S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958. • Main page


Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, ÐÔÔÈ #06-06-80-420a, ÐÔÔÈ #07-06-00441-à



E. THE DEAD

DETAILED SYNOPSIS

†E0.--E199. Resuscitation

†E0. Resuscitation

†E10. Resuscitation by rough treatment

†E30. Resuscitation by arrangement of members

†E50. Resuscitation by magic

†E80. Water of life

†E90. Tree of life

†E100. Resuscitation by medicines

†E120. Other means of resuscitation

†E150. Circumstances of resuscitation

†E200.--E599. GHOSTS AND OTHER REVENANTS

†E200.--E299. Malevolent return from the dead

†E200. Malevolent return from the dead

†E210. Dead lover's malevolent return

†E220. Dead relative's malevolent return

†E230. Return from dead to inflict punishment

†E250. Bloodthirsty revenants

†E260. Other malevolent revenants

†E280. Ghosts haunt buildings

†E300.--E399. Friendly return from the dead

†E300. Friendly return from the dead

†E310. Dead lover's friendly return

†E320. Dead relative's friendly return

†E340. Return from dead to repay obligations

†E360. Other reasons for friendly return from the dead

†E380. Ghost summoned

†E390. Friendly return from the dead -- miscellaneous

†E400.--E599. Ghost and revenants -- miscellaneous

†E400. Ghosts and revenants -- miscellaneous

†E410. The unquiet grave

†E420. Appearance of revenant

†E430. Defense against ghosts and the dead

†E440. Walking ghosts "laid"

†E460. Revenants in conflict

†E470. Intimate relations of dead and living

†E480. Abode of the dead

†E490. Meetings of the dead

†E500. Phantom hosts

†E510. Phantom sailors

†E520. Animal ghosts

†E530. Ghosts of objects

†E540. Miscellaneous actions of revenants

†E600.--E699. Reincarnation

†E600. Reincarnation

†E610. Reincarnation as animal

†E630. Reincarnation in object

†E650. Reincarnation: other forms

†E670. Repeated reincarnation

†E690. Reincarnation -- miscellaneous

†E700.--E799. The soul

†E700. The soul

†E710. External soul

†E720. Soul leaves or enters the body

†E730. Soul in animal form

†E740. Other forms of the soul

†E750. Perils of the soul

†E760. Life index

†E770. Vital objects

E. The dead.

†E0-†E199. Resuscitation.

E0. †E0. Resuscitation. Zwierzina Die Legenden der Märtyrer vom unzerstörbaren Leben (Innsbrucker Festgruss dargebracht der 50. Versammlung deutscher Philologen in Graz (1909) 130--158; Type 516; Clouston Tales II 407ff.; *Penzer X Index s. v. "Resuscitation"; *Jacobs' list s. v. "Resuscitation"; Greek: Grote I 206; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 9, Rotunda; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "resurrection"; Irish: Plummer xxxv, *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 169; Korean: Zong in-Sob 139; Polynesia: *Beckwith Myth Chapter X passim; Marquesas: Handy 83; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/127); Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 291, 359, 373, 417, 444, 452, Holm 26, 89, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 241; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 73; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 102, (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132, (Apapocuva-Guaraní): *Métraux RMLP XXXIII 133; Africa (Benga): Nassau 213 No. 33, (Upoto): Einstein 142, (Wuchaga): Gutman 35.

E1. †E1. Person comes to life. Alphabet No. 683; Köhler-Bolte II 164; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3506; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Tonga: Gifford 130; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 180 No. 25, (Zulu): Callaway 51.

E1.1. †E1.1. Saint cut into pieces or decapitated comes back to life. *Loomis White Magic 83f.

E1.2. †E1.2. Dead man re-enters body and speaks of experience in heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.

E2. †E2. Dead tree comes to life. Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 47.

E3. †E3. Dead animal comes to life. (Cf. †B192.1.) Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

E4. †E4. Sun revived by own power after being killed by moon. S. Am. Indian (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 434.

E10. †E10. Resuscitation by rough treatment.

E11. †E11. Resuscitation by beating. *Penzer VI 265f.; Köhler-Bolte I 140; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia (Soemba): Dixon 331 n. 108; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 353 n. 273; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 124 No. 17.

E11.1. †E11.1. Second blow resuscitates. First kills. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 93.

E11.2. †E11.2. Resuscitation by striking with arrow. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 73.

E11.3. †E11.3. Resuscitation by touching body during conjuration. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 452, Rasmussen II 349.

E12. †E12. Resuscitation by decapitation. *Type 531; *BP III 18ff.

E12.1. †E12.1. Red thread on neck of person who has been decapitated and resuscitated. *BP III 19; Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 866.

E12.2. †E12.2. Head of decapitated person is replaced backwards. Later is readjusted. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

E13. †E13. Resuscitation by jumping (stepping) over. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 350 n. 261; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 177.

E13.1. †E13.1. Resuscitation by stepping on corpse. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 177.

E14. †E14. Resuscitation by dismemberment. (Cf. †E30, †E32.) (Usually combined with burning; cf. †E15.) *Type 753; *BP II 162; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 33, Beal XXI 311f.; Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 76 No. 15.

E15. †E15. Resuscitation by burning. *Type 753; *BP III 193ff.; DeCock Studien 14; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "cadavre"; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 68; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 350 n. 260; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 132 No. 18, 136 No. 19.

E15.0.1. †E15.0.1. Bone of man being burned jumps out of fire. Africa (Pahouin): Largeau 197.

E15.1. †E15.1. Resuscitation by boiling. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 156 n. 2, Cook Zeus I 677ff.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "cadavre"; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 350 n. 260.

E15.2. †E15.2. Resuscitation by sweating. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 340 n. 225, 350 n. 260, (Modoc): Curtin Myths of the Modocs (Boston, 1912) 31.

E15.3. †E15.3. Resuscitation by stewing. Chinese: Graham.

E16. †E16. Resuscitation by stinging. Corpse is laid on an ant-heap. MacCulloch Childhood 81 n. 3; Australian: Parker 13.

E17. †E17. Resuscitation by licking corpse. Africa (Kaffir): Theal 153.

E17.1. †E17.1. Resuscitation when snake licks bite he has inflicted upon his victim. India: Thompson-Balys.

E18. †E18. Resuscitation by tickling. N. Am. Indian (Tlingit): Golder JAFL XX 292.

E21. †E21. Resuscitation by withdrawal of wounding instrument. Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 8; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Twana): Curtis N. Am. Indian IX 164 ff., (Southern Paiute): Lowie JAFL XXXVII 185 No. 19; Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XXI 18.

E21.1. †E21.1. Resuscitation by removal of poisoned apple. By shaking loose the apple from the throat of the poisoned girl the prince brings her to life. *Type 709; *BP I 450ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchens s. v. "Apfel" n. 8; India: Thompson-Balys.

E21.1.1. †E21.1.1. Resuscitation by removal of poisoning cobra flesh from dead man's mouth. India: Thompson-Balys.

E21.2. †E21.2. Resuscitation when strangling corset-lace breaks. Girl laced so tightly in corset that she faints. Brothers carry her to her grave. They stumble. Corset-lace breaks and girl revives. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 63 No. 453; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

E21.3. †E21.3. Resuscitation by removal of poisoned comb. *Type 709; Africa (Swahili): Baker FL XXXVIII 299ff.

E21.4. †E21.4. Resuscitation by removal of poisoned slippers. Africa (Tonga): Junod 266ff., (Swahili): Baker FL XXXVIII 299ff. No. 16.

E21.5. †E21.5. Resuscitation by sucking poison from wound. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E23. †E23. Resuscitation by catching in snare. Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 267 No. 74.

E25. †E25. Resuscitation my frightening dead. Frequently combined with †E61. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 319 n. 153. See also references to †E61.

E26. †E26. Resuscitation by shouting at dead. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 1; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 88.

E26.1. †E26.1. Resuscitation by command to arise. (Cf. †E67.) Type 785; India: *Thompson-Balys.

E27. †E27. Resuscitation by slinging against something. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 510.

E29. †E29. Resuscitation by rough treatment -- miscellaneous.

E29.1. †E29.1. Resuscitation by biting victim's bone. N. Am. Indian (Joshua): Farrand-Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 240 No. 19.

E29.2. †E29.2. Resuscitation by rubbing victim's bones on ground. Madagascar (Antankarana): Renel Contes de Madagascar (Paris, 1910, 1930) I 94ff. No. 14.

E29.3. †E29.3. Resuscitation by pricking anus. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 57, 81.

E29.4. †E29.4. Resuscitation by plucking the flower into which one is incarnated. India: Thompson-Balys.

E29.4.1. †E29.4.1. Resuscitation by felling the tree into which one is incarnated and splitting trunk into two parts. India: Thompson-Balys.

E29.5. †E29.5. Resuscitation by cutting off heads of birds which contained the soul of dead person. India: Thompson-Balys.

E29.6. †E29.6. Resuscitation by urinating on dead man's bone. Korean: Zong in-Sob 38.

E29.7. †E29.7. Resuscitation by striking with lightning. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 410.

E30. †E30. Resuscitation by arrangement of members. Parts of a dismembered corpse are brought together and resuscitation follows. (Sometimes combined with other methods.) *Type 720; *BP I 422f.; Köhler-Bolte I 140, 555; Gaster Thespis 300. --Finnish: Kalevala rune 15; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "os"; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 2; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 315 No. 119, 329 No. 38; Egyptian: Müller 114 (Osiris); Greek: Fox 22 (Arkas); Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 494; India: *Thompson-Balys; Marquesas: Handy 104; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1117); Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 276; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 308 n. 114, (California): Gayton and Newman 71, Hatt Asiatic Influences 69f.; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Alexander Lat. Am. 315, Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503. --Africa (Fjort): Dennett 64 No. 12, (Angola): Chatelain 95 No. 5, (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 33, 137, (Ibo of Nigeria): Thomas 160, (Basuto): Jacottet 132 No. 18, 168 No. 24, (Thonga): Junod 242, (Zulu): Callaway 51, 230; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 141.

E30.1. †E30.1. Felled tree restored by reassembling all cut parts. (Cf. †E2.) Polynesian: Dixon *68 n. 38.

E31. †E31. Limbs of dead voluntarily reassemble and revive. *Köhler-Bolte I 130; Gaster Thespis 300; Jewish: Neuman; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 92.

E32. †E32. Resuscitated eaten animal. (Cf. †E171.) An animal is eaten. When his bones are reassembled he revives. *Von Sydow Tors Färd til Utgård (Danske Studier [1910] 65); Type 870B (FFC LXXXIII); Krohn Skandinavisk Mythologi 207ff.; BP I 422f.; Karjalainen FFC LXIII 14; Alphabet No. 370; MacCulloch Childhood 101; Clouston Tales II 395; Günter 83 nn. 94--96; *Loomis White Magic 68, 84f.; Archiv. f. slavische Philologie XIX 255. --Irish: Plummer cxliii, *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 66, Beal XXI 325; English: Child I 505b; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 306 No. 8, 313 No. 93; Jewish: bin Gorion III 19, *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buin: Wheeler No. 15; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 308 n. 114a; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 272, (Thonga): Junod 229, (Basuto): Jacottet 124 No. 17.

E32.0.1. †E32.0.1. Eaten person resuscitated. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Tonga: Beckwith Myth 483.

E32.1. †E32.1. Insect swallowed by man comes out alive. *Loomis White Magic 66.

E32.2. †E32.2. Animals which devour each other are restored to their original forms by command of a saint. *Loomis White Magic 63.

E32.3. †E32.3. Dismembered pigs come alive again if only bones are preserved. Irish myth: *Cross.

E33. †E33. Resuscitation with missing member. In reassembling the members, one has been inadvertently omitted. The resuscitated person or animal lacks this member. *Type 313; MacCulloch Childhood 97ff.; Von Sydow Danske Studier (1910) 65ff., 145ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 259, 273 n. 1, *586. --Greek: Fox 119 (Pelops); India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 99, Rasmussen I 218, III 79, (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 501, (N. W. Canada): Petitot 84, 226, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 170; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 308 n. 114b; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Alexander Lat. Am. 314.

E33.1. †E33.1. Cooked part of white cow is brown after resuscitation. Irish myth: Cross; England: Baughman.

E34. †E34. Resuscitation with misplaced head. (Cf. †M221.) In restoration of several persons simultaneously through reassembling of members, the heads are placed on the wrong bodies. Sometimes the damage is repaired, sometimes not. *Kittredge Gawain 155 n. 1; *Wesselski Märchen 239, 241 n. 2; Irish myth: *Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 309 n. 114c.

E34.1. †E34.1. Resuscitation with head on backwards. (Cf. †F511.0.6.) *Type 303; Irish myth: *Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda (†E12.2).

E35. †E35. Resuscitation from fragments of body. Cook Islands: Beckwith 253; S. Am. Indian (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 434.

E35.1. †E35.1. Resuscitation by sewing parts of body together. India: Thompson-Balys.

E37. †E37. Resuscitation by assembling members and leaving in cask for certain time.

E37.1. †E37.1. Failure to resuscitate because of premature disturbance of members to be left in cask for certain time. Köhler-Bolte I 140, 585; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3670; India: Thompson-Balys.

E38. †E38. Resuscitation by replacement of soul. Crane Miraculis 84 No. 7; Irish myth: *Cross; Chinese: Werner 93, 268; Hawaii: Dixon 76, Beckwith Myth 145, 152; Maori: Dixon 78; Marquesas: Handy 113; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 101.

E38.1. †E38.1. Resuscitation by returning dead person's soul (breath) to body. India: Thompson-Balys.

E41. †E41. Resuscitation from excrement of one who has eaten person (animal). India: Thompson-Balys; Tonga: Gifford 140, Beckwith Myth 483, 504; S. Am. Indian (Kaiguá): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 139.

E42. †E42. Resuscitation from ashes of dead man. India: Thompson-Balys.

E42.1. †E42.1. Resuscitation from dust. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E50. †E50. Resuscitation by magic. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 154 and Chapter X passim; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G 3/49, z-G 3/1353, z-G 13/1241); Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 504, (Greenland): Rink 260, Rasmussen III 296, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 193; Africa (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 43.

E52. †E52. Resuscitation by magic charm. (Cf. †D1273.) Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys, *Penzer VI 261ff.; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 348, III 102.

E53. †E53. Resuscitation by fetish. Africa (Fjort): Dennett 64 No. 12.

E53.1. †E53.1. Resuscitation by mummified dog. Dog is kept in box. Revives and resuscitates dead hero. N. Am. Indian (Central Algonquin): Skinner JAFL XXVII 98.

E53.2. †E53.2. Resuscitation of dead by making image of deceased of breadfruit wood. When spirit enters this, image disappears and person is found alive. Marquesas: Handy 113.

E55. †E55. Resuscitation by music. MacCulloch Childhood 84; Fb "spille" III 488a; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 319 n. 153b.

E55.1. †E55.1. Resuscitation by song. Icelandic: Göngu-Hrólfs saga 337--38, Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Tsimshian: Boas BBAE XXVII 215; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 452.

E55.2. †E55.2. Resuscitation by playing flute. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "flute".

E55.3. †E55.3. Resuscitation by blowing trumpet. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 62f.

E55.4. †E55.4. Resuscitation by playing violin. *Cosquin Lorraine II 7, 286.

E55.5. †E55.5. Resuscitation by playing guitar. Sicilian: Gonzenbach I 306 No. 45.

E58. †E58. Resuscitation by weeping (tears). Herbert III 62 (Odo of Cheriton); Fb "opskrig" II 754; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 43 No. 1 (Version B).

E58.1. †E58.1. Resuscitation by universal weeping. Return of deity from dead granted if all men will weep. One person refuses. *Dh II 211; Hdwb. d. Märch. I 439a s. v. "Eddamärchen" nn. 270, 271; MacCulloch Eddic 130.

E61. †E61. Resuscitation by shooting arrow. (Usually combined with †E25.) Chinese: Graham; N. Am. Indian (Ojibwa): Schoolcraft Hiawatha 58, (Missisagua): Chamberlain JAFL III 150, (Blackfoot): Wissler and Duvall PaAM II 146, (Gros Ventre): Kroeber PaAM I 99 No. 23, (Arapano): Dorsey and Kroeber FM V 269 No. 119, 344ff. Nos. 139--145.

E62. †E62. Resuscitation by vigil at tomb. Vigil is for stated time, three weeks and three days, or the like. Köhler in Gonzenbach II 209 No. 11; Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 62.

E62.1. †E62.1. Resuscitation by fasting. Irish myth: *Cross.

E63. †E63. Resuscitation by prayer. Types 516, 612; Rösch FFC LXXVII 143. --Irish myth: *Cross, Scala Celi No. 949; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas VI 218, Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Maori: Dixon 82.

E63.1. †E63.1. Body placed in building and worshipped until it comes to life. (Cf. †E62.) Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 420.

E63.2. †E63.2. Resuscitation by nine-day dance and prayers. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 184.

E64. †E64. Resuscitation by magic object.

E64.1. †E64.1. Resuscitation by staff. (Cf. †D1254.) India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; N. Am. Indian (Southern Paiute): Lowie JAFL XXXVII 108 No. 5, 117 No. 7, 169f. Nos. 5a, 6; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 115; Africa: Werner African 171, (Zulu): Callaway 233.

E64.1.1. †E64.1.1. Staff of life and death. Black staff kills; brown one restores to life. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 266 No. 40.

E64.1.1.1. †E64.1.1.1. Silver stick kills; gold one restores to life. India: Thompson-Balys.

E64.1.1.2. †E64.1.1.2. Leaves of life and death. India: Thompson-Balys.

E64.1.1.3. †E64.1.1.3. Fly-whisk of life and death. India: Thompson-Balys.

E64.2. †E64.2. Resuscitation by magic cauldron. (Cf. †D1171.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

E64.3. †E64.3. Resuscitation by magic bell. (Cf. †D1213.) Jewish: Neuman.

E64.3.1. †E64.3.1. Resuscitation by saint's bell. Irish: Plummer clxxvi, Cross.

E64.4. †E64.4. Resuscitation by magic bachall. (Cf. †D1277.)

E64.4.1. †E64.4.1. Resuscitation by saint's bachall. *Loomis White Magic 105; Irish: Plummer clxxv, *Cross.

E64.5. †E64.5. Resuscitation by magic cup. (Cf. †D1171.6.)

E64.5.1. †E64.5.1. Resuscitation by Holy Grail. Welsh, Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 203; Irish myth: *Cross.

E64.6. †E64.6. Resuscitation by candle. (Cf. †D1162.2.) Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 111 No. 39.

E64.7. †E64.7. Resuscitation by book. (Cf. †D1266.) Fansler MAFLS XII 137.

E64.7.1. †E64.7.1. Resuscitation by manuscript. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E64.8. †E64.8. Resuscitation by perfume. (Cf. †D1245.) Philippine: Dixon 235 n. 47, (Tinguian): *Cole 18 n. 1, 44, 51, 90, 98, 131.

E64.8.1. †E64.8.1. Resuscitation by heavenly fragrance. Jewish: Neuman.

E64.9. †E64.9. Resuscitation by magic feather. (Cf. †D1021.) N. Am. Indian (Kato): Goddard UCal V 208 No. 9, (Tsimshian): Boas RBAE XXXI 127.

E64.10. †E64.10. Resuscitation by piece of felt. (Cf. †D1051.) Georgian: Wardrop Georgian Folk-Tales (London, 1894) 15 No. 3.

E64.11. †E64.11. Resuscitation by magic robe (blanket). (Cf. †D1052.) N. Am. Indian (Pawnee): Dorsey CI LIX 329 No. 88, (Tlingit): Swanton BBAE XXXIX 36 No. 8.

E64.12. †E64.12. Resuscitation by sacred relics. Irish myth: Cross.

E64.13. †E64.13. Resuscitation by ring. BP III 537; India: Thompson-Balys.

E64.14. †E64.14. Resuscitation by magic bag. (Cf. †D1193.) Zs. f. d. Phil. XXVI 23.

E64.15. †E64.15. Resuscitation by magic gold. Zs f. d. Phil. XXVI 23.

E64.16. †E64.16. Resuscitation by animal's tail.

E64.16.1. †E64.16.1. Resuscitation by yak's tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

E64.17. †E64.17. Resuscitation by magic stone. (Cf. †D931.) India: Thompson-Balys.

E64.18. †E64.18. Resuscitation by leaf. India: Thompson-Balys.

E64.19. †E64.19. Resuscitation from bird dung. (Cf. †D1026.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

E64.20. †E64.20. Resuscitation by magic baskets. Africa (Fang): Einstein 155.

E64.21. †E64.21. Resuscitation by handkerchief. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 182.

E65. †E65. Resuscitation by kiss. Type 885*. --India: Thompson-Balys.

E66. †E66. Resuscitation by breathing on corpse. Greek: Fox 22; Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; Melanesia: Codrington JAI X 272; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 319 n. 153a; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 280, Rasmussen III 124, Holm 68, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 247; Africa (Benga): Nassau 213 No. 33.

E66.1. †E66.1. Resuscitation of cremated man by blowing on the ashes. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Bakairi, Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 312.

E67. †E67. Resuscitation by talking to corpse. Type 450; Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 17.

E68. †E68. Apparently dead persons revived when certain thing happens. Proper prince appears, or the like. Chauvin V 263 No. 154.

E71. †E71. Resuscitation by wishing. N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 123 No. 19.

E72. †E72. Resuscitation by smelling of moss. N. Am. Indian (Menomini): Hoffman RBAE XIV 181.

E73. †E73. Resuscitation by incantation. Chinese: Graham.

E74. †E74. Resuscitation by waving magic object. India: Thompson-Balys.

E75. †E75. Resuscitation by writing deity's name. Jewish: *Neuman.

E79. †E79. Resuscitation by magic -- miscellaneous.

E79.1. †E79.1. Resuscitation by passing helpful animal over corpse. Chinese: Graham.

E79.1.1. †E79.1.1. Resuscitation by bird flying over dead. Jewish: Neuman.

E79.2. †E79.2. Resuscitation by reversing positions of two blocks of wood. India: Thompson-Balys.

E79.3. †E79.3. Resuscitation by touch of eagle. Jewish: Neuman.

E80. †E80. Water of Life. Resuscitation by water. Types 550, 551; *BP I 513, II 400; **Wünsche Lebensbaum; Chauvin VI 73f.; Hertz Abhandlungen 47ff.; *Fb "vand" III 1001b, "livets vand" II 439b, "flaske" I 309a; Dawkins Alexander and the Water of Life (Medium Aevum IX 173--192); Jacobs' list s. v. "Water of Life"; Köhler-Bolte I 186, 562. --Icelandic: Hrólfssaga Gautrekssonar (ed. Detter) 46, 64; Russian: Ralston Russian Folk-Tales (London 1873) 231ff.; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Babylonian: Spence 130 (Ishtar); India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer X 210 s. v. "Life, water of"; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 347; Arabian: Burton Nights S VI 213ff., 221; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 494; Indonesian: DeVries Volksverhalen II 359 No. 104; Pelew Islands: Dixon 252; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 74, 121, 153, 264; Fiji: ibid. 76; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 355 n. 279a; (Calif. Indian): Gayton and Newman 64; Africa (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 27, 67, 137.

E80.1. †E80.1. Resuscitation by bathing. Herbert III 197; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys, Penzer IV 145; West Indies: Flowers 427.

E80.1.1. †E80.1.1. Resuscitation by bathing in milk. (Cf. †D1018, †D1503.7.1, †E102.1.) Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

E80.2. †E80.2. Resuscitation by wet cloth over corpse. India: Thompson-Balys.

E80.3. †E80.3. Resuscitation by water (in basket, overnight). N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 68.

E80.4. †E80.4. Resuscitation by holy water. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

E80.4.1. †E80.4.1. Resuscitation by dew from heaven. Jewish: *Neuman.

E82. †E82. Water of life and death. One water kills, the other restores to life. *BP III 31 n. 1; Greek: Fox 281 (blood of life and death); India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 355 n. 279b.

E84. †E84. Water of death. India: Thompson-Balys.

E90. †E90. Tree of Life. (Cf. †D950.) Resuscitation by touching its branches. *MacCulloch Childhood 83; *Wünsche Lebensbaum. --Irish myth: *Cross; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 354; India: *Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Guianas, Chaco, Arawakan Chaná): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 369.

E90.1. †E90.1. Sun and moon steal wonderful tree which revives dead man or animal. India: Thompson-Balys.

E100. †E100. Resuscitation by medicines. Greek: Aeschylus Agamemnon line 1020; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 7, 34; (Benga): Nassau 98, 213 Nos. 5, 33, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 117 No. 20, (Kaffir): Theal 66, (Vai): Ellis 196 No. 14, 200 No. 18, 243 No. 49, (Cameroon): Ittman 72f., (Wakweli): Bender 96.

E101. †E101. Resuscitation by salve (oil). (Cf. †D1244.) BP I 127; Fb "salve" III 150b. --Irish myth: *Cross; Italian: Gonzenbach I 318 No. 48; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine (Tinguian): *Cole 18 n. 1, 44, 51.

E102. †E102. Resuscitation by magic liquid. (Cf. †D1242.) *Krappe Balor 132ff. --Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 61 No. 445A; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 47.

E102.1. †E102.1. Resuscitation by magic milk. Irish myth: *Cross.

E102.2. †E102.2. Resuscitation by sprinkling ambrosia. (Cf. †E80.) India: Thompson-Balys.

E105. †E105. Resuscitation by herbs (leaves). Type 612; BP I 126ff., *128; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 354 n. 2; *Kittredge Gawain 153 n. 4; *Wesselski Märchen 239f. No. 50; Jacobs' list s. v. "Life-restoring herb"; Penzer VI 18 n. 1. --Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 312 n. 2; Jewish: Neuman; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 7, V No. 7, Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 135; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 7, (Thonga): Junod 56.

E106. †E106. Resuscitation by magic apple. *Type 590; BP III 1; Fb "æble" IV 1135b; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 90b s. v. "Apfel" n. 2.

E107. †E107. Resuscitation by magic pill. (Cf. †D1243.) Chinese: Werner 159.

E108. †E108. Resuscitation by magic powder.

E108.1. †E108.1. Resuscitation by magic powder blown into nose. Africa (Kordofan): Frobenius Atlantis IV 101ff. No. 11.

E113. †E113. Resuscitation by blood. Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 143; *BP I 46ff.; *Fb "blod" IV 46b, 47a; Jacobs' list s. v. "Blood resuscitates". --Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 16 n. 1; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 9; India: *Thompson-Balys. --Tonga: Gifford 185; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G 3/912); N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 96 No. 7; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 165.

E113.1. †E113.1. Resuscitation by animal's blood. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E113.1.1. †E113.1.1. Resuscitation by raven's blood. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E114. †E114. Resuscitation by spittle. (Cf. †D1001.) Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 143. --Sicilian: Gonzenbach I 156 No. 25; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 99, 157; Tonga: Gifford 185; N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Teit JAFL XXIX 305 (European borrowing).

E115. †E115. Resuscitation by wax from deer's ear. Scotch: Campbell Tales II 309 No. 44.

E116. †E116. Resuscitation by use of animal fat. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

E117. †E117. Resuscitation by gall of slain giant. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E120. †E120. Other means of resuscitation.

E121. †E121. Resuscitation by supernatural person. MacCulloch Childhood 84 n. 2; Melanesia: *Wheeler No. 66f.

E121.1. †E121.1. Resuscitation by a god. (Cf. †A454.) Irish: Beal XXI 329; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 234 n. 3 (Theseus), Fox 119 (Pelops), 126 (Protesilaos), 144 (Alkestis, Glaukos), 220 (Adriadne, Semele), 280 (Asklepios); Icelandic: Boberg (Odin); Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 339.

E121.1.1. †E121.1.1. Resuscitation by concerted effort of the gods. Greek: Fox 119 (Pelops).

E121.1.2. †E121.1.2. Resuscitation by power of goddess. *India: Thompson-Balys.

E121.1.3. †E121.1.3. Man sent back to earth by Death, for it is not yet his time to die. India: Thompson-Balys.

E121.1.3.1. †E121.1.3.1. Hero resuscitated by his bride, daughter of king of death. India: Thompson-Balys.

E121.2. †E121.2. Resuscitation by Christ. Types 750***, 753; Irish myth: Cross.

E121.3. †E121.3. Resuscitation by Virgin Mary. (Cf. †V268.) *Type 710; *Crane Miraculis 85 No. 8; *Ward Catalogue of Romances II 633 No. 31; Wells Manual of Writings 170; Irish myth: *Cross.

E121.4. †E121.4. Resuscitation by saint. Köhler-Bolte II 163ff.; Alphabet Nos. 130, 374, 375, 376, 559, 628; *Loomis White Magic 83f.; Irish: Plummer xxxv, *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Sicilian: Gonzenbach I 156 No. 25; Jewish: bin Gorion III 20; India: *Thompson-Balys. See also Acta Sanctorum passim.

E121.4.1. †E121.4.1. The cooked and revived child. Saint to a woman: "Cook me what you like most." Gullible woman cooks son. Saint revives child. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 80f.

E121.5. †E121.5. Resuscitation by holy man (priest, etc.). Irish: O'Suilleabhain 31, 90, Beal XXI 310; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

E121.5.1. †E121.5.1. Resuscitation by rabbi. Gaster Exempla 218 No. 149.

E121.5.2. †E121.5.2. Resuscitation through prayers of holy man. (Cf. †E63.) Nouvelles de Sens No. 24.

E121.5.3. †E121.5.3. Resuscitation by prophet. Jewish: Neuman.

E121.6. †E121.6. Resuscitation by demon. Hindu: Tawney I 132.

E121.6.1. †E121.6.1. Resuscitation by demon's entering corpse. Irish myth: *Cross.

E121.7. †E121.7. Resuscitation by magician. (Cf. †D1711.) Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Lillooet): Teit JAFL XXV 332, (Mewan): Merriam Dawn of the World (Cleveland, 1910) 188; Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 247.

E121.7.1. †E121.7.1. Resuscitation by druid. (Cf. †P427.5.) Irish myth: Cross.

E121.8. †E121.8. Resuscitation by fairy. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

E122. †E122. Resuscitation by animals. Jewish: Neuman.

E122.1. †E122.1. Resuscitation by cuckoo. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *455.

E122.2. †E122.2. Resuscitation by snake. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E125. †E125. Resuscitation by relative.

E125.1. †E125.1. Resuscitation by son. India: Thompson-Balys.

E125.2. †E125.2. Resuscitation by sister(s). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 152.

E125.3. †E125.3. Resuscitation by brother. Jewish: Neuman.

E127. †E127. Resuscitation by friends. India: Thompson-Balys.

E132. †E132. Resuscitation through ashes thrown on funeral pyre. *Penzer IX 68 n. 2.

E133. †E133. Resuscitation by warming dead man. German: Grimm No. 4.

E134. †E134. Resuscitation by laying flesh on pyre and covering with cloth. India: Thompson-Balys.

E134.1. †E134.1. Resuscitation by covering body for certain time. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 72, 80, 102.

E136. †E136. Resuscitation by heavenly voice. Jewish: Neuman.

E138. †E138. Resuscitation by carrying corpse to its home.

E138.1. †E138.1. Deer foster parent of hero comes alive from its burial hill when youth returns to spot and carries him off to jungle again. India: Thompson-Balys.

E141. †E141. Resuscitation: ghosts deceived so that they cannot find way back to grave. India: Thompson-Balys.

E142. †E142. Resuscitation by polishing sword that contains dead man's life. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E149. †E149. Means of resuscitation -- miscellaneous.

E149.1. †E149.1. Human bone, found in demon's stomach wrapped in silk with bow and arrow, becomes a boy. India: Thompson-Balys.

E149.2. †E149.2. Resuscitation of decapitated princess by hero by imitating ogre's actions of night before: passing sword three times up and down her throat. India: Thompson-Balys.

E149.3. †E149.3. Resuscitation from touch of a child at his first walking. India: Thompson-Balys.

E150. †E150. Circumstances of resuscitation.

E151. †E151. Repeated resuscitation. A person dies and is resuscitated repeatedly. *Zwierzina Legenden der Märtyrer vom unzerstörbaren Leben. (Innsbrucker Festgruss dargebracht der 50. Versammlung deutscher Philologen in Graz). --Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Georgian: Wardrop Georgian Folk-Tales (London, 1894) 59 No. 10; India: Thompson-Balys. --N. Am. Indian (Micmac): Rand 296 No. 51, (Chilcotin): Farrand JE II 22 No. 8, (Yuki): Kroeber UCal IV 185, (Osage): Dorsey FM VII 43 No. 36, (Navaho): Matthews MAFLS V 93; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 298f., 463; S. Am. Indian (Ackawoi): Alexander Lat. Am. 270; Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 75 No. 36.

E152. †E152. Body still warm restored to life. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 152.

E155. †E155. Periodic resuscitation. (Cf. †D620.) Return to life at regular intervals. *Cosquin Contes indiens 18ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

E155.1. †E155.1. Slain warriors revive nightly. Continue fighting the next day. *Krappe Balor 132ff.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 546; Irish myth: *Cross, Beal IV 342, 454, V 210; Icelandic: De la Saussaye 176, Fb "kamp", Panzer Hilde-Gudrun 327ff., Herrmann Saxo II 364, *Boberg; Hindu: Tawney I 476.

E155.1.1. †E155.1.1. Constant replacement of fighters. In contest between gods and demons, latter are constantly slain and replaced. Hindu: Keith 150.

E155.1.2. †E155.1.2. Soldiers of magic army constantly revived. Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

E155.2. †E155.2. Annual resuscitation of a god. (Cf. †A192.1.) Greek: Fox 156 (Zeus), 218 (Dionysus), 230 (Persephone); Babylonian: Spence 132 (Adonis, Tammuz).

E155.3. †E155.3. Nightly resuscitation of man with external soul. When enemy takes off necklace containing the soul he revives, but dies again when it is put on. India: Thompson-Balys.

E155.4. †E155.4. Person dead during day, revived at night. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E155.4.1. †E155.4.1. Woman alive by day, dead by night. Irish myth: Cross.

E155.5. †E155.5. Slain pigs revive nightly. Irish myth: *Cross.

E155.5.1. †E155.5.1. Calf, slain at night, alive next day through power of saint. Irish myth: *Cross.

E155.6. †E155.6. King eaten every morning: revived daily. India: Thompson-Balys.

E156. †E156. Gradual resuscitation -- one organ at a time. Korean: Zong in-Sob 47.

E161. †E161. Killed game revives and flies away. N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 303 n. 109e; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 159 No. 20.

E162. †E162. Resuscitation impossible after certain length of time. N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 97 No. 7 (ten days); Africa (Vai): Ellis 200 No. 18 (three days).

E162.0.1. †E162.0.1. Resuscitation after great length of time. (Cf. †D1857.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E162.1. †E162.1. Resuscitation even possible after three days. Icelandic: Göngu-Hrólfs saga 308.

E162.2. †E162.2. Dead man tries in vain to come back to life. (Cf. †E1.) Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 347.

E163. †E163. Man kept alive by consecrated sword. (Cf. †D1081, †E765.3.0.1.) Irish: Plummer clxxxv, *Cross.

E165. †E165. Resuscitation of wife by husband giving up half his remaining life. (Sometimes vice versa). *Type 612; *BP I 126, 129; *Wesselski Märchen 188; *Chauvin VIII 120 No. 104; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 93, 193; Jewish: bin Gorion I 372; India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer VIII 117; Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 226; Africa: Frobenius Atlantis IX No. 108.

E165.1. †E165.1. One man prays either to keep friend from death or for both to die. Both allowed to live. Jewish: bin Gorion II 171f., 349.

E165.2. †E165.2. Husband resuscitated after wife's nose is cut off and thrown over grave. India: Thompson-Balys.

E166. †E166. Return from dead granted for definite time. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 126 (three hours); Hindu: Keith 114 (100 years).

E167. †E167. Man given ability to return to life if killed. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 301.

E168. †E168. Cooked animal comes to life. (Cf. †E155.5.) Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

E168.1. †E168.1. Roasted cock comes to life and crows. English: Child I 233--242, 505, II 8, 501b, III 502f., IV 451f., V 212a, 288a.

E171. †E171. Flayed animal resuscitated. Irish myth: Cross.

E174. †E174. Bones wrapped in sheepskin inscribed with holy name revive. Jewish: *Neuman.

E174.1. †E174.1. Ashes of burnt hero revive. Jewish: *Neuman.

E175. †E175. Death thought sleep. Resuscitated person thinks he has been sleeping. He exclaims, "How long I have been asleep!" *Köhler-Bolte 555; Wesselski Märchen 192. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Dixon 235; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 319 n. 154, (Calif.): Gayton and Newman 57; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 502.

E176. †E176. Resuscitation in order to baptize. Irish myth: Cross.

E177. †E177. Resuscitated man relates visions of beyond. (Cf. †E480, †V511.) Irish myth: Cross.

E178. †E178. Resurrection at Judgment Day. Jewish: *Neuman.

E181. †E181. Means of resuscitation learned. India: Thompson-Balys.

E181.1. †E181.1. Husband advised how to resuscitate his wife: lift her up and turn her around so her head rests upon the brick which had been under her feet. India: Thompson-Balys.

E181.1.1. †E181.1.1. Man advised how to resuscitate his mother: break waternuts on her head: she would revive and live one year for each nut broken. India: Thompson-Balys.

E181.2. †E181.2. Student revives whole family following instructions given by demon. Chinese: Graham.

E182. †E182. Dead body incorruptible. Beard and fingernails continue to grow. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg.

E185. †E185. Resuscitation when murder is discovered. India: Thompson-Balys.

E185.1. †E185.1. Resuscitation after murderer is buried in the earth, wood laid over him, and a lighted lamp on its top. India: Thompson-Balys.

E186. †E186. Failure at resuscitation.

E186.1. †E186.1. Attempted resuscitation fails because of overanxiety. S. Am. Indian (Kaiguá): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 139.

†E200-†E599. Ghosts and other revenants.

†E200-†E299. Malevolent return from the dead.

E200. †E200. Malevolent return from the dead. *Fb "spøgelse" III 520b; *Carrington and Nandor Haunted People (New York, 1951); English: Child IV 416, V 303b; U.S. (New York State): *L. C. Jones JAFL LVII 237ff., New York History XXIV 177ff., Spooks of the Valley (Boston, 1948); (Pennsylvania): Balys MWF II 47--52; Icelandic: *Boberg; Norwegian: *Solheim Register 17; India: Thompson-Balys; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 316; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 64.

E210. †E210. Dead lover's malevolent return. *R. Arbesmann The Dead Bridegroom in South American Folklore (Thought XIX [March 1944] 95--111); North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 114 No. 8.

E211. †E211. Dead sweetheart haunts faithless lover. English: Child I 426; U.S.: Baughman, (North Carolina): Brown Collection I 676, (New York): Jones JAFL LVII 245; Corsican: Ortoli Contes Pop. de la Corse (Paris, 1883) 322, 330.

E211.1. †E211.1. Dead sweetheart in the form of a white rabbit follows seducer. England: *Baughman.

E211.2. †E211.2. Dead sweetheart appears to seducer every evening, even after he has married another woman. England: Baughman.

E212. †E212. Dead lover sets tasks. If girl does not perform them (or answer his questions) he will carry her off. Child IV 439ff.

E214. †E214. Dead lover haunts faithless sweetheart.

E214.1. †E214.1. Dead lover returns to dance with fickle sweetheart at her wedding. U.S.: Baughman.

E215. †E215. The Dead Rider (Lenore). Dead lover returns and takes sweetheart with him on horseback. She is sometimes saved at the grave by the crowing of the cock, though the experience is usually fatal. *Type 365; *Fb "død" I 228a, "ride" III 53a, "spøgelse" III 520ab; Krumbacher Zs. f. vgl. Litt. N. F. I (1887) 214--220; Wlislocki ibid. N.F. XI (1897) 467; Borker Germania XXXI 117; Dieterich Zs. f. Vksk. XII 147;--England: Child V 60ff., 303; England, U.S.: *Baughman; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 No. 28.

E217. †E217. Fatal kiss from dead. English: Child I 439, II 229ff., 236f., III 512f., IV 474f.

E218. †E218. Spells to recall dead lover. Boiling dead man's head, bones, or carcass in a pot, or burning a piece of lover's clothing or cat in a hot oven. English: Child V 61.

E220. †E220. Dead relative's malevolent return. *Fb "spøgelse" III 520b; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3531; West Indies: Flowers 428.

E221. †E221. Dead spouse's malevolent return. Usually to protest with survivor because of evil ways. English: Child II 281 No. 86; Danish: Grundtvig Danmarks Gamle Folkeviser No. 89b; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3526; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 114 No. 6; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 6 No. 47; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 245; West Indies: Flowers 428.

E221.1. †E221.1. Dead wife haunts husband on second marriage. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 146; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 185; England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E221.2. †E221.2. Dead wife returns to reprove husband's second wife. Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman; N. Am. Indian (Pawnee): Grinnell Pawnee Hero Stories 129.

E221.2.1. †E221.2.1. Dead wife returns to reprove husband's second wife for abusing her step-children. N. Am. Indian (Fox): Jones PAES I 153.

E221.3. †E221.3. Dead husband returns to reprove wife's second husband (lover). Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E221.4. †E221.4. Dead husband returns to protest wife's spending his money. U.S.: Baughman.

E221.5. †E221.5. Dead wife torments husband who has let her die of neglect. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E222. †E222. Dead mother's malevolent return. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 94, 104, Beal XXI 330, 333.

E222.0.1. †E222.0.1. Mother haunts daughter. England: Baughman.

E222.1. †E222.1. Mother's ghost tries to tear daughter to pieces. English: Child V 303b.

E222.2. †E222.2. Dead mother haunts daughter who marries against mother's will. England: Baughman.

E222.3. †E222.3. Dead mother returns to invoke curse on murderer-son. Greek: Aeschylus Eumenides line 115.

E225. †E225. Ghost of murdered child. English: *Child I 218 No. 20; Tobler 30; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 114 No. 9; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 39 No. 9; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 40 No. 3; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 241, 244; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 392, 410, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 181.

E225.1. †E225.1. Ghost of abortion. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 274, 392, 410, 439, Holm 88, Rasmussen III 181f.

E226. †E226. Dead brother's return.

E226.1. †E226.1. Dead brother reproves sister's pride. English: Child I 428ff.

E228. †E228. The dead daughter reproaches her mother for putting her dowery into coffin. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E229. †E229. Dead relative's malevolent return -- miscellaneous.

E229.1. †E229.1. "If I were not your next of kin." Ghost tells man that otherwise he would tear him into pieces. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 328 No. 29.

E230. †E230. Return from dead to inflict punishment.

E231. †E231. Return from dead to reveal murder. Fb "gjenganger" I 443b, "lig" II 411b; Wimberly 261; England, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 245; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 677; West Indies: Flowers 429; Jewish: bin Gorion V 213, 306, *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda. --N. Am. Indian (Fox): Jones PAES I 93ff., (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 173 No. 33, 670 No. 129; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 39, Rasmussen III 145, Kroeber JAFL XII 181, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 236; Africa (Fang): Tessman 118.

E231.1. †E231.1. Ghost tells name of murderer. Wales: Baughman.

E231.2. †E231.2. Ghost skeleton points lance at murderer. U.S.: Baughman.

E231.3. †E231.3. Ghost light hovers over hiding place of body of murdered person. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E231.4. †E231.4. Noise of chains leads to buried ghost. (Cf. †E402.1.4.) England: Baughman.

E231.5. †E231.5. Ghost returns to murderer, causes him to confess. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E232. †E232. Return from the dead to slay wicked person. Alphabet No. 772; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 111.

E232.1. †E232.1. Return from dead to slay own murderer. U.S.: *Baughman.

E232.2. †E232.2. Ghost returns to slay man who has injured it while living. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E232.3. †E232.3. Ghost kills man who interferes with ghostly activity. U.S.: Baughman.

E232.4. †E232.4. Ghost returns to slay enemies. U.S.: Baughman; S. Am. Indian (Guaporé River): Lévi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 378.

E234. †E234. Ghost punishes injury received in life.

E234.0.1. †E234.0.1. Ghost returns to demand vengeance. (Cf. †E232.2.) U.S.: *Baughman.

E234.1. †E234.1. Ghost slaps face of son who cheated him out of property. A cancer grows on son's face. Canada: Baughman.

E234.2. †E234.2. Ghost stampedes stolen cattle being driven past his ranch. U.S.: Baughman.

E234.3. †E234.3. Return from dead to avenge death (murder). Irish myth: Cross; England, U.S.: *Baughman (†E233).

E234.4. †E234.4. Ghost an unjustly executed man. Real murderer found. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 194.

E235. †E235. Return from dead to punish indignities to corpse, or ghost. Ireland: Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 245; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3532; India: Thompson-Balys.

E235.1. †E235.1. Ghost punishes person who mocks him. Fb "sjæl" III 214b, "gjenganger" I 443b; Spanish Exempla: Keller; U.S.: Baughman.

E235.2. †E235.2. Ghost returns to demand proper burial. Fb "lig" II 411b; Irish: *Cross, Baughman; Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 199.

E235.2.1. †E235.2.1. Dead man speaks demanding proper funeral rites. India: Thompson-Balys.

E235.2.2. †E235.2.2. Ghost returns because corpse was not properly burned. India: Thompson-Balys.

E235.3. †E235.3. Return from dead as punishment for trying to raise ghost. (Cf. †E384ff., †F491.7.) Ghost accuses man of stealing a trifle and thus has revenge. Fb "stjæle" III 575b; England: *Baughman.

E235.4. †E235.4. Return from dead to punish theft of part of corpse. (Cf. †E419.7.) Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 6 No. 49.

E235.4.1. †E235.4.1. Return from dead to punish theft of golden arm from grave. *Type 366; Köhler-Bolte I 47, 133. --Gascon: Bladé II 324 No. 4; English: Baughman.

E235.4.2. †E235.4.2. Return from dead to punish theft of leg from grave. *Type 366; BP III 480; Köhler-Bolte I 133; Fb "rædehistorie". --English: Baughman; French: Cosquin Lorraine II 76 No. 41; Gascon Bladé II 328 No. 5.

E235.4.3. †E235.4.3. Return from dead to punish theft of bone from grave. *Type 366; Fb "menneskeben" II 579a; Köhler-Bolte I 133; England, U.S.: Baughman; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "os".

E235.4.4. †E235.4.4. Return from dead to punish theft of liver from man on gallows. *Type 366; *BP III 478; Fb "lever" II 404b.

E235.4.5. †E235.4.5. Return from dead to punish theft of skull. England, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 115 Nos. 14, 15; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 328 No. 29.

E235.4.6. †E235.4.6. Return from dead to punish theft of teeth. U.S. (S. Carolina): Baughman.

E235.5. †E235.5. Return from dead to punish kicking of skull. (Cf. †C13.) N. Am. Indian (Tlingit): Swanton BBAE XXXIX 247 No. 86.

E235.6. †E235.6. Return from dead to punish disturber of grave. England, U.S.: Baughman; Jewish: bin Gorion II 160, 348, 360, Neuman.

E235.7. †E235.7. Return from the dead to capture thief. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E235.8. †E235.8. Corpse of saint sits up and looks at people who open grave and come to claim his body. India: Thompson-Balys.

E236. †E236. Return from dead to demand stolen property. *Fb "spøgelse" III 520a; Icelandic: Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3565; N. Carolina: Brown Collection I 676.

E236.1. †E236.1. Return from dead to demand clothing stolen from grave. Type 366; Fb "død" I 228, "ligskjorte" II 425; *BP III 482 n. 1; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 116 No. 16; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3534.

E236.1.1. †E236.1.1. Return from dead to demand ring stolen from corpse. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3533, Balys Ghosts; England, U.S.: Baughman; U.S. (N. Carolina): Brown Collection I 676.

E236.2. †E236.2. Return from dead to demand stolen children. Tobler 84.

E236.3. †E236.3. Return from the dead to warn thief that he will be punished. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

E236.4. †E236.4. Return from the dead because last will was not fulfilled. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E236.4.1. †E236.4.1. Ghost appears at time of death, foils lawyer who is counterfeiting a will for the newly-deceased. England, Holland: *Baughman.

E236.4.2. †E236.4.2. Ghost appears to remind his brother of the terms of his will. U.S.: Baughman.

E236.5. †E236.5. Return from dead to demand money stolen from corpse. Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 161 No. 29.

E236.6. †E236.6. Ghost drives away his relatives who are trying to get estate from his wife. England, U.S.: Baughman.

E236.7. †E236.7. Ghostly noises disturb village until stolen church plate is returned. (Cf. †E402.) England: Baughman.

E236.8. †E236.8. Ghost seeks repayment of stolen money. England, Wales: *Baughman.

E238. †E238. Dinner with the dead. Dead man is invited to dinner. Takes his host to other world. *Type 470; **MacKay; Hartland Science 192f.; U.S.: Baughman; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "repas"; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 470A*; Estonian: Aarne in FFC XX No. 472*; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC No. 835*. Cf. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 79.

E238.1. †E238.1. Dance with the dead. Girl invites dead to come from grave and dance with her. Difficult escape. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 365B*; Balys Ghosts (†E225.8); Prussian: Plenzat 20.

E241. †E241. Ghosts punish intruders into ghost town. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 238, 240.

E242. †E242. Ghosts punish intruders into mass (procession) of ghosts. Köhler-Bolte I 133; Gascon: Bladé II 266 No. 3; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 112f. Nos. 1, 2; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3558; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 39 No. 1; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 39 No. 1; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 48 Nos 64, 65.

E243. †E243. Ghosts attack bishop who has suspended priest for singing for all Christian souls. Alphabet No. 686; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E245. †E245. Ghosts punish failure to provide for their wants. Haunt man because he does not leave food and drink for them. Corsican: Ortoli Contes de la Corse (Paris, 1883) 337; Africa (Kweli): Sieber 90.

E246. †E246. Ghosts punish failure to sacrifice to them. Greek: Grote I 278; S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 109; Africa: Werner African 198.

E247. †E247. Ghost kills man who had had ghost exorcised for too short a time. England: Baughman.

E250. †E250. Bloodthirsty revenants.

E251. †E251. Vampire. Corpse which comes from grave at night and sucks blood. (Cf. †B16.7.1, †E268.) *Types 307, 363; *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 322 (327 bibliography of literary treatments); *v. Negelein ibid. XIV 19; *Jaworskij ibid. VIII 331; *Hock Die Vampyrsagen und ihre Verwertung in der deutschen Literatur (Berlin, 1900); *Penzer VI 136, X 346 s. v. "vampires", 350 s. v. "Vetala"; *Fb "blod" IV 47a, "vampyr" IV 361b; *Kittredge Witchcraft 43, 397 n. 160; *Havecost Die Vampirsage in England (1914); Stetson The Animistic Vampire in New England (AA o.s. IX [1896] 1ff.); *Encyc. Rel. Ethics s. v. "Vampire"; Summers **The Vampire in Europe (London, 1929), **The Vampire, its Kith and Kin (London, 1928); *Feilberg Am Urquell III 331ff., VI 84; Wehrhan Die Sage 62; *E. Jobbé-Duval Les morts malfaisants (Paris, 1924) --England: Tupper and Ogle, Map 125f.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "vampirisme"; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3543; Greek: Fox 278 (Stringes); Slavic: Máchal 231f.; Assyrian: Spence 265; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: Dixon 231f.; Kai (German New Guinea): ibid. 143; West Indies: Flowers 429; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 357 n. 287e; S. Am. Indian (Araucanian): Alexander Lat. Am. 329.

E251.1. †E251.1. Vampire's power overcome. Penzer VI 138.

E251.1.1. †E251.1.1. Vampire's power overcome by endurance and prayer. Hero continues to pray without looking or speaking while vampire punishes him. *Type 307; Japanese: Ikeda.

E251.1.2. †E251.1.2. Hand of vampire severed by cutting off hand of drawn figure. Penzer IX 27 n. 1.

E251.2. †E251.2. Vampire brought to life.

E251.2.1. †E251.2.1. Vampire brought to life through endurance of punishment by her victim. *Type 307.

E251.2.2. †E251.2.2. Prince plucks from grave of vampire a flower which later becomes a girl. *BP II 126f.

E251.2.3. †E251.2.3. Vampire brought to life by being fed human food and drink. Africa (Ronga): Junod Les Chants et les Contes des Ba-Ronga de la baie de Delagoa (Lausanne, 1897) 317ff. No. 30.

E251.3. †E251.3. Deeds of vampires.

E251.3.1. †E251.3.1. Vampires eat corpses. *Type 363. --Cf. Fb "hud" I 661; India: Thompson-Balys.

E251.3.1.1. †E251.3.1.1. Ghosts roast girl daily in oven and devour her flesh. India: Thompson-Balys.

E251.3.2. †E251.3.2. Vampire milks cows dry. *Kittredge Witchcraft 166, 485 n. 27.

E251.3.3. †E251.3.3. Vampire sucks blood. U.S.: *Baughman.

E251.3.4. †E251.3.4. Ghost sucks people's breath. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 173.

E251.4. †E251.4. Form of Vampire.

E251.4.1. †E251.4.1. Vampire with elephant face. Penzer VII 163.

E251.4.2. †E251.4.2. Vampire with ass's ears. Penzer VII 163.

E251.4.3. †E251.4.3. Vampire with eyes of owls. Penzer VII 163.

E251.4.4. †E251.4.4. God with form and characteristics of vampire. India: Thompson-Balys.

E251.5. †E251.5. Vampire plant. U.S.: Baughman.

E253. †E253. Ghost tries to kill person for food. Africa (Nyang): Ittman 58.

E255. †E255. Ghosts flay corpse. Fb "hud" I 661.

E256. †E256. Ghosts eat corpse. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 238.

E257. †E257. Ghosts seek firewood to roast man. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 99.

E259. †E259. Bloodthirsty revenants -- miscellaneous.

E259.1. †E259.1. Corpse bites off woman's nose. India: Thompson-Balys.

E259.2. †E259.2. Ghosts may eat only female animals. Africa (Bulu): Krug 108f.

E260. †E260. Other malevolent revenants.

E261. †E261. Wandering ghost makes attack. Unprovoked and usually unmotivated. Irish: Jacobs Celtic 200, Kennedy 180, O'Suilleabhain 30, 99, Beal XXI 309, 331; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 246; Icelandic: *Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3542, Legends No. 712; Russian: Ralston 271, 274, 313; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 27 Nos. 229--240; cf. 2 Nos. 15--17; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 40 No. 11; N. Am. Indian (Kathlamet): Boas BBAE XXVI 182, 184 (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 225.

E261.1. †E261.1. Wandering skull pursues man. *Brown The Wandering Skull (Am. Journ. Philology XI 423ff.); Indonesian: DeVries Volksverhalen I 299; N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Benedict 342.

E261.1.1. †E261.1.1. Ghost's flying head attacks slayer. Japanese: Anesaki 307.

E261.1.2. †E261.1.2. Speaking skull tells about previous life, reveals future events, etc. Krappe Moyen Age XXVII (1926); India: *Thompson-Balys.

E261.1.3. †E261.1.3. Hero attacked by revenant with half a head, carrying man with half a body. (Cf. †E461, †E422.1.1, †F511.0.5.) Irish myth: Cross.

E261.2. †E261.2. Dead arises when shroud bursts and pursues attendant. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 113 No. 3; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *369; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 39 No. 3; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 40 No. 4.

E261.2.1. †E261.2.1. Coffin bursts; dead arises and pursues attendant. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E261.3. †E261.3. Man attacked on Christmas night by dancing ghosts. Finnish: Swedish Wessman 6 No. 46.

E261.4. †E261.4. Ghost pursues man. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 677, 681; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 409, 463, Rasmussen III 182, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 62.

E261.4.1. †E261.4.1. Ghost of witch in her coffin chases man. U.S.: Baughman.

E261.5. †E261.5. Ghost beats living man with whip. U.S.: Baughman.

E262. †E262. Ghost rides on man's back. *Fb "ryg" III 103a, "spøgelse" III 520a; E. H. Meyer Germanische 76; Schönbach Sitzungsberichte d. Phil. Hist. Classe der Kaiserl. Akad. d. Wiss. zu. Wien CXXXIX (1890) 135; Icelandic: Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3511.

E263. †E263. Adulteress returns from dead as devastating dragon. *Herbert III 18, 279.

E264. †E264. Ghost drives priest into oven. Fb "ovn" II 774a.

E265. †E265. Meeting ghost causes misfortune. Fb "spøgelse" III 519b.

E265.1. †E265.1. Meeting ghost causes sickness. (Cf. †D2064.)

E265.1.1. †E265.1.1. Blow received from a spirit at night; that side paralyzed. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts; England: *Baughman.

E265.1.2. †E265.1.2. Ghost of father slaps son's face; a cancer grows there. Canada: Baughman.

E265.1.3. †E265.1.3. Ghost strikes man in face, making his mouth crooked. Ireland: Baughman.

E265.2. †E265.2. Meeting ghost causes person to go mad. (Cf. †D2065.) Ireland, U.S.: Baughman.

E265.3. †E265.3. Meeting ghost causes death. (Cf. †E574.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E266. †E266. Dead carry off living. Wimberly 257; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 468; Africa (Bulu): Krug 109.

E266.1. †E266.1. Ghost of suicide drags people into stream. England: *Baughman.

E266.1.1. †E266.1.1. Ghost claims a life every seven years by drowning person in river. England: *Baughman.

E266.2. †E266.2. Ghost leads people to commit suicide. U.S.: Baughman.

E267. †E267. Dead tears living to pieces. Wimberly 264.

E268. †E268. Ghost (revenant) kills by spewing water from his mouth on Hallowe'en. (Cf. †F211.1.1.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E271. †E271. Sea-ghosts. Ghosts which haunt the sea. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 40ff. Nos. 6, 17--22.

E271.1. †E271.1. Ghost brings disaster on sailors. U.S., England: *Baughman.

E271.2. †E271.2. Sea-ghost predicting death. Norwegian: Solheim Register 17.

E272. †E272. Road-ghosts. (Cf. †E332ff., †E582.) Ghosts which haunt roads. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 40 No. 10; England, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 248; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 674.

E272.1. †E272.1. Ghost rides in cart. Horse can scarcely pull cart, later dies or goes mad. (Cf. †D1654.9, †E332, †E411.0.3.) Ireland, England: Baughman.

E272.2. †E272.2. Ghost rides behind rider on horse. (Cf. †E215.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E272.3. †E272.3. Ghost frightens people off bridge into stream. England, Wales: *Baughman.

E272.4. †E272.4. Ghost chases pedestrian on road. England: Baughman.

E272.5. †E272.5. Ghost misleads traveler on road. See similar actions of fairies, witches, Will-o-the-wisp. (Cf. †F402.1.1.) Wales: Baughman.

E273. †E273. Churchyard ghosts. Fb "spøgelse" III 519b; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 40 No. 8; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 675.

E273.1. †E273.1. Ghosts prevent burial of corpse. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 6 No. 44.

E274. †E274. Gallows ghost. Ghost haunts gallows. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 40 No. 9; U.S.: Baughman.

E275. †E275. Ghost haunts place of great accident or misfortune. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 25 No. 225.

E275.1. †E275.1. Ghost haunts mine after tragedy. (Cf. †E336.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E276. †E276. Ghosts haunt tree. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 679.

E278. †E278. Ghosts haunt spring. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 678.

E279. †E279. Malevolent revenants -- miscellaneous.

E279.1. †E279.1. The ghost haunts outside at night in human shape. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E279.2. †E279.2. Ghost disturbs sleeping person. (Cf. †E281.2.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E279.3. †E279.3. Ghost pulls bedclothing from sleeper. England, Ireland, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E279.4. †E279.4. Ghost haunts park, terrifies watchers. England: Baughman.

E279.5. †E279.5. Ghost violently brands drunkard with "D". U.S.: Baughman.

E279.6. †E279.6. Ghost punishes person who molests him. England, Ireland, Wales: *Baughman.

E279.7. †E279.7. Ghosts blow smithy into air. India: Thompson-Balys.

E280. †E280. Ghosts haunt buildings. (Cf. †H1411.)

E281. †E281. Ghosts haunt house. (It is sometimes hard to tell whether haunters are supposed to be ghosts or familiar spirits of some kind.) *Type 326; BP I 22ff.; Scotch: Campbell Tales II 290, 299; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 33, Beal XXI 310; England, Scotland, U.S.: Baughman (†F470); North Carolina: Brown Collection I 669, 671; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 248; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 311 No. 46, 323 No. 101; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3505; Finnish-Swedish Wessman 25 Nos. 220--222.

E281.0.1. †E281.0.1. Ghost kills man who stays in haunted house. U.S.: Baughman.

E281.1. †E281.1. Hungry ghosts haunt house seeking food. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 241.

E281.2. †E281.2. Ghostly horse enters house and puts hoofs on breast of sleeper. Tobler 50.

E281.3. †E281.3. Ghost haunts particular room in house. England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E282. †E282. Ghosts haunt castle. (Cf. †F771.4.5.) Type 1160. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "château".

E283. †E283. Ghosts haunt church. *Type 326. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "église", "chapelle"; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 40 No. 7.

E284. †E284. Ghost haunts cloister. Herbert III 83 (Étienne de Bourbon).

E285. †E285. Ghost haunts well, prevents drawing water after dark. England: Baughman.

E290. †E290. Malevolent return from the dead -- miscellaneous.

E291. †E291. Ghosts protect hidden treasure.

E291.1. †E291.1. Person burying treasure kills person to supply guardian ghost. U.S.: Baughman.

E291.2. †E291.2. Form of treasure-guarding ghost.

E291.2.1. †E291.2.1. Ghost in human form guards treasure. Canada, England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E291.2.2. †E291.2.2. Ghost animal guards treasure. U.S.: *Baughman.

E292. †E292. Ghost causes storms. England: *Baughman.

E293. †E293. Ghosts frighten people (deliberately). England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E293.1. †E293.1. Ghost scares thief, prevents theft. England: *Baughman.

E293.2. †E293.2. Ghost scares card players. U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E299. †E299. Miscellaneous acts of malevolent ghosts.

E299.1. †E299.1. Ghost causes machinery to run unattended. Canada, England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E299.2. †E299.2. Ghost prevents removal of box from abbey. The box takes on miraculous weight. England: Baughman.

E299.3. †E299.3. Ghost upsets farmers' wagons. England: Baughman.

E299.4. †E299.4. Ghost breaks windows. U.S.: Baughman.

E299.5. †E299.5. Ghost unties boats, setting them adrift. Canada: Baughman.

†E300-†E399. Friendly return from the dead.

E300. †E300. Friendly return from the dead. Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 331; Jewish: Neuman.

E310. †E310. Dead lover's friendly return. (Cf. †E210.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; German: Erk-Böhme Deutscher Liederhort No. 201a; N. Am. Indian (Pawnee): Grinnell Pawnee Hero Stories (New York, 1889) 191, Dorsey CI LIX 126 No. 34, (Sioux): Dorsey RBAE XI 490, (Zuñi): Cushing 19.

E311. †E311. Return from dead to return and ask back love tokens. English: Child II 228.

E320. †E320. Dead relative's friendly return.

E321. †E321. Dead husband's friendly return.

E321.1. †E321.1. Dead husband sends his ring to his wife. Fb "ring".

E321.2. †E321.2. Dead husband returns and lives with his wife. He is invisible to others. (Cf. †F378.) N. Am. Indian (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II (1889) 148.

E321.2.1. †E321.2.1. Dead husband returns, helps wife knit socks, piece quilts. She shows his work as proof. U.S.: Baughman.

E321.2.2. †E321.2.2. Dead man visits his wife every night. India: Thompson-Balys.

E321.3. †E321.3. Dead husband returns, asks wife to make him coffee. U.S.: Baughman.

E321.4. †E321.4. Ghost often visits his widow and her new husband. England: Baughman.

E321.5. †E321.5. Ghost appears often to wife and daughter. U.S.: Baughman.

E322. †E322. Dead wife's friendly return. (Cf. †E221.2.) Irish: O'Suilleabhain 104, Beal XXI 333; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Iroquois): Smith RBAE II 103, (Pawnee): Grinnell Pawnee Hero Stories (New York, 1889) 129, (Osage): Dorsey FM VII 43 No. 36.

E322.1. †E322.1. Dead wife returns and bears children for husband. *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323.

E322.2. †E322.2. Dead wife returns to wake husband. *Types 403, 450. --New York: Jones JAFL LVII 245.

E322.2.1. †E322.2.1. Dead wife returns and asks husband to go with her to spirit world. India: Thompson-Balys.

E322.3. †E322.3. Wife in heaven by day, with husband by night. Hindu: Tawney II 577.

E322.4. †E322.4. Dead wife returns in form of bird. Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 183; India: Thompson-Balys.

E322.5. †E322.5. Man carries his dead wife with him. *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323f.

E322.6. †E322.6. Dead wife returns to live with her husband until his death. U.S.: *Baughman; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

E322.7. †E322.7. Dead wife returns to another person to have him write a letter to her husband. England: Baughman.

E322.8. †E322.8. Return from dead and remarriage to husband. Chinese: Graham.

E322.9. †E322.9. Man talks to dead wife in grave. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 453.

E323. †E323. Dead mother's friendly return. *Jellinek Zs f. Vksk. XIV 323f.; *Fb "moder" II 600b, "spøgelse" III 520a; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "mère"; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3527; Jewish: *Neuman.

E323.1. †E323.1. Dead mother returns to see baby. U.S.: Baughman.

E323.1.1. †E323.1.1. Dead mother returns to suckle child. *Types 403, 450; *BP I 96; *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 No. 27; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 260; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 350 n. 263, (Luiseño): DuBois UCal VIII 153; Africa (Kweli): Sieber 89; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 266 No. 74, 275 No. 88.

E323.1.2. †E323.1.2. Dead mother returns to care for neglected baby. Tobler 92f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Papua: Ker 131; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 67.

E323.2. †E323.2. Dead mother returns to aid persecuted children. *Types 510A, 511, 923; Cox 475 n. 4; *BP I 165ff.; *MacCulloch Childhood 108; *Cosquin Contes indiens 504ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6; Jewish: Neuman; Oceanic (Hawaii, Indonesia, Micronesia, Melanesia): Dixon 89 nn. 97--100; West Indies: Flowers 429; Africa (Cameroons): Mansfield 228.

E323.2.1. †E323.2.1. Dead mother (in animal form) returns to aid persecuted children. Chinese: Graham.

E323.3. †E323.3. Dead mother called up from grave to give her son charms. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 124.

E323.4. †E323.4. Advice from dead mother. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Hausa): Equilbecq III 291ff.

E323.5. †E323.5. Mother returns to search for dead child. England, Ireland: *Baughman.

E323.6. †E323.6. Mother returns to encourage daughter in great difficulties. England: Baughman.

E323.7. †E323.7. Dead mother makes son strong. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 158.

E324. †E324. Dead child's friendly return to parents. Frequently to stop weeping. (Cf. †P230.) *BP II 485; *Fb "hånd" I 765a; Dieterich Zs. f. Vksk. XII 147; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 41, Beal XXI 315; English: Child II 238f., III 244f., 247, V 241, Baughman; U.S.: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3525; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Chinese: Werner 314; N. Am. Indian (Pawnee): Grinnell Pawnee Hero Stories (New York, 1889) 145; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 161.

E324.1. †E324.1. Voice of son answers his mother from the grave only when called by his pet name. India: Thompson-Balys.

E324.2. †E324.2. Ghost family visits grave of father. England: Baughman.

E325. †E325. Dead sister's friendly return. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 98; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 178.

E326. †E326. Dead brother's friendly return. Dieterich Zs. f. Vksk. XII 147; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 102, Beal XXI 332; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 446.

E327. †E327. Dead father's friendly return. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; U.S.: Baughman; Greek: Aeschylus Prometheus Bound 195; Latin: Virgil Aeneid V 724; Chinese: Graham.

E327.1. †E327.1. Dead father returns to daughter to stop her weeping. (Cf. †E324.) Scotland: Baughman.

E327.2. †E327.2. Dead father returns to encourage daughter in childbirth. U.S.: Baughman.

E327.3. †E327.3. Dead father returns to clear son's name of crime. England: *Baughman.

E327.4. †E327.4. Ghost of father returns to rebuke child. U.S.: Baughman.

E327.5. †E327.5. Dead father returns in form of bird. (Cf. †E322.4.) India: Thompson-Balys.

E330. †E330. Locations haunted by non-malevolent dead. (Cf. †E270-†E284 for locations haunted by malevolent ghosts.).

E332. †E332. Non-malevolent road ghosts. (Cf. †E272, †E581, †E582.)

E332.1. †E332.1. Ghost appears at road and stream. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E332.2. †E332.2. Person meets ghost on road. Canada, England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E332.3. †E332.3. Ghost on road asks traveler for ride. (Cf. †E581, †E582.)

E332.3.1. †E332.3.1. Ghost rides on horseback with rider. (Cf. †E215.) U.S.: Baughman.

E332.3.2. †E332.3.2. Ghost rides in carriage, disappears suddenly at certain spot. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E332.3.3. †E332.3.3. Ghost asks for ride in automobile.

E332.3.3.1. †E332.3.3.1. The Vanishing Hitchhiker. Ghost of young woman asks for ride in automobile, disappears from closed car without the driver's knowledge, after giving him address to which she wishes to be taken. Driver asks person at address about the rider, finds she has been dead for some time. (Often driver finds that ghost has made similar attempts to return, usually on anniversary of death in automobile accident. Often ghost leaves some item such as a scarf or a traveling bag in car.) **Beardsley and Hankey California Folklore Quarterly I 303ff.; Hawaii, U.S.: *Baughman.

E332.3.3.2. †E332.3.3.2. Deity as ghostly rider. Hawaii: *Baughman.

E333. †E333. Non-malevolent churchyard ghost. (Cf. †E273.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E334. †E334. Non-malevolent ghost haunts scene of former misfortune, crime, or tragedy. (C.f. †E336, †E337, †E338, †E339.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E334.1. †E334.1. Ghost haunts scene of former crime or sin. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E334.2. †E334.2. Ghost haunts burial spot. (Cf. †E411.1.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E334.2.1. †E334.2.1. Ghost of murdered person haunts burial spot. (Cf. †E413.) Canada, England, Ireland, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E334.2.2. †E334.2.2. Ghost of person killed in accident seen at death or burial spot. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E334.2.3. †E334.2.3. Ghost of tragic lover haunts scene of tragedy. (Cf. †E337.3.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E334.3. †E334.3. Ghost of person abandoned by faithless lover. (Cf. †E211ff.) England, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.

E334.4. †E334.4. Ghost of suicide seen at death spot or near by. (Cf. †E411.1.1, †E431.16.) England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E334.5. †E334.5. Ghost of soldier haunts battlefield. England: *Baughman.

E336. †E336. Non-malevolent mine ghosts. (Cf. †E275.1, †E334.5.1, †F456.)

E336.1. †E336.1. Helpful mine ghosts. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E336.2. †E336.2. Mine ghosts annoy miners. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E337. †E337. Ghost reenacts scene from own lifetime. U.S.: Baughman.

E337.1. †E337.1. Sounds of re-enacted actions. (Cf. †E402.)

E337.1.1. †E337.1.1. Murder sounds heard just as they must have happened at time of death. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E337.1.2. †E337.1.2. Sounds of accident re-enact tragedy. U.S.: *Baughman.

E337.1.3. †E337.1.3. Sounds of revelry heard. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E337.1.4. †E337.1.4. Sounds of driving cattle: horse's hoofs, whip-popping, calling to cattle, rattle of spurs: ghost of slain cowboy. U.S.: Baughman.

E337.2. †E337.2. Re-enactment of tragedy seen. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E337.3. †E337.3. Lovers' tragedy re-enacted. (Cf. †E334.5.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E338. †E338. Non-malevolent ghost haunts building. See †E281, †E402. England, Ireland, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E338.1. †E338.1. Non-malevolent ghost haunts house or castle. England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E338.2. †E338.2. Non-malevolent ghost haunts church. (Cf. †E283.) England: *Baughman.

E338.3. †E338.3. Non-malevolent ghost haunts cloister. England: Baughman.

E340. †E340. Return from dead to repay obligation.

E341. †E341. The grateful dead. Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 313; Icelandic: Boberg.

E341.1. †E341.1. Dead grateful for having corpse ransomed. Corpse is being held unburied because of nonpayment of debts. Hero pays debt and secures burial of corpse. --*Types 505--508; **Liljeblad Die Tobiasgeschichte und andere Märchen mit toten Helfern; *BP III 490ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 5, 222ff., 424; **Gerould The Grateful Dead (London, 1908); *Goebel Jüdische Motive in märchenhaftem Erzählungsgut (Gleiwitz, 1932) 38ff.; *Fb "lig" II 412b, "død" I 228a. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "mort"; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 299 No. 13; Jewish: bin Gorion I 176, 374, V 76, 299, VI 224, 316; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Teit JE VIII 385 No. 93.

E341.1.1. †E341.1.1. Dead grateful for having been spared indignity to corpse. Kind man has given it burial. U.S.: Baughman; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

E341.2. †E341.2. Dead grateful for food. N. Am. Indian (Canadian Dakota): Wallis JAFL XXXVI 48.

E341.3. †E341.3. Dead grateful for prayers. Tatlock MPh XXII 211f.; Alphabet Nos. 18, 519, 587; Nouvelles de Sens No. 15; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 102, Baughman.

E341.4. †E341.4. Dead grateful for clothes (shirt). Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E341.5. †E341.5. Grateful priest returns to save gambler from devil. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 36.

E342. †E342. Dead return to fulfill bargain. Irish myth: *Cross.

E345. †E345. Dead returns to repair injury. Fb "spøgelse" III 521b.

E345.1. †E345.1. Dead returns to replace boundary marks he has removed. (Cf. †E416.) *Fb "skjel" III 264a; Tobler 93; England, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Miller NYFQ I 105f.; Irish: Beal XXI 310, O'Suilleabhain 33.

E351. †E351. Dead returns to repay money debt. Herbert III 96 No. 38; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 327 No. 23; cf. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 13; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 53, 97, Beal XXI 319, 331; Scotland: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

E352. †E352. Dead returns to restore stolen goods. *BP III 235; Tobler 65; Fb "gjenganger" I 443b. --Irish: O'Suilleabhain 98, Beal XXI 331; England: *Baughman; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 80, 327 No. 23.

E353. †E353. Dead man asks that certain girl be married to him because in life he seduced her. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E360. †E360. Other reasons for friendly return from the dead.

E361. †E361. Return from the dead to stop weeping. *BP II 485; Wimberly 110, 230ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 433a s. v. "Eddamärchen"; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 831; Legenda Aurea (ed. Grässe) 132; *Fb "hånd" I 765a, "tåre" III 947a, "græde" IV 187b; Dieterich Zs. f. Vksk. XII 147. --Icelandic: *Boberg; English: Child II 234ff., 512., III 513, V 62, 294; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 2 No. 18; Persian: Carnoy 345.

E361.1. †E361.1. Tear from upper world of mortals falls on departed in lower world. Dead brother sends message of comfort to living. N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Alexander N. Am. 137.

E361.2. †E361.2. Return from dead to give consoling message. Irish myth: *Cross.

E361.3. †E361.3. Dead son tells mother that no mortal escapes death. India: Thompson-Balys.

E363. †E363. Ghost returns to aid living.

E363.1. †E363.1. Ghost aids living in emergency. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E363.1.1. †E363.1.1. Ghost substitutes for bride on her wedding journey. India: Thompson-Balys.

E363.2. †E363.2. Ghost returns to protect the living. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

E363.3. †E363.3. Ghost warns the living. England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E363.4. †E363.4. Dead reassures living. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E363.5. †E363.5. Dead provide material aid to living. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E363.5.1. †E363.5.1. Ghost of murdered girl appears and lends jewels needed for a ball in exchange for flowers. India: Thompson-Balys.

E363.6. †E363.6. Ghost aids living otherwise. England, Scotland: *Baughman.

E364. †E364. Dead returns to say farewell. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3502, Balys Ghosts.

E365. †E365. Return from dead to ask forgiveness. *Fb "tilgive", Feilberg DF X 74f; Irish myth: *Cross; Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 115 No. 13.

E365.1. †E365.1. Return of the dead to grant forgiveness. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

E366. †E366. Return from dead to give counsel. (Cf. †V229.1.) *Type 510; Irish: *Cross, O'Suilleabhain 101, Beal XXI 332; Icelandic: *Boberg; Sicilian: Gonzenbach I 10 No. 3; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 no. 29; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 191; Korean: Zong in-Sob 133ff. --N. Am. Indian (Iroquois): Smith RBAE II 104, (Onondaga): Jewitt RBAE XXI 148, 262, (Skidi Pawnee): Dorsey MAFLS VIII 49 No. 10, (Arapaho): Dorsey and Kroeber FM V 49, 259 Nos. 15, 110; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 219; S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 110; Africa (Jaunde): Heepe 260, (Fang): Tessman 99f., 173, 193.

E366.1. †E366.1. Laughing skull advises hero. (Cf. †E545.) *Cosquin Études 351ff.

E366.2. †E366.2. Hanged man warns youth against visiting sweetheart. Takes youth's place and receives shot meant for him. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3566, Balys Ghosts.

E366.3. †E366.3. Talking bones of eaten man advise hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

E367. †E367. Return from dead to preach repentance. Wesselski Arlotto I 201 No. 29; Irish: Beal XXI 332, O'Suilleabhain 100; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 3 No. 23.

E367.1. †E367.1. Person who has spent two years in hell speaks of importance of religious experience. Irish myth: *Cross.

E367.2. †E367.2. Saint returns from dead to give blessing. Irish myth: *Cross.

E367.3. †E367.3. Return from dead to prophesy coming of Christ. (Cf. †M363, †M364.7.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E367.4. †E367.4. Return from dead to convert to Christianity. Irish myth: *Cross.

E367.5. †E367.5. Ghost of woman chides unbeliever. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 291.

E368. †E368. Pupil returns from dead to warn master of futility of his studies. *Crane Vitry 145f. No. 31; Alphabet Nos. 151, 700; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E371. †E371. Return from dead to reveal hidden treasure. (Cf. †E276, †E291, †E419.11.2.) *Fb "spøgelse" III 521b; Tobler 34f.; Loomis White Magic 53; England, Wales, Ireland, Canada, U.S.: *Baughman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 827.

E371.1. †E371.1. Return from dead to reveal whereabouts of stolen goods. Irish myth: Cross.

E371.2. †E371.2. Return from dead to repeat forgotten epic. (Cf. †A581, †J1563.7.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E371.3. †E371.3. Poet sings day after his death. (Cf. †E342, †E546.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E372. †E372. Return from the dead to seek hidden treasure. U.S.: Baughman.

E373. †E373. Ghosts bestow gifts on living.

E373.1. †E373.1. Money received from ghosts as reward for bravery. A voice says: "I am letting it fall." The man: "Let it." Money falls to the ground. *Chauvin V 78 No. 22 n. 1; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 123 No. 46; cf. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 24 No. 216; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3626; India: Thompson-Balys.

E373.2. †E373.2. Sword received from summoned dead father. Icelandic: Boberg.

E373.3. †E373.3. Woman's hand rises from grave and gives man performing vigil letter of salvation. India: Thompson-Balys.

E373.4. †E373.4. Dead returns to supply tribe with money demanded by landlord. Jewish: Neuman.

E374. †E374. Dead returns to life and tells of journey to land of dead. India: Thompson-Balys.

E374.1. †E374.1. Return of the dead to keep promise and tell of land of the dead. Two friends promise each other that the first to die will do so. Italian Novella: Rotunda; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3570.

E375. †E375. Return from dead to prevent flight of thief. Irish myth: Cross.

E376. †E376. Ghost returns to confess misdeed. England: Baughman.

E376.1. †E376.1. Saint returns from dead to exonerate cleric. Irish myth: Cross.

E377. †E377. Return from dead to teach living. Jewish: Neuman.

E377.1. †E377.1. Dead poet leaves grave mound to teach poem to herdsman: latter becomes great poet. Icelandic: Boberg.

E379. †E379. Friendly return from the dead -- other motifs.

E379.1. †E379.1. Return from dead to rescue from drowning. Irish myth: Cross.

E379.2. †E379.2. Anchorite's body rises out of river in favor to disciple. India: Thompson-Balys.

E379.3. †E379.3. Return from dead to protect friends. S. Am. Indian (Guaporé River): Lévy-Strauss III 378.

E379.4. †E379.4. Ghost as confederate of man. India: Thompson-Balys.

E379.5. †E379.5. Return from dead to make up enough men to perform ritual. Jewish: Neuman.

E380. †E380. Ghost summoned. *Fb "mane" II 547a; Irish: Beal XXI 310; Scotland: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3513; Jewish: *Neuman; Icelandic: *Boberg.

E380.1. †E380.1. Summoning souls punished: in hour of man's death they overwhelm him. India: Thompson-Balys.

E381. †E381. Ghost summoned by weeping. See all references to †E361. *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323f; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 281 n. 41.

E382. †E382. Ghost summoned by pouring blood of sacrifices into trench. Greek: Fox 145.

E383. †E383. Ghosts summoned by sacred book. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 32; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 138 No. 107; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 48 No. 107; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 597, 601; Korean: Zong in-Sob 205.

E384. †E384. Ghost summoned by music.

E384.1. †E384.1. Ghost summoned by beating drum. England: Baughman.

E384.2. †E384.2. Ghost raised inadvertently by whistling. England: Baughman.

E384.3. †E384.3. Ghost summoned by blast on horn (whistle). Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 29; S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 110.

E385. †E385. Vigil of husband at wife's grave calls her forth. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E385.1. †E385.1. Husband ignored or discouraged by ghost wife. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E386. †E386. Other means of summoning ghost.

E386.1. †E386.1. Ghost summoned by holy water. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 312.

E386.2. †E386.2. Ghost summoned by charm. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 98; MacCulloch Eddic 298--300, 312.

E386.3. †E386.3. Ghosts summoned by calling them by name. Icelandic: *Boberg; England: Baughman.

E386.4. †E386.4. Walking around a grave twelve times backward will raise the ghost. England: Baughman.

E386.5. †E386.5. Light remark about what person would do if ghost appeared causes ghost to appear. (Cf. †C10, †C13.) England: Baughman.

E387. †E387. Reasons for summoning of ghosts.

E387.1. †E387.1. Ghost summoned in order to talk to it. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E387.1.1. †E387.1.1. Dead called from their graves to make statement. *Loomis White Magic 53.

E387.2. †E387.2. Ghost summoned to get something from it.

E387.2.1. †E387.2.1. Father summoned to get his sword. Icelandic: Hervararsaga 17--33, 102--13.

E387.3. †E387.3. Ghost summoned for purposes of necromancy. Jewish: Neuman.

E389. †E389. Ghost summoned -- miscellaneous.

E389.1. †E389.1. Ghost must be summoned by king else he appears head downward. Jewish: Neuman.

E389.2. †E389.2. Summoned ghost audible and visible only to person who has summoned him. Jewish: Neuman. Cf. Shakespeare Hamlet ("ghost scene").

E390. †E390. Friendly return from the dead -- miscellaneous.

†E400-†E599. Ghosts and revenants -- miscellaneous.

E400. †E400. Ghosts and revenants -- miscellaneous. *Wimberly 451f. s. v. "Ghost", "ghosts"; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. s. v. "Gespenst"; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 353; *Feilberg Sjæletro (København, 1914). --Irish: O'Suilleabhain 62, Beal XXI 324; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "revenant"; Slavic: Máchal 230; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 44f. Nos. 40--77 passim; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 153--170, 506--519; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 41 Nos. 12--16; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 1ff., Landtman Finlands Svenska Folkdiktning VII pt. 1, 199f. --Melanesian: Dixon 142ff.

E401. †E401. Voices of dead heard from graveyard. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 63, Beal XXI 324; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 2 No. 20.

E401.0.1. †E401.0.1. Ghostly voice heard on battlefield. (Cf. †E502, †F418.) Irish myth: Cross.

E402. †E402. Mysterious ghostlike noises heard. (Song, animal cries, footsteps, etc.) (Cf. †E337.1, †E236.7.) Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 24 Nos. 211--214; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 250; England: *Baughman.

E402.1. †E402.1. Noises caused by ghost of person.

E402.1.1. †E402.1.1. Vocal sounds of ghost of human being. (Cf. †E545.

E402.1.1.1. †E402.1.1.1. Ghost calls. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E402.1.1.2. †E402.1.1.2. Ghost moans. (Cf. †E547.) Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E402.1.1.3. †E402.1.1.3. Ghost cries and screams. England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E402.1.1.4. †E402.1.1.4. Ghost sings. (Cf. †E546.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E402.1.1.5. †E402.1.1.5. Ghost snores. U.S.: Baughman.

E402.1.1.6. †E402.1.1.6. Ghost sobs. (Cf. †E551.) England: Baughman.

E402.1.2. †E402.1.2. Footsteps of invisible ghost heard. England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E402.1.3. †E402.1.3. Invisible ghost plays musical instrument. (Cf. †E548.) England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E402.1.3.1. †E402.1.3.1. Ghost sounds conch shell. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 349.

E402.1.4. †E402.1.4. Invisible ghost jingles chains. (Cf. †E231.4.) England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E402.1.5. †E402.1.5. Invisible ghost makes rapping or knocking noise. (Cf. †F470.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E402.1.6. †E402.1.6. Crash as of breaking glass, though no glass is found broken. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E402.1.7. †E402.1.7. Ghost slams door. Canada: Baughman.

E402.1.8. †E402.1.8. Miscellaneous sounds made by ghost of human being. Canada, England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E402.2. †E402.2. Sounds made by invisible ghosts of animals. (Cf. †E520.)

E402.2.1. †E402.2.1. Crowing of ghost rooster. England: Baughman.

E402.2.2. †E402.2.2. Braying of ghost donkey. England: Baughman.

E402.2.3. †E402.2.3. Hoofbeats of ghost horse. (Cf. †E423.1.3, †E521.1, †E535. 1ff.) U.S.: *Baughman.

E402.3. †E402.3. Sound made by ghostly object. (Cf. †E530.) U.S.: Baughman.

E402.4. †E402.4. Sound of ethereal music. U.S.: *Baughman.

E410. †E410. The unquiet grave. (Cf. †D2151.1.2.3.) Dead unable to rest in peace. Aside from the references given in the numbers immediately following, see †E200-†E399 passim. Jewish: *Neuman; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 48.

E410.1. †E410.1. Ground trembles or rumbles when ghost rises from grave. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E410.2. †E410.2. Ghost shakes off earth when he rises from grave. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E411. †E411. Dead cannot rest because of sin. *Herbert III 380 No. 127; Alphabet Nos. 198, 300, 386, 701, 703, 752; Irish: Beal XXI 330, O'Suilleabhain 96; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 Nos. 31--34; Spanish Exempla: Keller; England, Wales: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 242; Africa (Fang): Trilles 134.

E411.0.1. †E411.0.1. Hand of sinner sticks out of grave. *BP II 550.

E411.0.2. †E411.0.2. Unquiet dead sinner taken to priest for absolution. Type 760; Alphabet Nos. 17, 178, 303, 331, 337.

E411.0.2.1. †E411.0.2.1. Return from dead to do penance. Alphabet Nos. 363, 616. --Lithuanian: *Balys Ghosts; U.S.: Baughman.

E411.0.2.2. †E411.0.2.2. Unconfessed person cannot rest in grave. Spanish Exempla: Keller; England: Baughman.

E411.0.3. †E411.0.3. Horse unable to draw evil dead man. McKay Bealoideas III 141; Icelandic: *Boberg; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 113 No. 4; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 39 No. 4; Finnish-Swedish: cf. Wessman 1 Nos. 7--9; U.S.: *Baughman.

E411.0.3.1. †E411.0.3.1. Dead body cannot be moved from where it lies. India: Thompson-Balys.

E411.0.4. †E411.0.4. Sinner wanders between earth and heaven. Fb "selvmord" III 183b.

E411.0.5. †E411.0.5. Other dead drive sinner from graveyard. Fb "lig" II 412b.

E411.0.5.1. †E411.0.5.1. Rich man dragged from grave by demons in hallowed ground and flung into grave in unblessed ground. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E411.0.6. †E411.0.6. Earth rejects buried body. (Cf. †V62.1.) Loomis White Magic 44; Irish myth: *Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3748; Danish: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

E411.0.7. †E411.0.7. Demons cast evil man from grave leaving only his shroud. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E411.0.8. †E411.0.8. Saint's body miraculously moves so that it is laid properly north and south, not northeast and southwest. India: Thompson-Balys.

E411.1. †E411.1. Murderer cannot rest in grave. *Type 760; Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323; Fb "gjenganger" I 443b, "lig" II 412b; Tobler 83, 90. --Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 No. 32; England, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 678; Greek: Aeschylus Eumenides 100.

E411.1.1. †E411.1.1. Suicide cannot rest in grave. (Cf. †E334.7, †E431.16.) Fb "lys" II 481b, "selvmord" III 183b; Hartland Science 238; Tobler 22. --Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 No. 35, 7 No. 53; Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts; England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E411.1.1.1. †E411.1.1.1. Suicides must walk the earth until time for their natural death. England: *Baughman.

E411.2. †E411.2. Adulterous person cannot rest in grave. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 228; English: Wells 61 (Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyne), Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

E411.2.1. †E411.2.1. Priest's concubine cannot rest in grave. Herbert III 380; Wesselski Mönchslatein 163 No. 125.

E411.2.2. †E411.2.2. The devil's concubine haunts after her death. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E411.3. †E411.3. Perjurer cannot rest in grave. *Fb "sværge" III 692b, 693a.

E411.4. †E411.4. Usurer cannot rest in grave. Herbert III 83; Alphabet Nos. 704, 784; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E411.5. †E411.5. Swindler cannot rest in grave. Fb "gjenganger" I 443b; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 47 No. 326A*; England: *Baughman.

E411.6. †E411.6. Person who never said "good morning" cannot rest in grave. Tobler 64.

E411.7. †E411.7. Monk who dies without his cowl cannot rest in grave. Alphabet No. 501.

E411.8. †E411.8. Pilate appears periodically at Mt. Pilatus and washes his hands. *Hauffen Zs. f. Vksk. X 435.

E411.9. †E411.9. Magician who has sold his soul to the devil hires his servant to bury him properly: the coffin bursts. (Cf. †E261.2.1.) Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E411.10. †E411.10. Persons who die violent or accidental deaths cannot rest in grave. See all references to †E334ff., especially †E334.5, †E411.1, †E411.1.1, †E413, †E414. U.S.: Baughman.

E412. †E412. Person under religious ban cannot rest in grave.

E412.1. †E412.1. Excommunicated person cannot rest in grave. Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323.

E412.2. †E412.2. Unbaptized person cannot rest in grave. *Fb "udøbt" III 960a; Tobler 47; Irish: Beal XXI 315, O'Suilleabhain 41; England: Baughman; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3557.

E412.2.1. †E412.2.1. Unchristened person cannot rest in grave nor enter heaven. Scotland: Baughman.

E412.2.2. †E412.2.2. Mother of unbaptized child cannot rest in grave. U.S.: Baughman.

E412.3. †E412.3. Dead without proper funeral rites cannot rest. Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 228ff.; Fb "spøgelse" III 521b; Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman; Greek: Fox 145; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 3 No. 25; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 123; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 342.

E412.3.1. †E412.3.1. Dead man comes back because he was buried without a cap. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E412.3.2. †E412.3.2. Naked ghost asks for shirt and promises luck on market for man. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E412.3.2.1. †E412.3.2.1. Ghost asks to wash his shirt. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E412.3.3. †E412.3.3. Dead man asks for shoes (was buried without them). Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E412.4. †E412.4. Child cursed by father cannot rest in grave. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 2 No. 19; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3591.

E412.5. †E412.5. Ghost of church desecrator cannot rest. U.S.: Baughman.

E413. †E413. Murdered person cannot rest in grave. (C.f. all references to †E231, †E334, †E337.1.1, †E337.3.) *Fb "spøgelse" III 521a, "gjenganger" I 443b; Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323; Tobler 47; England, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 682; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 5 Nos. 37--38; Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 102ff., 334ff., (1934) 78ff., 252ff.

E414. †E414. Drowned person cannot rest in peace. (Cf. †E334.4.) Fb "spøgelse" III 521b; Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 90ff., 359ff., (1934) 70ff., 265ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 5 No. 40.

E414.1. †E414.1. Person otherwise killed by accident cannot rest in grave. Icelandic: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

E415. †E415. Dead cannot rest until certain work is finished. U.S.: Baughman (†E354); North Carolina: Brown Collection I 679; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 245; West Indies: Flowers 430.

E415.1. †E415.1. Ghost returns to hunt lost article. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 3 No. 24; U.S.: *Baughman (†E328).

E415.1.1. †E415.1.1. Ghost unlaid until iron he hid in life is found. India: Thompson-Balys.

E415.1.2. †E415.1.2. Return from dead to uncover secretly buried treasure. India: Thompson-Balys.

E415.2. †E415.2. Dead rich man returns to rebuke his children who have kept the money he promised to the church. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E415.3. †E415.3. Ghost of priest cannot rest because he failed to say certain masses for the dead. (Cf. †E341.3, †Q521.6.) Canada, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E415.4. †E415.4. Dead cannot rest until money debts are paid. (C.f. †E351.) U.S.: Baughman.

E416. †E416. Man who removes landmarks cannot rest in grave. (Cf. †E345.1.) Kuhn Sagen aus Westfalen I 40f. No. 34, 118 No. 127, 177 No. 187; Sikes British Goblins (London, 1880) 149; Hoffman JAFL II 33; Frahm Am Urquell II 202; Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 404ff., (1934) 308ff.

E417. †E417. Dead person speaks from grave. Madagascar: Sibree FLJ I 202ff., Larrouy RTP IV 305.

E419. †E419. Other restless dead. England: Baughman.

E419.1. †E419.1. Soul wanders and demands that a temple be built for him. Chinese: Werner 314.

E419.2. †E419.2. Dead find no rest since someone daily knocks at grave. Fb "sjæl" III 214b.

E419.3. †E419.3. Dead find no rest since grass is pulled on grave. Fb "sjæl" III 214b.

E419.4. †E419.4. Dead move when cemetery is moved. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 6 No. 42.

E419.5. †E419.5. Dead arise when one plays organ for first time in church. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 8 No. 64.

E419.6. †E419.6. Lovers buried apart found in one grave each morning. (Cf. †E631.0.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E419.7. †E419.7. Person with missing bodily member cannot rest in grave. (Cf. †E235.) U.S.: *Baughman.

E419.8. †E419.8. Ghost returns to enforce its burial wishes or to protest disregard of them. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E419.9. †E419.9. Ghost flits between two graves reputed to contain body. U.S.: Baughman.

E419.10. †E419.10. Concern of ghost about belongings of its lifetime. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E419.11. †E419.11. People who bury metal cannot rest in grave. England, Wales: *Baughman.

E419.12. †E419.12. Fate of ghosts of persons eaten by tigers. India: Thompson-Balys.

E420. †E420. Appearance of revenant.

E421. †E421. Spectral ghosts. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "fantôme"; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 684; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 239.

E421.1. †E421.1. Invisible ghosts. *Tobler 92ff.; N. Am. Indian (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 226; England, Wales: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681; Jewish: Neuman.

E421.1.1. †E421.1.1. Ghost visible to one person alone. Spanish Exempla: Keller; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 64; N. Am. Indian (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II (1889) 148.

E421.1.1.0.1. †E421.1.1.0.1. First-born of a family cannot see ghosts. England: Baughman.

E421.1.1.1. †E421.1.1.1. Persons born at midnight can see ghosts. England: *Baughman.

E421.1.1.2. †E421.1.1.2. Only sorcerers can see ghosts. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 181.

E421.1.2. †E421.1.2. Ghost visible to horses alone. *Fb "hest" I 600a, IV 212a; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 26 No. 227; England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 678.

E421.1.3. †E421.1.3. Ghost visible to dogs alone. England: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681; India: Thompson-Balys.

E421.1.4. †E421.1.4. Ghosts visible only to sheep. England: Baughman.

E421.1.5. †E421.1.5. Ghosts visible only to seals. Greenland: Baughman.

E421.1.6. †E421.1.6. Ghost visible only to wild fowls. Greenland: Baughman.

E421.2. †E421.2. Ghosts cast no shadow. *Fb "skygge" III 347a; *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 138ff; *Penzer IV 239 n. 2; U.S.: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 682.

E421.2.1. †E421.2.1. Ghost leaves no footprints. Canada, England: *Baughman.

E421.3. †E421.3. Luminous ghosts. (Cf. †E530.1, †E742.) Tobler 83f.; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s. v. "Geister"; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 240.

E421.3.1. †E421.3.1. Ghost as glowing wheel. *Fb "hjul" I 626b, "spøgelse" III 521a, "gloende" IV 181b.

E421.3.2. †E421.3.2. Ghost as firebrand. Fb "spøgelse" III 520b.

E421.3.3. †E421.3.3. Ghost with glowing face. *Fb "gloende" I 465b; England: *Baughman.

E421.3.4. †E421.3.4. Ghost as fiery bull. Tobler 81; England, Ireland: *Baughman.

E421.3.5. †E421.3.5. Ghosts in glowing wagon. Fb "karet" II 91b.

E421.3.6. †E421.3.6. Ghosts as dogs with glowing tongues and eyes. (Cf. †E423.1.1, †E522.) *Fb "hund" I 676a; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s. v. "Geister"; England, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.

E421.3.7. †E421.3.7. Flames issue from corpse's mouth. Penzer II 62; Icelandic: *Boberg.

E421.4. †E421.4. Ghosts as shadow. U.S.: *Baughman.

E421.5. †E421.5. Ghost seen by two or more persons; they corroborate the appearance. England: *Baughman.

E422. †E422. The living corpse. Revenant is not a specter but has the attributes of a living person. He wanders about till his "second death", complete disintegration in the grave. (Cf. †E261.1.3, †E268, †E461.) *Naumann Primitive Gemeinschaftskultur (Jena, 1921) 18ff.; *Wimberly 229, 239, 256ff.; *Klare Acta Philologica Scandinavica VIII 1--56; *Gould Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX 167; *Fb "spøgelse" III 519b; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 70--152; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3590, Ghosts; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 21 No. 199; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 3f.; Irish: *Cross, Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 682; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 239f., 243; West Indies: Flowers 430; Africa: Werner African 180f., (Ekoi): Talbot 7 (dies a second time and becomes more dead).

E422.0.1. †E422.0.1. Hanged man thirsty; demands water to drink. Irish myth: *Cross.

E422.1. †E422.1. Body of living corpse.

E422.1.1. †E422.1.1. Headless revenant. *Fb "hoved" I 655b, "hovedløs" IV 223a; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 300 No. 6, 301 No. 18, 311 No. 46; India: *Thompson-Balys; England, U.S.: *Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 680, 683, 693.

E422.1.1.1. †E422.1.1.1. Two-headed ghost. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s. v. "Geister"; England, Scotland, U.S.: Baughman.

E422.1.1.2. †E422.1.1.2. Revenant with ball of fire in place of head. England: Baughman.

E422.1.1.3. †E422.1.1.3. Actions of headless revenant.

E422.1.1.3.1. †E422.1.1.3.1. Headless ghost rides horse. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E422.1.1.4. †E422.1.1.4. Headless ghost carries head under arm. (Cf. †F511.0.4.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E422.1.2. †E422.1.2. Armless revenant. Wimberly 235.

E422.1.3. †E422.1.3. Revenant with ice-cold hands. *Fb "hand" I 765b; Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 554ff., (1934) 400ff.; England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E422.1.4. †E422.1.4. Revenant with cold lips. Wimberly 235.

E422.1.5. †E422.1.5. Revenant with bad breath. *Wimberly 233.

E422.1.6. †E422.1.6. Revenant with chicken feet. Gaster Germania XXV (1880) 290ff.

E422.1.6.1. †E422.1.6.1. Ghost with feet twisted backward. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E422.1.6.2. †E422.1.6.2. Revenant with thin legs. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 96.

E422.1.7. †E422.1.7. Revenant with chip of resin between teeth. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 116 No. 18; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 40 No. 18.

E422.1.8. †E422.1.8. Revenant with peculiar nails. Icelandic: Boberg.

E422.1.9. †E422.1.9. Living corpse returns every night, shows gradual wasting away of body. U.S.: Baughman.

E422.1.10. †E422.1.10. Dismembered corpse.

E422.1.10.1. †E422.1.10.1. Dismembered corpse reassembles. (Cf. †E31.) U.S.: *Baughman.

E422.1.11. †E422.1.11. Revenant as part of body.

E422.1.11.1. †E422.1.11.1. Revenant as an eye. U.S.: Baughman.

E422.1.11.2. †E422.1.11.2. Revenant as face or head. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E422.1.11.3. †E422.1.11.3. Ghost as hand or hands. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E422.1.11.4. †E422.1.11.4. Revenant as skeleton. U.S.: Baughman.

E422.1.11.5. †E422.1.11.5. Revenant as blood. U.S.: *Baughman.

E422.1.11.5.1. †E422.1.11.5.1. Ineradicable bloodstain after bloody tragedy. England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn IV 267ff.

E422.2. †E422.2. Color of revenant. (Cf. †F527.)

E422.2.1. †E422.2.1. Revenant red. Fb. "rød" III 117a.

E422.2.2. †E422.2.2. Revenant green. Wimberly 240.

E422.2.3. †E422.2.3. Revenant gray. Tobler 64, 89.

E422.2.4. †E422.2.4. Revenant black. Irish: Cross, O'Suilleabhain 63, Beal XXI 324.

E422.3. †E422.3. Size of revenant.

E422.3.1. †E422.3.1. Revenant as small man. Wimberly 244; Tobler 64, 89; England: *Baughman.

E422.3.2. †E422.3.2. Revenant as a very large man (giant). (Cf. †F531.) Scotland, Canada, U.S.: *Baughman; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E422.4. †E422.4. Dress of revenant.

E422.4.1. †E422.4.1. Revenant with hat of birch. Wimberly 243. Note: in the motifs immediately following, it is frequently impossible to tell whether the spectral ghost (†E421) or the living corpse (†E422) is thought of.

E422.4.2. †E422.4.2. Ghost with bonnet pulled down over her face. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681.

E422.4.3. †E422.4.3. Ghost in white. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681f.

E422.4.4. †E422.4.4. Revenant in female dress. England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E422.4.5. †E422.4.5. Revenant in male dress. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E422.4.6. †E422.4.6. Revenant in red cap. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 670.

E423. †E423. Revenant in animal form. *Rosén Om Själavandringstro; *Fb "spøgelse" III 521a; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "mort"; Scotland, England, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243.

E423.1. †E423.1. Revenant as domestic animal.

E423.1.1. †E423.1.1. Revenant as dog. (Cf. †E421.3.6.) *Rosén Om Själavandringstro 14; *Fb "spøgelse" III 521a, "hund" I 675b, 676a, "præst" II 886a; Tobler 49, 54, 68; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 92; German: Grimm No. 4; England, Scotland, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 675, 684.

E423.1.1.1. †E423.1.1.1. Color of ghostly dog. Canada, England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E423.1.1.2. †E423.1.1.2. Features of ghostly dog.

E423.1.1.2.1. †E423.1.1.2.1. Headless ghostly dog. (Cf. †B15.1.1, †E422.1.1.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E423.1.1.2.2. †E423.1.1.2.2. Human-headed ghostly dog. (Cf. †B25.) England: *Baughman.

E423.1.2. †E423.1.2. Revenant as cat. Type 326; Rosén Om Själavandringstro 16; *Fb "kat" II 107b; Tobler 42, 47, 56; England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E423.1.3. †E423.1.3. Revenant as horse. (Cf. †F401.3.1.) Rosén Om Själavandringstro 16; *Handwb. d. Abergl. VI 1614f., IX Nachträge 168; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243; India: Thompson-Balys.

E423.1.3.1. †E423.1.3.1. Revenant as three-legged horse. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 81, 326 No. 18.

E423.1.3.2. †E423.1.3.2. Revenant as mare. Herbert III 380.

E423.1.3.3. †E423.1.3.3. Revenant as headless horse. (C.f. †E422.1.1, †E535.1.) England, Wales: *Baughman.

E423.1.3.4. †E423.1.3.4. Revenant as white horse. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E423.1.3.5. †E423.1.3.5. Actions of ghostly horse. England: *Baughman.

E423.1.4. †E423.1.4. Revenant as ass. Tobler 89; England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E423.1.5. †E423.1.5. Revenant as swine. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 316 No. 134f.; England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman; Irish: Beal XXI 310, O'Suilleabhain 31.

E423.1.6. †E423.1.6. Revenant as lamb. Tobler 56; England: Baughman.

E423.1.7. †E423.1.7. Revenant as ram. Tobler 51.

E423.1.8. †E423.1.8. Revenant as cow. Tobler 50. --Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s. v. "Geister"; England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E423.1.8.1. †E423.1.8.1. Revenant as calf. (Cf. †E521.4.) Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E423.1.9. †E423.1.9. Revenant as goat. England. U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243.

E423.2. †E423.2. Revenant as wild animal.

E423.2.1. †E423.2.1. Revenant as bear. (Cf. †E522.2.) Tobler 56.

E423.2.2. †E423.2.2. Revenant as rabbit (hare). *Fb "hare" I 556a; Rosén Om Själavandringstro 15; Tobler 52; England: *Baughman; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 56.

E423.2.3. †E423.2.3. Revenant as fox. Fb "ræv" III 113a; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 24.

E423.2.4. †E423.2.4. Revenant as hedgehog. Hartland Science 247.

E423.2.5. †E423.2.5. Revenant as seal. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E423.2.6. †E423.2.6. Revenant as deer. U.S.: *Baughman.

E423.2.7. †E423.2.7. Revenant as wolf. U.S.: *Baughman.

E423.2.8. †E423.2.8. Revenant as rat. England, Ireland: *Baughman.

E423.2.9. †E423.2.9. Revenant as "man-monkey". England: *Baughman.

E423.2.10. †E423.2.10. Revenant in tiger form. Chinese: Graham.

E423.2.11. †E423.2.11. Revenant as mouse. Africa (Wachaga): Gutman 35.

E423.2.12. †E423.2.12. Revenant as squirrel. Africa (Wachaga): Gutman 35.

E423.3. †E423.3. Revenant as bird. Tobler 34; Krappe Balor 96--97; Irish: Cross, Beal XXI 332, O'Suilleabhain 99; England, U.S.: *Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243.

E423.3.1. †E423.3.1. Revenant as dove. Tobler 30; Krappe Balor 96--97; Irish myth: Cross; U.S.: Baughman.

E423.3.2. †E423.3.2. Revenant as swan. Tobler 34; England: Baughman.

E423.3.3. †E423.3.3. Revenant as partridge. Tobler 32.

E423.3.4. †E423.3.4. Revenant as raven. Swiss: Jegerlehner Obervallis 329 No. 56; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 127ff., 132, (1928) 91ff.; Krappe Balor 96--97.

E423.3.5. †E423.3.5. Revenant as owl. Tobler 31f.; Krappe Balor 96--97; U.S.: *Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

E423.3.6. †E423.3.6. Revenant as hen. Sometimes with chickens. Tobler 33.

E423.3.7. †E423.3.7. Revenant as goose. Type 403; Tobler 34; England: *Baughman.

E423.3.8. †E423.3.8. Revenant as crow. Krappe Balor 97.

E423.3.9. †E423.3.9. Revenant as sea-gull. Krappe Balor 97.

E423.3.10. †E423.3.10. Revenant as duck. Type 403; England: Baughman.

E423.3.11. †E423.3.11. Revenant as bean-goose. Wales: *Baughman.

E423.4. †E423.4. Revenant as frog. Tobler 86.

E423.5. †E423.5. Revenant as snake (serpent). Tobler 22, 55f. --Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s. v. "Geister"; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243.

E423.6. †E423.6. Revenant as centaur. U.S.: Baughman.

E423.7. †E423.7. Revenant as fly. England: Baughman.

E423.8. †E423.8. Revenant as spider. England: Baughman.

E423.9. †E423.9. Revenant as eel. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 93.

E424. †E424. Revenant as dwarf. *Gould They who await the Second Death (Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX 167); Tobler 65.

E425. †E425. Revenant in human form.

E425.1. †E425.1. Revenant as woman.

E425.1.1. †E425.1.1. Revenant as lady in white. *M. Waehler Die Weisse Frau (Erfurt, 1931); Fb "jomfru" II 43a; Tobler 68, 90; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 239; England, Scotland, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.

E425.1.2. †E425.1.2. Revenant as naked woman. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 228; Tobler 67.

E425.1.3. †E425.1.3. Revenant as seductive woman. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 303 No. 24.

E425.1.4. †E425.1.4. Revenant as woman carrying baby. Tobler 90; U.S.: Baughman.

E425.1.5. †E425.1.5. Revenant as woman riding hog. Walz MLN XVI 130ff.

E425.1.6. †E425.1.6. Revenant as horrible female figure. Covered with snakes and toads. English: Wells 61 (The Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyne).

E425.1.7. †E425.1.7. Revenant as woman with seal's head. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E425.2. †E425.2. Revenant as man. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 101, 103, Beal XXI 332f.

E425.2.1. †E425.2.1. Revenant as old man. German: Grimm No. 4; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 334b s. v. "Geister".

E425.2.2. †E425.2.2. Revenant as man with horse's head. England: Baughman.

E425.2.3. †E425.2.3. Revenant as priest or parson. (Cf. †E338.5, †E417.) England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E425.2.4. †E425.2.4. Revenant as American Indian. U.S.: *Baughman.

E425.2.5. †E425.2.5. Revenant as piper. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 62.

E425.3. †E425.3. Revenant as child. Tobler 66f.; England: *Baughman; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 100, Beal XXI 332.

E426. †E426. Revenant as object.

E426.1. †E426.1. Ghost in shape of a bag. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E426.2. †E426.2. Revenant as a rolling cask. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E430. †E430. Defense against ghosts and the dead. Frazer The Fear of the Dead (London, 1933--36); Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335b s. v. "Geister"; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 309; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 251.

E431. †E431. Precautions at funeral against revenant.

E431.0.1. †E431.0.1. Test for presence of demons in corpses. Irish myth: Cross.

E431.1. †E431.1. Burial service read into hat to prevent dead walking. *Fb "hat" I 563b, "gjenganger" I 444a.

E431.2. †E431.2. Water thrown on corpse to prevent return. *Fb "død" I 228a, "gjenganger" I 444a.

E431.3. †E431.3. Mould thrown on corpse to prevent return. Fb "muld" II 619a.

E431.4. †E431.4. Coffin carried through hole in wall to prevent return of dead. Fb "gjenganger" I 444a; Frazer JAI XV 70; England, Scotland: *Baughman; Indonesia: Kruyt Het Animisme 264ff., Elshout De Kenja-Dejaks uit het Apo-Kajanggebied (Den Haag, 1926) 62.

E431.5. †E431.5. Limbs of dead fettered to prevent return. Von Trauwitz-Hellweg Urmensch und Totenglaube. 134ff.; Meyer Germanen 102; Wimberly 254; England: *Baughman; Africa: Frobenius Atlantis I 15f.

E431.6. †E431.6. Turf laid on breast of dead to prevent return. Wimberly 256.

E431.7. †E431.7. Beheaded man's head laid at feet to prevent return. *Fb "hoved" I 655b; England: Baughman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 252.

E431.7.1. †E431.7.1. Beheaded man's head laid at back to prevent return. *Fb "hoved" I 655b; Icelandic: *Boberg.

E431.7.2. †E431.7.2. Decapitating in order to prevent return. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E431.7.2.1. †E431.7.2.1. Head of beheaded man separated from body (by walking between them) to prevent return. (Cf. †E721.1.2.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E431.8. †E431.8. Dog buried alive to prevent ghosts from walking. *Fb "hund" I 677a.

E431.9. †E431.9. Ashes of dead thrown on water to prevent return. Levy-Bruhl L'âme primitive 332ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 386, Mansikka Religion der Ostslaven (Helsinki, 1922) 220, 231; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 266 No. 72.

E431.9.1. †E431.9.1. Head of corpse thrown on water to prevent return. Icelandic: Boberg.

E431.9.2. †E431.9.2. Corpses thrown in water to prevent return. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E431.10. †E431.10. Corpse buried under stone so that sun will not shine on him again. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 305 No. 1.

E431.10.1. †E431.10.1. Corpse buried under stones. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E431.11. †E431.11. Coin placed in mouth of dead to prevent return. *Fb "død" I 228a; Wesselski Archiv Orientální I 77; India: Thompson-Balys.

E431.12. †E431.12. Pins stuck in soles of dead man's feet to prevent return. Fb "død" I 228a.

E431.13. †E431.13. Corpse burned to prevent return. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E431.14. †E431.14. Tall wall around grave to prevent return. Icelandic: Eyrbyggja saga ch. XXXIV 14 in ASB VI, Boberg.

E431.15. †E431.15. People touch corpse before burial to avoid seeing ghost of dead person after burial. England: *Baughman.

E431.16. †E431.16. Burial of suicide to prevent walking. (Cf. †E334.7, †E411.1.1, †E441.)

E431.16.1. †E431.16.1. Suicide buried head (or face) downward. (If corpse moves it. only goes deeper into ground.) England: *Baughman.

E431.16.2. †E431.16.2. Suicide buried with stake through heart (body). (Cf. †E442.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E431.16.3. †E431.16.3. Suicide buried at crossroads. (Cf. †E434.4.) England: Baughman.

E431.17. †E431.17. Criminals buried at crossroads to prevent walking. (Cf. †E434.4.) Wales: Baughman.

E431.18. †E431.18. Body cut up and buried in vessels, buried in bag. England: Baughman.

E431.19. †E431.19. Burial of corpse at midnight to prevent walking. England: Baughman.

E431.20. †E431.20. Coffin with iron band made to keep corpse from returning as tiger. Chinese: Graham.

E432. †E432. Ghost deceived.

E432.1. †E432.1. Haunting ghost deceived so that he cannot find road to return. Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 323.

E432.2. †E432.2. Dead man visiting wife deceived by wife's absurd actions -- "no more absurd than ghost visiting wife". (Cf. †E321.2, †E474.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3547; Balys Ghosts.

E432.3. †E432.3. Woman drying hair scares soul returning from the dead. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 452.

E433. †E433. Ghosts placated by sacrifices. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 7, 9.

E433.1. †E433.1. Mould put on table for the dead. Fb "muld" II 619a.

E433.2. †E433.2. Possessions buried with dead. India: Thompson-Balys.

E433.3. †E433.3. Animals sacrificed so that dead have food on way to other world. India: Thompson-Balys.

E433.4. †E433.4. Ghosts pleased by human sacrifices. India: Thompson-Balys.

E433.4.1. †E433.4.1. Ghosts killed by sacrifice of buffaloes. India: Thompson-Balys.

E434. †E434. Magic protection against revenants. Irish myth: Cross.

E434.1. †E434.1. Hiding from ghosts under church bell. *Fb "kirkeklokke" II 131a, "gjenganger" I 443b.

E434.2. †E434.2. Hiding from ghosts in pulpit. Fb "predikestol" II 882b.

E434.3. †E434.3. Ghosts cannot cross rapid stream. *Fb "gjenganger" I 443b; U.S.: Baughman.

E434.4. †E434.4. Ghosts cannot pass crossroads. (Cf. †E431.16, †E431.17.) Fb "korsvej" II 277a.

E434.5. †E434.5. Steel as protection against revenants. Fb "stål" III 647a.

E434.6. †E434.6. Keys as protection against revenants. (Cf. †D1176.) Wimberly 255.

E434.7. †E434.7. Knives as protection against revenants. (Cf. †D1173.) Wimberly 255.

E434.8. †E434.8. Ghost cannot pass cross or prayerbook. (Cf. †D1266.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335b s. v. "Geister"; Icelandic: Boberg.

E434.8.1. †E434.8.1. Ghost cannot harm person wearing a cross. England: Baughman.

E434.9. †E434.9. Candle light protection against ghost. Icelandic: Bárdar saga Snaefellsáss, ed. Vigfússon 1860, 42--43, Boberg.

E434.10. †E434.10. Ghost cannot cross new door sill. U.S.: Baughman.

E436. †E436. Ghost detected.

E436.1. †E436.1. Ghost detected by strewing ashes. Their footprints remain in the ashes. Fb "spor" III 500a; Gaster Germania XXV (1880) 290ff.; Dh III 153; Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 297; Güntert Kalypso 75; Kruyt Het Animisme 398; Mansikka Religion der Ostslaven (Helsinki, 1922) 181, 184.

E436.2. †E436.2. Cats crossing one's path sign of ghosts. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 677.

E436.3. †E436.3. Bats flying in house sign of ghosts. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 677.

E437. †E437. Revenants banished. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E437.1. †E437.1. Revenants banished to glaciers and uninhabited places. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 296 No. 27.

E437.2. †E437.2. Ghost laid in body of water. England, Ireland, Wales: *Baughman.

E437.3. †E437.3. Ghost driven into body of dead crow, buried under path. England: Baughman.

E437.4. †E437.4. Ghost laid under stone. England: *Baughman.

E437.5. †E437.5. Ghost laid under tree. England: Baughman.

E437.6. †E437.6. Ghost laid and confined inside building. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E437.7. †E437.7. Ghost laid and confined in sheepfold. England: Baughman.

E439. †E439. Other protection against revenants.

E439.1. †E439.1. Revenant forced away by shooting. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335b s. v. "Geister"; Africa (Cameroons): Mansfield 227.

E439.2. †E439.2. Dwarfs magically keep ghosts from rising. Icelandic: Göngu Hrolfssaga 337.

E439.3. †E439.3. Dog saves man from malevolent living corpse. Dog killed, man safe. (Cf. †B524.1.1.) Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 698f.

E439.4. †E439.4. Seeds of poppy poured into revenant's mouth. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E439.5. †E439.5. Revenant forced away by fire. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E439.6. †E439.6. Ghosts cannot come near spayed bitch. England: Baughman.

E439.7. †E439.7. Ghost will not approach a light left burning. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E439.8. †E439.8. Ghost will vanish if seer walks around it nine times. (Cf. †D1791, †D1273.1.5.) England: Baughman.

E439.9. †E439.9. Ghost will not return if door is removed and hung backwards. (Cf. †D1783.) England: Baughman.

E439.10. †E439.10. Ghost will not come near person who anoints self with new honey. U.S.: Baughman.

E440. †E440. Walking ghost "laid". *Jellinek Zs. f. Vksk. XIV 324; *v. Negelein ibid. XIV 20ff.; Irish: Beal XXI 332; Icelandic: *Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 53 No. 400A*; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 114 No. 6.

E441. †E441. Ghost laid by reburial. Icelandic: Boberg; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 115 No. 12; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 39 No. 12; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3590; U.S.: Baughman. Cf. Gaster Exempla 222 No. 175.

E441.1. †E441.1. Ghost laid when leg is buried. Fb "løse" II 517a.

E441.2. †E441.2. Ghost laid by placing stones in throat of the corpse. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E441.3. †E441.3. Corpse exhumed and heart cremated to lay ghost. Africa (Bena Makuni): Torrend Specimens of Bantu Folklore 72.

E442. †E442. Ghost laid by piercing grave (corpse) with stake. (Cf. †D712.10, †E431.16.2.) *Fb "pæl" II 904ab, "jærn" II 61a; England, U.S.: *Baughman; Icelandic: *Boberg; Irish myth: Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3546B, Legends No. 698, Ghosts; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 686.

E442.1. †E442.1. Hunting woman beaten with sticks of rowan-tree and ankles of corpse tied with branches of same tree. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E442.2. †E442.2. Ghost laid by burial outside village on far side of stream, with four iron nails driven into the corners of the grave. India: Thompson-Balys.

E443. †E443. Ghost exorcized and laid. *Fb "bande" IV 24a, "Jesus" II 41a; Tobler 65; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 115 No. 11; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 39 No. 11; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 7 No. 51, 27 No. 243; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 251; West Indies: Flowers 430.

E443.0.1. †E443.0.1. Laying ghost causes great storm. (Cf. †D2141.) England: *Baughman.

E443.0.2. †E443.0.2. Protection during ghost-laying ceremony. England: Baughman.

E443.1. †E443.1. Ghost laid by blessing grave. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 115 No. 10.

E443.2. †E443.2. Ghost laid by prayer. Fb "løse" II 517b; Icelandic: Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 336 s. v. "Geister, Erlösung".

E443.2.1. †E443.2.1. Ghost laid by saying masses. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 95, 99, Beal XXI 330, 332; Scotch: Macdougall and Calder 319; English: Wells 61 (Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyne); U.S.: Baughman (†E341.3.2.).

E443.2.1.1. †E443.2.1.1. The dead man: "Sell my golden teeth and pay for a mass for my soul." Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E443.2.2. †E443.2.2. Ghost laid by formulistic prayer. England: *Baughman.

E443.2.3. †E443.2.3. Ghost laid by confessor to priest. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 99.

E443.2.4. †E443.2.4. Ghost laid by priest (minister). England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E443.2.4.1. †E443.2.4.1. Ghost laid by group of ministers. By prayer and services, usually with "bell, book, and candle" or some modification of the procedure. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E443.3. †E443.3. Ghosts exorcized by name. Fb "navn" II 675b.

E443.4. †E443.4. Ghost laid by raising a cross. Icelandic: Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 336 s. v. "Geister, Erlösung".

E443.5. †E443.5. Ghost laid by adjuring it to leave "in the name of God." Wales: Baughman.

E443.6. †E443.6. Ghost laid by baptizing children in its presence. England: *Baughman.

E443.7. †E443.7. Ghost laid by fasting. England: Baughman.

E443.8. †E443.8. Ghost laid by Bible. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E443.9. †E443.9. Ghost laid by consecrated water. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E444. †E444. Ghost laid by talisman. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "fantôme"; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 62.

E445. †E445. Ghost laid by barring off.

E445.1. †E445.1. Ghost comes through certain crevice: when this is barred she never returns. Tobler 92.

E446. †E446. Ghost killed and thus finally laid. N. Am. Indian (Sioux): Dorsey RBAE XI 491f., (Fox): Jones PAES I 101 No. 7, (Osage): Dorsey FM VII 26 No. 21; Eskimo: Kroeber JAFL XII 181, (Greenland): Holm 55, Rasmussen III 182.

E446.1. †E446.1. Corpse magically killed and laid. N. Am. Indian (Tlingit): Swanton BBAE XXXIX 248 No. 86.

E446.2. †E446.2. Ghost laid by burning body. *Fb "spøgelse" III 522a, "brænde" IV 69a. --Icelandic: *Boberg.

E446.2.1. †E446.2.1. Ghost laid by burning lock of hair. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E446.3. †E446.3. Ghost laid by decapitating body. Icelandic: *Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3546A, Legends No. 621.

E446.3.1. †E446.3.1. Ghost laid by beating body to pieces. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 99.

E446.4. †E446.4. Slain ghost carried off by other ghosts. India: Thompson-Balys.

E446.5. †E446.5. Ghost laid by pushing it into water. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux RBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

E451. †E451. Ghost finds rest when certain thing happens.

E451.1. †E451.1. Ghost laid when crime has been confessed. (Cf. †E412.5.) Fb "løse" II 517a.

E451.1.1. †E451.1.1. Corpse cannot be laid until after he has confided the secret of magic charms. India: Thompson-Balys.

E451.2. †E451.2. Ghost laid when penance is done. (Cf. †E411.0.2.1.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 336 s. v. "Geister, Erlösung".

E451.3. †E451.3. Ghost laid when vow is fulfilled. (Cf. †E415.3.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 336 s. v. "Geister, Erlösung"; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn V (1897) 266ff., (1934) 196ff.; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

E451.4. †E451.4. Ghost laid when living man speaks to it. Fb "løse" II 517a; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 336 s. v. "Geister, Erlösung".

E451.4.1. †E451.4.1. Ghost asked to identify self "in name of God." U.S.: Baughman.

E451.5. †E451.5. Ghost laid when treasure is unearthed. Fb "løse" II 517b; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda (Cf. †E371ff.).

E451.5.1. †E451.5.1. Money must be distributed to beggars so that ghost may be laid. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E451.6. †E451.6. Beggar's ghost laid when pig bought with money taken from him is brought to his grave. Sinks in grave. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *842.

E451.7. †E451.7. Bearded woman ghost laid by shaving her. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3560; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 72 No. 216.

E451.8. †E451.8. Ghost laid when house it haunts is destroyed or changed. U.S.: *Baughman.

E451.9. †E451.9. Ghost laid when revenge is accomplished. Korean: Zong in-Sob 122f.

E451.10. †E451.10. Ghost laid when rest of poem is recited. Japanese: Ikeda.

E452. †E452. Ghost laid at cockcrow (dawn). Fb "spøgelse" III 519b, "kok" IV 272b; Köhler-Bolte III 581; Wimberly 248. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "coq"; Scotch: Campbell Tales II 94--112 passim; English: Child II 228, V 294; Finnish, Swedish: Wessman 1 No. 6; India: *Thompson-Balys; Melanesian, Polynesian: *Dixon 141 n. 24; Kai (German New Guinea): ibid. 144; N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 96 No. 7, (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II (1889) 151.

E452.1. †E452.1. Dead quiescent during day. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E452.2. †E452.2. Ghost invisible during day. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E453. †E453. Ghost transformed into animal. (Cf. †D100, †E423.) England: *Baughman.

E454. †E454. Ghost is laid by giving it a never-ending or impossible task. (Cf. †H900, †H1010.) England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E456. †E456. Man raises corpses and gets their shrouds, then "lays" them again. India: Thompson-Balys.

E459. †E459. Other exorcism practices.

E459.1. †E459.1. Ghost demands a body and soul before it will agree to be laid. Monk provides cock and sole of shoe. England: Baughman.

E459.2. †E459.2. Ghost laid when bones are brought to home country from foreign soil. England: Baughman.

E459.3. †E459.3. Ghost laid when its wishes are acceded to. England: Baughman.

E459.4. †E459.4. Ghost bound and jailed. England: Baughman.

E459.5. †E459.5. Ghost laid at midnight. U.S.: Baughman.

E459.6. †E459.6. Ghost laid by burying bell from church in one pond, the clapper in another. If the two ever come together again, the ghost can walk. England: Baughman.

E459.7. †E459.7. Ghost laid when his skull is thrown into the Ganges. India: Thompson-Balys.

E460. †E460. Revenants in conflict.

E461. †E461. Fight of revenant with living person. (Cf. †E261.1.3.) Fb "spøgelse" III 520b; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3542, Legends No. 882; N. Am. Indian (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II (1889) 150, (Passamaquoddy): Leland Algonquin Legends 349, (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 96 No. 7.

E461.1. †E461.1. Revenant challenged to combat. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 12; Wales: Baughman.

E461.2. †E461.2. Fight of living person with dead in the grave. Andrews MPh X 601ff.; Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 367ff., MacCulloch Eddic 309--11, *Boberg.

E462. †E462. Revenant overawed by living person. *Fb "student"; Icelandic: Boberg; Welsh: Baughman.

E463. †E463. Living man in dead man's shroud. Refuses to let corpse return to grave before he tells how to resuscitate woman living man has killed. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 114 No. 7; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3543.

E464. †E464. Revenant tricked or jeered into a bottle, corked up and put in safe place. (Cf. †D2177.1.) England: *Baughman.

E465. †E465. Revenant rewards its conqueror. Irish: Curtin Myths and Folklore of Ireland (Boston, 1889) 127; Egypt (ancient): Petrie II 87.

E467. †E467. Revenants fight each other. *Krappe Balor 145ff.; Fb "spøgelse" III 520b; Icelandic: *Boberg.

E467.1. †E467.1. Two dead men struggle over living man. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3548, Balys Ghosts.

E470. †E470. Intimate relations of dead and living.

E471. †E471. Ghost kisses living person. *Fb "gjenganger" I 444a.

E472. †E472. Revenant sleeps in same bed with living but without contact. U.S.: Baughman.

E474. †E474. Cohabitation of living person and ghost. This usually involves sexual relations. (Cf. †E321.2, †E322.6, †E339, †E378.) Liebrecht 49; Aly Volksmärchen bei Herodot (Göttingen, 1921) 153; H. Schreuer Zs. d. vgl. Rechtswissenschaft XXXIII (1916) 350 n.; Corsican: Ortoli 332; India: Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: Boberg; New Hebrides: Codrington 379; N. Am. Indian (Tlingit): Swanton BBAE XXXIX 249 No. 86, (Teton): Dorsey JAFL I 68, (Blackfoot): Wissler and Duvall PaAM II 154 No. 10 (head of murdered woman continues to live with husband), Grinnell Blackfoot Lodge Tales (New York, 1923) 70, (Hopi): Voth FM VIII 33, (Zuñi): Cushing 48 No. 2, (Thompson River): Teit JE VIII 281 No. 46, (Quileute): Farrand-Mayer JAFL XXXII 268 No. 12, (Klickitat): Alexander N. Am. 147; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 454, Rasmussen III 84; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 280.

E474.1. †E474.1. Offspring of living and dead person. (Cf. †E322.1, †T540.) *Fb "barn" IV 27a; Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 98; Irish myth: Cross.

E477. †E477. Body in coffin moves so as to make room for his recently deceased friend. *Loomis White Magic 92.

E480. †E480. Abode of the dead. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

E480.1. †E480.1. Abode of animal souls. (Cf. †E730.1.) Jewish: *Neuman.

E480.2. †E480.2. Three worlds of dead. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 155, 160.

E480.3. †E480.3. Men must enter spirit world armed. S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 110.

E481. †E481. Land of the dead. *Types 470, 471; *Köhler-Bolte II 224ff.; *Encyc. Rel. and Ethics II 680ff.; **Wiedeman Die Toten und ihre Reiche im Glauben der alten Ägypten (Leipzig, 1910); A. Jeremias Hölle und Paradies bei den Babyloniern (Leipzig, 1903); Dickson 94f. n. 78; Feilberg DF X 1; Herbert Catalogue of Romances III 585; Finnish: Kalevala rune 16; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 274 n. 10; Africa: Werner African 180ff., (Ekoi): Talbot 7, 59, 226, 240, (Benga): Nassau 208 No. 33.

E481.0.1. †E481.0.1. Spain as land of the dead. (Cf. †F130.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E481.0.2. †E481.0.2. Quarrel of dead and living causes removal of dead to own land. India: Thompson-Balys.

E481.1. †E481.1. Land of dead in lower world. *Krappe Etude 45ff.; **M. Landau Hölle und Fegefeuer in Volksglauben, Dichtung, und Kirchenlehre (Heidelberg, 1909); Krappe Revue Celtique XLIX (1932) 96--102; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 146, Grote I 62; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 72; Jewish: *Neuman, Gaster Thespis 183, 187f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 485; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 199f.; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 200f.; Tonga: Gifford 183; Melanesia: Wheeler 33, 47; Papua: Ker 81; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 146, 155; N. Am. Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 274 n. 10; S. Am. Indian (Metaco): Métraux MAFLS XL 24.

E481.1.1. †E481.1.1. Old woman ruler of dead in lower world. (Cf. †A481.9.) Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 75.

E481.1.2. †E481.1.2. Houses in lower world of dead. (Cf. †F163, †F220.) Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 74.

E481.2. †E481.2. Land of dead across water. Icelandic: Boberg; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 486; N. Am. Indian (Haida): Swanton JE V 34.

E481.2.0.1. †E481.2.0.1. Island of the dead. *Meyer Der irische Totengott und die Toteninsel (Stzb. d. preussischen Akad. d. Wissenschaften XXXII [1919] 537); *Krappe Balor 102; Irish myth: *Cross; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 72.

E481.2.1. †E481.2.1. Bridge to land of dead. Type 471; *Fb "bro" IV 62b; Wimberly 110ff.; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 399, 420, 607, Herbert ibid. III 279; Moe Samlede Skrifter III 212, 226ff.; Frazer Immortality III 150; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 74; India: *Thompson-Balys; Persian: Carnoy 344; Kachin: Scott Indo-Chinese 265; N. Am. Indian: Brinton Myths of the New World (New York, 1868) 248, Skinner PaAM XIII 86.

E481.2.1.1. †E481.2.1.1. Frightening thing at bridge to land of dead. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E481.2.1.2. †E481.2.1.2. Unstable bridge to land of dead. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E481.2.2. †E481.2.2. Boat to land of dead. Icelandic: De la Saussaye 292, *Boberg; Irish myth: Cross; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 75.

E481.3. †E481.3. Abode of dead in mountain. Patch PMLA XXXIII 614 n. 48; Icelandic: *Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335b s. v. "Geister"; Gaster Oldest Stories 156.

E481.3.1. †E481.3.1. Abode of the dead in hills, barrows. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E481.3.2. †E481.3.2. Abode of the dead in stones. Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 312.

E481.4. †E481.4. Beautiful land of dead. (Rosengarten). Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 79f.

E481.4.1. †E481.4.1. Avalon. (Cf. †F323.) Happy otherworld where dead are healed. Irish myth: *Cross; English: Wells 31 (Geoffrey of Monmouth), 33 (Layamon's Brut), 50 (Le Morte Arthure); Hartland Science 204 (Olger the Dane).

E481.5. †E481.5. Ghost lives midway between heaven and earth. Fb "spøgelse" III 519b.

E481.6. †E481.6. Land of dead in one of the cardinal directions.

E481.6.1. †E481.6.1. Land of dead in north. Icelandic: Boberg; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 77f.; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 101.

E481.6.2. †E481.6.2. Land of dead in west. (Cf. †A692.1.) Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 77f.; Irish myth: *Cross; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E481.6.3. †E481.6.3. Land of dead in east. Icelandic: Boberg.

E481.7. †E481.7. Icy inferno. (Cf. †E481.6.1.) Krappe Études 46 n. 2.

E481.8. †E481.8. Land of dead in sky. India: *Thompson-Balys; Cook Islands: Beckwith Myth 76.

E481.8.1. †E481.8.1. Account book of men summoned to death kept in heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.

E481.8.2. †E481.8.2. Moon as land of dead. Samoa: Clark 181.

E481.8.3. †E481.8.3. Venus as land of dead. Africa (Fang): Trilles 136.

E481.8.4. †E481.8.4. Dead in house of cloud. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 79.

E481.9. †E481.9. King of world of dead. (Cf. †E481.1.1.) Irish myth: Cross (†E481.1.1.1); Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Baholoholo): Einstein 216.

E482. †E482. Land of shades. Everything is done by unseen people. Type 425; Tegethoff 14; *Siuts 218ff.; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 425 (Voyage of St. Brandon); N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 339 n. 221.

E485. †E485. Land of skulls. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 275.

E485.1. †E485.1. Land of skeletons. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 230.

E487. †E487. Glowing beds of dead. Youth in land of dead puts staff into one of the beds. The iron glows and the wood burns. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 63, 102, Beal XXI 324, 333; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 309 No. 7.

E489. †E489. Abode of the dead -- miscellaneous.

E489.1. †E489.1. Dead awaken after three days to new life and great wisdom. Fb "død" I 228a.

E489.2. †E489.2. Life in land of dead contrary to ours. People grow younger and smaller till they become nothing and are reborn. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 73.

E489.3. †E489.3. Forgetting Charon's fee. Philosopher forgets to put coin in mouth before death (Charon's fee). Charon: "Don't you know the custom?" Answer: "Yes, but I couldn't put off dying for a quarter!" --Italian Novella: Rotunda.

E489.4. †E489.4. Man's spirit in land of dead prophesies his own future death. India: Thompson-Balys.

E489.5. †E489.5. Dancing in afterworld. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E489.6. †E489.6. Culture hero gambles with ruler of the afterworld: result, death or increase in game. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 85.

E489.7. †E489.7. Judas Iscariot appears in midst of sea on rock washed alternately by fiery and icy waves. (Cf. †Q560.2.3.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E489.8. †E489.8. Why living cannot go to land of the dead. Chinese: Graham.

E489.9. †E489.9. In land of dead the dead walk on grass without bending it and on mud without sinking. (Cf. †F973.2.) Chinese: Graham.

E489.10. †E489.10. Land of dead "in Abraham's bosom". Jewish: *Neuman.

E489.11. †E489.11. Inhabitants of land of dead have great thirst. Jewish: *Neuman.

E490. †E490. Meetings of the dead.

E491. †E491. Procession of the dead. *BP III 472 n. 1; Fb "gjenganger" I 443b, "Nytårsaften" II 707b; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 23 No. 204; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 Nos. 100, 105, 326 Nos. 15, 17; *Geiger Archives suisses des Traditions Populaires XLVII 71--76; West Indies: Flowers 431; Pochulata: Boas JAFL XXV 226; Spanish: Boas ibid. 251; India: *Thompson-Balys.

E492. †E492. Mass (church service) of the dead. Held at midnight. *BP III 472, 545; Krappe Balor 116ff., 121 n. 11, JAFL LX 159ff.; *Fb "død" I 228a, "kirke" II 125b; *Grunwald Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXX--XXXI 316; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1895) 280ff., (1928) 176ff.; Norwegian: Solheim Register 17; Icelandic: Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3558; Jewish: *Neuman; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 242.

E493. †E493. Dead men dance. *Fb "spøgelse" III 520a, "danse" IV 93a, "sjæl" III 214b, "kirkegaard" II 128b; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 335 s. v. "Geister"; England, U.S.: *Baughman; N. Am. Indian (Pawnee): Grinnell 192, (Hupa): Goddard UCal I 239 No. 25, (Luiseño): DuBois UCal VIII 154, (Zuñi): Cushing 48 No. 2, (Cherokee): Mooney RBAE XIX 252 No. 5, 331 No. 78, (Kwakiutl): Boas and Hunt JE III 106; Africa: Werner African 188f.

E494. †E494. Ball game in lower world. (Cf. †E577.1.) N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Alexander N. Am. Myth 137; *Icelandic: Boberg.

E495. †E495. Wedding of the dead. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 23 No. 208.

E495.1. †E495.1. Ghostly marriage party. India: Thompson-Balys.

E495.2. †E495.2. Marriage (ceremony) to a ghost. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E496. †E496. Ghosts gathered on a bridge. *Fb "bro" IV 62b.

E497. †E497. Fighting warriors show the way of their past life and of their death. Icelandic: Boberg.

E499. †E499. Meetings of the dead -- miscellaneous.

E499.1. †E499.1. Gay banquet of the dead. (Cf. †E541.) England, U.S.: *Baughman; N. Y.: Jones JAFL LVII 241.

E499.2. †E499.2. Orchestra of ghosts. U.S.: Baughman.

E499.3. †E499.3. Pot so heavy with ghosts that girl cannot lift it. (Cf. †D1317.10.) India: Thompson-Balys.

E499.4. †E499.4. Dead in lower world complain about odor of human visitor. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E500. †E500. Phantom hosts.

E501. †E501. The Wild Hunt. (Cf. †F282.) (Die Wilde Jagd, Das Wütende Heer, Odinsjæger, Chasse Fantastique.) A ghostly hunter and his rout continue the chase. **Plischke (bibliography); **Schweda; *Wahner Der Wilde Jäger in Schlesien; Lorentzen; Brunk Der wilde Jäger im Glauben des pommerschen Volkes (Zs. f. Vksk. XIII 179); *Zingerle 589f. (bibliography): Jacobsen Harlekin og den vilde Jæger (Dania IX 1); Heilberg Theodorich som den vilde Jæger (Dania IX 239); Olrik Odinsjægeren i Jylland (Dania VIII 139); *Fb "Odinsjæger" III 730ff.; RTP II 156, VI 291, VII 175, 328, VIII 566, IX 91, 411, XIII 186, 695f.; XIV 83, XVI 453, 531, XVII 504f.; Hartland Science 234ff.; Wehrhan 84; Walhouse FL VIII (1897) 196; *O. Höfler Kultische Geheimbünde der Germanen Bd. I: Das germanische Totenheer (Frankfurt a. M., 1934); Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 234. Musical treatments: Raff Symphony No. 3 (1869); J. Triebensee "Die wilde Jagd" (opera, Budapest, 1824); H. Payer "Der wilde Jäger" (opera, Vienna, 1806); V. E. Nessler "Der wilde Jäger" (opera, Leipzig, 1881); M. J. Beer "Der wilde Jäger" (cantata, Olmütz, 1888); A. Schultz "Der wilde Jäger" (opera, Brunswick, 1887); Müller-Reuter "Hackelberends Begräbnis" (choral ballad, 1902); C. Franck "Le Chasseur Maudit" (symphonic poem, 1883). For classical parallels see H. Hepding Attis 124; Gruppe Griechische Religionsgeschichte (1907) 1290 n. 2; Samter Geburt, Hochzeit, Tod 206 n. 5. --Irish: *Cross; Beal XXI 322; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3518; Norwegian: *Solheim Register 17.

E501.1. †E501.1. Leader of the Wild Hunt. *Rühlemann passim.

E501.1.1. †E501.1.1. King as wild huntsman. (Cf. †E501.1.7.) Schweda 38; *Fb "Odins jæger" II 731b; Hartland Science 234, 236; RTP XVII 504f.

E501.1.2. †E501.1.2. Nobleman as wild huntsman. Schweda 38; Fb "Odins jæger" II 731b.

E501.1.3. †E501.1.3. Rich man as wild huntsman. Schweda 38.

E501.1.4. †E501.1.4. Forester as wild huntsman. Schweda 38.

E501.1.5. †E501.1.5. Freemason as wild huntsman. Schweda 38.

E501.1.6. †E501.1.6. Saint as leader of wild hunt. RTP XVII 504f.

E501.1.7. †E501.1.7. Historic or romantic hero as leader of wild hunt. Plischke 41; RTP XVII 504f.

E501.1.7.1. †E501.1.7.1. King Herla as wild huntsman. *Liebrecht 28; Tupper and Ogle Walter Map 18.

E501.1.7.2. †E501.1.7.2. Theodoric as wild huntsman. *Heilberg Dania IX 239, Nyrop ibid. X 177; BP IV 140; Oesterley No. 190.

E501.1.7.3. †E501.1.7.3. Wild Edric as leader of Wild Hunt. England: *Baughman.

E501.1.8. †E501.1.8. Woman as leader of wild hunt. Favorites are Herodias, Diana, Frau Holle. --Plischke 47; Schwartz Zs. f. Vksk. VII 231.

E501.1.8.1. †E501.1.8.1. Herodias as leader of wild hunt. Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk. XXII (1912) 238 n. 7; Germania XVI (1871) 217; Dunlop-Liebrecht 474 n. 170; Grimm Deutsche Mythologie 599; La Tradition IV 69; *Kloss MLN XXIII 82; *Grunwald Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. XXX--XXXI 317.

E501.1.8.2. †E501.1.8.2. Artemis as leader of wild hunt. Gruppe Griechische Religionsgeschichte 840 n. 5, 1292.

E501.1.8.3. †E501.1.8.3. Hecate as leader of wild hunt. Pauly-Wissowa s. v. "Hekate"; Rohde Psyche II 84.

E501.2. †E501.2. Participants in wild hunt.

E501.2.1. †E501.2.1. Knights in wild hunt. Plischke 29.

E501.2.2. †E501.2.2. Ladies in wild hunt. Plischke 29.

E501.2.3. †E501.2.3. Witches in wild hunt. (Cf. †G200.) Plischke 29.

E501.2.4. †E501.2.4. Courtisans in wild hunt. (Cf. †E501.5.1.2.) Plischke 29.

E501.2.5. †E501.2.5. Churchmen in wild hunt. Plischke 29.

E501.2.6. †E501.2.6. Soldiers in wild hunt. Plischke 29.

E501.2.7. †E501.2.7. Unbaptized children in wild hunt. Plischke 30; *Fb "udøbt" III 960a.

E501.3. †E501.3. Wild huntsmen wander because of sin. Schweda 38.

E501.3.1. †E501.3.1. Wild huntsman wanders because of cruelty. Schweda 38.

E501.3.2. †E501.3.2. Wild huntsman wanders because of suicide. Schweda 38.

E501.3.3. †E501.3.3. Wild huntsman wanders because of parricide. Harow RTP XX 369.

E501.3.4. †E501.3.4. Wild huntsman wanders because of unshriven death. Schweda 38.

E501.3.5. †E501.3.5. Wild huntsman wanders for failure to keep fast day. Plischke 29.

E501.3.6. †E501.3.6. Wild huntsman wanders for hunting on Sunday. *Fb "Søndag" III 741a, "Odins jæger" II 731b.

E501.3.7. †E501.3.7. Wild huntsman wanders because he wished to continue hunt after death. Fb "jagt" II 36, "jagen" II 35; RTP XIII 695f.

E501.3.8. †E501.3.8. Wild huntsman wanders for disturbing church service. Plischke 34.

E501.3.9. †E501.3.9. Wild huntsmen cannot die until evil in world has been made right and things return as they had been. England: Baughman.

E501.3.10. †E501.3.10. Wild huntswoman wanders because of murder of daughter. England: Baughman.

E501.4. †E501.4. Animals follow wild huntsman.

E501.4.0.1. †E501.4.0.1. Animals in wild hunt reincarnation of murdered person. Plischke 31.

E501.4.1. †E501.4.1. Dogs in wild hunt. Schweda 25; England: Baughman; Irish: O'Suilleabhain 50f., 56, Beal XXI 318f.

E501.4.1.1. †E501.4.1.1. Enormous pack of dogs in wild hunt. Overcome people by their mass. Plischke 32.

E501.4.1.2. †E501.4.1.2. Dogs with fiery tongues in wild hunt. Schweda 25; *Schwartz Zs. f. Vksk. VII 232; Fb "Odins jæger" II 732a; England: Baughman.

E501.4.1.3. †E501.4.1.3. Dogs with fiery eyes in wild hunt. Schweda 25.

E501.4.1.4. †E501.4.1.4. Dogs with eyes hanging out over mouth in wild hunt. Fb "øje" III 1165b.

E501.4.1.5. †E501.4.1.5. Black dogs in wild hunt. Schweda 25; England: Baughman.

E501.4.1.6. †E501.4.1.6. Three-legged dogs in wild hunt. *Zingerle Sagen aus Tirol 590; H. Usener Dreiheit (Rheinisches Museum f. Philologie N. F. LVIII (1903) 1ff., 161ff.).

E501.4.1.7. †E501.4.1.7. Winged dogs in wild hunt. RTP XVII 505.

E501.4.1.8. †E501.4.1.8. Dogs in single file in wild hunt. Schweda 25.

E501.4.1.9. †E501.4.1.9. Dogs on leash in wild hunt. Schweda 25.

E501.4.1.10. †E501.4.1.10. Baying dogs in wild hunt. Schweda 25; Fb "hund" I 676a.

E501.4.2. †E501.4.2. Wild huntsman's horse. *Howie 51.

E501.4.2.1. †E501.4.2.1. White horse in wild hunt. *Schwartz Zs. f. Vksk. VII 235; Schweda 25.

E501.4.2.2. †E501.4.2.2. Black horse in wild hunt. Schweda 25.

E501.4.2.3. †E501.4.2.3. Brown horse in wild hunt. Schweda 25.

E501.4.2.4. †E501.4.2.4. Horse in wild hunt breathes fire. Schweda 25; Schwartz Zs. f. Vksk. VII 235.

E501.4.2.5. †E501.4.2.5. Horse with fiery eyes in wild hunt. Schweda 25.

E501.4.2.6. †E501.4.2.6. Two-legged horse in wild hunt. Plischke 30.

E501.4.2.7. †E501.4.2.7. Headless horse in wild hunt. Plischke 30.

E501.4.3. †E501.4.3. Boar (sow) in wild hunt. Plischke 31.

E501.4.3.1. †E501.4.3.1. One-eyed sow in wild hunt. Plischke 31.

E501.4.3.2. †E501.4.3.2. Blind wild boar in wild hunt. Plischke 32.

E501.4.4. †E501.4.4. Two ravens follow wild huntsman. *Zingerle Sagen aus Tirol 588.

E501.4.5. †E501.4.5. Owl (ghost of nun) in wild hunt. Plischke 34.

E501.5. †E501.5. Object of wild hunt's pursuit.

E501.5.1. †E501.5.1. Wild hunter pursues a woman. Plischke 65; Fb "Odins jæger" II 732b; Schwartz Zs. f. Vksk. VII 233.

E501.5.1.1. †E501.5.1.1. Naked woman pursued and cut in two by rider. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 228; *Herbert III 134.

E501.5.1.2. †E501.5.1.2. Prostitutes pursued in wild hunt. (Cf. †E501.2.4.) Plischke 65.

E501.5.1.3. †E501.5.1.3. Witches pursued in wild hunt. Plischke 65.

E501.5.2. †E501.5.2. Fairies pursued in wild hunt. Fb "Odins jæger" II 732ab.

E501.5.3. †E501.5.3. Wood-spirits pursued in wild hunt. Plischke 66.

E501.5.4. †E501.5.4. Unbaptized children pursued in wild hunt. Plischke 65.

E501.5.5. †E501.5.5. Animals pursued in wild hunt.

E501.5.5.1. †E501.5.5.1. Hare pursued in wild hunt. Plischke 66.

E501.5.5.2. †E501.5.5.2. Deer pursued in wild hunt. Schwartz Zs. f. Vksk. VII 232; RTP XXII 466.

E501.6. †E501.6. Ghostly warner of wild hunt's approach. Plischke 38.

E501.7. †E501.7. Personal appearance of wild huntsmen.

E501.7.1. †E501.7.1. Wild huntsmen headless. *Zingerle 589; Schweda 28.

E501.7.2. †E501.7.2. Wild huntsmen with deer-heads. Plischke 29.

E501.7.3. †E501.7.3. Wild huntsmen with heads on backward. Plischke 29.

E501.7.4. †E501.7.4. Wild huntsmen carrying skull under arms. Plischke 29.

E501.7.5. †E501.7.5. Wild huntsmen with entrails stringing from open bodies. Plischke 29.

E501.7.6. †E501.7.6. Wild huntsmen luminous. Zingerle 4 No. 6.

E501.7.6.1. †E501.7.6.1. Wild huntsmen exhale fire. Schweda 28.

E501.7.6.2. †E501.7.6.2. Wild huntsmen have fiery eyes. Schweda 29.

E501.7.6.3. †E501.7.6.3. Wild huntsmen leave fiery tracks. Schweda 28.

E501.7.6.4. †E501.7.6.4. Wild huntsmen surrounded by fire. Schweda 29.

E501.7.7. †E501.7.7. Wild huntsmen with long hair. Schweda 29.

E501.8. †E501.8. Clothing of wild huntsmen.

E501.8.1. †E501.8.1. Wild huntsmen dressed in black. Schweda 29.

E501.8.2. †E501.8.2. Wild huntsmen dressed in red. Schweda 29.

E501.8.3. †E501.8.3. Wild huntsmen dressed in white. Schweda 29.

E501.8.4. †E501.8.4. Wild huntsmen dressed in ancient costume. Schweda 29.

E501.8.5. †E501.8.5. Wild huntsmen belted and tied up. Plischke 35.

E501.8.6. †E501.8.6. Wild huntsman with black fur cap and white staff. Hartland Science 236.

E501.9. †E501.9. Wild huntsmen invisible. Tobler 92.

E501.10. †E501.10. Objects as part of wild hunt.

E501.10.1. †E501.10.1. Empty shoe follows wild hunt. Plischke 35.

E501.10.2. †E501.10.2. Worn-out broom at head of wild hunt. Plischke 35.

E501.10.3. †E501.10.3. Wagon accompanies wild hunt. Plischke 36.

E501.11. †E501.11. Time of appearance of wild hunt.

E501.11.1. †E501.11.1. Wild hunt appears at night. *Schwartz Zs. f. Vksk. VII 235.

E501.11.1.1. †E501.11.1.1. Wild hunt appears at midnight. Schweda 16; Plischke 52.

E501.11.1.2. †E501.11.1.2. Wild hunt abroad until cockcrow. Schweda 16.

E501.11.1.3. †E501.11.1.3. Wild hunt appears on St. John's Night. Schweda 16.

E501.11.1.4. †E501.11.1.4. Wild hunt appears on stormy nights. Plischke 55.

E501.11.2. †E501.11.2. Wild hunt appears at certain seasons.

E501.11.2.1. †E501.11.2.1. Wild hunt appears in winter. Schweda 16; Plischke 54.

E501.11.2.2. †E501.11.2.2. Wild hunt appears between Christmas and Twelfth Night. Plischke 54.

E501.11.2.3. †E501.11.2.3. Wild hunt appears on feast-days. Schweda 16; Plischke 55; Fb "Odins jæger" II 732ab.

E501.11.3. †E501.11.3. Wild hunt appears periodically.

E501.11.3.1. †E501.11.3.1. Wild hunt appears every seven years. Plischke 64.

E501.11.3.2. †E501.11.3.2. Wild hunt appears yearly at same moment. Plischke 74.

E501.12. †E501.12. Place of appearance of wild hunt.

E501.12.1. †E501.12.1. Wild hunt appears in woods. Schweda 13; Plischke 57.

E501.12.2. †E501.12.2. Wild hunt appears in churchyard. Schweda 13.

E501.12.3. †E501.12.3. Wild hunt appears at crossroads. Schweda 13; Plischke 61.

E501.12.4. †E501.12.4. Wild hunt appears by body of water. Schweda 13; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 678.

E501.12.5. †E501.12.5. Wild hunt appears by hill or mountain. Schweda 14; Plischke 57.

E501.12.6. †E501.12.6. Wild hunt appears in a field. Schweda 14.

E501.12.6.1. †E501.12.6.1. Wild hunt appears in old battlefield. Plischke 29, 59.

E501.12.7. †E501.12.7. Wild hunt appears at desert spot. Schweda 14.

E501.12.8. †E501.12.8. Wild hunt appears at castle. Schweda 14.

E501.12.9. †E501.12.9. Wild hunt appears over city. Schweda 14.

E501.12.10. †E501.12.10. Wild hunt appears at old mill. Schweda 14.

E501.13. †E501.13. Phenomena at appearance of wild hunt.

E501.13.1. †E501.13.1. Wild hunt heralded by noise. Schweda 20, Plischke 36.

E501.13.1.1. †E501.13.1.1. Wild hunt heralded by detonation. Schweda 21.

E501.13.1.2. †E501.13.1.2. Wild hunt heralded by rattle of chains. Schweda 20; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 250.

E501.13.1.3. †E501.13.1.3. Wild hunt heralded by clash of swords. Plischke 29.

E501.13.1.4. †E501.13.1.4. Wild hunt heralded by ringing of bells. Schweda 21.

E501.13.2. †E501.13.2. Wild hunt heralded by music. Plischke 36.

E501.13.3. †E501.13.3. Wild hunt heralded by noise of horses.

E501.13.3.1. †E501.13.3.1. Wild hunt heralded by stamping of horses. Schweda 21.

E501.13.3.2. †E501.13.3.2. Wild hunt heralded by neighing of horses. Schweda 21.

E501.13.4. †E501.13.4. Wild hunt heralded by baying of hounds. Schweda 21.

E501.13.5. †E501.13.5. Wild hunt heralded by shouts of huntsmen. Schweda 21, Tobler 92.

E501.13.6. †E501.13.6. Wild hunt heralded by storm. Plischke 37.

E501.13.7. †E501.13.7. Wild hunt heralded by fire. Schweda 21.

E501.14. †E501.14. Course of wild hunt.

E501.14.1. †E501.14.1. Wild hunt chases in air. Plischke 62; Mazeret RTP XXV 313.

E501.14.1.1. †E501.14.1.1. Wild hunt in air very close to ground. Plischke 63.

E501.14.2. †E501.14.2. Wild hunt courses in particular direction. Plischke 63.

E501.14.3. †E501.14.3. Wild hunt goes thrice around pond. Schweda 29.

E501.14.4. †E501.14.4. Wild hunt goes several times around a hill. Schweda 29.

E501.14.5. †E501.14.5. Wild hunt goes around the entire earth. Plischke 64.

E501.14.6. †E501.14.6. Wild hunt goes through houses when front and back doors are on a line. (Cf. †E501.17.5.4.) Plischke 64; Fb "port" II 862b, "Odins jæger" II 732b.

E501.15. †E501.15. Behavior of wild huntsmen.

E501.15.1. †E501.15.1. Wild huntsman blows horn. Schwartz Zs. f. Vksk. VII 232.

E501.15.2. †E501.15.2. Wild huntsman has his horse beaten. *Zingerle 589.

E501.15.3. †E501.15.3. Wild huntsman makes people carry him on their backs. Harou RTP XX 368.

E501.15.4. †E501.15.4. Wild huntsman repays with leaves (shavings) that turn to gold. Plischke 36; Zingerle 589.

E501.15.5. †E501.15.5. Living smith must repair wagon belonging to wild hunt. Plischke 36.

E501.15.6. †E501.15.6. Behavior of wild huntsman's dogs.

E501.15.6.1. †E501.15.6.1. Wild huntsman asks people to hold his dogs. Fb "Odins jæger" II 732a.

E501.15.6.2. †E501.15.6.2. Wild huntsman turns his dogs loose on those he meets. Harou RTP XX 368.

E501.15.6.3. †E501.15.6.3. Bite of wild huntsman's dogs drives other dogs mad. *Fb "hund" I 676a, "Odins jæger" II 732a.

E501.15.6.4. †E501.15.6.4. Wild huntsman's dogs cannot pass over grave. Must be lifted over. Plischke 33.

E501.15.6.5. †E501.15.6.5. Wild huntsman's dog cannot be dislodged from house it has entered. Plischke 33.

E501.15.6.6. †E501.15.6.6. Wild huntsman's dogs eat dough, bread, meal, etc. Plischke 33; *Zingerle 590.

E501.15.6.7. †E501.15.6.7. Wild huntsman's dog when seized becomes stick (black coal). Plischke 32.

E501.15.7. †E501.15.7. Wild huntsman waters his horse. Fb "Odins jæger" II 732a.

E501.15.8. †E501.15.8. Wild huntsman lives in room on farm. Fb "Odins jæger" 732b.

E501.16. †E501.16. Phenomena at disappearance of wild hunt.

E501.16.1. †E501.16.1. Wild hunt disappears with loud noise. Schweda 21.

E501.16.2. †E501.16.2. Wild hunt disappears with movement of tree tops. Schweda 21.

E501.16.3. †E501.16.3. Wild hunt disappears with blast of wind. Schweda 21.

E501.16.4. †E501.16.4. Wild hunt disappears in column of fire. Schweda 21.

E501.16.5. †E501.16.5. Wild hunt disappears during storm. Schweda 21.

E501.17. †E501.17. Evading or combating the wild hunt.

E501.17.1. †E501.17.1. Wild hunt powerless against certain persons.

E501.17.1.1. †E501.17.1.1. Wild hunt powerless against herdsmen. Schweda 31.

E501.17.1.2. †E501.17.1.2. Wild hunt powerless against churchmen. Schweda 32.

E501.17.2. †E501.17.2. Wild hunt powerless beyond certain range. Schweda 32.

E501.17.3. †E501.17.3. Wild hunt powerless at crossroads. Schweda 32; Plischke 32, 37; RTP XX 163.

E501.17.4. †E501.17.4. Wild hunt's power evaded.

E501.17.4.1. †E501.17.4.1. Power of wild hunt evaded by prayer. Schweda 31; Plischke 79.

E501.17.4.2. †E501.17.4.2. Power of wild hunt evaded by formula. (Cf. †D1273.) Schweda 32.

E501.17.4.3. †E501.17.4.3. Power of wild hunt evaded by sacrificing to huntsman's dogs. Fb "kvie" II 338.

E501.17.4.4. †E501.17.4.4. Power of wild hunt evaded by silence. Schweda 31; England: Baughman.

E501.17.5. †E501.17.5. Wild hunt avoided.

E501.17.5.1. †E501.17.5.1. Wild hunt avoided by keeping on one's road. Sometimes in middle of road or on right side of road. Schweda 31; Plischke 77.

E501.17.5.2. †E501.17.5.2. Wild hunt avoided by getting out of its course. Plischke 76.

E501.17.5.3. †E501.17.5.3. Wild hunt avoided by keeping in house with windows closed. (Cf. †E501.14.6.) Plischke 76.

E501.17.5.4. †E501.17.5.4. Wild hunt avoided by throwing self to earth. Plischke 76.

E501.17.5.5. †E501.17.5.5. Wild hunt avoided by staying within circle. (Cf. †D1272.) Plischke 76.

E501.17.5.6. †E501.17.5.6. Wild hunt avoided by holding bread. (Cf. †D1031.1.) Plischke 78.

E501.17.5.7. †E501.17.5.7. Wild hunt avoided by holding certain plant. (Cf. †D965.) Plischke 78.

E501.17.5.8. †E501.17.5.8. Sound of wild hunt avoided by sticking fingers in ears. Fb "øre" III 1181a.

E501.17.6. †E501.17.6. Wild huntsman pacified.

E501.17.6.1. †E501.17.6.1. Wild huntsman pacified by sacrifice. *Fb "ofre" II 735a.

E501.17.6.2. †E501.17.6.2. Wild huntsman pacified with food. Fb "Odins jæger" II 732b.

E501.17.7. †E501.17.7. Wild huntsman released from wandering.

E501.17.7.1. †E501.17.7.1. Wild huntsman released from wandering by mould from Christ's grave. Fb "Kristi grav".

E501.17.8. †E501.17.8. Wild hunt forced to depart.

E501.17.8.1. †E501.17.8.1. Wild hunt frightened away by scolding. Plischke 75.

E501.18. †E501.18. Evil effects of meeting wild hunt.

E501.18.1. †E501.18.1. Wild hunt harmful to certain persons.

E501.18.1.1. †E501.18.1.1. Wild hunt harmful to mockers. Schweda 31; Plischke 69, 72.

E501.18.1.2. †E501.18.1.2. Wild hunt harmful to thieves. Schweda 31.

E501.18.1.3. †E501.18.1.3. Wild hunt harmful to the curious. Schweda 31.

E501.18.1.3.1. †E501.18.1.3.1. Wild hunt throws down man's dead child when asked for part of game. England: Baughman.

E501.18.2. †E501.18.2. Wild hunt throws human flesh on persons who see it. This cannot be removed. Schweda 32; Plischke 72.

E501.18.3. †E501.18.3. Wild hunt throws horses' feet on persons who see it. This cannot be removed. Schweda 32; Plischke 72.

E501.18.4. †E501.18.4. Wild hunt carries person off. Plischke 69; England: Baughman.

E501.18.5. †E501.18.5. Wild hunt throws person to ground. Plischke 70.

E501.18.6. †E501.18.6. Sight of wild hunt renders person insane. Plischke 70.

E501.18.7. †E501.18.7. Sight of wild hunt blinds person. Plischke 70.

E501.18.8. †E501.18.8. Sight of wild hunt causes swelling of head. Plischke 71.

E501.18.9. †E501.18.9. Sight of wild hunt causes one to stick axe or knife in foot. Plischke 71.

E501.18.10. †E501.18.10. Sight of wild hunt causes death. Schweda 32; Ireland: Baughman.

E501.19. †E501.19. Remedy for effects of seeing wild hunt.

E501.19.1. †E501.19.1. Effects of wild hunt remedied by seeing it a year later in same place. Plischke 74.

E501.19.2. †E501.19.2. Effects of wild hunt remedied by asking the huntsmen for salt. Plischke 74.

E501.19.3. †E501.19.3. Effects of wild hunt remedied by asking the huntsmen for parsley. Plischke 74.

E501.19.4. †E501.19.4. Effects of wild hunt remedied by asking to partake in booty of hunt. This booty is the same kind as the hunt has already thrown down. (Cf. †E501.18.2.) Plischke 74.

E501.19.5. †E501.19.5. Effects of wild hunt remedied by eating part of flesh thrown down by it. (Cf. †E501.18.2.) Plischke 75.

E501.19.6. †E501.19.6. Effects of wild hunt remedied by prayer. Plischke 75.

E501.20. †E501.20. Wild hunt as omen.

E501.20.1. †E501.20.1. Wild hunt as omen of disaster. RTP XII 186.

E501.20.1.1. †E501.20.1.1. Wild hunt as omen of war. Plischke 67; Fb "krig" II 296a; England: Baughman.

E501.20.1.2. †E501.20.1.2. Wild hunt as omen of pestilence. Plischke 67.

E501.20.2. †E501.20.2. Wild hunt as omen of plentiful year. Plischke 68.

E501.20.3. †E501.20.3. Wild hunt as weather omen. Plischke 68.

E502. †E502. The Sleeping Army. Soldiers killed in battle come forth on occasions from their resting place (hill, grave, grotto) and march about or send their leader to do so. --*Schweda 59ff.; *Hartland Science 216ff.; Howey 9; Irish myth: *Cross; England, Scotland, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

E510. †E510. Phantom sailors and travelers.

E511. †E511. The Flying Dutchman. A sea captain because of his wickedness sails his phantom ship eternally without coming to harbor. **G. Kalff De Sage van den Vliegenden Hollander (Zupthen, 1923); **Engert Die Sage vom Fliegenden Holländer; **W. Söderhjelm Flygande holländeren (Helsingfors, 1890); *Andraea Anglia Beiblatt XIII (1902) 47; Golther Zur deutschen Sage und Dichtung 7; Fb "skib" III 243a; England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E511.1. †E511.1. Reason for Flying Dutchman's punishment.

E511.1.1. †E511.1.1. Flying Dutchman sails because of cruelty. See all references to †E511.

E511.1.2. †E511.1.2. Flying Dutchman sails because of pact with Devil. Engert 21ff.

E511.1.3. †E511.1.3. Flying Dutchman sails because he defied the storm. Engert passim.

E511.2. †E511.2. Flying Dutchman's ship.

E511.2.1. †E511.2.1. Flying Dutchman has dead men as sailors. Fb "skib" III 243a.

E512. †E512. Phantom cart driver wanders because of blasphemy. "Peter Rugg the Missing Man." Boasts that he will reach home despite storm or never see his home again. He always travels in hard shower of rain or just ahead of one. U.S.: *Baughman.

E520. †E520. Animal ghosts. Hdwb. d. Abergl. s. v. "Geist"; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 22 No. 201; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 243.

E521. †E521. Ghost of domestic beast.

E521.1. †E521.1. Ghost of horse. *Howey 31; *Fb "stud" III 619b, "hest" I 599b, "helhest" I 584b; *Kittredge Witchcraft 177 n. 31; *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 164ff.; England: Baughman.

E521.1.1. †E521.1.1. Headless ghost of horse. *Howey 62; *Fb "stud" III 619b, "hest" I 599b, "helhest" I 584b; Japanese: Ikeda.

E521.1.2. †E521.1.2. Three-legged ghost of horse. Fb "helhest" I 584b; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 15, 420, 1011, III 1517.

E521.1.3. †E521.1.3. Ghost of race horse wins race in competition with living horses. U.S.: Baughman.

E521.2. †E521.2. Ghost of dog. Hdwb. d. Abergl. s. v. "Geist"; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 22 No. 202; Jewish: *Neuman; Texas: Bishop Pub. Texas Folklore Soc. XV 119--21; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 488, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 228.

E521.2.1. †E521.2.1. Ashes of dead dog speak. *Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 265 No. 72.

E521.2.2. †E521.2.2. Headless ghost of dog. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 682.

E521.3. †E521.3. Ghost of cat. (Cf. †E423.1.2.) Kittredge Witchcraft 497 n. 41.

E521.4. †E521.4. Ghost of calf. (Cf. †E423.1.8.1.) *Fb "kalv" II 79a; U.S.: Baughman.

E521.5. †E521.5. Ghost of hog. Fb "svin" III 676b.

E521.5.0.1. †E521.5.0.1. Headless ghost of hog. (Cf. †E422.1.1.) Fb "svin" III 676b.

E521.5.1. †E521.5.1. Ghost of sow. Fb "sø" III 450a.

E522. †E522. Ghost of wild beast.

E522.1. †E522.1. Ghost of fox (Cf. †E423.2.3.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 24.

E522.2. †E522.2. Ghost of bear. (Cf. †E423.2.1.) Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 87.

E523. †E523. Ghost of fish. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 33.

E524. †E524. Ghost of bird. (Cf. †E423.3.)

E524.1. †E524.1. Ghost of goose. Fb "gasse" I 425a.

E524.2. †E524.2. Ghost of cock.

E524.2.1. †E524.2.1. Cooked cock crows. Fb "kok" IV 272b.

E530. †E530. Ghosts of objects. Hdwb. d. Abergl. s. v. "Geist"; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 23 No. 205.

E530.1. †E530.1. Ghost-like lights. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 23 No. 210; England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E530.1.1. †E530.1.1. Ghost light follows ghost. U.S.: *Baughman.

E530.1.2. †E530.1.2. Ball of fire haunts murderer. U.S.: *Baughman.

E530.1.3. †E530.1.3. Ghost light haunts burial spot. England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E530.1.4. †E530.1.4. Ghost light on farm indicates that occupants will move shortly. Scotland: Baughman.

E530.1.5. †E530.1.5. Ghost light indicates impending calamity. Scotland: *Baughman.

E530.1.6. †E530.1.6. Ghost light serves as death omen. (Cf. †D1812.5.) England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E530.1.7. †E530.1.7. Ghost light indicates route funeral will take. (Cf. †D1825.7.1.) England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E531. †E531. Ghost-like building. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 23 No. 207; England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E532. †E532. Ghost-like picture. U.S.: *Baughman.

E533. †E533. Ghostly bell.

E533.1. †E533.1. Ghostly bell sounds from under water. England: *Baughman.

E533.2. †E533.2. Self-tolling bell. England: Baughman.

E534. †E534. Phantom spinning-wheel makes noise. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 678.

E535. †E535. Ghostlike conveyance (wagon, etc.). Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 22 No. 203; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 241--243.

E535.1. †E535.1. Phantom coach and horses. England, Ireland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E535.2. †E535.2. Ghostly wagon. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E535.3. †E535.3. Ghost ship. (Cf. †E510.) Canada, England, U.S.: *Baughman. Childs NYFQ V 146ff.; Jones JAFL LVII 244.

E535.3.1. †E535.3.1. Phantom canoe. New York: Jones JAFL LVII 244.

E535.3.2. †E535.3.2. Phantom boat. Tahiti: Henry 91.

E535.4. †E535.4. Phantom railway train. U.S.: *Baughman; Jones JAFL LVII 241, 244.

E538. †E538. Ghoulish ghost objects.

E538.1. †E538.1. Spectral coffin. U.S.: Baughman.

E538.2. †E538.2. Ghostly rope of suicide appears. U.S.: Baughman.

E539. †E539. Other ghostly objects.

E539.1. †E539.1. Oven door jumps into room; money thought to be under spot where it lands. England: Baughman.

E539.2. †E539.2. Pot jumps in house to indicate money hidden underneath it. England: Baughman.

E539.3. †E539.3. Ghostly wool-packs roll over fields, down hill. England: *Baughman.

E539.4. †E539.4. Ghostly chair.

E539.4.1. †E539.4.1. Ghostly chair in cellar jumps up and down on three legs, points with fourth at spot on floor. Witnesses dig up body from under floor. U.S.: Baughman.

E539.5. †E539.5. Coal in bin jumps around and gurgles. U.S.: Baughman.

E540. †E540. Miscellaneous actions of revenants.

E541. †E541. Revenants eat. (Cf. †E499.1.) *Fb "lig" II 412b, "spøgelse" III 518ab.; India: Thompson-Balys.

E541.1. †E541.1. Food placed out for returning souls of dead. Germanic: Celander Nordisk Jul I 203ff., Wuttke Volksaberglaube 471, Archiv f. Religionsgeschichte XIX (1918) 134; Lappish: Rheen Svenska Landsmålen XVII (1898) 27; Slavic: Máchal 230; India: Thompson-Balys.

E541.2. †E541.2. Ghost eats living human beings. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E541.3. †E541.3. Dead come forth and eat grave-offerings. India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 488, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 154.

E541.4. †E541.4. Revenants drink. India: Thompson-Balys.

E541.4.1. †E541.4.1. Amputated head asks for drink. India: Thompson-Balys.

E541.5. †E541.5. Dead beg food from living. Africa (Bantu): Einstein 193.

E542. †E542. Dead man touches living.

E542.1. †E542.1. Ghostly fingers leave mark on person's body. U.S.: Baughman.

E542.1.1. †E542.1.1. Ghostly fingers leave mark on man's hand. *Fb "hånd" I 765b.

E542.1.2. †E542.1.2. Ghost touches man's neck, leaves impression of hand on neck. U.S.: Baughman.

E542.1.3. †E542.1.3. Ghost strikes man on mouth; leaves his mouth crooked. Ireland: Baughman.

E542.1.4. †E542.1.4. Ghost strikes man on face.

E542.1.4.1. †E542.1.4.1. Ghost strikes man on face: cancer grows there. Canada: Baughman.

E542.1.4.2. †E542.1.4.2. Ghost strikes man on face: marks remain permanently. U.S.: Baughman.

E542.2. †E542.2. Dead man's hand touches birthmark and thus removes it. *Fb "død" I 228a.

E542.3. †E542.3. Ghost throws man into ditch, leaving his side numb. England: Baughman.

E542.4. †E542.4. Ghost touches man's hat, scorching it and turning lock of his hair white. U.S.: Baughman.

E543. †E543. Dead drag boat to strand. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 5 No. 41.

E544. †E544. Ghost leaves evidence of his appearance. (Cf. †E322.3.3.1, †E542. 1ff.) Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E544.1. †E544.1. Ghost leaves object after appearance. U.S.: Baughman.

E544.1.1. †E544.1.1. Ghost leaves behind a crucifix. England: Baughman.

E544.1.2. †E544.1.2. Ghost leaves a ring with the living. England: Baughman.

E544.1.3. †E544.1.3. Ghost of drowned man leaves puddle of salt water where he stands. U.S.: *Baughman.

E544.2. †E544.2. Ghost pulls off blanket from sleeper. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts, Index No. 3540.

E545. †E545. The dead speak. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; West Indies: Flowers 431; India: Thompson-Balys.

E545.0.1. †E545.0.1. Words uttered from the tomb. *Loomis White Magic 53; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

E545.0.2. †E545.0.2. The dead are silent. Irish myth: *Cross.

E545.1. †E545.1. Conversation between the dead. Gaster Exempla 206 No. 110; Jewish: *Neuman.

E545.2. †E545.2. Dead predict death. (Cf. †E363.3.) Wimberly 268; England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E545.3. †E545.3. Dead announce own death. (Cf. †E723ff.) Wimberly 268.

E545.4. †E545.4. Dead will not speak of their condition. England: Child II 231--3.

E545.5. †E545.5. Questions to dead are dangerous. *Fb "død" I 228a; Boberg.

E545.6. †E545.6. Dead speak on Hallowe'en. (Cf. †V70.5.) Irish myth: Cross.

E545.6.1. †E545.6.1. Thirsty when hanged, corpse asks for water on Hallowe'en. Irish myth: Cross.

E545.7. †E545.7. Holy man converses with entombed dead. Irish myth: *Cross.

E545.8. †E545.8. Fairy converses with dead. Irish myth: Cross.

E545.9. †E545.9. Dead holy man begs grave-digger not to bury sinner on top of him. Irish myth: Cross.

E545.10. †E545.10. Corpse exclaims over miracle. Irish myth: Cross.

E545.11. †E545.11. Ghost chooses own requiem. Irish myth: Cross.

E545.12. †E545.12. Ghost directs man to hidden treasure. India: Thompson-Balys.

E545.13. †E545.13. Man converses with dead. Jewish: Neuman.

E545.14. †E545.14. The dead hear saint's bell. (Cf. †D1213.) Irish myth: Cross.

E545.15. †E545.15. Saint after his death gives directions where he wants to be buried. *Loomis White Magic 53.

E545.16. †E545.16. Dead predict calamity or disaster.

E545.16.1. †E545.16.1. Dead predict war. (C.f. †E575.) U.S.: Baughman.

E545.17. †E545.17. The dead foretell the future. (Cf. †E363.3, †E576.) U.S.: Baughman; Jewish: *Neuman.

E545.18. †E545.18. Ghost asks to be taken to former home. (C.f. all references to †E332.3.3.1.) U.S.: Baughman.

E545.19. †E545.19. Addressing the dead.

E545.19.1. †E545.19.1. The dead cannot speak until spoken to. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E545.19.2. †E545.19.2. Proper means of addressing ghosts. England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E545.20. †E545.20. Part of ghost speaks.

E545.20.1. †E545.20.1. Strand of hair from drowned woman speaks. U.S.: Baughman.

E545.21. †E545.21. Heads of slain people in magician's house advises hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

E545.22. †E545.22. Conversation between God and Adam's corpse. Jewish: *Neuman.

E545.23. †E545.23. Dead must be answered in whispers. Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 266, (Greenland): Rink 302, Rasmussen II 269.

E546. †E546. The dead sing. (Cf. †E371.3.) *Type 4031; *Fb "hvid" I 700b; Irish myth: *Cross; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 244.

E547. †E547. The dead wail (Cf. †E402ff.) Fb "kirkeklokke" II 131a; Jewish: Neuman.

E547.1. †E547.1. The dead groan. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681, 685.

E548. †E548. Dead make music on their ribs. Irish: Curtin Myths and Folklore of Ireland 25; India: Thompson-Balys; New York: Jones JAFL LVII 244.

E551. †E551. Dead man sobs. (Cf. †E402.1.1.) Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 296 No. 21.

E552. †E552. Ghost in form of bear sneezes. (Cf. †E423.2.1.) Tobler 56.

E553. †E553. Ghost becomes log during day. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 101.

E554. †E554. Ghost plays musical instrument. U.S.: Baughman.

E554.1. †E554.1. Ghost plays organ. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 676.

E555. †E555. Dead man smokes pipe. Fb "tobak" III 814a, "spøgelse" III 520a; U.S.: Baughman; N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 219 No. 41, (Teton): Dorsey AA o.s. II (1889) 150.

E556. †E556. Ghost drinks. U.S.: Baughman.

E556.1. †E556.1. Ghost drinks liquor. England, U.S.: Baughman.

E556.1.1. †E556.1.1. The dead man asks for whiskey. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts.

E557. †E557. Dead man writes. Fb "spøgelse" III 520a.

E557.1. †E557.1. Ghost writes on wall the answers to problems of person in trouble. U.S.: Baughman.

E558. †E558. Ghosts forced to labor. India: Thompson-Balys.

E561. †E561. Dead person spins. Fb "spøgelse" III 520a, "spinde" III 492a; England, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

E561.1. †E561.1. Sight of dead woman spinning drives people insane. *Fb "spinde" III 492a.

E562. †E562. Dead person weaves. Fb "spøgelse" III 520a; England: *Baughman.

E563. †E563. Dead person knits. Fb "spøgelse" III 520a.

E564. †E564. Man who has died and returned to life becomes diviner. India: Thompson-Balys.

E565. †E565. Ghosts clank chains. (Cf. †E501.13.1.2., †E755.2.2.) North Carolina: Brown Collection I 675.

E567. †E567. Dead person threshes. Fb "spøgelse" III 520a.

E568. †E568. Revenant lies down and sleeps. U.S.: Baughman.

E568.1. †E568.1. Revenant leaves impression of body in bed. England, U.S. *Baughman.

E571. †E571. Ghostly barber. *Type 326; *BP I 24; *Fb "balbere" IV 23a.

E572. †E572. Ghost walks through solid substance. U.S.: *Baughman.

E573. †E573. Ghost tried in court. **Jacoby Zs. f. Vksk. XXIII (1913) 184; Jewish: Neuman.

E574. †E574. Appearance of ghost serves as death omen. (Cf. †D1812.5.1.1, †E265.3, †E501.20.) England, Scotland, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E575. †E575. Ghost as omen of calamity or ill fortune. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E576. †E576. Dead man praises God. Jewish: *Neuman.

E576.1. †E576.1. Dead intercedes before God for mortal. Jewish: *Neuman.

E577. †E577. Dead persons play games. U.S.: Baughman; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153.

E577.1. †E577.1. Dead persons play ball. (Cf. †E494.) Wimberly 233.

E577.2. †E577.2. Dead persons play cards. *Type 326; Fb "spøgelse" III 520a; U.S.: Baughman.

E577.2.1. †E577.2.1. Playing cards with a dead man (ghost). Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 678ff.

E577.3. †E577.3. Dead persons bowl. Type 326; cf. Washington Irving's "Rip Van Winkle".

E578. †E578. Dead persons build fires. Type 326; Russian: Ralston 314; India: Thompson-Balys.

E578.1. †E578.1. Revenants want to warm themselves. Type 326.

E578.2. †E578.2. Ghosts warm themselves around fire. India: Thompson-Balys.

E581. †E581. Dead person rides. Fb "spøgelse" III 520a; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 680--682.

E581.1. †E581.1. Whirlwind as ghost's vehicle. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 84.

E581.2. †E581.2. Ghost rides horse. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E581.2.1. †E581.2.1. Ghost jumps on horse behind man. (Cf. †E262.) North Carolina: Brown Collection I 681.

E581.3. †E581.3. Ghost rides cow. U.S.: *Baughman.

E581.4. †E581.4. Ghost rides bus.

E581.4.1. †E581.4.1. Ghost rides on bus, disappears before it crosses bridge. U.S.: Baughman.

E581.5. †E581.5. Ghost rides heavy iron chest. U.S.: Baughman.

E581.6. †E581.6. Ghost rides giant demijohn. U.S.: Baughman.

E581.7. †E581.7. Ghost sails over sound on bundle of straw. Fb "halmknippe" I 539b.

E582. †E582. Dead person drives horses. Fb "spøgelse" III 520a; England: Baughman.

E583. †E583. Dead persons draw chariot. India: Thompson-Balys, Tawney I 457.

E585. †E585. Dead person visits earth periodically. (Cf. †E332.3.3.1, †E535.3.)

E585.1. †E585.1. Dead person visits earth every seven years. Fb "spøgelse" III 519b; Tobler 66.

E585.2. †E585.2. Spectre rides to castle every seven years. Irish myth: Cross.

E585.3. †E585.3. Revenant revisits earth every day. U.S.: Baughman.

E585.3.1. †E585.3.1. Revenant revisits earth nightly. Africa (Fang): Trilles 269.

E585.4. †E585.4. Revenant revisits earth yearly. S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 109.

E586. †E586. Dead returns soon after burial. India: Thompson-Balys.

E586.0.1. †E586.0.1. Ghost returns before burial. U.S.: Baughman.

E586.1. †E586.1. Dead returns on burial day. Fb "spøgelse" III 519ab; Spanish Exempla: Keller; England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E586.2. †E586.2. Dead returns third day after burial. Fb "sjæl" III 214b, "spøgelse" III 519b; N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 101; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153.

E586.3. †E586.3. Dead return second day after burial. N. Am. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 99.

E586.4. †E586.4. Dead sent back to life because his name is not in heavenly roll. India: Thompson-Balys.

E587. †E587. Ghosts walk at certain times.

E587.1. †E587.1. Ghosts walk at midday. Fb "middag" II 585b.

E587.2. †E587.2. Ghosts walk on Hallowe'en. (Cf. †F211.1.1.1.) Irish myth: Cross; U.S.: Baughman.

E587.2.1. †E587.2.1. Ghost most numerous on St. Thomas Eve and St. Thomas Day. England: Baughman.

E587.3. †E587.3. Ghosts walk from curfew to cockcrow. (Cf. †E452.) England: Baughman.

E587.4. †E587.4. Spirits are always in the air. England: Baughman.

E587.5. †E587.5. Ghost walk at midnight. U.S.: Baughman.

E587.6. †E587.6. Ghosts walk at full moon. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 198.

E588. †E588. Ghost leaves stench behind. Fb "stank"; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 276, Rasmussen II 275.

E591. †E591. Ghost travels under ground. Fb "jord" II 45b.

E592. †E592. Ghost carries burden.

E592.1. †E592.1. Ghost carries own dead body. Kai (German New Guinea): Dixon 142.

E592.2. †E592.2. Ghost carries coffin on back. Wimberly 238.

E593. †E593. Ghost takes things from people.

E593.1. †E593.1. Ghost steals collar of priest. Evil therefore befalls priest. *Fb "gjenganger" I 443.

E593.2. †E593.2. Ghost steals book from priest. *Fb "bog" IV 53b.

E593.3. †E593.3. If no lamp is lighted in a house for a period of fourteen days, ghosts take it for their dwelling. India: Thompson-Balys.

E593.4. †E593.4. Ghost takes bones from grave. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 81.

E593.5. †E593.5. Ghost steals food and treasure. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 123.

E594. †E594. Dead man wanders with torch. (Cf. †E599.7.) Tobler 84; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 266.

E595. †E595. Cures by transferring disease to dead. Ghoulish charm used for this purpose. Kittredge Witchcraft 143, 461 n. 34.

E596. †E596. Living person in service of a dead man. BP I 214.

E596.1. †E596.1. Ghost works for human being. India: Thompson-Balys.

E597. †E597. Corpse leaps up in emotion at saint's passing nearby. Irish myth: Cross.

E598. †E598. Death and return to life rids man of disease. India: Thompson-Balys.

E599. †E599. Other actions of revenants.

E599.1. †E599.1. Ghost searches for breath. U.S.: Baughman.

E599.2. †E599.2. Ghostly corpses seen on floor of house, disappear when coroner comes. U.S.: Baughman.

E599.3. †E599.3. Ghost watches (follows) its own corpse. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E599.4. †E599.4. Ghost asks alms (from one who does not know that asker has died) at usual place and time. England: Baughman.

E599.5. †E599.5. Ghost travels swiftly. (Cf. †D2122.) England: Baughman.

E599.6. †E599.6. Ghosts move furniture. U.S.: *Baughman.

E599.7. †E599.7. Ghost carries lantern. (Cf. †E371.10, †E472, †E594, †E530.1, †F491.1.) U.S.: Baughman.

E599.8. †E599.8. Ghost vanishes when taken home. (Cf. †E332.3.3.1.) U.S.: *Baughman.

E599.9. †E599.9. Ghost seen in two places simultaneously. England: Baughman.

E599.10. †E599.10. Playful revenant. England: Baughman.

E599.11. †E599.11. Locked doors open at touch of ghosts. India: Thompson-Balys.

E599.12. †E599.12. Human being transported by a ghost. India: Thompson-Balys.

E599.13. †E599.13. Dead person bathes. Jewish: Neuman.

†E600-†E699. Reincarnation.

E600. †E600. Reincarnation. Return from the dead in another form. India: Penzer X 336 s. v. "Transmigration", *Cowell Jataka Index s. v. "Bodhisatta" and "Rebirth", Keith 100, *Thompson-Balys; Irish myth: *Cross, Nutt "The Irish Vision of the Happy Otherworld and the Celtic Doctrine of Rebirth" in K. Meyer Voyage of Bran; Icelandic: *Boberg; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 321ff.; Jewish: *Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473; Chinese: Werner 314; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 337 n. 216a, Alexander N. Am. 280 n. 18; Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 359, (Greenland): Rasmussen I 115, III 171, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 639; S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 109.

E600.1. †E600.1. Origin of reincarnation: miscarried message of immortality. India: Thompson-Balys.

E600.2. †E600.2. Science of reincarnation taught. India: Thompson-Balys.

E601. †E601. Reincarnation: former lives remembered. Jewish: *Neuman, *Penzer X 154 s. v. "Former births"; India: Thompson-Balys.

E601.1. †E601.1. Man by magic sees his wives in their former incarnations as dog and sow. India: Thompson-Balys.

E601.2. †E601.2. Reincarnated benefactor helped by man he has befriended in former life. India: Thompson-Balys.

E601.3. †E601.3. Punishments earned on one life paid in next reincarnation. India: Thompson-Balys.

E602. †E602. Reincarnation in form determined at death. India: Thompson-Balys, Tawney II 145.

E603. †E603. Limited number of souls in world necessitates reincarnation. India: Thompson-Balys.

E604. †E604. Definite number of reincarnations.

E604.1. †E604.1. Seven reincarnations. *Zachariae 33ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

E605. †E605. Reincarnation in another human form. *M. Bloomfield Proc. Am. Philosophical Soc. LVI 1ff.; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

E605.1. †E605.1. Reincarnation with change of sex. *Penzer VII 230; India: Thompson-Balys.

E605.1.1. †E605.1.1. Reincarnation: woman reborn as man. Chinese: Werner 256.

E605.1.2. †E605.1.2. Man reborn as woman. India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 76.

E605.2. †E605.2. Reincarnation: god reborn as man. Icelandic: Olrik Kilderne til Sakses Oldhistorie I (1892) 30ff., 60ff., Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys, Keith 168; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 907, 1258; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 119; Marquesas: Handy 109; N. Am. Indian (Mandan): Curtis N. Am. Indian V 39ff.

E605.2.1. †E605.2.1. Reincarnation: spirit reborn as man. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 57.

E605.3. †E605.3. Reincarnation: man becomes god. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 212.

E605.4. †E605.4. Reincarnation: man becomes spirit. India: Thompson-Balys.

E605.5. †E605.5. Reincarnation: prince becomes common man. India: Thompson-Balys.

E605.6. †E605.6. Reincarnation: common man becomes prince. India: Thompson-Balys.

E605.7. †E605.7. Man reincarnated as child. (Cf. †E607.2.) India: Thompson-Balys.

E605.7.1. †E605.7.1. Reincarnation as child which is within a fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

E605.8. †E605.8. Horse-headed men reborn as money-lenders. India: Thompson-Balys.

E605.9. †E605.9. Reincarnation as conjurer. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 234, 247, (Greenland): Rasmussen III 130.

E606. †E606. Reasons for reincarnation. (Cf. †E693.)

E606.1. †E606.1. Reincarnation as punishment for sin. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E606.2. †E606.2. Reincarnation to complete unfinished work. India: Thompson-Balys.

E607. †E607. Methods of reincarnation.

E607.1. †E607.1. Bones of dead collected and buried. Return in another form directly from grave. *Type 720; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Alexander Lat. Am. 272.

E607.1.1. †E607.1.1. Bones of dead collected and thrown into river. India: Thompson-Balys.

E607.2. †E607.2. Person transforms self, is swallowed and reborn in new form. (Cf. †D605.7, †D610.) Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 110; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 282 n. 44.

E607.2.1. †E607.2.1. Person is swallowed and then reborn. India: Thompson-Balys.

E607.2.2. †E607.2.2. Rebirth by crawling into woman's womb. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 57.

E607.3. †E607.3. Hauling canoe over dead man's body causes return from dead in new form. Maori: Dixon 55.

E607.4. †E607.4. Reincarnation by fasting. Irish myth: Cross.

E607.5. †E607.5. Cauldron of regeneration (reincarnation). Irish myth: *Cross.

E610. †E610. Reincarnation as animal. Encyc. Rel. and Ethics I 493b; Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "animaux"; Jewish: bin Gorion VI 110, 310; Africa: Werner African 192.

E610.1. †E610.1. Reincarnation: man to animal to man. Irish myth: Cross.

E610.1.1. †E610.1.1. Reincarnation: boy to bird to boy. Boy returns as bird, who later becomes the boy. *Type 720; *BP I 422.

E610.1.2. †E610.1.2. Reincarnation: man to fish to man. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 115, II 151.

E611. †E611. Reincarnation as domestic animal.

E611.1. †E611.1. Reincarnation as horse. (Cf. †D131.) Gaster Exempla 248 No. 349; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 851.

E611.1.1. †E611.1.1. Reincarnation: man as horse-head. Hindu: Keith 121 (Vishnu).

E611.1.2. †E611.1.2. Reincarnation as donkey. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 131.

E611.2. †E611.2. Reincarnation as cow. (Cf. †D133.1.) *Type 510, 511; BP *I 187, III 61ff.; Wesselski Deutsche Märchen vor Grimm (1938) vii ff.; *MacCulloch Childhood 108; India: *Thompson-Balys.

E611.2.0.1. †E611.2.0.1. Divinity reincarnated as cow. India: Thompson-Balys.

E611.2.1. †E611.2.1. Reincarnation as bull. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 166, II 29.

E611.2.1.0.1. †E611.2.1.0.1. Divinity reincarnated as bull. (Cf. †A132.9.) Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 152, *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

E611.2.1.1. †E611.2.1.1. Reincarnation as bullock. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E611.2.2. †E611.2.2. Reincarnation as an ox. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1124.

E611.2.3. †E611.2.3. Reincarnation as calf. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 54, 189.

E611.2.4. †E611.2.4. Reincarnation as a buffalo. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 592; Chinese: Graham (†E612.11).

E611.3. †E611.3. Man reincarnated as swine. Fb "svin" III 676a, "sjæl" III 214a; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 423, 1031; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 189, 199.

E611.3.1. †E611.3.1. Man reincarnated as wild boar. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Keith 121 (Vishnu).

E611.4. †E611.4. Man reincarnated as goat. (Cf. †D134.) *Type 510, 511; *BP I 187, III 60ff.; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 53 No. 2.

E611.5. †E611.5. Man reincarnated as cat. Fb "sjæl" III 214a.

E611.5.1. †E611.5.1. God reincarnated as cat. India: Thompson-Balys.

E611.6. †E611.6. Man reincarnated as dog. (Cf. †D141.) Fb "sjæl" III 214a; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 267, 827; Korean: Zong in-Sob 92; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 115.

E612. †E612. Reincarnation as wild animal. Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 325ff.

E612.1. †E612.1. Reincarnation as lion. Hindu: Keith 121 (Vishnu).

E612.2. †E612.2. Reincarnation as wolf. Fb "pebersvend" II 795a (werwolf); Irish myth: Cross.

E612.3. †E612.3. Reincarnation as hare. Fb "sjæl" III 214a; Gaster Exempla 248 No. 349; Eskimo (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 639.

E612.4. †E612.4. Reincarnation as fox. (Cf. †D113.3.) *Type 506; BP III 494ff.; Fb "sjæl" III 214a.

E612.5. †E612.5. Reincarnation as deer. Irish myth: *Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 421, II 27f., 69.

E612.6. †E612.6. Reincarnation as seal. (Cf. †D127.1.) Irish myth: Cross; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 115, III 56.

E612.7. †E612.7. Reincarnation as mongoose. India: Thompson-Balys.

E612.8. †E612.8. Reincarnation as bear. India: Thompson-Balys.

E612.9. †E612.9. Reincarnation as hyena. India: Thompson-Balys.

E612.10. †E612.10. Reincarnation as jackal. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera 267, 1034, 1131.

E612.11. †E612.11. Reincarnation as elephant. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 157, II 603, 1158.

E612.12. †E612.12. Reincarnation as monkey. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 996, II 27, 471, 519, 847, 939.

E612.13. †E612.13. Reincarnation as rat. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 290, 1885.

E612.14. †E612.14. Reincarnation as otter. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 267.

E613. †E613. Reincarnation as bird. Fb "sjæl" III 214a; Gjerdman Nattskärran och nogra andra Spökfåglar (Arv I 27--68); Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 347--363; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 870, II 17; Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 264ff, Graham; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 61.

E613.0.1. †E613.0.1. Reincarnation of murdered child as bird. *Type 720; *BP I 422; *Fb "fugl" I 380b; English: Child I 126, 180f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa: Werner African 211, (Basuto): Jacottet 56.

E613.0.2. †E613.0.2. Reincarnation of unbaptized child as bird. *Fb "udøbt" III 960a; *Dh III 484.

E613.0.3. †E613.0.3. Reincarnation of old maids as birds. Dh III 485; Fb "pebersvend" II 795a.

E613.0.4. †E613.0.4. Reincarnation of drowned persons as birds. Dh III 482.

E613.0.5. †E613.0.5. Severed heads of monster become birds. Hindu: Keith 88.

E613.0.6. †E613.0.6. Reincarnation of girl eaten by tiger as bird. India: Thompson-Balys.

E613.1. †E613.1. Reincarnation as duck. Tobler 53; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 453*; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 264.

E613.1.1. †E613.1.1. Reincarnation as sheldrake. India: Thompson-Balys.

E613.2. †E613.2. Reincarnation as owl. Tobler 97; India: Thompson-Balys.

E613.3. †E613.3. Reincarnation as hawk. (Cf. †D152.1.) Tobler 97; Irish myth: Cross.

E613.3.1. †E613.3.1. Reincarnation as eagle. India: Thompson-Balys.

E613.4. †E613.4. Reincarnation as swallow. (Cf. †D151.1.) Fb "pebersvend" II 795a. --Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 15 No. 83; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 147 No. 50.

E613.5. †E613.5. Reincarnation as cuckoo. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3134, Legends Nos. 248ff.; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 89 No. 77.

E613.6. †E613.6. Reincarnation as dove. Italian: Basile Pentamerone V 9.

E613.6.1. †E613.6.1. Reincarnation as pigeon. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 520, 557.

E613.7. †E613.7. Reincarnation as raven. England: *Baughman.

E613.8. †E613.8. Reincarnation as quail. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 816, 986, 1065.

E613.8.1. †E613.8.1. Reincarnation as partridge. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 226.

E613.9. †E613.9. Reincarnation as heron. India: Thompson-Balys.

E613.9.1. †E613.9.1. Reincarnation as crane. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1182.

E613.10. †E613.10. Reincarnation as goose. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 267, II 1264.

E613.11. †E613.11. Reincarnation as peacock. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1052, II 671.

E613.12. †E613.12. Reincarnation as parrot. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 266, 578, II 247, 572, 730f., 1122, 1173.

E614. †E614. Reincarnation as reptile.

E614.1. †E614.1. Reincarnation as snake. (Cf. †D191.) Fb "sjæl" III 214a; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 339ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 857; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 166f.

E614.2. †E614.2. Reincarnation as lizard. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 813; Tonga: Gifford 108.

E614.3. †E614.3. Reincarnation as crocodile. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 365, 479, II 555.

E614.4. †E614.4. Reincarnation as tortoise. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 267.

E614.5. †E614.5. Reincarnation as iguana. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 267.

E615. †E615. Reincarnation as amphibian.

E615.1. †E615.1. Reincarnation as frog. (Cf. †D195.) Tobler 28; Fb "sjæl" III 214a; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1322.

E616. †E616. Reincarnation as insect. Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 331ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

E616.1. †E616.1. Reincarnation as bee. (Cf. †D182.) Fb "sjæl" III 214a.

E616.2. †E616.2. Reincarnation as butterfly. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 266.

E616.3. †E616.3. Reincarnation as flea. India: Thompson-Balys.

E616.4. †E616.4. Reincarnation as weevil. India: Thompson-Balys.

E616.5. †E616.5. Reincarnation as bedbug. (Cf. †E693.2.) India: Thompson-Balys.

E617. †E617. Reincarnation as fish. (Cf. †D170, †E713.1.) Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 999, 1148, II 691.

E617.1. †E617.1. Reincarnation as salmon. (Cf. †B124.1, †D176.) Irish myth: *Cross; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 115, II 15.

E617.2. †E617.2. Reincarnation as goldfish. India: Thompson-Balys.

E617.3. †E617.3. Reincarnation as shark. Solomon Islands: Beckwith Myth 13.

E617.4. †E617.4. Reincarnation as whale. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 115.

E618. †E618. Reincarnation as worm. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 222.

E618.1. †E618.1. Reincarnation as leech. India: Thompson-Balys.

E629. †E629. Reincarnation as animal -- miscellaneous.

E629.1. †E629.1. Reincarnation as scorpion. India: Thompson-Balys.

E629.2. †E629.2. Reincarnation as crab. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 267.

E630. †E630. Reincarnation in object.

E631. †E631. Reincarnation in plant (tree) growing from grave. (Cf. †E632, †D1610.2.) Type 510; BP I 187; *Cox 477 n. 7; *Fb "sjæl" III 214b, "blod" IV 49a, "juletræ" II 57a; Saintyves Contes de Perrault (Paris, 1923) 36ff., 141ff. --English: *Child V 481. s. v. "grave", V 491 s. v. "plants"; Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "arbres", "cadavre", "tombeau"; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 7, 311 No 41; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 92 No. 780B*; Greek: Fox 198 (Adonis), 201 (Pyramus and Thisbe); Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 6; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 2 Nos. 12, 13; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: Dixon 238, De Vries Volksverhalen I 300; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 50f.; Papua: Ker 131; N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Cushing 183, (Kato): Goddard UCal V 219 n. 1; Amazon: Alexander Lat. Am. 294; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 147, (Ekoi): Talbot 133.

E631.0.1. †E631.0.1. Twining branches grow from graves of lovers. (Cf. †E419.6.) *Gaidoz Mélusine IV No. 4; Type 966*; *Fb "rose" III 80a, "lilie" II 427b, "træ" III 867a; Chauvin V 107 No. 37; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 264f.; Japanese: Anesaki 253, 346f.

E631.0.1.1. †E631.0.1.1. Tops of trees from lovers' graves show shapes of their heads. Irish myth: *Cross.

E631.0.1.2. †E631.0.1.2. Tablets made of trees from lovers' graves magically unite. Irish myth: *Cross.

E631.0.2. †E631.0.2. Flower from grave bears letters. These commemorate the buried person. *Fb "grav" I 478a, "skrift"; Irish myth: Cross; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 2 No. 11; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 19 n. 3 (Hyacinth).

E631.0.2.1. †E631.0.2.1. Flower with "ave" on leaves. Crows from tomb as reward for faithful sayings of "Ave Maria". *Ward Catalogue of Romances II 654 No. 21; Herbert ibid. III 342; Von der Hagen Nos. 73, 88; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E631.0.3. †E631.0.3. Plant from blood of slain person. *Fb "blod" IV 49a, "juletræ", II 57a; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 311 No. 41; Greek: Fox 198, 201; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa: Frobenius Atlantis IV 225f.

E631.0.3.1. †E631.0.3.1. Red plant from blood of slain person. *Fb "blod" IV 49a; BP II 532 n. 2.

E631.0.4. †E631.0.4. Speaking and bleeding trees. Reincarnated persons. *Reinhard PMLA XXXVIII 456 n. 106; Hdwb. d. Märchens I 200 s. v. "Baum"; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 299 No. 8; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Ferguson 177.

E631.0.5. †E631.0.5. Tree from innocent man's blood. Fb "juletræ" II 57a, "sjæl" III 214b. --English: Child I 143; India: Thompson-Balys.

E631.0.5.1. †E631.0.5.1. Dry branch on innocent man's grave blossoms as proof of innocence. Fb "uskyldig".

E631.0.6. †E631.0.6. Tree from sinner's grave. Hdwb. d. Märch. I 200 s. v. "Baum".

E631.1. †E631.1. Flower from grave. BP II 126; Hungarian: Solymossy Hongaarache Sagen (1929) 243 No. 68, Moór Ungarisches Jahrbuch V 430; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 207.

E631.1.1. †E631.1.1. Lily from grave. Fb "lilie" II 427b, "sjæl" III 214b; BP III 461; English: Child I 143; India: Thompson-Balys.

E631.1.2. †E631.1.2. Rose from grave. *Fb "rose" III 80a.

E631.1.3. †E631.1.3. Reincarnation as lotus. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 527.

E631.1.4. †E631.1.4. Reincarnation as cockscomb. India: Thompson-Balys.

E631.2. †E631.2. Grass does not grow on murderer's grave. (Cf. †H271.) Fb "græs"; England: Baughman.

E631.2.1. †E631.2.1. Reincarnation as a grass straw. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 115.

E631.3. †E631.3. Herbs grow from grave of healer. Brouwer Das Volkslied in Deutschland, Frankreich, Belgien und Holland (Groningen, 1930) 196ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

E631.4. †E631.4. Dead ogress reincarnated as bramble-bush which prevents escape of fugitive. Chinese: Graham.

E631.5. †E631.5. Reincarnation as plant.

E631.5.1. †E631.5.1. Reincarnation as tobacco plant. Chinese: Graham; India: Thompson-Balys.

E631.5.2. †E631.5.2. Reincarnation as peanut plant. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

E631.5.3. †E631.5.3. Reincarnation as eggplant. Africa (Luba): LeClerq Zs. f. Kolonialsprachen IV 226f.

E631.6. †E631.6. Reincarnation in tree from grave. Japanese: Ikeda; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 376; Papua: Ker 92. Cf. Virgil Aeneid III 22ff.

E632. †E632. Reincarnation as musical instrument. The Singing Bone. A musical instrument made from the bones of a murdered person, or from a tree growing from the grave, speaks and tells of the crime. *Type 780; **Mackensen FFC XLIX; BP I 260, II 532; *Fb "streng" III 603a, "harpe" I 559b, IV 201b, "ben" IV 32b; Child I 121--135, 494, IV 449; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "os"; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

E632.1. †E632.1. Speaking bones of murdered person reveal murder. India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Africa (Ibo [Nigeria]): Thomas 58, 67, (Fang): Tessman 124ff.

E633. †E633. Reincarnation as dish. Bones made into dish. These speak. (Cf. †E632.) English: Child I 126; Japanese: Ikeda.

E635. †E635. Reincarnation as fountain. Fb "kilde" II 119b; Child V 287a.

E636. †E636. Reincarnation as water. (Cf. †D283.) India: Thompson-Balys.

E636.1. †E636.1. Reincarnation as bag of water. Irish myth: Cross (†E636).

E637. †E637. Reincarnation as ball (of gold and iron). India: Thompson-Balys.

E641. †E641. Reincarnation as whirlwind. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale II 414 No. 12.

E642. †E642. Reincarnation as stone.

E642.0.1. †E642.0.1. Reincarnation as salt. India: Thompson-Balys.

E642.1. †E642.1. Dead lovers are now two stones lying together. India: Thompson-Balys.

E643. †E643. Reincarnation as smoke.

E643.1. †E643.1. Smoke from funeral fires of two lovers mingles in sky. India: Thompson-Balys.

E644. †E644. Reincarnation as rainbow. India: Thompson-Balys.

E645. †E645. Reincarnation as mineral.

E645.1. †E645.1. Reincarnation of slain boy as gold and silver. India: Thompson-Balys.

E646. †E646. Reincarnation as meteor. S. Am. Indian (Gran Chaco): Belaieff BBAE CXLIII (1) 380.

E648. †E648. Reincarnation: man-object-man. In most of the versions of †E632 (Reincarnation as musical instrument) the hero (heroine) finally comes back to life in his usual form. See also BP II 126f.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

E648.1. †E648.1. Reincarnation: woman - bird - nettles - stone - woman. Chinese: Graham.

E648.2. †E648.2. Reincarnation: man - woman - stone image. Korean: Zong in-Sob 76.

E649. †E649. Reincarnation to object -- miscellaneous.

E649.1. †E649.1. Reincarnation as hill. Head made into hill. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E649.2. †E649.2. Reincarnation as flour vat. Stomach made into flour vat. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E649.3. †E649.3. Reincarnation as hoe. Feet made into hoe. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E649.3.1. †E649.3.1. Reincarnation as hoe-handle. Back made into hoe-handle. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E649.4. †E649.4. Reincarnation as mussel shell. Ears made into mussel shell. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E649.5. †E649.5. Reincarnation as currants. Eyes made into currants. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E650. †E650. Reincarnation: other forms.

E651. †E651. God reincarnated as dwarf. Hindu: Keith 121 (Vishnu).

E652. †E652. God reincarnated as monster. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 792, 934; Chinese: Werner 207.

E653. †E653. Reincarnation: man as nature spirit.

E653.1. †E653.1. Reincarnation: man as water spirit. (Cf. †F420.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 421.

E653.2. †E653.2. Reincarnation: man as tree spirit. (Cf. †F441.2.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 445, 940, II 507, 820, 952.

E656. †E656. Reincarnation: animal to man. India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 57, 96.

E656.1. †E656.1. Men who behave irrationally (without plans) reincarnations of animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

E657. †E657. Reincarnation: animal to god. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 828.

E658. †E658. Reincarnation: animal to other animal. Jewish: Neuman.

E670. †E670. Repeated reincarnation. Irish myth: *Cross; Gaster Exempla 248 No. 349; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 9; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 421, II 518, 1117; India: *Thompson-Balys; Marquesas: Handy 106; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 142.

E671. †E671. Reincarnation: man - object - object.

E671.1. †E671.1. Reincarnation: body becomes marble wall; robe, grass; eyes, pools, etc. India: Thompson-Balys.

E690. †E690. Reincarnation -- miscellaneous.

E691. †E691. Reincarnation: animal to object.

E691.1. †E691.1. Reincarnation: snake into flowers. India: Thompson-Balys.

E692. †E692. Reincarnation as punishment. India: Thompson-Balys.

E692.1. †E692.1. Bad woman cursed to be reborn as bat. India: Thompson-Balys.

E692.2. †E692.2. Mean person reborn as hyena. India: Thompson-Balys.

E692.3. †E692.3. Tricky potter reborn as crab. India: Thompson-Balys.

E692.4. †E692.4. Jealous woman reborn as chilly. India: Thompson-Balys.

E692.5. †E692.5. Cruel woman reborn as firefly. India: Thompson-Balys.

E692.6. †E692.6. Youth reincarnated as root in punishment for incest. India: Thompson-Balys.

E693. †E693. Reincarnation for revenge. India: Thompson-Balys.

E693.1. †E693.1. Drowned girl reborn as leech to take revenge on murderers. India: Thompson-Balys.

E693.2. †E693.2. Woman reborn as bedbug to take revenge on husband. (Cf. †E616.5.) India: Thompson-Balys.

E693.3. †E693.3. Woman reborn as scorpion to take revenge on husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

E694. †E694. Reincarnation as compensation. India: Thompson-Balys.

E694.1. †E694.1. Hungry ghost reborn as jackal. India: Thompson-Balys.

E694.2. †E694.2. Frustrated woman reborn as tobacco plant. India: Thompson-Balys.

E694.3. †E694.3. Frustrated boy reborn as lizard. India: Thompson-Balys.

E694.4. †E694.4. Childless woman reborn as fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

E695. †E695. Gradual reincarnation -- man to tiger. Chinese: Graham.

E696. †E696. Reincarnated person restored to original form.

E696.1. †E696.1. Bird, reincarnated murdered girl, resumes her original form when persecutor's blood is poured on her. India: Thompson-Balys.

E697. †E697. Vulture eats only those who will be reborn as human beings in their next birth. India: Thompson-Balys.

E700. †E700. The Soul. **Tobler; **Feilberg Sjæletro (København, 1914); Åke Hultkrantz Conceptions of the Soul among the North American Indians (Stockholm, 1953); Hilda R. Ellis The Road to Hell, A Study in the Conception of the Dead in Old Norse Literature (London, 1943) 170ff. --Greek: Waser Über die äussere Erscheinung der Seele in den Vorstellungen der Völker, zumal der alten Griechen (Archiv für Religionswissenschaft XVI [1914] 336); Irish myth: *Cross; Skandinavian: *K. S. Kramer Die Dingbeseelung in der germanischen Überlieferung (München, 1939); Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 182--190, 251--266, 491--506; German: Meyer Germanen 68ff.; Jewish: Neuman; N. Am. Indian (Iroquois): Hewitt The Iroquoian Concept of the Soul (JAFL VIII 107).

E700.1. †E700.1. Names given the soul. Jewish: Neuman.

E701. †E701. Soul of object. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 13; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 464.

E701.1. †E701.1. Soul of the earth. Cheremis: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 240.

E701.2. †E701.2. Soul of water. Cheremis: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 214.

E701.3. †E701.3. Soul of tree. Feilberg Am Urquell V 88ff., 119ff.

E701.4. †E701.4. Soul of fire. Cheremis: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 236.

E701.5. †E701.5. Soul of corn. Cheremis: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 241.

E702. †E702. Composition of the soul. Jewish: *Neuman.

E703. †E703. Creation of souls. Jewish: *Neuman.

E705. †E705. Soul forgets everything at birth. Jewish: Neuman. Cf. Wordsworth "Ode on Intimations of Immortality".

E706. †E706. Abode of unborn souls. Jewish: *Neuman.

E707. †E707. Person with more than one soul. Jewish: Neuman.

E708. †E708. Soul sustained on pleasant odors. Jewish: Neuman.

E710. †E710. External soul. A person (often a giant or ogre) keeps his soul or life separate from the rest of his body. *Type 302; *BP III 440; *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; *MacCulloch Childhood 118ff.; *Chauvin V 176 No. 100, II 193 No. 12; Fb "hjærte" IV 318b; Mélusine XI 263; *Penzer X 143 s. v. "External Soul"; Clouston Tales I 347; Köhler-Bolte I 161, 515; Gittée RTP II 283; Krappe Revue Archéologique (May-June 1933) 195--211. --Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "corps", "âme"; Icelandic: Fripjofssaga (Wenz ed., Halle 1914) 16; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 11; Greek: Grote I 136f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 178; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 346 n. 246a, *Hultkrantz 330--341; Africa (Swahili): Steere 3ff.

E710.1. †E710.1. Ferocious animal guardian of separable soul of ogress. India: Thompson-Balys.

E710.2. †E710.2. External soul avenges murder. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 145.

E711. †E711. Soul kept in object. (Cf. †E765.) *Penzer I 129ff, VIII 107; Indonesian: Dixon 237 n. 50; India: Thompson-Balys; Irish myth: *Cross.

E711.1. †E711.1. Soul in egg. *Type 302; *BP III 439; Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; *Fb "hjærte" I 631a, "liv" II 438b, "æg" III 1141b. --Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "oeuf"; Missouri French: Carrière; Scotch: Campbell Tales I 1ff.; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 355, 217 No. 73; India: Thompson-Balys.

E711.1.1. †E711.1.1. Soul in three separate eggs. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

E711.2. †E711.2. Soul in plant. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E711.2.1. †E711.2.1. Soul in calabash (gourd). Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 55 No. 24; N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 572 No. 116.

E711.2.2. †E711.2.2. Soul in flower. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E711.2.3. †E711.2.3. Soul in chilly plant. India: Thompson-Balys.

E711.2.4. †E711.2.4. Soul in pomegranate. India: Thompson-Balys.

E711.2.5. †E711.2.5. Soul in coconut. India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 148.

E711.2.6. †E711.2.6. Soul in bamboo. India: Thompson-Balys.

E711.3. †E711.3. Soul in jewel. BP III 439. --India: *Thompson-Balys.

E711.4. †E711.4. Soul in necklace. BP III 439. --India: *Thompson-Balys.

E711.5. †E711.5. Soul in sack. Fb "pose" II 864.

E711.6. †E711.6. Life in stick. India: Thompson-Balys.

E711.7. †E711.7. Soul in stone. (Cf. †E761.5.5.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

E711.8. †E711.8. Soul in golden apple. (Cf. †F813.1.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E711.9. †E711.9. Soul in golden ball. Irish myth: Cross.

E711.10. †E711.10. Soul in sword. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E711.11. †E711.11. Soul in snow. India: Thompson-Balys.

E711.12. †E711.12. Soul in dice. India: Thompson-Balys.

E711.13. †E711.13. Soul in arrow. India: Thompson-Balys.

E711.14. †E711.14. Soul in axe. India: Thompson-Balys.

E711.15. †E711.15. Soul in bird cage. India: Thompson-Balys.

E712. †E712. Hidden soul (life).

E712.1. †E712.1. Soul hidden in tree. *BP III 440; India: *Thompson-Balys, *Penzer V 127 n. 1.

E712.2. †E712.2. Soul hidden in safe. India: Thompson-Balys.

E712.3. †E712.3. Soul hidden in urn. India: Thompson-Balys.

E712.4. †E712.4. Soul hidden in box. India: Thompson-Balys.

E712.5. †E712.5. Soul hidden in pillar. India: Thompson-Balys.

E712.6. †E712.6. Soul hidden in fish basket. India: Thompson-Balys.

E712.7. †E712.7. Soul hidden in water bottle. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 13/174).

E713. †E713. Soul hidden in a series of coverings. This motif is combined with several others. Usually the soul will be hidden in an egg, in a duck, in a well, in a church, or a similar series. *BP III 439; MacCulloch Childhood 134; Penzer I 131; Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

E713.1. †E713.1. Soul hidden in apple (ball) in a salmon which appears every seven years in certain fountain. (Cf. †D1651.10.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E714. †E714. Soul (or life) kept in special part of body. *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 117 n. 3; N. Am. Indian: *Hultkrantz 166-178.

E714.1. †E714.1. Soul (life) in the blood. *Fb "blod" IV 46b, "sjæl" III 213b; Paris Zs. f. Vksk. XIII 12 n. 1; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 4; Jewish: Neuman.

E714.2. †E714.2. Serpent's life in its gold crown. Type 672B; *BP II 463; Chinese: Graham.

E714.3. †E714.3. Soul in head. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 83.

E714.3.1. †E714.3.1. Troll's life in his brother's forehead. *Fb "hjærte" I 631a.

E714.4. †E714.4. Soul (life) in the heart. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 4; India: Thompson-Balys.

E714.4.1. †E714.4.1. Eaten heart gives one the owner's qualities. Fb "hjærte" IV 218b; N. Am. Indian: *Hultkrantz 397--411; Jewish: Neuman; Icelandic: *Boberg.

E714.5. †E714.5. Soul (life) in the liver. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 4.

E714.6. †E714.6. Soul (life) in the breath. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Hultkrantz 179--208.

E714.7. †E714.7. Soul (life) in left hand. Penzer I 127, VIII 109 n. 3.

E714.7.1. †E714.7.1. Soul (life) in thumb. India: Thompson-Balys.

E714.8. †E714.8. Monster with life in his neck. (One vulnerable place.) India: Thompson-Balys.

E714.9. †E714.9. Giant's soul in a mole in the hollow of his palm. Irish myth: Cross.

E714.10. †E714.10. Ogre's soul in "pale spot" below his right ear. (Cf. †Z311.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

E714.11. †E714.11. Life (soul) in entrails. India: Thompson-Balys.

E714.12. †E714.12. Soul in hair. Greek: *Grote I 203.

E714.13. †E714.13. Soul fastened to spine. Jewish: Neuman.

E715. †E715. Separable soul kept in animal. *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; Fb "liv" II 438b.

E715.1. †E715.1. Separable soul in bird. BP III 440; India: *Thompson-Balys.

E715.1.1. †E715.1.1. Separable soul in duck. *Fb "and" IV 12b.

E715.1.2. †E715.1.2. Separable soul in crop of sparrow. Penzer I 131f.

E715.1.3. †E715.1.3. Separable soul in parrot. India: *Thompson-Balys, Penzer I 131.

E715.1.3.1. †E715.1.3.1. Ogre's life in parrot's feather in man's pocket. India: Thompson-Balys.

E715.1.3.2. †E715.1.3.2. Ogre with life in parrot, speaks from inside parrot. India: Thompson-Balys.

E715.1.4. †E715.1.4. Soul in crane. India: Thompson-Balys.

E715.1.5. †E715.1.5. Soul in starling. India: Thompson-Balys.

E715.1.6. †E715.1.6. Soul in raven. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 56.

E715.2. †E715.2. Separable soul in fish. (Cf. †B175.) BP III 440; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

E715.3. †E715.3. Separable soul in insect.

E715.3.1. †E715.3.1. Separable soul in bee. BP III 440; India: *Thompson-Balys.

E715.3.2. †E715.3.2. Separable soul in fly. Africa (Bambara): Equilbecq II 88ff. No. 25.

E715.3.3. †E715.3.3. Separable soul in hornet. India: Thompson-Balys.

E715.4. †E715.4. Separable soul in wild animal.

E715.4.1. †E715.4.1. Separable soul in deer. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 55.

E715.4.2. †E715.4.2. Separable soul in wolf. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 55.

E715.4.3. †E715.4.3. Separable soul in walrus. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 55.

E715.4.4. †E715.4.4. Separable soul in seal. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 55.

E715.5. †E715.5. Separable soul in snake. India: Thompson-Balys.

E715.5.1. †E715.5.1. Separable soul in toad. India: Thompson-Balys.

E715.6. †E715.6. Separable soul in hydra's head. Penzer I 132.

E718. †E718. Multiple separable souls: ogre's separable spirits live in a tree (plant), fish, honey bee. India: Thompson-Balys.

E720. †E720. Soul leaves or enters the body.

E720.1. †E720.1. Souls of human beings seen in dream. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E721. †E721. Soul journeys from the body. *Frazer Golden Bough III 36ff.; Penzer I 37 n. 1. --*Celtic: H. Hartmann Ueber Krankheit, Tod und Jenseitsvorstellungen in Irland (Erster Teil: Krankheit und Fairyentrückung) (Halle, 1942); Irish myth: *Cross; Norwegian: Solheim Register 16; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 289--295, 305--311; Slavic: Máchal 227; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 267; Japanese: Ikeda; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 171, 178, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 326; N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 241--291.

E721.0.1. †E721.0.1. Mark inflicted on wandering soul seen on body after soul's return. Irish myth: Cross.

E721.1. †E721.1. Soul wanders from body in sleep. Dreams explained as experiences of the soul on these wanderings. *Frazer Golden Bough III 36ff.; Fb "sjæl" III 213a; Tobler 22, 37, 67; Herbert III 209; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 172. --English: Guy of Warwick (EETS extra ser. XXV) lines 9358ff.; Icelandic: Boberg; Irish: Plummer clxxii, *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3520; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 93; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473f.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 144, 173f.; Cook Islands: Clark 81; Marquesas: Handy 81; Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 56, 363; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 62; Africa (Fang): Trilles 133.

E721.1.1. †E721.1.1. Sleeper not to be awakened, since soul is absent. *Frazer Golden Bough III 37ff.; Tobler 38.

E721.1.2. †E721.1.2. Soul of sleeper prevented from returning to his body. Frazer Golden Bough III 38; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 320.

E721.1.2.1. †E721.1.2.1. Soul of sleeper prevented from returning when it is captured in animal form. Frazer Golden Bough III 38.

E721.1.2.2. †E721.1.2.2. Soul of sleeper prevented from returning by moving the sleeper's body. (Cf †E431.7.2.1.) Frazer Golden Bough III 41; Irish myth: Cross.

E721.1.2.3. †E721.1.2.3. Soul of sleeper prevented from returning by burning the body. India: Thompson-Balys, *Penzer I 39 n. 2.

E721.1.2.3.1. †E721.1.2.3.1. Body dismembered so soul cannot return. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 287.

E721.1.2.4. †E721.1.2.4. Soul of sleeper prevented from returning to his body when soul as bee leaves body and enters hole in wall beside which he is sleeping. (Cf. †E734.2.) England: Baughman.

E721.1.2.5. †E721.1.2.5. Frightened soul cannot return to body. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 452.

E721.2. †E721.2. Body in trance while soul is absent. *Fb "legeme" II 393a, "heks" I 581a, "sjæl" III 215a; Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 299--300.

E721.3. †E721.3. Wandering soul cause of sickness. Frazer Golden Bough III 53ff.; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 6; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473f.; N. Am. Indian: *Hultkrantz 448--463.

E721.3.1. †E721.3.1. Madness from spirit leaving body: comes back with cough. India: Thompson-Balys.

E721.4. †E721.4. Wandering soul detained by ghosts. Frazer Golden Bough III 52ff.

E721.5. †E721.5. Wandering soul assumes various shapes. Fb "sjæl" III 214a.

E721.5.1. †E721.5.1. Wandering soul assumes shape of wolf. (Cf. †D113.1.1, †E731.) Irish myth: Cross.

E721.6. †E721.6. On return to body soul crosses on scythe-blade as bridge. *Fb "høle" I 747a; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E721.7. †E721.7. Soul leaves body to visit hell (heaven). (Cf. †V511.1, †V511.2.) Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

E721.8. †E721.8. Soul leaves body to converse with dead. Irish myth: Cross.

E721.9. †E721.9. Soul of embryo wanders. Jewish: Neuman.

E721.10. †E721.10. Soul takes voyage. Cook Islands: Beckwith Myth 157.

E722. †E722. Soul leaves body at death. India: Thompson-Balys; Irish myth: Cross.

E722.1. †E722.1. Form of soul as it leaves body at death.

E722.1.1. †E722.1.1. Soul as black or white spirit over coffin. Black if condemned. Can be seen by peeping between horse's ears. Fb "sjæl" III 214b.

E722.1.2. †E722.1.2. Soul as black or white entity. Black if condemned. Irish myth: *Cross.

E722.1.3. †E722.1.3. Soul leaves body as small point of light. England: Baughman.

E722.1.4. †E722.1.4. Soul leaves the body in form of bird. (Cf. †E732.) England: Baughman; Korean: Zong in-Sob 30.

E722.2. †E722.2. Manner of soul's leaving body. Jewish: Neuman.

E722.2.1. †E722.2.1. Soul borne away on cloud. (Cf. †E754.6.) Chinese: Werner 267.

E722.2.2. †E722.2.2. Soul borne away on wind. Chinese: Werner 314.

E722.2.3. †E722.2.3. Roof taken off above sick man who cannot die. This done so that the soul can escape. Zachariae Zs. f. Vksk XVIII 445; *Fb "engel" I 250.

E722.2.4. †E722.2.4. Condemned soul forked from body by Satan. (Cf. †E752.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

E722.2.5. †E722.2.5. Saved soul leaps from body on hearing heavenly music. (Cf. †E754.) Irish myth: Cross.

E722.2.6. †E722.2.6. Doors fly open when one dies. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 685.

E722.2.7. †E722.2.7. Soul weeps when departing from body. (Cf. †E551.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3504.

E722.2.8. †E722.2.8. Soul reluctant to leave body.

E722.2.8.1. †E722.2.8.1. Soul lingers in body at death. Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts, Balys Index No. 3503.

E722.2.8.2. †E722.2.8.2. Soul hovers over body, reluctant to part. India: Thompson-Balys.

E722.2.9. †E722.2.9. Dead friends come for dying man's soul. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3501, Balys Ghosts.

E722.2.10. †E722.2.10. Soul taken away by God (angel). Jewish: Neuman.

E722.2.10.1. †E722.2.10.1. Chariot of gods bears astral bodies of dead to heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.

E722.2.11. †E722.2.11. Soul leaves body through eye. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 144.

E722.2.12. †E722.2.12. Soul leaves body because of God's kiss on mouth. Jewish: Neuman.

E722.3. †E722.3. Circumstances of soul on leaving dead body.

E722.3.1. †E722.3.1. Soul cannot go far from grave. Fb "sjæl" III 214b.

E722.3.1.1. †E722.3.1.1. Soul remains about dead body. Chinese: Graham.

E722.3.2. †E722.3.2. Soul wanders till corpse decays. Fb "lig" II 413a; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 3f.; Jewish: *Neuman; Marshall Islands: Davenport 222; Chinese: Graham.

E722.3.3. †E722.3.3. Soul visits places of birth, death, baptism, and burial after leaving body. Irish myth: Cross.

E723. †E723. Wraiths of persons separate from body. England, U.S.: Baughman.

E723.1. †E723.1. Person sees his own wraith. U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E723.1.1. †E723.1.1. Person sees his own wraith; the wraith saves his life. (Cf. †E363.2.) England: Baughman.

E723.2. †E723.2. Seeing one's wraith a sign that person is to die shortly. (Cf. †F405.4.) England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman.

E723.3. †E723.3. Wraith takes place of person unable to do duty at the necessary time. Scotland: Baughman.

E723.4. †E723.4. Wraith does what person wishes to do but is unable to do in the flesh.

E723.4.1. †E723.4.1. Wraith returns to home and goes to bed while body is at home of friends in deep reverie. Ireland: Baughman.

E723.4.2. †E723.4.2. Wraith of murderer tells authorities where to find girl he has murdered. The murderer is in church at the time. Scotland: Baughman.

E723.4.3. †E723.4.3. Wraith of debtor tries to find his creditor at time of death. England: Baughman.

E723.4.4. †E723.4.4. Wraith of dying woman goes to see children for last time before death. England: Baughman.

E723.4.5. †E723.4.5. Wraith gives information of death in family. England: Baughman.

E723.4.6. †E723.4.6. Wraith investigates welfare of absent person. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E723.5. †E723.5. Wraith of sweetheart stays in room where lover has died. It disappears only after her death at far distant point twenty years after death of lover. U.S.: Baughman.

E723.6. †E723.6. Appearance of his wraith as announcement of person's death. (Cf. †E723.2.) England, Scotland, Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.

E723.7. †E723.7. Actions of wraith.

E723.7.1. †E723.7.1. Wraith speaks. England, Wales: *Baughman.

E723.7.2. †E723.7.2. Wraith rings doorbell. Scotland: Baughman.

E723.7.3. †E723.7.3. Wraith opens and closes door. England: Baughman.

E723.7.4. †E723.7.4. Wraith slams gate. England: Baughman.

E723.7.5. †E723.7.5. Wraith selects wood for coffin. Scotland: Baughman.

E723.7.6. †E723.7.6. Wraith binds grain in field. Scotland: Baughman.

E723.7.7. †E723.7.7. Wraith rides horse. (Cf. †E922.1.1.3.1.) Scotland: Baughman.

E723.7.8. †E723.7.8. Wraiths of persons drowning appear in dripping clothes. England: *Baughman.

E723.8. †E723.8. Appearance of wraith as calamity omen.

E723.8.1. †E723.8.1. Wraith appears before mine disaster. England: Baughman.

E725. †E725. Soul leaves one body and enters another. *L. Bloomfield Proc. Am. Philosophical Soc. LVI 1; Penzer I 38; Hartland Science 227; Slavic: Máchal 228; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Hultkrantz 438--440.

E725.1. †E725.1. Soul leaves man's body and enters animal's. *Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 208; India: Thompson-Balys.

E725.2. †E725.2. Ghost possesses girl and she speaks in dialect unknown to her. India: Thompson-Balys.

E726. †E726. Soul enters body and animates it. *Chauvin V 287 No. 171; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 266; N. Am. Indian: *Hultkrantz 149--179.

E726.1. †E726.1. Soul received at birth. Jewish: Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 472.

E726.2. †E726.2. Soul of unborn son comes out of mother's mouth (in form of stone), is kept by her, and later is given to son. (Cf. †E711.7.) Irish myth: Cross.

E726.3. †E726.3. Soul reunited with body. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 89.

E727. †E727. Relation of body to soul.

E727.1. †E727.1. Debate of body and soul. Soul having left body enters into debate with the body concerning relative merits of body and soul. (Cf. †H500.) English: *Wells 411; Irish: Gaidoz and Dottin Revue Celtique X part 4, *Cross.

E727.1.1. †E727.1.1. Soul curses body. (Cf. †M400.) Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

E727.2. †E727.2. Soul as vital principle. N. Am. Indian: *Hultkrantz 149--179.

E727.3. †E727.3. Body dependent on soul. N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 430--440.

E728. †E728. Evil spirit possesses person. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E728.1. †E728.1. Evil spirit cast out of person. England, U.S.: Baughman; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E728.1.1. †E728.1.1. Evil spirit cast out of person by killing and resuscitating. Köhler-Bolte I 442ff.

E730. †E730. Soul in animal form. (Cf. †E721.1.2.4, †E722.1.4, †E734.2.) Bugiel RTP XVII 602; Tobler 19; England: Baughman; Icelandic: *MacCulloch Eddic 233; Montenegrin: Máchal 228; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473; N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 266f., 496.

E730.1. †E730.1. Souls of animals. Slavic: Máchal 227; Jewish: *Neuman.

E731. †E731. Soul in form of mammal.

E731.1. †E731.1. Soul in form of dog. Tobler 49, 54, 68; Icelandic: Boberg; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 213.

E731.2. †E731.2. Soul in form of cat. Tobler 42, 47, 56.

E731.3. †E731.3. Soul in form of mouse. Tobler 13ff.; *Fb "heks" I 581a, "høle" I 747a, "mus" II 631b; Sébillot RTP XX 189, 489; J. Grimm Kleinere Schriften VI 192ff.; Germanic: De la Saussaye 296, E. H. Meyer Germanische 64; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7f.; Indonesia: Kruyt 176f.

E731.4. †E731.4. Soul in form of weasel. Tobler 19; Herbert Catalogue of Romances III 209; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 172; *E. H. Meyer Germanische 64.

E731.5. †E731.5. Soul in form of hare. Tobler 20.

E731.6. †E731.6. Soul in form of seal. *Fb "sælhund"; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 56, 172.

E731.7. †E731.7. Soul in form of bat. Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 1591; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7.

E731.8. †E731.8. Soul in form of bear. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E731.9. †E731.9. Soul in form of wolf. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E731.10. †E731.10. Soul in form of fox. Icelandic: Boberg.

E731.11. †E731.11. Soul in form of lion. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E731.12. †E731.12. Soul in form of hog. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E731.13. †E731.13. Soul in form of bull. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E731.14. †E731.14. Soul in form of deer. Icelandic: Boberg.

E732. †E732. Soul in form of bird. (Cf. †G251.1.1.) **Weicker Der Seelenvogel in der alten Literatur und Kunst; *Dh III 482; *Fb "fugl" I 380b, "sjæl" III 214a; *Patch PMLA XXXIII 626 n. 88; De Gubernatis Die Thiere in der indogermanischen Mythologie (Leipzig, 1874) 469ff.; Meyer Germanische 64; *Krappe Balor 95ff., Romanic Review XV 94ff.; *Penzer VI 283; *BP II 394 (Type 707); Tobler 30f.; Wimberly 44; Kruyt 175f.; J. E. Harrison Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion 199ff.; Irish myth: *Cross, Beal XXI 322, O'Suilleabhain 99; Icelandic: *Boberg; Slavic: Máchal 229f.; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 398, 473; Egyptian: Müller 174; Jewish: *Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda; Marquesas: Handy 36; N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 266f., 363; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 60 No. 9.

E732.1. †E732.1. Soul in form of dove. (Cf. †E423.3.1.) Type 756B; Andrejev FFC LXIX 154; Tobler 28f.; *Crane Miraculis 93 No. 27; Alphabet Nos. 204, 269; Meyer Germanische 63; *Loomis White Magic 66; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 317, 320, 332, O'Suilleabhain 45, 99, 53; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 320 No. 35, 323 No. 133; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

E732.2. †E732.2. Soul in form of crow. (Cf. †B141.4.) Tobler 31; Fb "krage" II 285b.

E732.3. †E732.3. Soul in form of hen. Tobler 36; Fb "sjæl" III 214a.

E732.4. †E732.4. Soul in form of magpie. Tobler 34.

E732.5. †E732.5. Soul in form of seagull. Tobler 34; Fb "måge" II 655b.

E732.6. †E732.6. Soul in form of eagle. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E732.7. †E732.7. Soul in form of swan. Icelandic: *Boberg.

E732.8. †E732.8. Soul in form of raven. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 127--31, (1928) 91--95; Icelandic: Boberg.

E732.9. †E732.9. Soul in form of hawk, or falcon seen in dream. (Cf. †E720.1.) Icelandic: Boberg.

E733. †E733. Soul in form of reptile.

E733.1. †E733.1. Soul in form of serpent. Tobler 22ff., 74; Fb "lindorm" II 433b; Meyer Germanische (1891) 63f.; Lévy-Bruhl L'âme primitive 369ff.; Kruyt 177ff.; Schreuer Zs. f. vgl. Rechtsgeschichte XXXIII (1916) 406f. --Icelandic: MacCulloch Eddic 217, Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda; Oceanic: Dixon 119; Africa: Werner African 193.

E734. †E734. Soul in form of insect. *Krappe Balor 95 n. 8.

E734.1. †E734.1. Soul in form of butterfly. Tobler 37; Meyer Germanische 63; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 1627f.; Güntert Kalypso 215ff.; Frazer Golden Bough I 259. --Irish: Beal XXI 307, O'Suilleabhain 24; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "âme", "papillon"; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 7f.; Jewish: Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473; Japanese: Anesaki 337; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 266; Hawaii: Dixon 76, Beckwith Myth 148.

E734.2. †E734.2. Soul in form of bee. Type 808**; Hdwb. d. Abergl. IV 468; Tobler 37; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473; Japanese: Ikeda.

E734.3. †E734.3. Soul in form of spider.†1 Tobler 38.

E734.4. †E734.4. Soul in form of wasp. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 473.

E734.5. †E734.5. Soul in form of cricket. Meyer Germanische 63.

E734.6. †E734.6. Soul in form of beetle. Hdwb. d. Abergl. IV 906.

E734.7. †E734.7. Soul in form of fly. Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 201.

E734.8. †E734.8. Soul in form of grasshopper. Jewish: *Neuman.

E735. †E735. Soul in form of fish. Dh. III 482.

E736. †E736. Soul in form of amphibian.

E736.1. †E736.1. Soul in form of frog. Tobler 26, 75.

E736.2. †E736.2. Soul in form of toad. Tobler 25, 29; Meyer Germanische (1891) 64.

E738. †E738. Soul in form of a mythical animal.

E738.1. †E738.1. Soul in form of dragon. (Cf. †B11.) Tobler 81; Icelandic: *Boberg.

E740. †E740. Other forms of the soul.

E741. †E741. Soul in form of heavenly body.

E741.1. †E741.1. Soul in form of star. (Cf. †V515.1.2.)

E741.1.1. †E741.1.1. Shooting star signifies that someone is dying. One star for each person. At his death it falls. *BP III 235; *G. Bellucci Le stelle cadenti e le lore leggende (Perugia, 1895); *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX n. 770f.; Fb "lys" II 483a, "stjerne" III 577b. --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3906; Slavic: Máchal 273; India: Thompson-Balys.

E741.1.1.1. †E741.1.1.1. New star for each birth. A star in the sky for each person. Fb "menneske" II 577b.

E741.1.1.2. †E741.1.1.2. Star as sign of birth of hero. Irish myth: Cross.

E741.1.2. †E741.1.2. Shooting star signifies a birth. Stars are the dead. When they fall they are being reborn. At death they are replaced in the sky. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX N. 770f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 395; N. Am. Indian (Mandan): Alexander N. Am. 96.

E742. †E742. Soul as light. *Type 332; Fb "sjæl" III 214b, "lys" II 482a; BP I 377ff., *388; Icelandic: *Boberg; Irish: Plummer cxxxviii, Cross, Beal XXI 315, O'Suilleabhain 41; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "vie"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 24; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 82 No. 708A*; Jewish: Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 48; N. Am. Indian: *Hultkrantz 260ff.; Africa (Fang): Trilles 133.

E742.1. †E742.1. Soul as taper (candle). Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 82.

E742.2. †E742.2. Soul as will-o-the-wisp. Appears as a ball or fire or a figure in a fiery garment. --Tobler 82--86 passim; Meyer Germanische 63; Fb "ild" II 11b; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 313 No. 84; Lithuanian: Balys Ghosts; Slavic: Máchal 229ff.; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 677.

E742.3. †E742.3. Souls of dead as Aurora Borealis. Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 81; Estonian: Loorits Grundzüge I 284ff.

E743. †E743. Soul as shadow. Tobler 89; Meyer Germanische 66; Fb "skygge" (1) III 347b, "sjæl" III 214b; Wundt Völkerpsychologie IV 125ff.; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 137; *Frazer Golden Bough III 77ff.; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 6, 12; Jewish: Neuman; N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 257ff, 302ff.

E743.1. †E743.1. Soul as smoke. Tobler 87; Fb "sjæl" III 214b.

E743.2. †E743.2. Soul as reflection or image. N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 309--316.

E744. †E744. Soul as weather phenomenon.

E744.1. †E744.1. Soul as mist (fog). Fb "sjæl" III 214b.

E744.2. †E744.2. Soul as cloud. Tobler 87f.

E744.3. †E744.3. Soul as whirlwind. Tobler 89.

E745. †E745. Soul as object. (Cf. †E765.) N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 268; Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XXII 11, (Greenland): Rasmussen 1 136.

E745.1. †E745.1. Soul as feather. Tobler 51; Fb "sjæl" III 214b (shower of feathers).

E745.2. †E745.2. Soul as needle. Tobler 51.

E745.3. †E745.3. Soul as straw. Tobler 51.

E745.4. †E745.4. Soul as flower. BP II 394; Icelandic: Boberg.

E745.4.1. †E745.4.1. Soul as lotus flower. India: Thompson-Balys.

E745.5. †E745.5. Soul as fruit.

E745.5.1. †E745.5.1. Souls as golden apples. Later turn into birds and fly away. Hdwb. d. Märch. I 91b s. v. "Apfel".

E745.5.2. †E745.5.2. Soul as bulb. Icelandic: Boberg.

E745.6. †E745.6. Soul as ghi (clarified butter). India: Thompson-Balys.

E747. †E747. Soul as mannikin (child). Frazer Golden Bough III 26ff.; Tobler 67; Meyer Germanische 66; N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 262--266.

E747.1. †E747.1. Soul as small replica of body. India: Thompson-Balys.

E748. †E748. The soul as a guardian spirit. Hilda R. Ellis The Road to Hell, A Study of the Conception of the Dead in Old Norse Literature (Cambridge [Eng.], 1943) 127ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg.

E750. †E750. Perils of the soul. *Frazer Golden Bough III 26ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 464--480.

E750.0.1. †E750.0.1. Soul cannot enter heaven till body is buried. (Cf. †E235.2.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E750.1. †E750.1. Souls wander after death. *v. Negelein Zs. f. Vksk. XI 16ff., 149ff., 263ff.; Jewish: *Neuman; Japanese: Anesaki 237ff.

E750.1.1. †E750.1.1. Virgins condemned to wander at death. Korean: Zong in-Sob 39.

E750.2. †E750.2. Perilous path for soul to world of dead. (Cf. †F151.1.) Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 484.

E750.2.1. †E750.2.1. Dead person of good life goes over bridge to otherworld without fear. India: Thompson-Balys.

E750.2.2. †E750.2.2. Perilous valley in (on way to) land of dead. Irish myth: Cross.

E750.2.3. †E750.2.3. Branching tree as roadway for souls. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 154.

E750.3. †E750.3. Journey of soul to world of dead on reindeer. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 485.

E750.4. †E750.4. Soul leaves possessions on road to final resting place. India: Thompson-Balys.

E751. †E751. Souls at Judgment Day. Irish: *Cross; O'Suilleabhain 62, 78, Beal XXI 324, 327; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

E751.0.1. †E751.0.1. There are to be two resurrections. Irish myth: Cross.

E751.1. †E751.1. Souls weighed at Judgment Day. (Cf. †Q155.1.) Fb "veje" III 1025b; Irish myth: Cross.

E751.2. †E751.2. Souls await Judgment Day in shapes of birds. Irish myth: *Cross.

E751.3. †E751.3. Souls of Irish to be judged by St. Patrick on Judgment Day. (Cf. †Q173.) Irish myth: Cross.

E751.4. †E751.4. Four (five) groups on Judgment Day. (Cf. †A661.0.5.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E751.5. †E751.5. Souls of sinners to spend seven years under waters of the sea before Doomsday. Irish myth: Cross.

E751.6. †E751.6. Resurrection to take place on Sunday. Irish myth: Cross.

E751.7. †E751.7. Judgment day on Monday. Irish myth: Cross.

E752. †E752. Lost souls. Hdwb. d. Abergl. s. v. "Arme Seelen"; Irish myth: *Cross.

E752.1. †E752.1. Soul in jeopardy after leaving body. Fb "sjæl" III 214b.

E752.1.1. †E752.1.1. Devil in disguise hunts souls. (Cf. †G303.7.1.3.) French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 13; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 91 No. *773A.

E752.1.2. †E752.1.2. Fiends play ball with a soul. Alphabet No. 699.

E752.1.2.1. †E752.1.2.1. Demons amuse themselves by plaguing souls in hell. Irish myth: *Cross.

E752.1.3. †E752.1.3. Souls of dead captured on leaving corpse. Africa (Fang): Einstein 70ff., Trilles Bulletin de la Société Neuchâteloise de Géographie XVI 190ff.

E752.2. †E752.2. Soul carried off by demon (Devil). Frazer Golden Bough III 60; *Fb "djævel" IV 99b. --Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 464.

E752.3. †E752.3. Raven carries off souls of damned. Tobler 31; Fb "ravn" III 22a.

E752.4. †E752.4. Lost soul in raven feathers. Fb "ravn" III 22a.

E752.5. †E752.5. Hell-hounds accompany soul to lower world. Wimberly 120.

E752.6. †E752.6. Soul bound for hell given sight of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

E752.7. †E752.7. Lost soul gnawed by worms. Irish myth: Cross.

E752.7.1. †E752.7.1. Abandoned souls feed on spiders and night moths. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 154.

E752.8. †E752.8. Souls of dead eaten by sky-spirits. India: Thompson-Balys.

E752.9. †E752.9. Souls of wicked eaten by deity. Easter Island: Métraux Ethnology 312.

E752.10. †E752.10. Precautions taken with corpse before burial to prevent evil spirits from getting, using body. (Cf. †E431.)

E752.10.1. †E752.10.1. Corpse must be watched carefully before burial. England: Baughman.

E752.10.2. †E752.10.2. Light must be kept burning by corpse to keep evil spirits away. England: Baughman.

E754. †E754. Saved souls. *Frazer Golden Bough III 55ff.; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 327.

E754.1. †E754.1. Condemned soul recovered. Irish myth: *Cross.

E754.1.1. †E754.1.1. Condemned soul saved by prayer. Alphabet No. 592; Wells 171 (The Gast of Gy); Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 331, O'Suilleabhain 98; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 89 No. 760C*, Keller; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 294 No. 7.

E754.1.1.1. †E754.1.1.1. Demons powerless over souls commended to God before sleep. Jewish: bin Gorion I 238.

E754.1.2. †E754.1.2. Condemned soul saved by Virgin Mary. (Cf. †V250.) Crane Miraculis 84 No. 5, 86 No. 10, 87 No. 12, 93 No. 27; Ward II 605 No. 11, *607 No. 16, 635 No. 36, 670 No. 3, 672 No. 7; Wells 167 (Vernon Miracles).

E754.1.3. †E754.1.3. Condemned soul saved by penance. (Cf. †Q520.) Alphabet No. 697; Irish myth: Cross.

E754.1.4. †E754.1.4. Condemned soul saved by holy person. Irish myth: *Cross.

E754.1.5. †E754.1.5. Condemned soul released by God. Irish myth: Cross.

E754.1.6. †E754.1.6. Condemned soul released from hell by Christ. Irish myth: Cross.

E754.1.7. †E754.1.7. Few grains of earth from river bed translates soul destined to an evil future to Paradise. India: Thompson-Balys.

E754.1.8. †E754.1.8. Condemned soul released because of tears of living. Irish: O'Suilleabhain 21, 74.

E754.2. †E754.2. Saved soul goes to heaven. Fb "sjæl" III 213b; Wells 50, 175; Alphabet No. 316; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 307f., 322, O'Suilleabhain 24, 27, 99; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E754.2.0.1. †E754.2.0.1. Souls of warriors go to Valhalla. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachträge 239.

E754.2.1. †E754.2.1. Souls carried to heaven by doves. Tobler 31; *Fb "himmerige" I 610b.

E754.2.2. †E754.2.2. Souls carried to heaven by angels. (Cf †V232.2.) Hdwb. d. Märch. s. v. "Engel"; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

E754.2.2.1. †E754.2.2.1. Angels of death fail to bring soul to heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.

E754.2.3. †E754.2.3. Dead and living go together to gate of heaven. Fb "død" I 228a.

E754.2.4. †E754.2.4. Dead children invited to eat at God's table. BP III 463.

E754.3. †E754.3. Burial in certain ground assures going to heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

E754.4. †E754.4. Soul of hermit who fasts to death for worldly fame would be damned but for past good deeds. Nouvelles de Sens No. 20.

E754.5. †E754.5. Souls carried to heaven in chariot of light. Jewish: *Neuman.

E754.6. †E754.6. Souls climb pillars of smoke and light on way to heaven. (Cf. †E722.2.1.) Jewish: *Neuman.

E754.7. †E754.7. Souls of pious as angels. Jewish: *Neuman.

E755. †E755. Destination of the soul.

E755.0.1. †E755.0.1. Resurrected boys choose to return to heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

E755.0.2. †E755.0.2. Angels separate souls going to heaven or hell. Jewish: Neuman.

E755.0.3. †E755.0.3. Souls of dead presented to Adam. Jewish: Neuman.

E755.1. †E755.1. Souls in heaven. (Cf. †A661.) K. Kohler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York, 1923); Irish myth: Cross.

E755.1.1. †E755.1.1. Heavenly hierarchy. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman. Maori: Clark 182.

E755.1.2. †E755.1.2. River in heaven burns wicked and gives joy to righteous. Irish myth: *Cross.

E755.1.3. †E755.1.3. Souls on way to heaven pass through Garden of Eden. Jewish: Neuman.

E755.1.4. †E755.1.4. Sixty thousand Jewish souls in heaven. Jewish: Neuman.

E755.2. †E755.2. Souls in hell (Hades). A. Graf Miti, leggende et superstizioni del medio evo I 241ff.; K. Kohler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York, 1923); Fb "helvede" I 589; Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 122, 281, 406; Alphabet No. 43; Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 320, O'Suilleabhain 53; *Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

E755.2.0.1. †E755.2.0.1. Souls leave hell on Sundays. (Cf. †Q560.0.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

E755.2.1. †E755.2.1. Souls of drowned in heated kettles in hell. *Type 475; BP II 423, III 487; Köhler-Bolte I 69; Fb "potte" II 867a.

E755.2.1.1. †E755.2.1.1. Souls in hell wrenched from bodies with hot pitchforks by devils. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E755.2.2. †E755.2.2. Souls in chains in hell. (Cf. †A671.2.4.7, †Q566.1.) Chinese: Werner

E755.2.3. †E755.2.3. Lost soul to serve as porter in hell for seven years. Köhler-Bolte I 320; Wimberly 416, 426.

E755.2.4. †E755.2.4. Ghosts gather wood for hell fires. Jewish: bin Gorion II 154ff., 348.

E755.2.4.1. †E755.2.4.1. Hell fires kindled according to sins of sinners. Irish myth: Cross.

E755.2.5. †E755.2.5. Icy hell. (Cf. †A677, †Q567f.) Alphabet No. 662.

E755.2.6. †E755.2.6. Dead flailed by demons. Irish myth: *Cross.

E755.2.7. †E755.2.7. Devils torment sinners in hell. India: Thompson-Balys.

E755.2.8. †E755.2.8. Dialogue between Christ and the souls in hell. (Cf. †V211.7.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

E755.2.8. †E755.2.8. Series of hells. (Cf. †A651.2.) Jewish: Neuman.

E755.3. †E755.3. Souls in purgatory. **Landau Hölle und Fegefeuer in Volksglaube, Dichtung und Kirchenlehre (Heidelberg, 1909); Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 464, 467, 469, Crane Liber de Miraculis 86 No. 10; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s. v. "Fegefeuer"; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 440ff.; Herbert ibid. III 330; Alphabet Nos. 504, 661. --Irish: *Cross, Beal XXI 330--333, O'Suilleabhain 95, 100, 102f.

E755.3.1. †E755.3.1. Soul in purgatory sends letter bidding his son reward one who has prayed him from purgatory. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *769.

E755.4. †E755.4. Other destinations of souls.

E755.4.1. †E755.4.1. Souls of dead imprisoned in tree. Icelandic: De la Saussaye 298; Irish: Beal XXI 332.

E755.4.2. †E755.4.2. Soul of dead in a temple. Chinese: Werner 314.

E756. †E756. Contest over souls. (Cf. †E754.1.) Type 808**.

E756.1. †E756.1. Devils and angels contest for man's soul. *Wesselski Märchen 199; *Fb "djævel" IV 99b; *Crane Miraculis 87 No. 11; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI No. 808*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *808; Estonian: Aarne in FFC XXV No. 808*; Jewish: *Neuman.

E756.2. †E756.2. Soul won from devil in card game. Fb "spille" III 487b; Irish: Beal XXI 329, O'Suilleabhain 90; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 52 No. 345.

E756.3. †E756.3. Raven and dove fight over man's soul. Type 756B; *Andrejev FFC LXIX 157f., *249ff.; Hdwb. d. Märchen I 356a. s. v. "Busse des Räubers"; England, Wales: Baughman.

E756.4. †E756.4. Saint wrests soul from demons. (Cf. †V229.5.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E756.4.1. †E756.4.1. Soul of gambler won by saint in dice game. Dice miraculously split to make higher score for saint. --Spanish Exempla: Keller.

E756.5. †E756.5. Saved soul of woman assists her husband's soul in battle against demons. (Cf. †E754.) Irish myth: Cross.

E757. †E757. The soul prays. Jewish: *Neuman; Chinese: Werner 268.

E758. †E758. Rejoicing at arrival of rich man in heaven. Event so rare as to cause rejoicing. Poor man enters unnoticed. --Type 802; BP III 274; Fb "rig" III 55a; Hdwb. d. Märch. I 351a s. v. "Burli im Himmel".

E759. †E759. The soul -- miscellaneous. Irish myth: Cross.

E759.1. †E759.1. Soul strives to be heard by the living. Irish myth: Cross.

E759.2. †E759.2. Angel gives soul information concerning mortal. Irish myth: Cross.

E760. †E760. Life Index. Object or animal has mystic connection with person. Changes in one correspond to changes in the other. --India: Thompson-Balys.

E761. †E761. Life token. (Cf. †E760.) Object (animal, person) has mystic connection with the life of a person, so that changes in the life-token indicate changes in the person, usually disaster or death. *Type 303; **Polivka The Life Tokens in Folk-Tales, Custom, and Belief (Národopisny Vestnik Ceskoslovansky XII [Prague, 1917]); *Chauvin V 87 No. 27 n. 1, V 295, VII 98 No. 375 n. 1; Penzer I 130, III 272 n. 1, X 210; Clouston Tales I 169ff.; Jacobs' list s. v. "Life index"; *BP I 545, II 392; *Hartland Legend of Perseus II 1--54; **Nelson The Life-Index, a Hindu Fiction Motif (Studies in Honor of Maurice Bloomfield) 211ff. --Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "danger"; India: *Thompson-Balys; Oceanic (New Hebrides, Torres Straits, New Guinea, Indonesia): Dixon 133 n. 5; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 317 n. 149, *Hultkrantz 338--340, (California): Gayton and Newman 69; S. Am. Indian (Quiché): Alexander Lat. Am. 173; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 81, (Basuto): Jacottet 212, 218 Nos. 31, 32.

E761.1. †E761.1. Blood as life token.

E761.1.1. †E761.1.1. Life token: water turns to blood. (Cf. †F961.3.1, †V211.2.3.2.) Fb "vand" III 1000b. --England: Baughman; Irish myth: *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.1.2. †E761.1.2. Life token: horn fills with blood. Africa (Congo): Weeks 203.

E761.1.3. †E761.1.3. Life token: track fills with blood. *Type 303; Icelandic: Boberg.

E761.1.3.1. †E761.1.3.1. Life token: earth, water, or blood in footprint. Earth: dead by disease; water: drowned; blood: killed in battle. Icelandic: Boberg.

E761.1.4. †E761.1.4. Life token: blood of fish calls out. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 187.

E761.1.5. †E761.1.5. Life token: blood boils. French: Cosquin Lorraine No. 5; Jewish: *Neuman.

E761.1.5.1. †E761.1.5.1. Blood stops boiling. Gaster Exempla 224 No. 194.

E761.1.6. †E761.1.6. Life token: blood changes color. Gaster Exempla 251 No. 373; Russian: Ralston Russian Folk-Tales 102.

E761.1.7. †E761.1.7. Life token: comb drips blood. Finnish: Kalevala runes 12, 15.

E761.1.7.1. †E761.1.7.1. Life token: gloves drip blood. Russian: Ralston Russian Folk-Tales 67.

E761.1.7.2. †E761.1.7.2. Life token: scissors (razor, knife) drip blood. Chauvin VII 198; Armenian: Macler Contes Arméniens 28.

E761.1.8. †E761.1.8. Life token: cloth becomes bloody. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 3.

E761.1.9. †E761.1.9. Life token: hero's horse stands in stable in blood up to his knees. Russian: Rambaud La Russie Epique (Paris, 1876) 378.

E761.1.10. †E761.1.10. Life token: milk becomes bloody. England: Baughman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

E761.1.11. †E761.1.11. Life token: roof spouts of castle run with blood. England: Baughman.

E761.1.12. †E761.1.12. Life token: meal ground in mill is the color of blood. England: Baughman.

E761.1.13. †E761.1.13. Blood stops flowing from wound when captives escape. Papua: Ker 64.

E761.2. †E761.2. Life token: staff stuck in ground. India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.2.1. †E761.2.1. Life token: staff stuck in ground shakes. Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 212 No. 31, (Kaffir): Theal 82.

E761.2.2. †E761.2.2. Life token: staff stuck in ground falls. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 8; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 220 No. 32.

E761.3. †E761.3. Life token: tree (flower) fades. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 1; Fb "lilie"; Böckel Psychologie der Volksdichtung 255; *Loomis White Magic 125f. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "flétrissement"; French: Sébillot France III 433; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 93, 96 n. 3, 97; Papua: Ker 61; Indonesian, Polynesian: Dixon 234 n. 46; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 87 No. 5, (Kaffir): Kidd 225, (Madagascar): Dandouau Contes Populaires de Sakalava 231.

E761.3.1. †E761.3.1. Life token: bamboo stalks grow with joints upside down. India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.3.1.1. †E761.3.1.1. Life token: bananas ripen from bottom up. Papua: Ker 61.

E761.3.2. †E761.3.2. Lifen token: fruit decays on tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.3.3. †E761.3.3. Life token: fruit falls from tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.3.4. †E761.3.4. Life token: trees prostrate themselves. Jewish: Neuman.

E761.4. †E761.4. Life token: object darkens or rusts.

E761.4.1. †E761.4.1. Life token: knife stuck in tree rusts (becomes bloody). *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 2; *Fb "kniv" II 221a.

E761.4.2. †E761.4.2. Life token: picture burns black. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 4.

E761.4.3. †E761.4.3. Life token: mirror becomes black (misty). (Cf. †D1163.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 5; Armenian: Macler contes Arméniens 28; Japanese: Ikeda.

E761.4.4. †E761.4.4. Life token: ring rusts. English: Child I 201; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 4.

E761.4.5. †E761.4.5. Life token: silver object turns dark. Russian: Ralston Russian Folk-Tales (London, 1875) 91.

E761.4.6. †E761.4.6. Life token: charm dries. Africa (Lamba): Doke MAFLS XX 14 No. 11.

E761.4.7. †E761.4.7. Life token: sword rusts. India: *Thompson-Balys.

E761.4.8. †E761.4.8. Life token: beads cling together. India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.4.9. †E761.4.9. Life token: milk turns dark. India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.5. †E761.5. Life token: object breaks (bursts). India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.5.1. †E761.5.1. Life token: pot breaks. (Cf. †D1171.1.) Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 188 No. 27.

E761.5.2. †E761.5.2. Life token: zither string breaks. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 9.

E761.5.3. †E761.5.3. Life token: ring springs asunder. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 68f. n. 4; Fb "ring" III 60a.

E761.5.4. †E761.5.4. Life token: cup springs asunder. (Cf. †D1171.6.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 7.

E761.5.5. †E761.5.5. Life token: stone breaks. (Cf. †E711.7.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E761.5.5.1. †E761.5.5.1. Life token: stones prostrate themselves. Jewish: Neuman.

E761.5.6. †E761.5.6. Life token: sheaves prostrate themselves. Jewish: Neuman.

E761.6. †E761.6. Life token: troubled liquid. (Cf. †D1242.)

E761.6.1. †E761.6.1. Life token: troubled water. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 1; Italian: Basile Pentamerone No. 9; India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.6.2. †E761.6.2. Life token: milk becomes red. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 1; England: Baughman; India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.6.3. †E761.6.3. Life token: boiling liquid. *Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 270 No. 82.

E761.6.4. †E761.6.4. Life token: beer foams. (Cf. †D1045.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 69 n. 5.

E761.6.5. †E761.6.5. Life token: wine turns to vinegar. Gaster Exempla 219 No. 156 (155.)

E761.6.6. †E761.6.6. Life token: milk becomes agitated in pan at death of relative. (Cf. †E761.6.2.) England, U.S.: Baughman.

E761.7. †E761.7. Life token -- miscellaneous.

E761.7.1. †E761.7.1. Life token: ring presses finger. (Cf. †D1076.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 6.

E761.7.2. †E761.7.2. Life token: spring goes dry. (Cf. †D927.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 10.

E761.7.3. †E761.7.3. Life token: leaves full from tree. (Cf. †D955.) Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 185.

E761.7.4. †E761.7.4. Life token: light goes out. (Cf. †E765.1.) *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XX 70 n. 11; Gaster Thespis 275ff.

E761.7.5. †E761.7.5. Life token: dogs pulling on leash. Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 123.

E761.7.6. †E761.7.6. Life token: bird sent each day to tell of hero's condition; when owl comes it will be to announce death. Carib: Alexander Lat. Am. 265.

E761.7.7. †E761.7.7. Life token: bird feathers sink in river at hero's death. Kirghiz: Radloff Proben der Volksliteratur der türkischen Stämme Südsiberiens III 85.

E761.7.8. †E761.7.8. Life token: great wind blows. Irish myth: Cross.

E761.7.9. †E761.7.9. Life token: flaming shield goes out. (Cf. †D1101.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

E761.7.10. †E761.7.10. Life token: armor rattles at home when owner is killed away from home. England: Baughman.

E761.7.11. †E761.7.11. Life token: music box plays by itself as owner awaits burial. U.S.: Baughman.

E761.7.12. †E761.7.12. Life token: arrow falls down. India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.7.13. †E761.7.13. Life token: paddy productive or unproductive. India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.7.14. †E761.7.14. Life token: rings will exchange places on girls' fingers. India: Thompson-Balys.

E761.7.15. †E761.7.15. Life token: direction dagger points determines if ogress has been killed. India: Thompson-Balys.

E765. †E765. Life dependent on external object or event. Person's life is mystically connected with something else and comes to an end when that thing is destroyed. India: Thompson-Balys.

E765.1. †E765.1. Life bound up with light (flame). Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "vie"; Fb "lys" II 483ab; Gaster Thespis 275f.; Icelandic: *Boberg.

E765.1.1. †E765.1.1. Life bound up with candle. When the candle goes out, person dies. --*Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; Anderson Die Meleagrossage bei den Letten (Philologus N. F. XXXIII [1923]); Icelandic: De la Saussaye 315, *Boberg; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 82 No. 708*A.

E765.1.2. †E765.1.2. Life bound up with burning brand (torch). Hartland Science 205 (Olger the Dane); Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 65 n. 5 (Meleager).

E765.1.3. †E765.1.3. Life-lights in lower world. Each light mystically connected with the life of a person. When light is extinguished, person dies. *Type 332; BP I 377ff., *388.

E765.2. †E765.2. Life bound up with that of animal. Person to live as long as animal lives. *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; Irish myth: *Cross (Diarmaid); Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 5; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 364--374.

E765.3. †E765.3. Life bound up with object. *Krappe in Penzer Ocean of Story VIII 107; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Hultkrantz 364.

E765.3.0.1. †E765.3.0.1. Life bound up with magic object. When magic object is lost, person dies. Irish myth: *Cross.

E765.3.1. †E765.3.1. Person to live as long as church stands. Fb "kirke" II 126a, "leve" II 401b.

E765.3.2. †E765.3.2. Life bound up with calabash. As calabash grows, so does girl. Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 55 No. 24.

E765.3.3. †E765.3.3. Life bound up with tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

E765.3.4. †E765.3.4. Girl lives until her cowslip is pulled. England: Baughman.

E765.3.5. †E765.3.5. Man's magic contains his life essence. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 541.

E765.4. †E765.4. Life bound up with external event. Death to come when certain thing happens.

E765.4.1. †E765.4.1. Father will die when daughter marries. (Cf. †E765.4.3.) Irish myth: Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 187.

E765.4.2. †E765.4.2. Mother will die when daughter is wooed. Irish myth: Cross.

E765.4.3. †E765.4.3. Father will die when daughter bears son. (Cf. †E765.4.1.) Irish myth: *Cross.

E765.4.3.1. †E765.4.3.1. Father (and mother) will die on same day as daughter. Irish myth: Cross.

E765.4.4. †E765.4.4. Person will die year he marries. Irish myth: *Cross.

E765.4.5. †E765.4.5. Person will die when he drinks from horn. (Cf. †D1793.) Irish myth: Cross.

E765.4.6. †E765.4.6. Snake can die only if it gives away hoarded treasure. India: Thompson-Balys.

E765.4.7. †E765.4.7. Man dies when tortoise shell is dug up. Tonga: Gifford 52.

E765.5. †E765.5. One person's life dependent on another's. Penzer I 131.

E766. †E766. Object dies or stops when owner dies.

E766.1. †E766.1. Clock stops at moment of owner's death. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

E766.2. †E766.2. Tree dies when owner dies. England: *Baughman.

E766.3. †E766.3. Post falls when owners lose estate. England: Baughman.

E767. †E767. Affinity of person and object.

E767.1. †E767.1. Ash pole appears at doorway several times on day owner's daughter dies. (It is used for coffin rests. The pole has previously mysteriously escaped being used for other purposes.) --Canada: Baughman.

E767.2. †E767.2. Clothes of wicked person burn when owner dies. U.S.: Baughman.

E770. †E770. Vital objects. Objects that have life in them. (Cf. †D1620, †D1640.)

E771. †E771. Ring with life in it. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "animisme".

E772. †E772. Sickle with life in it. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "animisme".

E780. †E780. Vital bodily members. They possess life independent of the rest of the body. (Cf. †F1096.) India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 346 n. 246b.

E780.1. †E780.1. Vital body: kills attacking enemies. India: Thompson-Balys.

E780.2. †E780.2. Animal bodily members transferred to person or other animal retains animal powers and habits. (Cf. †E781, †E782.) Type 660; Haiti: Parsons MAFLS XVII (1) 59--62.

E781. †E781. Eyes successfully replaced. Jacobs' list s. v. "Eyes exchanged"; Fb "øje" III 1166a; Köhler-Bolte I 434ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Gaster Thespis 333f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 139 No. 13.

E781.1. †E781.1. Substituted eyes. Lost eyes are replaced by those of another person or animal. (Cf. †F512.1.4.) *Type 660; BP II 552; Irish myth: Cross; Japanese: Ikeda; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 299 n. 94.

E781.1.1. †E781.1.1. Prince regains his eyesight after theft of eyes from water maidens. India: Thompson-Balys.

E781.2. †E781.2. Eyes bought back and replaced. *Type 533; *BP II 278 n. 1; *Köhler-Bolte I 463; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 83 No. 711A*; Missouri French: Carrière.

E781.3. †E781.3. Eyes borrowed by animal. Later returned. --Africa (Kaffir): Theal 166.

E782. †E782. Limbs successfully replaced. Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 248 No. 36.

E782.0.1. †E782.0.1. Substituted limbs. Man borrows various limbs and successfully uses them. Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 267 No. 4.

E782.1. †E782.1. Hands restored. *Type 706; *BP I 295; Fb "hånd" I 765b; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller, Nouvelles de Sens No. 12; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 2; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

E782.1.1. †E782.1.1. Substituted hand. Man exchanges his hand for that of another. *Type 660; BP II 552.

E782.2. †E782.2. Substituted ribs (chariot ribs). Irish myth: Cross.

E782.3. †E782.3. Arms restored. Irish myth: *Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "bras".

E782.3.1. †E782.3.1. Substituted arm. Injured arm replaced by another. (Cf. †A128.4.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

E782.4. †E782.4. Horse's leg cut off and replaced. *Type 753; *BP III 198; *Lowes Romanic Review V 368; Saintyves Saints Successeurs 248--251; Köhler-Bolte I 132, 297 n. 1; Dh II 169; Hoefler Zs. f. Vksk. I 304; Ons Volksleven III 43, V 28, 136f.

E782.4.1. †E782.4.1. Substituted leg. Injured leg replaced by another. Alphabet No. 219.

E782.4.2. †E782.4.2. Severed leg(s) regrow(s). Africa (Somali): Kirk A Grammar of the Somali Language (Cambridge [Eng.], 1905) 162f., (Ishhak): Kirk FL XV 391ff. No. 3, (Saho): Reinisch Die Saho-Sprache I 76ff. No. 3.

E782.5. †E782.5. Substituted tongue. Haiti: Parsons MAFLS XVII (1) 59--62.

E783. †E783. Vital head. Retains life after being cut off. (Cf. †D992, †F511.) Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; West Indies: Flowers 432.

E783.1. †E783.1. Head cut off and successfully replaced. *Kittredge Gawain 147ff.; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 61, *Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Quiché): Alexander Lat. Am. 175; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 113 No. 8, (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 10.

E783.2. †E783.2. Severed head regrows. Penzer III 268 n. 1. --Greek: Fox 81.

E783.2.1. †E783.2.1. Origin of Pegasus from neck of slain Medusa. Greek: Fox 34.

E783.3. †E783.3. Severed head reddens and whitens. Irish myth: *Cross.

E783.4. †E783.4. Severed head opens eyes. Irish myth: Cross.

E783.5. †E783.5. Vital head speaks. India: Thompson-Balys.

E783.6. †E783.6. Headless body vital. Irish myth: Cross.

E783.7. †E783.7. Headless man lives four (seven) years. (Cf. †Q551.8.5.) Irish myth: Cross.

E783.8. †E783.8. Dead head grateful for burying it. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 34.

E784. †E784. Flesh regrows. Icelandic: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "chair"; India: Thompson-Balys.

E785. †E785. Vital skin. Retains life after death of owner. Africa (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 3.

E785.1. †E785.1. Substituted skin. Irish myth: Cross.

E785.1.1. †E785.1.1. Ewe's hide grafted to skinless head of wounded man. Irish myth: Cross.

E786. †E786. Heart successfully replaced. *Type 660.

E787. †E787. Stomach borrowed by animal. Later returned. Africa (Kaffir): Theal 167.

E788. †E788. Severed pap regrows when woman bears child. Child V 177.

E789. †E789. Vital bodily members -- miscellaneous. India: Thompson-Balys.

E789.1. †E789.1. Organs exchanged with those of animal. India: Thompson-Balys.

E790. †E790. The soul -- miscellaneous.

E791. †E791. Man who forgets to count himself dies immediately after. India: Thompson-Balys.