, *Boberg.

F551.4. †F551.4. Remarkably ugly feet (and hands). Icelandic: Boberg.

F551.5. †F551.5. Single-footed people lie on their backs and shade themselves from sun with their soles. India: Thompson-Balys.

F552. †F552. Remarkable hands. (Cf. †F515, †F531.1.6.7, †F551.4.) Japanese: Ikeda.

F552.1. †F552.1. Hands with unusual fingers.

F552.1.1. †F552.1.1. Hands with unusual number of fingers. Irish myth: *Cross.

F552.1.2. †F552.1.2. Fingers of saint (angel) give light or fire. (Cf. †F544.3.2.) *Loomis White Magic 34; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

F552.1.3. †F552.1.3. Extraordinary fingernails. (Cf. †G11.11.1.) Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 87, Rasmussen III 79; Oceania: *Lessa MS.

F552.1.4. †F552.1.4. Human fingers not separated. Jewish: Neuman.

F552.1.5. †F552.1.5. Milk from finger. Jewish: Neuman.

F552.2. †F552.2. Remarkably strong hands. (Cf. †F610.) Tonga: Beckwith Myth 486.

F552.3. †F552.3. Remarkably pretty white hands. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F552.4. †F552.4. Marvelous hand without wrist. Irish myth: *Cross.

F554. †F554. Person remarkable as to his blood.

F554.1. †F554.1. Person with pink fluid in place of blood. Irish myth: Cross.

F554.2. †F554.2. Person with extraordinary amount of blood. Irish myth: Cross.

F555. †F555. Remarkable hair. (Cf. †F521, †F531.1.6.3.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F555.1. †F555.1. Gold hair. *Types 314, 504, 533; BP II 275, III 97, IV 271, 351, 409; *Fb "guldhår" I 513, IV 191b, "hår" I 771b; *Aarne FFC XCII 94ff. --Icelandic: Hdwb. d. Märch. I 431a n. 27, MacCulloch Eddic 266, Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "cheveux", "belle", "or"; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F555.1.1. †F555.1.1. Person with hair partially golden. Irish myth: *Cross.

F555.2. †F555.2. Silver hair. *Type 533; BP II 275.

F555.3. †F555.3. Very long hair. Child V 482 s. v. "hair"; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F555.3.0.1. †F555.3.0.1. Hair recedes into head. Irish myth: Cross.

F555.3.1. †F555.3.1. Nude woman clothed in own hair (Godiva). *Fb "hår" I 771b; Type 710; *BP I 21; England: Baughman.

F555.3.1.1. †F555.3.1.1. Girl's hair spreads on ground so that it hides her. India: Thompson-Balys.

F555.3.2. †F555.3.2. Holy man's hair of enormous length, so long has he remained praying at one spot. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F555.3.3. †F555.3.3. Hair so long that girl can cover herself with it. Icelandic: Gunnlaugs saga Ormstunga ch. V 13, ed. Altnord, Text bibl. 1908, Boberg.

F555.3.4. †F555.3.4. Rapid growth of hair as protection against being seen nude. *Loomis White Magic 95f.

F555.4. †F555.4. Very thick hair. Irish myth: Cross.

F555.5. †F555.5. Multi-colored hair. Irish myth: *Cross.

F555.5.1. †F555.5.1. Person with three heads of hair. (Cf. †A526.4.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F555.6. †F555.6. Man has drop of blood on end of each hair. Irish myth: *Cross.

F555.7. †F555.7. Poisonous white hair in eyebrow that causes death to the first person who sees it each day. Irish myth: *Cross.

F555.8. †F555.8. Hair so stiff that apples falling on it would be impaled. Irish myth: *Cross.

F555.8.1. †F555.8.1. Hair above heart so stiff it rends five garments. Jewish: Neuman.

F555.9. †F555.9. Hair so curly that nuts falling on it would be held. Irish myth: *Cross.

F555.10. †F555.10. Hair emits sound. Jewish: Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 75.

F556. †F556. Remarkable voice. (Cf. †X937).

F556.1. †F556.1. Voice made rough by swallowing hot iron. Africa (Kaffir): Theal 119, (Basuto): Jacottet 64 No. 10.

F556.1.1. †F556.1.1. Voice made smooth by swallowing hot iron. Africa (Bechuana): Arbousset et Daumas Voyage d'exploration au Nord-Est de la Colonie du Cap de Bonne-Espérence (Paris, 1842) 119f., Fraser FLJ VII 167f., (Basuto): Jacottet I 62f. No. 10.

F556.1.2. †F556.1.2. Voice made smooth by having ant bite tongue. Africa (Mwimbe): Browne The Vanishing Tribes of Kenya (London, 1925) 211ff.

F556.2. †F556.2. Voice changed by work of silversmith (goldsmith). Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 242 No. 17; N. Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris 236 No. 40.

F556.3. †F556.3. Voice changed by medicine. Africa (Hausa): Rattray II 14ff. No. 23, (Madagascar): Renel I 247ff. No. 46.

F556.4. †F556.4. Saint's voice heard from considerable distance. *Loomis White Magic 53; Irish myth: Cross.

F557. †F557. Removable organs. India: Thompson-Balys; Ibo (Nigeria): Basden 140 (nose, feet, hands, face).

F557.1. †F557.1. Removable brain. Saint's brain kept in a missile ball. Irish: Plummer xxxiv.

F558. †F558. Man covered with horn. Irish myth: *Cross; Norse: Panzer Sigfrid 66.

F558.1. †F558.1. Double-skinned tribe. India: Thompson-Balys.

F559. †F559. Remarkable physical organs -- miscellaneous.

F559.1. †F559.1. Person with jointless bodies of bone. Irish myth: Cross.

F559.2. †F559.2. Long navel. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F559.3. †F559.3. Extraordinary excrement. India: Thompson-Balys.

F559.3.1. †F559.3.1. Excreta is so fiery it starts great fires. India: Thompson-Balys.

F559.4. †F559.4. Remarkable skull.

F559.4.1. †F559.4.1. Skull has words miraculously written on it. Jewish: Neuman.

F559.5. †F559.5. Remarkable neck.

F559.5.1. †F559.5.1. Neck as hard as ivory. Jewish: Neuman.

F559.6. †F559.6. Extraordinary stomach.

F559.6.1. †F559.6.1. Stomach attains immense proportions by overeating. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 155.

F559.7. †F559.7. Remarkable heart. Irish myth: Cross.

F559.7.1. †F559.7.1. Person with three hearts. Irish myth: *Cross.

F559.7.2. †F559.7.2. Adder grows in heart of man. Irish myth: *Cross.

F559.8. †F559.8. Extraordinary urine.

F559.8.1. †F559.8.1. Person's urine melts rocks. Irish myth: Cross.

F560. †F560. Unusual manner of life. Irish myth: Cross.

F561. †F561. People of unusual diet. Icelandic: Boberg.

F561.1. †F561.1. People who prefer raw flesh. Maori: Dixon 78 n. 77.

F561.2. †F561.2. Ichthyophages. People who live on fish. *Chauvin VII 86 No. 373bis n. 4; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: Boberg.

F561.3. †F561.3. People who live on coconuts. Chauvin VII 22 No. 373 E n. 2.

F561.4. †F561.4. Person lives by smoking tobacco. Never eats. N. Am. Indian: Kroeber JAFL XXI 223.

F561.5. †F561.5. Girl eats only kola nuts and tobacco. Africa (Angola): Chatelain 33 No. 1.

F561.6. †F561.6. Woman fed by bees' dropping honey into her mouth (lie). India: Thompson-Balys.

F561.7. †F561.7. Boy drinks perspiration. Irish myth: Cross.

F561.8. †F561.8. Iron-eating tribe. India: Thompson-Balys.

F562. †F562. People of unusual residence. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F562.1. †F562.1. Boy lives on ox. Never walks on ground. Missouri French: Carrière; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 221.

F562.2. †F562.2. Residence in a tree. Type 710, Grimm No. 3; Missouri French: Carrière; Hindu: Tawney I 121, 381, 531, 552, II 79, 162.

F562.3. †F562.3. Residence in (under) water. Irish myth: *Cross.

F562.4. †F562.4. Girl lives in fruit and comes out only to be bathed by her twenty sisters. India: Thompson-Balys.

F562.5. †F562.5. Boy lives in ant-hill. India: Thompson-Balys.

F564. †F564. Person never sleeps.

F564.1. †F564.1. Person of diabolical origin never sleeps. *Krappe Mod. Lang. Review XXIV (1929) 200ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F564.2. †F564.2. Semi-supernatural person sleeps little. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

F564.3. †F564.3. Person does not sleep for many months (years). Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

F564.3.1. †F564.3.1. Long sleep, long waking. (Six months sleep followed by six months waking, or the like.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

F564.3.2. †F564.3.2. Person sleeps for three days and nights. Irish myth: Cross.

F564.3.3. †F564.3.3. King sleeps for six days and acquires after that magic wisdom. Icelandic: Hjálmpérs saga ok Ölvis 505, Boberg.

F564.3.4. †F564.3.4. Person sleeps for nine months. Irish myth: Cross.

F564.3.5. †F564.3.5. Spirit woman sleeps through whole year; eats through the next. India: Thompson-Balys.

F564.3.6. †F564.3.6. Twelve years' sleep customary to demons. India: Thompson-Balys.

F564.4. †F564.4. Man sleeps with one eye and one ear open. India: Thompson-Balys.

F565. †F565. Women warriors or hunters.

F565.1. †F565.1. Amazons. Women warriors. **Klein Die Antiken Amazonensagen in der deutschen Literatur (Leipzig, 1919); *Chauvin VIII 55 No. 22; *Gaster Exempla 186f. No. 5A. --Irish myth: *Cross; MacCulloch Celtic 144; English: Wells 105 (The Prose Alexander) Malory Morte Darthur X 39; Icelandic: Olrik Sakses Oldhistorie I (1892) 52ff., *Boberg; Greek: Fox 85, *Frazer Apollodorus I 98 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys, Tawney II 589 n.; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 411 s. v. "Amazonen"; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 68; N. Am. Indian: Hatt Asiatic Influences 70ff.; S. Am. Indian: *Chamberlain JAFL XXIV 16, Alexander Lat. Am. 19 n. 5, 281f., (Tropical Forests): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 55.

F565.1.1. †F565.1.1. Amazons cut off left breast of daughters so that they can handle bow. Greek: Fox 85.

F565.1.2. †F565.1.2. All male children killed by Amazons. Greek: Fox 85; S. Am. Indian (Aspinayé, Carajá, Taulipang, Tupinamba): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 516.

F565.1.3. †F565.1.3. Queen takes husband's place in battle. India: Thompson-Balys.

F565.2. †F565.2. Remarkably strong women. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F565.3. †F565.3. Parliament of women. Irish myth: Cross.

F565.4. †F565.4. Women hunters. English: Malory Morte Darthur XVIII 21.

F566. †F566. Celibate peoples.

F566.1. †F566.1. Village of men only. N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Teit MAFLS XI 53 No. 34.

F566.1.1. †F566.1.1. Country which no woman may enter. Africa (Swahili): Stignand 97ff. No. 15.

F566.2. †F566.2. Land where women live separate from men. Cohabit with water monsters. Irish myth: Cross; S. Am. Indian (Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 286.

F567. †F567. Wild man. Man lives alone in wood like a beast. Type 502; *Dickson 113ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Fang): Trilles Proverbs 199.

F567.1. †F567.1. Wild woman. (Similar to wild man.) Type 314; **Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 968ff.; U.S.: *Baughman.

F568. †F568. Naked tribe. Sun, cold, wind, rain do not harm them. Irish myth: Cross.

F568.1. †F568.1. Naked men (boy). Irish myth: *Cross.

F569. †F569. Unusual manner of life -- miscellaneous.

F569.1. †F569.1. Woman lays eggs and hatches them. India: Thompson-Balys.

F569.2. †F569.2. Men menstruate. India: Thompson-Balys.

F569.3. †F569.3. Silent person.

F569.3.1. †F569.3.1. Silent princess. India: Thompson-Balys.

F570. †F570. Other extraordinary human beings.

F571. †F571. Extremely old person. Irish myth: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 28, Beal XXI 309; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 206f.

F571.1. †F571.1. Old man with hanging eyelids. So old that the eyelids hang down to his chin and must be lifted up. *Fb "öje" III 1167a; *BP II 398 n. 2, IV 148; Welsh, Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 187; N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 213 No. 41.

F571.2. †F571.2. Sending to the older. Old person refers inquirer to his father, who refers to his father, and so on for several generations. *Type 726; *Baum JAFL XXX 379 n. 2; *Wesselski Archiv Orientální IV 1ff.; Irish myth: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 74, Beal XXI 326.

F571.2.1. †F571.2.1. Sending to the older uncle. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

F571.3. †F571.3. Very old woman. Irish myth: *Cross.

F571.3.1. †F571.3.1. Woman so old her chin reaches her knee. Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 8.

F571.4. †F571.4. Man so old he sleeps in cradle. Scotch: Campbell-McKay Nos. 1, 2.

F571.5. †F571.5. King so old that he only can take food from a horn. Icelandic: Flateyjarbók I 26, Boberg.

F571.6. †F571.6. King so old that he cannot get on horseback without help. Icelandic: Boberg.

F571.7. †F571.7. Person hundreds of years old. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 587, *Boberg.

F571.8. †F571.8. Man lives for nine generations. Irish myth: Cross.

F572. †F572. Dancers upon whom icicles hang. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 No. 97.

F573. †F573. Negro so black that he makes whole garden somber. Malone PMLA XLIII 401.

F574. †F574. Luminous person. Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer II 43 n. 2, VI 1 n. 1.

F574.1. †F574.1. Resplendent beauty. Woman's face lights up the dark. *Fb "prins og prinsesse"; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys, *Penzer VI 1 n. 1, II 43 n. 2, VII 189 n. 2; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1339; Koryak: *Jochelson JE VI 363; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 35 n. 1, 62, 68, 106, 154.

F574.1.1. †F574.1.1. Woman's beauty burns onlooker. N. Am. Indian (Chuckchee): Bogoras AA n.s. IV 666.

F574.1.2. †F574.1.2. Woman's beauty shows through seven veils. Köhler to Gonzenbach No. 13; *Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 63.

F574.1.3. †F574.1.3. Men killed by look of beautiful princess. India: Thompson-Balys.

F574.1.4. †F574.1.4. Man's beauty eclipses splendor of sun. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

F574.2. †F574.2. Man with luminous arms. Jewish: Gaster Exempla 227 No. 223, Neuman.

F574.3. †F574.3. Holy man (hero) emits light.

F574.3.1. †F574.3.1. Face of saint radiant. Irish myth: *Cross.

F574.3.2. †F574.3.2. Holy man radiant. Jewish: *Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 802, 1015 (Buddha), I 427, 852, II 695 (ascetic).

F574.3.3. †F574.3.3. Hero luminous. Cook Islands: Beckwith Myth 247.

F575. †F575. Remarkable beauty. (Cf. †F574.1.) Jewish: *Neuman.

F575.1. †F575.1. Remarkably beautiful woman. Greek: Grote I 279 f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 349, 762.

F575.1.1. †F575.1.1. Birth of daughter so beautiful mother is frightened and abandons her. India: Thompson-Balys.

F575.1.2. †F575.1.2. Old woman beautiful as in youth. Jewish: Neuman.

F575.1.3. †F575.1.3. Woman so beautiful sea is calm for her. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 307.

F575.2. †F575.2. Handsome man. Jewish: Neuman.

F575.2.1. †F575.2.1. Supernatural beauty of men in Messianic era. (Cf. †A1095.) Jewish: *Neuman.

F575.2.2. †F575.2.2. Supernatural beauty of Jerusalem's inhabitants. Jewish: *Neuman.

F575.3. †F575.3. Remarkably beautiful child. Jewish: Neuman.

F576. †F576. Extraordinary ugliness. (Cf. †A2402.) Jewish: Neuman.

F577. †F577. Persons identical in appearance. (Cf. †F1072.) Jewish: *Neuman.

F577.1. †F577.1. Friends identical in appearance. Irish myth: Cross; Cape Verde Islands. Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 212 No. 73.

F577.2. †F577.2. Brothers identical in appearance. *Type 303; BP I 528; *Ranke FFC CXIV 286.

F577.3. †F577.3. King and fool identical in appearance. Irish myth: Cross.

F577.4. †F577.4. Lovers identical in appearance. Irish myth: Cross.

F577.5. †F577.5. All people in certain place identical in appearance. India: Thompson-Balys.

F582. †F582. Poison damsel. Woman nourished on poison is fatal to her husbands. Sometimes the poisoning is from fatal look or breath, sometimes from intercourse. *Penzer X 265 s. v. "Poison Damsel"; **Penzer Poison Damsels 3ff.; Herbert III 211; *Oesterley No. 11; **Hertz Abhandlungen 156ff.; Krappe Mitt. d. schles. Gesell. f. Volkskunde XXVIII (1927) 131ff.; *bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 360f.

F582.1. †F582.1. Serpent damsel. Woman has serpent inside which comes out and kills her bridegrooms. *Type 507C; BP III 490ff., 494; *Liljeblad Tobiasgeschichte 259 s. v. "Schlangenmädchen"; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F582.2. †F582.2. Man spews venom. Icelandic: FSS 119, *Boberg.

F582.3. †F582.3. Venomous man. Irish myth: Cross.

F583. †F583. Hero has lain motionless since birth. Koryak, Mongol Turk, Russian: Jochelson JE VI 363.

F584. †F584. Person remarkably light in weight.

F584.1. †F584.1. Princess' weight that of five flowers. India: Thompson-Balys.

F585. †F585. Phantoms. Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 61 No. 445B.

F585.0.1. †F585.0.1. Fairy (god) as phantom. Irish myth: *Cross.

F585.1. †F585.1. Fatal enticements of phantom women. Chauvin V 34 No. 16.

F585.2. †F585.2. Magic phantom army. Created out of puffballs and withered leaves. Irish myth: *Cross.

F585.3. †F585.3. Phantom women cause weakness. Irish myth: Cross.

F585.4. †F585.4. Treasure struck from hand of phantom. Irish myth: Cross.

F591. †F591. Person who never laughs. Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 347, 1288.

F591.1. †F591.1. Prince who never laughs. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "rire".

F591.2. †F591.2. Sad-faced princess cannot laugh. *BP IV 189 n. 2; Italian: Basile Pentamerone Introduction.

F592. †F592. Man's ferocious glance kills (causes swooning). Irish myth: Cross.

F593. †F593. Person's extraordinary body temperature. (Cf. †F546.5).

F593.1. †F593.1. Extraordinary heat of body melts snow far around person. Irish myth: Cross.

F594. †F594. Man whose entrails are visible when he laughs. Irish myth: *Cross.

F595. †F595. Man's body exudes sweet scent. Jewish: Neuman.

F596. †F596. Extraordinarily slow person. Icelandic: Boberg.

F597. †F597. Woman without womb. Jewish: Neuman.

F598. †F598. Old woman gives miraculous amount of milk. Jewish: Neuman.

†F600-†F699. Persons with extraordinary powers.

F600. †F600. Persons with extraordinary powers.

F601. †F601. Extraordinary companions. A group of men with extraordinary powers travel together. *Types 301B, 513, 514, 571; *BP II 79, 95; *Benfey *Kleinere Schriften III 94; *Köhler-Bolte I 601 s. v. "Gefährten"; *Cosquin Contes indiens 431ff.; *Kittredge Arthur and Garlagon 226 n. 3; Jacobs's list s. v. "Extraordinary Companions"; Alphabet No. 693; *Chauvin VII 125 No. 392. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5, Rotunda; Buriat: Holmberg Siberian 428; Koryak, Mongol-Turk: Jochelson JE VI 363; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries Nederlandsche Tijdschrift voor Volkskunde (1924) 97ff.; Korean: Zong in-Sob 163f.; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 27, 114, 128, 433; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 334ff., 345ff.

F601.0.1. †F601.0.1. Skillful companions. Irish myth: *Cross.

F601.1. †F601.1. Extraordinary companions perform hero's tasks. *Types 513, 514; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 163ff.; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 345ff.

F601.2. †F601.2. Extraordinary companions help hero in suitor tests. *Types 513, 514; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 345ff.; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 74ff. No. 16.

F601.3. †F601.3. Extraordinary companions betray hero. *Type 301; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 334ff.

F601.4. †F601.4. Extraordinary companions rescue hero. *Type 514.

F601.4.1. †F601.4.1. Extraordinary companion hides behind hero to trick enemy. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 143.

F601.4.2. †F601.4.2. Extraordinary companion saves hero from death. Korean: Zong in-Sob 164.

F601.5. †F601.5. Extraordinary companions are brothers (twins, triplets). *Cosquin Contes indiens 447ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F601.6. †F601.6. Extraordinary companions are transformed animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

F601.7. †F601.7. Animals as extraordinary companions. Type 715; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 74ff. No. 16.

F610. †F610. Remarkably strong man. (Strong John). (Cf. †X940, †X959.1.) *Panzer Beowulf; *Types 301, 650*, 650**, 650, 1003--1013; *BP II 285ff., 300ff.; *Fb "styrke", "stærk", "Svend Felding". --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 86, 153 (Heimdall), *Boberg; French: Cosquin Lorraine Nos. 14, 46, 52, 69 and notes; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 8; Greek: Fox 75 (Herakles), Frazer Apollodorus I 259 n. 3; Jewish: Frazer Old Testament II 480ff. (Samson), *Neuman; Armenian: Ananikian 86; Hindu: Keith 172; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: *De Vries Nederlandsch Tijdschrift v. Volkskunde XXX 97ff.; Chinese: Graham; Buriat: Holmberg Siberian 428; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 334ff. incident A 2; West Indies: Flowers 435.

F610.0.1. †F610.0.1. Remarkably strong woman. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 551, 902; Africa (Upoto): Einstein 128.

F610.0.1.1. †F610.0.1.1. Remarkably strong women defeats man in arrow and spear contest. India: Thompson-Balys.

F610.1. †F610.1. Wild man of superhuman strength. *Dickson 114 n. 37; Missouri French: Carrière.

F610.2. †F610.2. Dwarf-hero of superhuman strength. Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 24; Missouri-French: Carrière.

F610.3. †F610.3. Warrior of special strength (Berserk). (Cf. †F1041.8.6.) Hdwb. d. March. I "Bärenhäuter"; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.3.1. †F610.3.1. Invulnerable berserk. (Cf. †D1840.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.3.2. †F610.3.2. Black berserk. (Cf. †F527.5.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.3.3. †F610.3.3. Twelve berserks. (Cf. †F610.3.4.1.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.3.3.1. †F610.3.3.1. Two berserk-brothers. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.3.4. †F610.3.4. Fighting with berserks. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.3.4.1. †F610.3.4.1. Fighting with twelve berserks. (Cf. †F610.3.3.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.3.4.2. †F610.3.4.2. Single combat with berserk. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.3.4.2.1. †F610.3.4.2.1. Berserk killed in combat about maiden. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.3.5. †F610.3.5. Competition with berserks in their particular sports: walk through fire, etc. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.4. †F610.4. Man with strength of many men. Jewish: Neuman.

F610.4.1. †F610.4.1. Man with four men's strength. Icelandic: Boberg.

F610.4.2. †F610.4.2. Man with twelve men's strength. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.4.3. †F610.4.3. Man with seventy men's strength. Jewish: Neuman.

F610.5. †F610.5. Man with strength of animals.

F610.5.1. †F610.5.1. Man with strength of lion. Jewish: Neuman.

F610.5.2. †F610.5.2. Man with strength of ten elephants. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 31, 580.

F610.6. †F610.6. Man so strong that he breaks most of what he gets in touch with. (Cf. †F614.3-†F614.6.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.6.1. †F610.6.1. Man so strong that he must be chained except when in battle. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.7. †F610.7. Strong man is so heavy that no horse can carry him all day. (Cf. †F681.8.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

F610.8. †F610.8. Strong man so heavy that only his own horse can carry him. Icelandic: Þiðriks saga II 380, Boberg.

F610.9. †F610.9. Strong man accomplishes superhuman tasks when God's spirit is over him. Jewish: Neuman.

F611. †F611. Strong man's birth and rearing.

F611.1. †F611.1. Strong man's birth. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 703*.

F611.1.1. †F611.1.1. Strong man son of bear who has stolen his mother. *Types 301, 650; *Panzer Beowulf 16ff.; *Dickson 117 n. 48; *BP II 293, 300; Hdwb. d. Märch. s. v. "Bärensohn"; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 334ff.

F611.1.2. †F611.1.2. Strong man son of woman and dwarf. Type 301; BP II 300; Dickson 117 n. 48.

F611.1.2.1. †F611.1.2.1. Strong man son of woman and forest spirit. Africa (Fang): Einstein 70ff., Trilles 190ff. No. 11.

F611.1.3. †F611.1.3. Wild man son of woman and satyr who overpowers her. Dickson 124 n. 76.

F611.1.4. †F611.1.4. Wild man son of woman and robber. She is overpowered in forest. Dickson 117 n. 48.

F611.1.5. †F611.1.5. Strong man son of man and she-bear. Type 301; BP II 300; Dickson 117 n. 48.

F611.1.6. †F611.1.6. Strong man son of man and mare. Type 301; BP II 300; Dickson 117 n. 48.

F611.1.6.1. †F611.1.6.1. Strong man accused of being son of man and mare. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F611.1.7. †F611.1.7. Strong man son of person and giant. Fb. "styrke".

F611.1.8. †F611.1.8. Strong hero engendered by eating of fruit. BP II 300.

F611.1.9. †F611.1.9. Strong hero engendered by the wind. BP II 300.

F611.1.10. †F611.1.10. Strong hero engendered from burning brand. BP II 301.

F611.1.11. †F611.1.11. Strong hero born from egg. *Type 650; Christiansen 92.

F611.1.11.1. †F611.1.11.1. Strong hero born from noodle. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F611.1.12. †F611.1.12. Strong hero struck by smith from iron. Type 650; Christiansen 92.

F611.1.13. †F611.1.13. Strong hero son of man and troll-woman. Relations take place in dream. Type 650; Christiansen 92.

F611.1.14. †F611.1.14. Strong hero son of woman of sea. Type 650.

F611.1.15. †F611.1.15. Strong hero son of wood-spirit. Type 650.

F611.2. †F611.2. Strong hero's suckling.

F611.2.0.1. †F611.2.0.1. Hero's unusual strength from drinking his own mother's milk. India: Thompson-Balys.

F611.2.1. †F611.2.1. Strong hero suckled by animal. Type 301; BP II 293, 300; Dickson 117 n. 48.

F611.2.2. †F611.2.2. Strong hero suckled by mermaid. Gives him strength of twelve men. *Fb "havfrue" I 569.

F611.2.3. †F611.2.3. Strong hero's long nursing. *Type 650; *BP II 293; Panzer Beowulf 20f.

F611.2.4. †F611.2.4. Strong hero suckled by seven women. India: Thompson-Balys.

F611.2.5. †F611.2.5. Strong hero suckled by giant. German: Grimm No. 90.

F611.3. †F611.3. Strong hero acquires his strength. (Cf. †F611.2.2.)

F611.3.0.1. †F611.3.0.1. Extraordinary strength from fasting for 12 years and eating nothing except earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

F611.3.1. †F611.3.1. Strong hero practices uprooting trees. (Cf. †F621.) Type 650; BP Il 287; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 92; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 435.

F611.3.2. †F611.3.2. Hero's precocious strength. Has full strength when very young. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 69, Snorra Edda Prol. III, *Boberg; Norwegian: Christiansen 92, India: *Thompson-Balys; Lau Islands: Beckwith Myth 483; Marquesas: Handy 105.

F611.3.2.1. †F611.3.2.1. Strong hero drives huge log into frozen ground. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 237.

F611.3.2.2. †F611.3.2.2. Baby tied to a mill-stone by strap so he would not wander about; drags stone after him. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 31.

F611.3.2.3. †F611.3.2.3. Precocious hero crushes iron wall with fists. India: Thompson-Balys.

F611.3.2.4. †F611.3.2.4. Precocious hero jumps across river. (Cf. †F614.11.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F611.3.2.5. †F611.3.2.5. Small child beats giant challenger. India: Thompson-Balys.

F611.3.2.6. †F611.3.2.6. Twelve year old hero captures town of father's enemy. India: Thompson-Balys.

F611.3.3. †F611.3.3. Strong hero tests weapons. Breaks first swords. *Von Sydow Fâvne 22ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo III 305, *Boberg.

F611.3.3.0.1. †F611.3.3.0.1. Precocious strong hero demands bows and arrows. (Cf. †F611.3.3.) Type 650.

F611.3.3.1. †F611.3.3.1. Hero tests sword by cutting steer in two. Chinese: Graham.

F611.3.3.2. †F611.3.3.2. Strong hero tests scythes: they break all. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F611.4. †F611.4. Precocious son saves kingdom. India: Thompson-Balys.

F612. †F612. Strong hero sent from home. Irish myth: *Cross.

F612.1. †F612.1. Strong hero sent from home because of enormous appetite. *Type 650; BP II 293; Christiansen Norske Eventyr 92; *Fb "spise" III 495b, "æde" III 1140a; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "appétit"; Indonesian: De Vries Nederlandsche Tijdschrift voor Volkskunde XXX (1926) 97ff.; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 24.

F612.2. †F612.2. Strong hero kills (overcomes) playmates: sent from home. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; French: Cosquin Lorraine No. 52; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson CColl II 334ff.

F612.3. †F612.3. Hero leaves home with giant equipment.

F612.3.1. †F612.3.1. Giant cane for strong man. Cane holds fifty cattle. *Type 650; *Cosquin Contes indiens 482ff.; *Fb "jærn" IV 249a; French: Cosquin Lorraine No. 52; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bâton"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXX 86; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 436.

F612.3.2. †F612.3.2. Strong man with giant hammer and shield. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

F613. †F613. Strong man makes labor contract. *Type 650; Irish myth: *Cross.

F613.1. †F613.1. Strong man's labor contract: blow at end of year. Blow sends his master to sky. *Type 650; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *762.

F613.2. †F613.2. Strong man's labor contract: all grain he can carry. *Type 650; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 505--511, 520f., 523f.

F613.2.1. †F613.2.1. Labor contract: as much money as my companion (strong man) can carry. Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 8.

F613.3. †F613.3. Strong man's labor contract: anger bargain. First to become angry shall receive blow. *Type 650, 1000; BP II 293.

F613.4. †F613.4. Strong man serves ogre as punishment for stealing food. *Type 650.

F614. †F614. Strong man's labors. Irish myth: Cross.

F614.1. †F614.1. Strong man drives anvil into ground. *Type 650; BP II 293; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F614.2. †F614.2. Strong man uproots tree and uses it as weapon. *Type 650; Dickson 179 n. 47; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F614.2.1. †F614.2.1. Strong man uses pillar-stone as weapon. Irish myth: *Cross.

F614.2.2. †F614.2.2. Strong man uses rafter as weapon. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F614.2.3. †F614.2.3. Strong man buries axe in tree stump and removes it with his little finger. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F614.3. †F614.3. Strong man as gardener: destroys plants. *Type 650; Finnish: Kalevala rune 31 (woods); Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 77 No. 650.

F614.4. †F614.4. Strong man as rower; breaks boat. Finnish: Kalevala rune 35.

F614.4.1. †F614.4.1. Strong man as rower: rows one side of boat against many at other. Irish myth: Cross.

F614.5. †F614.5. Strong man as fisherman: destroys fish and nets. Finnish: Kalevala rune 35; Icelandic: *Boberg.

F614.6. †F614.6. Strong man throws trees on roof and breaks it. *Type 650; Chinese: Graham.

F614.6.1. †F614.6.1. Strong man throws man back and breaks his bones (legs). Icelandic: *Boberg.

F614.7. †F614.7. Strong man uses stable-roof as flail. Type 1031; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 21.

F614.8. †F614.8. Strong man fells tree with one blow of axe. India: Thompson-Balys.

F614.9. †F614.9. Strong man clears plain. Irish myth: *Cross.

F614.10. †F614.10. Strong hero fights whole army alone. India: Thompson-Balys.

F614.11. †F614.11. Strong man jumps across rivers. (Cf. †F611.3.2.4.) India: Thompson-Balys.

F614.12. †F614.12. Youth crushes coins to powder with fingers. India: Thompson-Balys.

F615. †F615. Strong man evades death. Vain attempts to kill him. *Type 590, 650. --Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 143, *Cross; Hindu: Keith 173 (Krishna); Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 24; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 391.

F615.0.1. †F615.0.1. Death of strong man. Irish myth: *Cross.

F615.1. †F615.1. Strong man sent to devil's mill: drives devils to master's house. *Type 650.

F615.2. †F615.2. Strong hero sent for wild animals. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

F615.2.1. †F615.2.1. Strong man sent to milk lions: brings lions back with him. *Type 590.

F615.2.2. †F615.2.2. Strong man sent to kill lions: does so and frightens king. Greek: Fox 80 (Herakles).

F615.2.3. †F615.2.3. Strong man sent for wild horses: brings them back. *Type 650.

F615.2.4. †F615.2.4. Strong man sent for bears: bring them back home. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F615.2.5. †F615.2.5. Strong man sent for wolves: brings them back home. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F615.3. †F615.3. Strong hero overawes master. *Type 1145--1165 passim; Missouri French: Carrière.

F615.3.1. †F615.3.1. Strong hero attacked with millstone puts it on as collar. Sent to dig a well. Master throws the millstone on him. *Type 650; Fb "kilde" II 119a, "møllesten" II 650b; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 21; India: Thompson-Balys; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 112 No. 39.

F615.3.1.1. †F615.3.1.1. Strong hero asks that chickens stop scratching. When his master throws millstone on him he complains that chickens are scratching dirt on him. *Type 650; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 435f.

F615.3.1.2. †F615.3.1.2. Camels having fallen from sky into girl's eyes; she tells her mother that some grains of sand have fallen down from sky. India: Thompson-Balys.

F615.4. †F615.4. Spear bends as it strikes hero on chest and he survives ordeal. India: Thompson-Balys.

F616. †F616. Mighty pugilist. Greek: Grote I 156.

F617. †F617. Mighty wrestler. Africa (Bulu): Krug 106.

F617.1. †F617.1. Extraordinary strength; elephant-wrestler. India: Thompson-Balys.

F618. †F618. Strong man tames animals.

F618.1. †F618.1. Strong hero tames ungovernable horse. India: Thompson-Balys.

F621. †F621. Strong man: tree-puller. Can uproot and carry off trees. (Cf. †F611.3.1, †F614.2.) *Type 513; BP II 79ff.; *Fb "træ" III 867b. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "arbres"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 21; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 295 No. 13; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Dixon 90, Beckwith Myth 421; Samoa: Ibid. 254; Tonga: Gifford 127; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 3/1323).

F621.1. †F621.1. Trees pulled up by animals. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "arbres"

F621.2. †F621.2. Trees pulled up by giant. Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "arbres"; Westphalian: Zaunert Westfälische 7, 8, 11; India: Thompson-Balys.

F621.2.1. †F621.2.1. Trees pulled up and thrust into the ground upside down by Antichrist, a giant. Irish myth: Cross.

F621.2.2. †F621.2.2. Giant polishes teeth with uprooted tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

F621.3. †F621.3. Tree as strong man's umbrella. India: Thompson-Balys.

F622. †F622. Mighty blower. Man turns mill with his blowing. (Cf. †X935.) *Type 513; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 432a n. 55. --Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 8, Rotunda; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "souffle", "moulin."

F622.1. †F622.1. Mighty blower slows down princess with his breath. Causes her to lose race. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

F622.2. †F622.2. Mighty blower blows firebrand so that sparks fly far, blows seawaves back and forth. Irish myth: *Cross.

F623. †F623. Strong man holds up mountain. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "montagne", "appuiemontagne"; Jewish: Neuman.

F624. †F624. Mighty lifter. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Flateyjarbok I 523--24, MacCulloch Eddic 82, 93, Snorra Edda Prol. III, *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

F624.0.1. †F624.0.1. Saint as mighty lifter. (Cf. †V220.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F624.1. †F624.1. Strong man lifts horse (ox, ass). Fb "stærk"; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 250; Gaster Exempla 203 No. 92; Greek: Fox 100 (Theseus); Jewish: Neuman.

F624.1.1. †F624.1.1. Strong man throws elephant across sea. India: Thompson-Balys.

F624.1.2. †F624.1.2. Strong man throws walrus. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 178.

F624.1.3. †F624.1.3. Strong man throws leopard. Jewish: *Neuman.

F624.2. †F624.2. Strong man lifts large stone. Irish myth: Cross (†F624.7); Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

F624.2.0.1. †F624.2.0.1. Strong man throws enormous stone. Greek: Odyssey XIII 184, IX 482, X 120, Iliad XII 381.

F624.2.0.1.1. †F624.2.0.1.1. Strong man throws mountain. (Cf. †F623, †F626.) Jewish: *Neuman.

F624.2.0.2. †F624.2.0.2. Strong man moves enormous rock. Marquesas: Handy 105.

F624.2.1. †F624.2.1. Strong man lifts millstone. Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "arracheur."

F624.2.2. †F624.2.2. Strong man lifts large stone with one hand. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F624.3. †F624.3. Strong hero lifts cart. Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "charrette."

F624.3.1. †F624.3.1. Strong man throws carriage with horses and driver on top of haystack and breaks the driver's ribs. Icelandic: Boberg.

F624.4. †F624.4. Strong man lifts plow. Fb "stærk"; German: Grimm No. 90.

F624.5. †F624.5. Strong man lifts ton of rye. Fb "stærk."

F624.6. †F624.6. Strong hero lifts house. Irish myth: *Cross.

F624.7. †F624.7. Strong man carries boat (ship). Tonga: Gifford 127; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/403).

F624.8. †F624.8. Strong man throws opponent into the air. Icelandic: *Boberg; Tonga: Gifford 122.

F624.9. †F624.9. Little girl moves enormous bow which nobody could ever carry before. India: Thompson-Balys.

F624.10. †F624.10. Strong man carries bellows. Chinese: Graham.

F625. †F625. Strong man: breaker of iron. (Cf. †X946.) *Fb "stærk" (bends horseshoe); Icelandic: Flateyjarbók I 524, Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "Brise-Fer"; India: Thompson-Balys.

F625.1. †F625.1. Hero drives spear through seven iron plates. India: Thompson-Balys.

F626. †F626. Strong man pulls down mountains. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 21.

F626.1. †F626.1. Strong man flattens hill (lops off hilltop). Irish myth: *Cross.

F626.2. †F626.2. Strong man kicks mountain down. Marquesas: Handy 105.

F627. †F627. Strong man pulls down building. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Judges 16: 30 (Samson), *Neuman.

F628. †F628. Strong man as mighty slayer. (Cf. †F615.2.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F628.0.1. †F628.0.1. Precocious strong hero as mighty slayer. (Cf. †F611.3.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F628.1. †F628.1. Strong man kills animals with own hands. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

F628.1.0.1. †F628.1.0.1. Strong man slays monster. Tears heart out. Irish myth: *Cross.

F628.1.1. †F628.1.1. Strong man kills lion with own hands. English: Child V 487 s. v. "lion", Wells 151 (Richard Coer de Lyon); Hebrew: Judges 14: 6 (Samson); India: Thompson-Balys.

F628.1.1.1. †F628.1.1.1. Strong man kills tiger single-handed. India: Thompson-Balys.

F628.1.1.2. †F628.1.1.2. Strong man kills leopard. Africa (Upoto): Einstein 125f.

F628.1.1.3. †F628.1.1.3. Strong man kills jaguar. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 687.

F628.1.1.4. †F628.1.1.4. Strong man kills bear. Jewish: Neuman.

F628.1.1.5. †F628.1.1.5. Strong man kills wolves in sea. Irish myth: Cross.

F628.1.2. †F628.1.2. Man kills ox with flat of hand. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No 250.

F628.1.2.1. †F628.1.2.1. Man kills cow with flat of hand. Africa (Duala): Lederbogen Märchen 144.

F628.1.2.2. †F628.1.2.2. Man swings wild steer by horns round and round till it is stunned, casts it to ground. Jewish: Neuman.

F628.1.3. †F628.1.3. Strong man kills great serpent. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 116.

F628.1.3.1. †F628.1.3.1. Man kills serpents, toads, dragons with own hands. Irish myth: *Cross.

F628.1.3.2. †F628.1.3.2. Child tears to pieces a live snake with his bare hands. (Cf. †F611.3.2.) Greek: Fox 79 (Hercules); India: Thompson-Balys.

F628.1.4. †F628.1.4. Strong hero kills aquatic animal with own hands.

F628.1.4.1. †F628.1.4.1. Strong hero kills many crocodiles with own hands. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1365.

F628.1.4.2. †F628.1.4.2. Strong hero kills sharks with own hands. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 421.

F628.1.4.3. †F628.1.4.3. Strong hero kills walrus with own hands. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 263.

F628.1.5. †F628.1.5. Strong man kills giant dog. Tonga: Gifford 137.

F628.1.6. †F628.1.6. Strong hero fells two maddened elephants. India: Thompson-Balys.

F628.2. †F628.2. Strong man kills men. Dickson 180; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

F628.2.1. †F628.2.1. Strong man kills many men at once. *Boje 103; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: Judges 14: 19 (Samson), *Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 417, Rarotonga: ibid. 253; Africa (Upoto): Einstein 126.

F628.2.2. †F628.2.2. Strong man throws another from walls. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 238 n. 3.

F628.2.3. †F628.2.3. Strong man kills giant. Type 650* (Cf. †F639.4.) Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 38; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 686.

F628.2.4. †F628.2.4. Army of strong men. Irish myth: Cross.

F628.2.5. †F628.2.5. Strong man kills men with own hands. Irish myth: Cross.

F628.2.6. †F628.2.6. Strong man kills many with hammer. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F628.2.7. †F628.2.7. Strong man uses man as weapon. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F628.2.8. †F628.2.8. Strong man kills robber with a snap of his finger. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

F628.2.10. †F628.2.10. Strong man cleaves horse and rider in two with sword. India: Thompson-Balys.

F628.3. †F628.3. Strong man slays spectre. Irish myth: *Cross.

F628.4. †F628.4. Strong man's mighty spear-cast (sword blow). Irish myth: *Cross.

F628.4.1. †F628.4.1. Strong man plunges sword into stone. Irish myth: *Cross.

F628.5. †F628.5. Strong hero wields many weapons at once. Irish myth: *Cross.

F631. †F631. Strong man carries giant load. (Cf. †F531.3.10, †F624.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

F631.1. †F631.1. Strong man drags mill. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "moulin".

F631.2. †F631.2. Strong man carries off city gates. Jewish: Judges 16: 3, *Neuman.

F631.2.1. †F631.2.1. Strong man carries off door-frame and frame of smoke-hole. India: Thompson-Balys.

F631.3. †F631.3. Strong man swims carrying fifty (many) companions. Irish myth: *Cross.

F631.4. †F631.4. Strong man carries ox on the back. Icelandic: Boberg.

F631.5. †F631.5. Strong man carries heavy oxhide on the hand. Icelandic: Boberg.

F631.6. †F631.6. Strong man carries huge beam.

F631.6.1. †F631.6.1. Strong men knock on door with beam of twenty elbow-lengths. Icelandic: *Boberg.

F631.6.2. †F631.6.2. Man carries a beam eighteen feet in length and cuts path through jungle at same time. India: Thompson-Balys.

F632. †F632. Mighty eater. Eats whole ox at time, or the like. (Cf. †X931.) *Cosquin Contes indiens 427ff.; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 250. --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 88, 93, Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 419; Tonga: ibid. 271, Gifford 172f.; Marquesas: Handy 42; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/620); S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 142; Africa (Fang): Tessman 117, (Wute): Sieber 117.

F633. †F633. Mighty drinker. Drinks up whole pools of water, or the like. (Cf. †X932.) *Type 513; BP II 79ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Tonga: Gifford 159; Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 259; N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 345ff.; Africa (Ba Ronga): Einstein 246.

F634. †F634. Mighty fisherman. Palm tree as rod, elephant as bait. India: Thompson-Balys.

F634.1. †F634.1. Strong man bathing and diving in river catches thousands of fishes in his beard. (Cf. †X1112.) Jewish: Neuman.

F635. †F635. Remarkable spitter. Spits lake of soap. (Cf. †F934). Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5.

F636. †F636. Remarkable thrower. (Cf. †F531.3.2., †F624.0.1, †F624.3.1, †F624.8, †F628.2.2, †F628.4, †X943.) Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1172; Hawaii: Beckwith 421; Samoa: ibid. 254.

F636.1. †F636.1. Remarkable thrower of iron. Makes field full of scissors. Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5.

F636.2. †F636.2. Remarkable thrower of chips. Makes forest. Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5.

F636.3. †F636.3. Remarkable pourer of water. Makes a river. Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5.

F636.4. †F636.4. Remarkable stone-thrower. Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5; Jewish: *Neuman.

F636.4.1. †F636.4.1. Hero throws up a stone: before it falls, he drinks a full jar empty. India: Thompson-Balys.

F636.4.2. †F636.4.2. Strong man catches stones hurled from catapults by enemy and throws them back upon the besiegers. Jewish: *Neuman.

F636.4.3. †F636.4.3. Strong man's stone-throw carries away roof-timber. Irish myth: Cross.

F636.5. †F636.5. Hero catches a giant jug and pitches it about. India: Thompson-Balys.

F637. †F637. Strong man holds back ship. Alphabet No. 493. --Jewish: Neuman.

F638. †F638. Mighty archer. Buriat: Holmberg Siberian 428; India: *Thompson-Balys.

F638.1. †F638.1. Arrow shot thirty miles high. India: Thompson-Balys.

F638.2. †F638.2. Arrow shot down years after the shot. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F638.3. †F638.3. Man is waiting for bird to fall that he had shot eight days before. India: Thompson-Balys.

F638.4. †F638.4. Strong man shoots arrow as far as otherworld. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1004.

F639. †F639. Extraordinary powers -- miscellaneous.

F639.1. †F639.1. Mighty digger.

F639.1.1. †F639.1.1. Mighty digger of tunnels. Africa (Hausa): Equilbecq II 171ff.

F639.1.2. †F639.1.2. Strong man's finger digs into ground with such force that water gushes out. Jewish: Neuman.

F639.2. †F639.2. Mighty diver. Can stay extraordinary time under water. Africa (Ziba): Rehse Zs. f. Kolonialspr. III 366f. No. 30, (Madagascar): Renel I 102ff. No. 15, (Malinke): Frobenius Atlantis VIII 145ff. No. 81.

F639.3. †F639.3. Strong man's shield-cast annihilates fleeing enemy and chariot. Irish myth: *Cross.

F639.4. †F639.4. Strong man overcomes giant. (Cf. †F628.2.3.) Irish myth: *Cross.

F639.5. †F639.5. Strong man kicks through heavy door. Irish myth: Cross.

F639.6. †F639.6. Strong man tears boat apart with hands. Irish myth: Cross.

F639.7. †F639.7. Man presses out twelve measures of oil without the help of bullocks. India: Thompson-Balys.

F639.8. †F639.8. Palace shakes when strong man gets upon its roof. India: Thompson-Balys.

F639.9. †F639.9. Strong man crushes ribs of person he embraces. India: Thompson-Balys.

F639.10. †F639.10. Strong man's anger: bites brass rods in anger and spits them out as powder. Jewish: *Neuman.

F639.11. †F639.11. Strong man grinds huge rocks into powder. Jewish: Neuman.

F639.12. †F639.12. Nine hundred horses draw chariot in which strong man rides. Jewish: Neuman.

F640. †F640. Extraordinary powers of perception. Penzer VI 285; Icelandic: Boberg.

F641. †F641. Person of remarkable hearing. (Cf. †X936.) *Type 513; BP II 79ff. *95; Fb "jord" II 45a; Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "ouie"; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5, III No. 8; Buriat: Holmberg Siberian 428.

F641.1. †F641.1. Man can hear grass (wool) grow. *Type 513; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 432a n. 55; *BP II 95ff.; *Fb "høre" I 755b, IV 238b; --Icelandic: Boberg; Irish: Hyde Beside the Fire (London 1890) 23; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "avoine".

F641.2. †F641.2. Man can hear ant leave nest fifty miles away. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 190.

F641.3. †F641.3. Man can hear one sleeping by putting ear to ground. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

F642. †F642. Person of remarkable sight. (Cf. †X938.) *Type 653; BP II 95, III 45ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 439; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 432b. n. 54; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 190.

F642.1. †F642.1. Remarkable star-gazer. Sees birds in nest in distant tree. *Type 653; BP III 45, *57; Köhler-Bolte I 298f; India: Thompson-Balys.

F642.2. †F642.2. Person of remarkable sight finds tracks of swine stolen seven years before his birth. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 190.

F642.3. †F642.3. Person can see through opaque objects.

F642.3.1. †F642.3.1. Person of remarkable sight can see through hearts of trees. Greek: Fox 26 (Lynkeus).

F642.3.2. †F642.3.2. Remarkable sight of sage lets him see worm in loaf. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

F642.3.3. †F642.3.3. Blind man is able to see two unborn rats within mother rat. Korean: Zong in-Sob.

F642.4. †F642.4. Person sees equally well by night or day. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 154, Boberg; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 886.

F642.5. †F642.5. Man can see celestial nymphs dancing in divine world. India: Thompson-Balys.

F642.6. †F642.6. One-eyed barber sees thread of silk stretching to sea. India: Thompson-Balys.

F642.7. †F642.7. Person of remarkable sight can see the soul. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F642.8. †F642.8. Person sees enormous distance. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 154, Boberg; Greek: Grote I 158; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 493.

F645. †F645. Marvelously wise man.

F645.1. †F645.1. Wise man answers all questions. Africa (Hausa): Equilbecq II 171ff.

F645.2. †F645.2. Man knows exactly how many grains are in a measure. Jewish: Neuman.

F647. †F647. Marvelous sensitiveness. *Penzer VI 219, 288, VII 204ff.; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 265ff., *Boberg.

F647.1. †F647.1. Marvelous sensitiveness: meat (wine) tastes of corpse. Has been near grave. Italian novella: Rotunda (†J1661.1.8.); India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer VI 288; Jewish: Neuman; Korean: Zong in-Sob 102 No. 55.

F647.1.1. †F647.1.1. Extraordinary gustatory sense. Woman detects flavor of garlic in a sauce made in a mortar from which garlic has been removed. Spanish: Childers.

F647.2. †F647.2. Marvelous sensitiveness: suffering from merely seeing work done. *Penzer VII 204ff.

F647.3. †F647.3. Marvelous sensitiveness: injury from rose leaves falling. (Cf. †F647.9.) *Penzer VII 204ff.; BP III 238.

F647.4. †F647.4. Marvelous sensitiveness: women blush in presence of male statue. *Penzer VII 204ff.; BP III 238.

F647.4.1. †F647.4.1. Marvelous sensitiveness: woman refuses to look at male fish. *BP III 238.

F647.5. †F647.5. Marvelous sensitiveness: woman smells like a goat. She has been brought up on goat's milk. Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer VI 219.

F647.5.1. †F647.5.1. Marvelous sensitiveness: meat is dog's flesh. Animal has been suckled by a dog. *Type 655; *Gaster Exempla 195 No. 51; India: Thompson-Balys.

F647.5.2. †F647.5.2. Marvelous sensitiveness: food has been raised in particular kind of manure. India: Thompson-Balys.

F647.5.3. †F647.5.3. Marvelous sensitiveness: man recognizes milk of his stolen cows. India: Thompson-Balys.

F647.6. †F647.6. Marvelous sensitiveness: wine shows through woman's white throat. *Köhler-Bolte II 348ff.; *BP III 238.

F647.7. †F647.7. Marvelous sensitiveness: ulcer from moon's rays. *BP III 238; Penzer VII 11.

F647.8. †F647.8. Marvelous sensitiveness: fainting from noise of wooden pestle and mortar. *BP III 238.

F647.8.1. †F647.8.1. Marvelous sensitiveness: fracture from hearing man chopping wood. *BP III 238.

F647.8.1.1. †F647.8.1.1. Marvelous sensitiveness: stitch in side from being told about hearing a man chopping wood. *BP III 238.

F647.9. †F647.9. Marvelous sensitiveness: blister on back from lying in rose leaves. (Cf. †F647.3.) *BP III 238.

F647.9.1. †F647.9.1. Prince thinks he has slept on a beam; a hair is found on lower bedding. India: *Thompson-Balys.

F647.9.2. †F647.9.2. Marvelous sensitiveness: man feels little point of simple thorn in middle of his clothes. India: Thompson-Balys.

F647.10. †F647.10. Marvelous sensitiveness: man refuses to eat fifth descendent of stolen cow. Alphabet No. 301.

F647.11. †F647.11. Marvelous sensitiveness: clarified butter was someone's leavings. India: Thompson-Balys.

F647.12. †F647.12. Girl (princess) so delicate she can live only on the perfume of flowers. India: Thompson-Balys.

F648. †F648. Extraordinary sympathy (telepathic) with wild animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

F651. †F651. Remarkable power to walk directly to nearest water. Irish myth: Cross.

F652. †F652. Marvelous sense of smell. (Cf. †F647.5.) Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

F652.1. †F652.1. Man identifies picker of berries by their scent. Irish myth: Cross.

F652.2. †F652.2. Man smells pots boiling 400 miles off. Jewish: Neuman.

F654. †F654. Remarkable power of recognition. Man remembers all people he has met. (Cf. †F692.) India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 908.

F655. †F655. Extraordinary perception of blind men.

F655.1. †F655.1. Blind man able to recognize real pearls by their smell, diamonds by touch, a good horse by screwing its ears, and raja of noble birth by his generosity. India: Thompson-Balys.

F655.2. †F655.2. Blind tiger recognizes by man's voice that he is a hypocrite. India: Thompson-Balys.

F660. †F660. Remarkable skill. *Types 653, 653*; BP III 45ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

F660.1. †F660.1. Brothers acquire extraordinary skill. Return home and are tested. *Types 653, 654, 1525; *BP III 10, 45ff., 379ff., 390 n. 1; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 7; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

F660.2. †F660.2. Unskilled man made skillful by saint's blessing. *Loomis White Magic 72, 82.

F660.2.1. †F660.2.1. Follower of a saint is miraculously made a famous preacher. India: Thompson-Balys.

F661. †F661. Skillful marksman. *Types 304, 653; *BP II 503ff., III 45ff.; Fb "skytte" III 350a; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "chasseur"; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 5, III No. 8, V No. 7; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1071.

F661.1. †F661.1. Skillful marksman shoots meat from giant's hands. *Type 304; *BP II 505.

F661.2. †F661.2. Skillful marksman shoots pipe from man's mouth. Type 1708*.

F661.3. †F661.3. Skillful marksman shoots apple from man's head. Tell. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. s. v. "Meisterschuss Tell"; Fb "æble" III 1136a; English: Child III 17f., 28; Icelandic: Boberg.

F661.3.1. †F661.3.1. Skillful marksman shoots spear through nose-ring. India: Thompson-Balys.

F661.4. †F661.4. Skillful marksman shoots eggs scattered over table. *Type 653.

F661.4.1. †F661.4.1. Archer shoots eggs through middle. India: Thompson-Balys.

F661.4.2. †F661.4.2. Archer shoots and marks egg in nest without breaking it or disturbing other eggs. India: Thompson-Balys.

F661.4.3. †F661.4.3. Skillful marksman can hit egg from great distance. Africa: Weeks Jungle 43.

F661.5. †F661.5. Skillful marksman shoots animal (man) through eye.

F661.5.1. †F661.5.1. Skillful marksman shoots serpent through left eye. Chinese: Werner 182.

F661.5.2. †F661.5.2. Skillful marksman shoots bird through eye. *Fb "skytte" III 350a. --Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1123.

F661.5.3. †F661.5.3. Skillful marksman shoots left eye of fly at two miles. *Type 513.

F661.5.4. †F661.5.4. Skillful marksman shoots both eyes of an ogre. Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 7.

F661.5.5. †F661.5.5. Marvelous marksman can shoot eye off needle at quarter-mile distance. Korean: Zong in-Sob.

F661.6. †F661.6. Skillful bowman shoots crater of Vesuvius open. *Fb "bue" IV 76b.

F661.7. †F661.7. Skillful marksman throws needles. One enters eye of the other so as to form a straight line. Irish myth: *Cross.

F661.7.1. †F661.7.1. Skillful marksman throws rushes into a curtain. The first remains and each following one lodges in the one before and remains attached to it. Schoepperle Tristan and Isolt II 294.

F661.7.2. †F661.7.2. Skillful marksman throws swords and scabbards so that swords are sheathed in air. Irish myth: Cross.

F661.7.3. †F661.7.3. One arrow shot into end of last one to make rope of arrows. Melanesia: Codrington 373, 397.

F661.8. †F661.8. Skillful marksman casts lance through ring. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18, Carrière.

F661.8.1. †F661.8.1. Skillful marksman casts lance through hole in leaf. Irish myth: Cross.

F661.9. †F661.9. Skillful marksman grazes ear of sleeping person and awakens him. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

F661.9.1. †F661.9.1. Husband shoots arrows, barely missing wife's ears. India: Thompson-Balys.

F661.10. †F661.10. Man shoots pearls from wife's nose-ring. India: Thompson-Balys.

F661.11. †F661.11. Skillful archer uses arrow as boomerang. India: Thompson-Balys.

F661.12. †F661.12. Hero shoots arrow and cuts thread. India: Thompson-Balys.

F662. †F662. Skillful tailor.

F662.0.1. †F662.0.1. Woman skillful in sewing. Chinese: Graham.

F662.0.1.1. †F662.0.1.1. Woman sews nine garments at a time with one needle. Chinese: Graham.

F662.1. †F662.1. Skillful tailor sews up broken eggs. *Type 653; Africa: Weeks Jungle 43.

F662.1.1. †F662.1.1. Birds hatched from broken eggs repaired by skillful tailor have red line around necks. This indicates where eggs were broken. *Type 653; India: Thompson-Balys.

F662.2. †F662.2. Skillful tailor sews together scattered planks in capsizing boat. *Type 653; India: Thompson-Balys.

F662.3. †F662.3. Skillful tailor sews bean together after bean has split from laughing. German: Grimm No. 18.

F663. †F663. Skillful smith. (Cf. †F271.3.) *Fb "smed" III 402ab; Krappe Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen CLX (1931) 166ff., CLXI (1932) 1--9; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

F663.0.1. †F663.0.1. Skillful smith calls self master of all masters. *Type 753; *BP III 198; *Fb "mester" II 584a.

F663.1. †F663.1. Skillful smith shoes running horse. *Type 654; *BP III 10; *Wesselski Märchen 213 No. 20.

F663.2. †F663.2. Clever smith makes needle that pierces anvil. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1273.

F664. †F664. Skillful flayer.

F664.1. †F664.1. Skillful flayer skins running rabbit. *Type 654; *Wesselski Märchen 213 No. 20.

F664.1.1. †F664.1.1. Woman flays running deer. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 197.

F665. †F665. Skillful barber.

F665.1. †F665.1. Skillful barber shaves running hare. *Type 654; *BP III 10ff.

F666. †F666. Skillful axe-man. Cuts down trees with single stroke, and the like. *Kittredge Gawain 199 n. 2; Irish myth: *Cross.

F666.1. †F666.1. Skillful axe-man makes spear-shafts with three chippings. Also at the same time sets them into the spear-rings. Irish myth: *Cross.

F667. †F667. Skillful fencer (swordsman).

F667.1. †F667.1. Skillful fencer keeps sword dry in rain. Swings it so fast. *Type 654; *BP III 10ff.

F667.2. †F667.2. Man able to strike every arrow with his sword and reduce it to splinters. India: Thompson-Balys.

F667.3. †F667.3. Expert swordsman cuts clothes bag in two. (Cf. †F611.3.3.1) Chinese: Graham.

F668. †F668. Skillful surgeon. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

F668.0.1. †F668.0.1. Skillful physician. Irish myth: *Cross; Africa (Konde): Gemuseus und Berger ZsES XXIII 151f. No. 13.

F668.1. †F668.1. Skillful surgeon removes and replaces vital organs. (Cf. †X1721.2.) *Type 660; *BP II 552.

F668.2. †F668.2. Skillful surgeon removes speck from midge's eye. Does it with one stroke without injuring midge. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 190.

F668.3. †F668.3. Man can transplant feather from one bird to another. Buriat: Holmberg Siberian 428.

F668.4. †F668.4. Skillful surgeon can tell by whom wound was inflicted. Irish myth: Cross.

F668.5. †F668.5. New arm made from another man's arm bone. Irish myth: Cross.

F671. †F671. Skillful shipbuilder. Irish myth: Cross; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 7.

F671.1. †F671.1. Rapid boat-builder can build boat in twinkling of an eye. Africa (Hausa): Equilbecq II 171ff.

F673. †F673. Man can keep together feathers in great wind. *Type 654; *Wesselski Märchen 213 No. 20.

F674. †F674. Skillful painter. Can paint from description of a dream. Type 516; Rosch FFC LXXVII 97.

F675. †F675. Ingenious carpenter. Penzer III 282--4, 296--300; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

F675.1. †F675.1. King makes a wooden peacock machine for his son. India: Thompson-Balys.

F675.2. †F675.2. Moonmakers make new moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

F675.3. †F675.3. Carpenter constructs house of sandalwood which will go wherever owner commands. India: Thompson-Balys.

F675.4. †F675.4. Skillful carpenter constructs large palace overnight. India: Thompson-Balys.

F676. †F676. Skillful thief. (Cf. †K301.)

F676.1. †F676.1. Thief can eat from man's plate during dinner without detection. India: Thompson-Balys.

F676.2. †F676.2. Thief can cut soles off man's boots without detection as he walks along road. India: Thompson-Balys.

F677. †F677. Skillful tracker. Irish myth: Cross.

F677.1. †F677.1. Skillf