S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, mediaeval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958. • Main page


Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, ÐÔÔÈ #06-06-80-420a, ÐÔÔÈ #07-06-00441-à



B. ANIMALS

DETAILED SYNOPSIS

†B0.--B99. Mythical animals

†B10. Mythical beasts and hybrids

†B20. Beast-men

†B30. Mythical birds

†B40. Bird-beasts

†B50. Bird-men

†B60. Mythical fish

†B70. Fish-beasts

†B80. Fish-men

†B90. Other mythical animals

†B100.--B199. Magic animals

†B100.--B119. Treasure animals

†B100. Treasure animals -- general

†B110. Treasure producing parts of animals

†B120.--B169. Animals with magic wisdom

†B120. Wise animals

†B130. Truth telling animals

†B140. Prophetic animals

†B150. Oracular animals

†B160. Wisdom-giving animals

†B170.--B189. Other magic animals

†B170. Magic birds, fish, reptiles, etc.

†B180. Magic quadrupeds

†B190. Magic animals: miscellaneous motifs

†B200.--B299. Animals with human traits

†B210. Speaking animals

†B220. Animal kingdom (community)

†B230. Parliament of animals

†B240. King of animals

†B250. Religious animals

†B260. Animal warfare

†B270. Animals in legal relations

†B280. Animal weddings

†B290. Other animals with human traits

†B300.--B599. FRIENDLY ANIMALS

†B300. --B349. Helpful animals -- general

†B310. Acquisition of helpful animal

†B320. Reward of helpful animal

†B330. Death of helpful animal

†B340. Treatment of helpful animal -- miscellaneous

†B350.--B399. Grateful animals

†B360. Animals grateful for rescue from peril of death

†B370. Animals grateful to captor for release

†B380. Animals grateful for relief from pain

†B390. Animals grateful for other kind acts

†B400.--B499. Kinds of helpful animals

†B400.--B449. Helpful beasts

†B400. Helpful domestic beasts

†B430. Helpful wild beasts

†B450. Helpful birds

†B470. Helpful fish

†B480. Helpful insects

†B490. Other helpful animals

†B500.--B599. Services of helpful animals

†B500. Magic power from animal

†B510. Healing by animal

†B520. Animals save person's life

†B530. Animals nourish men

†B540. Animal rescuer or retriever

†B550. Animals carry men

†B560. Animals advise men

†B570. Animals serve men

†B580. Animals help men to wealth and greatness

†B590. Miscellaneous service of helpful animals

†B600.--B699. Marriage of person to animal

†B610. Animal paramour

†B620. Animal suitor

†B630. Offspring of marriage to animal

†B640. Marriage to person in animal form

†B650. Marriage to animal in human form

†B700.--B799. Fanciful traits of animals

†B710. Fanciful origin of animals

†B720.--B749. Fanciful physical qualities of animals

†B720. Fanciful bodily members of animals

†B730. Fanciful color, smell, etc. of animals

†B740. Fanciful marvellous strength of animals

†B750. Fanciful habits of animals

†B770. Other fanciful traits of animals

†B800.--B899. Miscellaneous animal motifs

†B870. Giant animals

B. Animals.

†B0-†B99. Mythical animals.

B0. †B0. Mythical animals. Lum (Peter) Fabulous Beasts (New York, 1951). --Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

B1. †B1. Animal elders. Mythical ancestors of the present animals. --Irish myth: Cross. --N. Am. Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 292 No. 40, ibid. 69 (Cherokee), 81 (Pawnee), 156 (Navaho).

B1.1. †B1.1. Angels of animals. Each kind of animal has its angel in heaven. Jewish: Neuman.

B2. †B2. Animal totems. Irish myth: Cross.

B2.1. †B2.1. Dog as totem animal. Irish myth: Cross.

B5. †B5. Fantastic beasts, birds, etc., in art. Irish myth: Cross.

B7. †B7. Animals in the heavens.

B7.1. †B7.1. Animals rule celestial spheres. Jewish: Neuman.

B7.2. †B7.2. Mythical animals surround God's throne. Jewish: Neuman.

B7.3. †B7.3. Mythical bird running before the sun bears inscription of golden letters. Jewish: Neuman.

B10. †B10. Mythical beasts and hybrids.

B11. †B11. Dragon. **Smith Dragon; *Fb Drager, lindorme, slanger i folkets tro (Særtryk af Naturen og Mennesket, 1894, pp. 164--196); *Nyrop Dania II 341ff.; *Róheim Drachen und Drachenkämpfer; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 364 ff.; Meyer Germanische Mythologie (1891) 95ff.; **Du Bose The Dragon, Image and Demon (London, 1886); Norlind Skattsägner 44f., 77f., Solheim Register 17; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 133ff., 176ff., (1928) 119ff. --*Type 300; *BP I 547. --Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 216; Celtic: *Henderson Celtic Dragon Myth (Edinburgh, 1911), *Cross; Lettish: Auning Ueber den lettischen Drachenmythus; Armenian: Ananikian 76ff; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Ferguson 101; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 169, No. 73.

B11.1. †B11.1. Origin of dragon.

B11.1.1. †B11.1.1. Dragon from cock's egg. (Cf. †B12.1.) --*Fb "drage"; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 600--603.

B11.1.2. †B11.1.2. Dragon from transformed horse. White horse plunges into water and is changed into a dragon. Chinese: Werner 368.

B11.1.3. †B11.1.3. Dragon from transformed man lying on his treasures (Fáfnir). (Cf. †B11.6.2.) --Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 367; Eisen Esthnische Mythologie 74ff.; Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.1.3.0.1. †B11.1.3.0.1. Transformed princess as dragon. Irish myth: Cross; German: Grimm No. 88.

B11.1.3.1. †B11.1.3.1. Dragon from worm. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.1.3.1.1. †B11.1.3.1.1. Dragon develops from small worm placed on gold. It grows together with the gold. De Vries Studien over Faerosche Balladen 122ff.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 384f.; Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.1.4. †B11.1.4. Devil in form of dragon. German: Grimm No. 125.

B11.2. †B11.2. Form of dragon. *Smith Dragon, passim.; Chinese: Werner 208ff.

B11.2.0.1. †B11.2.0.1. She-dragon. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.2.1. †B11.2.1. Dragon as compound animal. (cf. †B14.) --Smith Dragon 81 (serpent or crocodile, with scales of a fish for covering, and feet and wings and sometimes also the head, of an eagle, falcon, or hawk, and the forelimbs and sometimes the head of a lion). --Chinese: Werner 208 (ears of an ox, feet of a tiger, claws of an eagle, horns of a deer, head of a camel, eyes of a devil, neck of a snake, abdomen of a cock, scales of a carp); Egyptian: Smith op. cit. 79 (lioness, falcon, human being).

B11.2.1.1. †B11.2.1.1. Dragon as modified serpent. Smith Dragon 92, 101f., 107ff. (American Indian, Japanese, East Indian). --Icel.: *Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 65.

B11.2.1.2. †B11.2.1.2. Dragon as modified lizard. Smith Dragon 109.

B11.2.1.3. †B11.2.1.3. Dragon as modified fish. Smith Dragon 108f.; Irish myth: Cross; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 65.

B11.2.1.4. †B11.2.1.4. Dragon as modified shell-fish. Smith Dragon 165ff.

B11.2.1.5. †B11.2.1.5. Dragon as modified toad. Smith Dragon 109.

B11.2.1.6. †B11.2.1.6. Dragon as modified elephant. Smith Dragon 109.

B11.2.1.7. †B11.2.1.7. Dragon as modified horse. Smith Dragon 97f. Japanese: Ikeda.

B11.2.1.9. †B11.2.1.9. Dragon as modified ram. Smith Dragon 134 (Egyptian, Soudanese, West African, Hindu, Chinese, Japanese, American Indian). The evidence of this identification is merely the spiral horn.

B11.2.1.10. †B11.2.1.10. Dragon as modified deer. Smith Dragon 131.

B11.2.1.11. †B11.2.1.11. Dragon as modified eagle. Smith Dragon 92f., 108.

B11.2.1.12. †B11.2.1.12. Dragon as other modified animal. Smith Dragon 108 (falcon), 165ff. (octopus, whale).

B11.2.2. †B11.2.2. Color of dragon. Smith Dragon 108 (blue), 137 (red). --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "dragons" (regiment of green dragons). --Icel.: Bósa saga 62 (golden).

B11.2.2.1. †B11.2.2.1. Dragon with golden feathers. Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.2.3. †B11.2.3. Many-headed dragon. (Cf. †B15.1.2.) --Danish: Fb "hoved" 65b; Jones PMLA XXIII 569. --Greek: Fox 87 (hundred); Persian: Carnoy 265 (three); Japanese: Anesaki 228 (eight), 333 (nine).

B11.2.3.1. †B11.2.3.1. Seven-headed dragon. *Type 300; Smith Dragon 211f. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "bête". Missouri French: Carrière; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 42 No. 302*A: Gaster Thespis 80f, 186. --India: Thompson-Balys; Araucanian: Alexander Lat. Am. 327.

B11.2.3.2. †B11.2.3.2. Three-headed dragon. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; Africa (Fulah): Frobenius Atlantis VI 182ff. No. 4.

B11.2.3.3. †B11.2.3.3. Six-headed dragon. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B11.2.3.4. †B11.2.3.4. Nine-headed dragon. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B11.2.3.5. †B11.2.3.5. Twelve-headed dragon. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B11.2.3.6. †B11.2.3.6. Two-headed dragon. England: Baughman.

B11.2.4. †B11.2.4. Feet of dragon.

B11.2.4.1. †B11.2.4.1. Feet of dragon -- number. Irish myth: Cross; Japanese: Smith Dragon 101f.; Chinese: Werner 368.

B11.2.4.2. †B11.2.4.2. Feet of dragon -- nature. Cloven hoofs: Smith Dragon 137. --Claws: Chinese: Werner 368.

B11.2.5. †B11.2.5. Horns of dragon. Smith Dragon 137. --Chinese: Werner 368, Eberhard FFC CXX 73, 85.

B11.2.6. †B11.2.6. Wings of dragon. Smith Dragon 137. --Chinese: Werner 368.

B11.2.7. †B11.2.7. Snakes issue from dragon's shoulders. Persian: Carnoy 320.

B11.2.8. †B11.2.8. Tail of dragon. Smith Dragon 137; Fb "drage" (if one throws fire over dragon's long tail, the tail falls and is full of treasure).

B11.2.8.1. †B11.2.8.1. Dragon encircles city with its tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

B11.2.9. †B11.2.9. Heart of dragon. Fb "hjærte" 631b.

B11.2.10. †B11.2.10. Scales of dragon. Chinese: Werner 368.

B11.2.11. †B11.2.11. Fire-breathing dragon. *Type 300; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 391; Fb. "drage", "gloende" (glowing eyes and tongue), "ild" (fire from mouth). Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.2.11.1. †B11.2.11.1. Dragon spews venom. Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.2.11.2. †B11.2.11.2. Breath of dragon kills man. Scotland, England: *Baughman Chinese: Werner 236. --N. Am. Indian (Iroquois): BBAE XXX pt. 2, 720 s. v. "Teharonhiawagon".

B11.2.12. †B11.2.12. Dragon of enormous size. Jewish: Bin Gorion Born Judas II 170, 349, Neuman; Irish myth: Cross; African (Fang): Einstein 47.

B11.2.13. †B11.2.13. Blood of dragon. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.2.13.1. †B11.2.13.1. Blood of dragon venomous. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.2.14. †B11.2.14. Dragon with jewel in head. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.3. †B11.3. Habitat of dragon.

B11.3.1. †B11.3.1. Dragon's home in bottom of sea. Smith Dragon 82. --Chinese: Werner 210 (only in autumn and winter); Icel.: Boberg.

B11.3.1.1. †B11.3.1.1. Dragon lives in lake. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.3.1.2. †B11.3.1.2. Dragon's home beneath waterfall. (Cf. †F426.) Icel.: Boberg.

B11.3.2. †B11.3.2. Dragon's home at top of mountain. His breath forms clouds to hide the mountain. --Smith Dragon 82. --Scotland: Baughman.

B11.3.3. †B11.3.3. Dragon's visit to sky. Chinese: Werner 210 (only in spring and summer). (Cf. †B11.4.1.)

B11.3.4. †B11.3.4. Dragons live beneath castle. Mediaeval Romance: Wells Manual of Writings 39 (Nennius's Historia Britonum) 42f. (Arthour and Merlin).

B11.3.5. †B11.3.5. Dragon lives under the ground. By his movements a building or village will be dislodged. (Cf. †A1070.) --Zingerle Zs. f. deutsche Mythologie und Sittengeschichte II 347; Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 890. --Irish myth: Cross.

B11.3.6. †B11.3.6. Dragons live in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 352.

B11.3.7. †B11.3.7. Dragon lives beneath tree. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 179ff., (1928) 122ff. --Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319.

B11.3.8. †B11.3.8. Dragon lives in isolated island. German: Grimm No. 129.

B11.4. †B11.4. Dragon's habits.

B11.4.1. †B11.4.1. Flying dragon. (Cf. †B11.2.1.11.) --BP III 423; *Fb "drage" (flies over the mountain). --Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 345; *Boberg; Greek myth: *Frazer Apollodorus I 38 n. 2 (air-going chariot and dragons); Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B11.4.2. †B11.4.2. Dragon as giver of omens. Smith Dragon 97.

B11.4.3. †B11.4.3. Sleepless dragon. Greek Myth (Jason): *Frazer Apollodorus I 95 n. 2.

B11.4.4. †B11.4.4. Dragon travels on sea or land. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.4.5. †B11.4.5. Talking dragon. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.5. †B11.5. Powers of dragon.

B11.5.1. †B11.5.1. Dragon's power of self-transformation. Chinese: Werner 223.

B11.5.2. †B11.5.2. Dragon's power of magic invisibility. Chinese: Werner 209.

B11.5.3. †B11.5.3. Dragon's miraculous vision. Can see a fly miles away. --Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 97 No. 18.

B11.5.4. †B11.5.4. Dragon's miraculous speed. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 97 No. 18.

B11.5.5. †B11.5.5. Self-returning dragon's head. (Cf. †B11.2.3, †B11.11.2.) --*Type 300; BP I 547; Eng.: Baughman; Greek: Fox 81 (hydra). --Onondaga: Beauchamp JAFL II 261.

B11.6. †B11.6. Deeds of dragons.

B11.6.1. †B11.6.1. Dragon helps hero out of gratitude. Dickson Valentine and Orson 121 n. 64.

B11.6.1.2. †B11.6.1.2. Grateful dragon saves hero and rescues him from prison. Chinese: Eberhard 180.

B11.6.2. †B11.6.2. Dragon guards treasure. *Norlind Skattsägner 77f.; Gould Scandinavian Studies and Notes IX (1917) 170 No. 4; Penzer III 133; Smith Dragon 157--165; Finnish-Swedish; Wessman 76, 78 Nos. 632, 657; Icel.: Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 133ff., (1928) 119ff., III (1895) 454ff., (1931) 311ff.; Greek: *Grote I 219; U.S.: Baughman; Wienert FFC LVI 37; Phaedrus IV 21; Chinese: Werner 209.

B11.6.2.1. †B11.6.2.1. Dragon must give up treasure when steel is thrown on him. Fb "stål". III 647a; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 76 No. 632.

B11.6.2.2. †B11.6.2.2. Serpents play with precious green stone. Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.6.2.3. †B11.6.2.3. Dragon's pearl stolen. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 233 No. 181.

B11.6.3. †B11.6.3. Dragon feeds on treasure. Oberwallis: Jegerlehner 321 No. 75; Chinese: Werner 210.

B11.6.4. †B11.6.4. Dragon guards holy land. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.6.5. †B11.6.5. Dragon guards hermit's food, frightens off robbers. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B11.6.6. †B11.6.6. Dragon guards bridge to otherworld. Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.6.7. †B11.6.7. Dragon eats an ox at every meal. Icel.: Boberg.

B11.6.8. †B11.6.8. Dragon flies to its nest with human being. Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.6.8.1. †B11.6.8.1. Dragon flies away with lion. Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.6.9. †B11.6.9. Dragon gnaws the roots of tree. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 332.

B11.6.10. †B11.6.10. Sandalwood tree is guarded by dragon with venomous breath. India: Thompson-Balys.

B11.7. †B11.7. Dragon as rain-spirit. Smith Dragon 1, 78, 82, 90. --Chinese: Werner 208.

B11.7.1. †B11.7.1. Dragon controls water-supply. Hindu: Keith, Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

B11.7.1.1. †B11.7.1.1. Dragon causes deluge. China: Eberhard FFC CXX 233 No. 181.

B11.7.2. †B11.7.2. Dragon guards lake. Penzer VII 235 N. 2; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B11.8. †B11.8. Dragon as power of good. Smith Dragon 82, 97. --Chinese: Werner 208ff., Graham. Icel.: Boberg.

B11.9. †B11.9. Dragon as power of evil. So considered everywhere except in the East, where are also found beneficent dragons. --Smith Dragon 82. --Irish myth; Chinese: Werner 208 (introduced by the Buddhists).

B11.10. †B11.10. Sacrifice of human being to dragon. *Type 300; Penzer VII 236, 240; Dickson Valentine and Orson 226f.; Gaster Thespis 176; Hartland Legend of Perseus passim; Fb "drage", "pige". --Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 34; Persian: Carnoy 320; India: *Thompson-Balys; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "exposition"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXXIX 17; Missouri French: Carrière; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 41; Japanese: Anesaki 249.

B11.10.0.1. †B11.10.0.1. Sacrifice of animals to dragon. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.10.1. †B11.10.1. Dragon keeps maiden tied with golden chain. Köhler-Bolte I 128.

B11.10.2. †B11.10.2. Dragon eats people for his rent. Chinese: Graham.

B11.10.3. †B11.10.3. Dragon devours children. India: Thompson-Balys; Eng., U.S.: Baughman.

B11.11. †B11.11. Fight with dragon. *Type 300; *BP I 547; *Smith Dragon 79ff., 104; *Róheim Drachen und Drachenkämpfer; *Norlind Skattsägner 67f., *Liebrecht Zur Volkskunde 70; **von Sydow Sigurds Strid med Fåvne; *Schoepperle Tristan and Isolt I 204 nn. 1, 2; Clouston Pop. Tales and Fictions I 155ff.; *Spence 80; *E. Siecke Drachenkämpfe; Fb "Jörgen" II 67a (St. George and the Dragon). --Germanic: Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 371; Heusler Altnordische Dichtung und Prosa von Jung Sigurd (Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akad. v. Wissenschaften, 1919, 162--195); **H. Sandkühler Der Drachenkampf des heiligen Georg in englischer Legende u. Dichtung vom 14. bis 16. Jahrhundert (Diss. München 1914); *Loomis White Magic 65, 119; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus 27 no. 4 (Apollo and Python), I 153 n. 1 (Bellerophon and Chimera); Celtic: MacCulloch Celtic 130ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman, Gaster Thespis 140 ff., 326ff.; Egyptian: Müller 127; Persian: Carnoy 266, 270, 273, 322, *325, 329f.; Hindu: Keith 33 (Indra); India: *Thompson-Balys; Armenian: Ananikian 77; Japanese: Anesaki 228; Chinese: Werner 224, 361, Eberhard FFC CXX 105, 138; Arabian: Burton I 172. --English: Wells Manual of Writings 16 (Guy of Warwick), 115 (Sir Eglamour), 117 (Torrent of Portyngale); Missouri French: Carrière; Africa (Fang): Einstein 44, 47. --Cf. *Olrik Ragnarök 57ff. (fight with giant serpent).

B11.11.1. †B11.11.1. Dragon fight: respite granted and dragon returns with renewed strength. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXXIX 21; Missouri French: Carrière.

B11.11.2. †B11.11.2. Hero's dogs (horse) prevent dragon's heads from rejoining body. (Cf. †B11.2.3.) --*Type 300; *BP I 547.

B11.11.3. †B11.11.3. Dragon combats attack with showers of fiery spines. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.11.4. †B11.11.4. Dragon fight in order to free princess. Icel.: *Boberg. (Cf. †R111.1. and most of the references to †B11.11.).

B11.11.5. †B11.11.5. Dragon fight in order to free man. Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.11.6. †B11.11.6. Dragon fight in order to free lion. Icel.: *Boberg.

B11.11.7. †B11.11.7. Woman as dragon-slayer. India: Thompson-Balys.

B11.11.8. †B11.11.8. Dragon doubles his demand after men's rebellion. Africa (Fang): Einstein 42.

B11.12. †B11.12. Other traits of dragon.

B11.12.1. †B11.12.1. Dragon cannot be killed with weapons. Wesselski Mönchslatein 171 No. 136; Irish myth: Cross; Eng.: Baughman; Gaster Oldest Stories 69.

B11.12.1.1. †B11.12.1.1. Dragon which cannot be killed with weapons is kicked in vulnerable spot. England: Baughman.

B11.12.1.2. †B11.12.1.2. Dragon dips wounded part in holy well, is healed immediately. England: Baughman.

B11.12.2. †B11.12.2. Dragon's shriek makes land barren. Irish myth: Cross; MacCulloch Celtic 130.

B11.12.3. †B11.12.3. Fiery dragon. Irish myth: Cross.

B11.12.4. †B11.12.4. Dragon is fond of milk.

B11.12.4.1. †B11.12.4.1. Dragon is fed great quantities of milk to keep him pacified. England: *Baughman.

B11.12.5. †B11.12.5. The dragon-king. Chinese: Eberhard 25 No. 13,65, 87 No. 7,158, 245 No. 190.

B11.12.6. †B11.12.6. Dragon can hear a child cry even at great distance. India: Thompson-Balys.

B11.12.7. †B11.12.7. Human-dragon marriage. Chinese: Eberhard 49, 64f., 103, 135, No. 92.

B12. †B12. Basilisk. A mythical lizard or serpent whose hissing drives away all other serpents. --*Polívka Zs. f. Vksk. XXVII 46ff.; *Fb "basilisk"; *A Guichot y Sierra El Basilisco (Folklore Español III 9--83); *Norlind Skattsägner 46 n. 1; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "Basilisk"; Köhler-Bolte I 133. --English: Wells Manual of Writings 105 (Prose Alexander); Jewish: Neuman.

B12.1. †B12.1. Basilisk hatched from cock's egg. Usually, a seven-year-old cock. Egg must lie in manure. (Cf. †B11.1.1.) --*Polívka Zs. f. Vksk. XXVIII 46ff.; *Fb. "basilisk" I 53a, IV 29a; De Vries Het Sprookje 19--97; Taylor PMLA XXXVI 35ff.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s. v. "Basilisk".

B12.2. †B12.2. Basilisk's fatal glance. Renders powerless or kills. --*Fb "basilisk" I 53a, IV 29a, "øje" III 1167b; Penzer VIII 75 n.l.

B12.3. †B12.3. Basilisk killed by seeing own image. *Fb "basilisk" I 53a, "spejl" III 48a; Ward Catalogue of Romances III 194; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 139; Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 935.

B13. †B13. Unicorn. (cf. †B15.7.2.) --*Type 1640; *BP I 164; **Odell Shepard The Lore of the Unicorn (London, 1929); **Robert Brown Jr. The Unicorn, a Mythological Investigation (London, 1881); Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 232f.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "Einhorn"; Bolte Reise der Söhne Giaffers 212; Icel.: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Ferguson 98.

B14. †B14. Other hybrid animals.

B14.1. †B14.1. Chimera. Combination of lion, dragon, and goat. Breathes fire. --*Frazer Apollodorus I 151 n. 2, 153 n. 1; Fox 39. --Egyptian: Müller 169.

B14.2. †B14.2. Animal with body of horse, legs of hound. Irish myth: Cross.

B14.3. †B14.3. Hybrid monster: calf-sheep. S. Am. Indian (Araucanìan): Cooper BBAE CXLIII II 753.

B15. †B15. Animals with unusual limbs or members.

B15.1. †B15.1. Animal unusual as to his head.

B15.1.1. †B15.1.1. Headless animals. *Fb "hovedløs" IV 223a.

B15.1.1.1. †B15.1.1.1. Headless dog. North Carolina: Brown Coll. I 636.

B15.1.2. †B15.1.2. Many-headed animal. (Cf. †B15.7.2.) --Irish myth: Cross; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 357 n. 287f. --Africa (Angola): Chatelain 93 No. 5.

B15.1.2.1. †B15.1.2.1. Two-headed animal. U.S.: Baughman; Jewish: Neuman.

B15.1.2.1.1. †B15.1.2.1.1. Two-headed serpent. One head in front and one at rear. --Penzer V 135 n. 2.

B15.1.2.1.2. †B15.1.2.1.2. Two-headed tiger. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 142--158 passim.

B15.1.2.1.3. †B15.1.2.1.3. Jaguar with two heads. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 155.

B15.1.2.1.4. †B15.1.2.1.4. Two-headed dog. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 211 n. 3 (Orthus).

B15.1.2.2. †B15.1.2.2. Three-headed animal.

B15.1.2.2.1. †B15.1.2.2.1. Three-headed bird. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.1.2.2.2. †B15.1.2.2.2. Three-headed serpent. Persian: Carnoy 311; Hindu: Keith 36, 154.

B15.1.2.3. †B15.1.2.3. Four-headed animal.

B15.1.2.3.1. †B15.1.2.3.1. Four-headed monster. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.1.2.4. †B15.1.2.4. Five-headed animal.

B15.1.2.5. †B15.1.2.5. Six-headed animal.

B15.1.2.6. †B15.1.2.6. Seven-headed animal.

B15.1.2.6.1. †B15.1.2.6.1. Seven-headed serpent. Gaster Thespis 80f.; Hindu: Keith 154; Zanzibar: Bateman 134.

B15.1.2.7. †B15.1.2.7. Eight-headed animal.

B15.1.2.8. †B15.1.2.8. Nine-headed animal.

B15.1.2.8.1. †B15.1.2.8.1. Hydra: nine-headed monster. Middle head immortal. --*Frazer Apollodorus I 187 n. 3.

B15.1.2.8.2. †B15.1.2.8.2. Nine-headed serpent. Fb. "hugormekonge".

B15.1.2.9. †B15.1.2.9. Ten-headed serpent. Hindu: Keith 154.

B15.1.2.10. †B15.1.2.10. Other many-headed animals.

B15.1.2.10.1. †B15.1.2.10.1. Twelve-headed serpent. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges. India: Thompson-Balys.

B15.1.2.10.2. †B15.1.2.10.2. Hundred-headed serpent (monster). Irish myth: Cross.

B15.1.2.10.3. †B15.1.2.10.3. Thousand-headed serpent. Hindu: Penzer VI 61 n. 1, VI 176.

B15.1.3. †B15.1.3. Animal with head of bone. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.2. †B15.2. Many-mouthed animal. (cf. †B15.7.2.).

B15.2.1. †B15.2.1. Six-mouthed serpent. Persian: Keith Ind. Myth. 36.

B15.3. †B15.3. Animal unusual as to his horns.

B15.3.0.1. †B15.3.0.1. Hornless cow. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.3.0.1.1. †B15.3.0.1.1. Hornless bull. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.3.0.2. †B15.3.0.2. One-horned ox. Jewish: Neuman.

B15.3.1. †B15.3.1. Many-horned animal.

B15.3.1.1. †B15.3.1.1. Three-horned deer. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 129, Cross.

B15.3.1.2. †B15.3.1.2. Nine-horned sheep. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.3.1.3. †B15.3.1.3. Ox with three horns. Icel.: *Boberg.

B15.3.1.3.1. †B15.3.1.3.1. Ox with four horns. Icel.: *Boberg.

B15.3.2. †B15.3.2. Animal with a gold (silver) horn.

B15.3.2.1. †B15.3.2.1. Deer with a gold and a silver horn. *Fb "hjort" I 625 a.

B15.3.2.2. †B15.3.2.2. Goat with a gold and a silver horn. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B15.3.2.3. †B15.3.2.3. Ox with golden horns. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

B15.3.2.3.1. †B15.3.2.3.1. Cow with silver horns. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B15.3.3. †B15.3.3. Deer with giant antler. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.3.4. †B15.3.4. Animal usually harmless has horns.

B15.3.4.1. †B15.3.4.1. Hare with horns. India: Thompson-Balys.

B15.3.4.2. †B15.3.4.2. Horned armadillo lives underground. S. A Indian (Chaco): Belaieff BBAE CXLIII (1) 379.

B15.3.5. †B15.3.5. Animal with horn on his head pointing to the sky. Chinese: Graham.

B15.4. †B15.4. Animals with unusual eyes. (Cf. †B15.7.2.) Irish myth: Cross.

B15.4.1. †B15.4.1. Many-eyed animal.

B15.4.1.1. †B15.4.1.1. Many-eyed antelope. Southern Ute: Lowie JAFL XXXVII 49 No. 24.

B15.4.1.2. †B15.4.1.2. Four-eyed tiger. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 144.

B15.4.1.3. †B15.4.1.3. Four-eyed jaguar. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

B15.4.1.4. †B15.4.1.4. Eight-eyed bat. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 233.

B15.4.2. †B15.4.2. Beasts with fiery eyes.

B15.4.2.1. †B15.4.2.1. Dog with fire in eyes. (Cf. †B19.4.) --Fb "ild". --Gaster Thespis 214.

B15.4.3. †B15.4.3. Dogs with eyes like plates, tea-cups, etc. Fb. "øje" 1165b.

B15.4.4. †B15.4.4. Animal with human eyes (transformed man). Icel.: *Boberg.

B15.4.5. †B15.4.5. One-eyed pig. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.5. †B15.5. Animal unusual as to his nose (snout).

B15.5.1. †B15.5.1. Horse with fire-breathing nostrils. (Cf. †B19.1.) --Fb "ild" II 12a; Icel.: *Boberg.

B15.5.2. †B15.5.2. Animal with snout of iron. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. †B15.7.13.1.)

B15.6. †B15.6. Animals with unusual legs or feet. (Cf. †B19.1.)

B15.6.0.1. †B15.6.0.1. One-footed animal. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.6.1. †B15.6.1. Three-legged quadrupeds. Fb. "trebenet"; Zingerle Sagen aus Tirol 590; Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 20; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 420. Mannhardt Germanische Mythen 409; Wehrhan Freimauerei 53 (hare). --Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 324 No. 152.

B15.6.2. †B15.6.2. Empousa. Monster with one foot of brass and another of an ass. --Greek: Fox 278.

B15.6.3. †B15.6.3. Animals with many legs. Ipolyi Zs. f. deutsche Mythologie II 269. --Hindu: Penzer III 259 n. 1 (sarabhas); Irish myth: Cross.

B15.6.3.1. †B15.6.3.1. Six-legged quadruped.

B15.6.3.1.1. †B15.6.3.1.1. Six-legged horse. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B15.6.3.2. †B15.6.3.2. Twelve-legged bird. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.6.3.3. †B15.6.3.3. Seven-legged beast. India: Thompson-Balys.

B15.6.4. †B15.6.4. Bull with human hands and feet. India: Thompson-Balys.

B15.7. †B15.7. Other animals with unusual limbs or members. (Cf. †B20, †B142, †B92.) Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.1. †B15.7.1. Cerberus. The hell hound with three heads, a serpent's tail, and a writhing tangle of snakes from his body. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 88, 142.

B15.7.2. †B15.7.2. Monster three-legged ass. Stands in the ocean. Has three feet, six eyes, nine mouths, two ears, one horn, a white body. Two eyes are in eye position, two on top of his head, two on his hump. He renders powerless by the sharpness of his eyes. He has three mouths in his head, three in his hump, and three in the inner parts of his flanks. Each mouth is the size of a cottage. (Cf. †B13, †B15.1, †B15.2, †B15.4.) --Persian: Carnoy 270.

B15.7.3. †B15.7.3. Bird with head of gold and wings of silver. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.4. †B15.7.4. Fox with eight-forked tail. Japanese: Anesaki 325, Ikeda.

B15.7.5. †B15.7.5. Ghormuhas: men's bodies, horses' heads, one leg, cannibals. (Cf. †B21.) India: Thompson-Balys.

B15.7.6. †B15.7.6. Three-tailed turtle. Korean: Zong-in-Sob 169 No. 73.

B15.7.7. †B15.7.7. Leopard with nine tails. Africa (Chaga): Gutman Globus XCI 239ff.

B15.7.7.1. †B15.7.7.1. Nine-tailed fox. Korean: Zong-in-Sob 230 No. 99, 20 No. 9, 38 No. 22; Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 141.

B15.7.8. †B15.7.8. Boar with nine tusks in each jaw. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.9. †B15.7.9. Cow with tallow liver. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.9.1. †B15.7.9.1. Cow with two bags: one containing a one-legged bird; the other, a twelve-legged bird. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.10. †B15.7.10. Animal unusual as to skin. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.10.1. †B15.7.10.1. Animal with horny skin. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.10.2. †B15.7.10.2. Animal with hair of iron pins. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.11. †B15.7.11. Animal with one head, two bodies, six legs. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. †B15.6.3.5, †B15.7.9.1.)

B15.7.12. †B15.7.12. Eel with fiery mane. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.13. †B15.7.13. Bird with fiery beak. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.13.1. †B15.7.13.1. Bird with beak of iron. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg.

B15.7.14. †B15.7.14. Bird with tail of fire. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.15. †B15.7.15. Monster with 100 hands, 100 palms on each hand, and 100 nails on each palm. Irish myth: Cross.

B15.7.16. †B15.7.16. Eagle with twelve wings and three heads. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (†B172.6.)

B16. †B16. Devastating animals. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B16.0.1. †B16.0.1. Beasts that destroy vineyards and steal fruit. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.0.2. †B16.0.2. Tormenting beast in man's stomach. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.0.3. †B16.0.3. Man-eating monster (in cave). Irish myth: Cross.

B16.1. †B16.1. Devastating domestic animals.

B16.1.1. †B16.1.1. Monster cat devastates country. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 191; Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chat"; India: Thompson-Balys.

B16.1.1.1. †B16.1.1.1. Monster cat born of a pig. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 191.

B16.1.1.2. †B16.1.1.2. Cat leaps through man like arrow of fire and burns him to ashes. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.1.1.3. †B16.1.1.3. Cat devours flesh of man's legs. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.1.2. †B16.1.2. Devastating dog (hound). Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B16.1.2.1. †B16.1.2.1. Giant devastating hound. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.1.3. †B16.1.3. Devastating horse.

B16.1.3.1. †B16.1.3.1. Man-eating mares. *Frazer Apollodorus I 200 n. 1.

B16.1.4. †B16.1.4. Devastating swine. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.1.4.1. †B16.1.4.1. Giant devastating boar. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 82; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 2; India: Thompson-Balys.

B16.1.4.2. †B16.1.4.2. Giant devastating sow. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Celtic 187, *Fb "sø" III 450a.

B16.1.5. †B16.1.5. Man-eating cattle. India: Thompson-Balys.

B16.1.5.1. †B16.1.5.1. Monster ox (bull) killed. Babylonian: Jensen Gilgamesch-Epos VI 94ff., cf. 120--21, 129ff.; Greek: Fox 29, 62, 84, 102; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 85, *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

B16.1.5.2. †B16.1.5.2. Destructive cow possessed by demons. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. †B17.1.3.)

B16.1.5.3. †B16.1.5.3. Devastating bull. Greek: Grote I 189.

B16.1.6. †B16.1.6. Destructive sheep. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.1.6.1. †B16.1.6.1. Devastating supernatural lamb. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.2. †B16.2. Devastating wild animals.

B16.2.1. †B16.2.1. Devastating fox. Monthly human sacrifice. --*Frazer Apollodorus I 171 n. 2.

B16.2.2. †B16.2.2. Devastating tiger. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

B16.2.2.1. †B16.2.2.1. Hostile tiger killed. Icel.: *Boberg.

B16.2.3. †B16.2.3. Giant lion overcome by hero. Babylonian: Jensen Gilgamesch-Epos VIII; Greek: Fox 80; Icel.: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B16.2.4. †B16.2.4. Giant devastating wolf overcome by hero. Icel.: Boberg.

B16.2.5. †B16.2.5. Devastating bear killed. Icel.: Boberg.

B16.2.6. †B16.2.6. Devastating elephant. Icel.: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese-Persian: Coyajee JPASB XXIV 188.

B16.2.7. †B16.2.7. Destructive deer. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.2.8. †B16.2.8. Giant man-eating mice. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.2.9. †B16.2.9. Devastating bison (buffalo). German: Grimm No. 197; India: Thompson-Balys.

B16.3. †B16.3. Devastating birds. (Cf. †B33.)

B16.4. †B16.4. Devastating fish carries off daily victim. India: Thompson-Balys; Greek: Grote I 189.

B16.4.1. †B16.4.1. Leviathan casts up gorge which spreads disease. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.4.1.1. †B16.4.1.1. Leviathan causes cataclysm by striking earth with tail. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.4.1.1.2. †B16.4.1.1.2. Sea-beast: when it belches landward, it causes disease; upward it kills birds; downward, fishes and sea animals. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.5. †B16.5. Devastating reptiles.

B16.5.1. †B16.5.1. Giant devastating serpent. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 144f. --Africa (Chaga): Stamberg Zs. f. Eingeborenen-Spr. XXIII 296ff., Gutmann Volksbuch der Wadschagga 82f. No. 41, (Ganda): Baskerville King of the Snakes 1ff., (Senegambia): Béranger-Feraud Recueil de Contes Populaires de la Senegambia II 185ff. No. 2, (tribes of Western Sudan): Tauxier Le Noir du Yatengo 496 No. 1.

B16.5.1.1. †B16.5.1.1. Devastating serpent with fiery breath. India: Thompson-Balys.

B16.5.1.2. †B16.5.1.2. Devastating (man-eating) sea-monster (serpent). Irish myth: Cross.

B16.5.1.2.1. †B16.5.1.2.1. Serpent sucks man's breath (blood). India: *Thompson-Balys.

B16.5.2. †B16.5.2. Devastating crocodile. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX II No. 188.

B16.5.3. †B16.5.3. Devastating shell-fish. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 119f.

B16.5.4. †B16.5.4. Man-devouring turtle. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 145.

B16.6. †B16.6. Devastating insects.

B16.6.1. †B16.6.1. Giant man-eating ants. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.6.2. †B16.6.2. Blood-sucking chafer. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.6.2.1. †B16.6.2.1. Fierce black chafer. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.6.3. †B16.6.3. Destructive locusts (with wings of iron) eat wheat crop. Irish myth: Cross.

B16.6.4. †B16.6.4. Devastating spider. India: Thompson-Balys.

B16.6.5. †B16.6.5. Devastating centipede. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 232f.

B17. †B17. Hostile animals. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.1. †B17.1. Hostile beasts. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.1.1. †B17.1.1. Ferocious animals loosed against attackers. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.1.2. †B17.1.2. Hostile dog (hound). Irish myth: Cross.

B17.1.2.1. †B17.1.2.1. Bloodhounds decapitate victim. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.1.2.2. †B17.1.2.2. Hostile hound killed by reaching through hollow log in its jaws -- and tearing heart out. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.1.2.2.1. †B17.1.2.2.1. Hero kills hostile hound (monster) by tearing (forcing) out its entrails (heart). Irish myth: Cross.

B17.1.2.3. †B17.1.2.3. Transformed man as hostile dog. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.1.3. †B17.1.3. Hostile cattle. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. †B15.1.5.2.)

B17.1.4. †B17.1.4. Hostile horse. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.1.4.1. †B17.1.4.1. Infuriated horses kill driver. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.1.5. †B17.1.5. Hostile cat. Irish myth: Cross (†B16.1.4).

B17.2. †B17.2. Other hostile animals. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.2.1. †B17.2.1. Hostile sea-beasts. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.2.1.1. †B17.2.1.1. Hostile sea-rat. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.2.1.2. †B17.2.1.2. Hostile eel attacks hero. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.2.1.3. †B17.2.1.3. Hostile sea-cat. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.2.2. †B17.2.2. Hostile griffin. Irish myth: Cross.

B17.2.3. †B17.2.3. Hostile raven.

B17.2.3.1. †B17.2.3.1. Raven plucks out men's eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.

B17.2.4. †B17.2.4. Hostile scorpion.

B17.2.4.1. †B17.2.4.1. Scorpion scoops out men's eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.

B18. †B18. Behemoth: mythical gigantic animal. Jewish: Neuman.

B19. †B19. Other mythical beasts. Fb "solulv".

B19.1. †B19.1. Brazen-footed, fire-breathing bulls. (Cf. †B15.6, †B15.5) --Frazer Apollodorus I 109 n. 4, 110 n. i.

B19.2. †B19.2. Nectar-yielding cow. Hindu: Keith 37.

B19.2.1. †B19.2.1. The cow Audhumla. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 324.

B19.3. †B19.3. Horse born of egg. Mythical hero will come riding on such a horse. --Fb "Holger Danske" I 640b, "æg" III 1142b.

B19.3.1. †B19.3.1. Immortal horses. Greek: Grote I 11.

B19.3.2. †B19.3.2. Mythical horse belonging to water-spirit. S. Am. Indian: Toba Métraux MAFLS XL 50.

B19.4. †B19.4. Glowing animals. Horses, swine, etc. which glow. (Cf. †B15.4.2.) --*Wuttke Der deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegenwart 59; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "glühend"; *Fb "gloende". --Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Icel.: Boberg.

B19.4.1. †B19.4.1. Burrowing swine heat ground. Irish myth: Cross.

B19.4.2. †B19.4.2. Fiery serpent. Irish myth: Cross.

B19.4.3. †B19.4.3. Sheep with fiery collar. Irish myth: Cross.

B19.4.4. †B19.4.4. Hound flame of fire by night. Irish myth: Cross.

B19.5. †B19.5. Horse with golden mane. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 66, 153.

B19.6. †B19.6. Herd which came from heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.

B19.6.1. †B19.6.1. Cows of the sun. (Cf. Odyssey.) India: Thompson-Balys.

B19.7. †B19.7. The goat Heidrun. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 313--14.

B19.8. †B19.8. Mythical antelope. Jewish: Neuman.

B19.9. †B19.9. Eternal bats. S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93.

B19.10. †B19.10. Mythical tiger. Jewish: Neuman.

B19.11. †B19.11. Mythical donkey. Jewish: Neuman.

B20. †B20. Beast-men. Combinations of bestial and human form.

B20.1. †B20.1. Army of half-animals, half-men. Jewish: Neuman.

B20.2. †B20.2. Beast-men in the lower world. Jewish: Neuman.

B21. †B21. Centaur: man-horse. Trunk and head of man, body of horse. --**P. V. C. Baur Centaurs in Ancient Art (Berlin, 1912); *Frazer Apollodorus I 191 n. 3, 261 n. 1; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 413; Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 225ff.; **Dumézil (G.) Le Probleme des Centaures (Paris, 1929); Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Penzer I 202.

B21.1. †B21.1. Norse man-horse: "fingalkn" or "fingalp". Icel.: Boberg.

B21.2. †B21.2. Body and hands human, head and ears those of a horse. India: Thompson-Balys.

B21.3. †B21.3. Man with horse's mouth. Irish myth: Cross.

B22. †B22. Man-ass. Body of man, hoofs of ass. --*Chauvin VII 82 No. 373bis, n. I; Jewish: Neuman.

B22.1. †B22.1. Body of man, head of ass. Jewish: Neuman.

B22.2. †B22.2. Ass with human intelligence. German: Grimm No. 144.

B23. †B23. Man-bull.

B23.1. †B23.1. Minotaur. Body of man, head of bull. Result of union of woman with bull. --Icel.: Boberg; Greek: Fox 61; Roscher Lexikon s. v. "Acheloos"; Frazer Apollodorus I 307 n. I, II 120 n. I. --Chauvin VII 87 No. 373bis n. 3. --Chinese: Ferguson 30.

B23.2. †B23.2. Bull with man's head. Persian: Carnoy 333.

B23.3. †B23.3. Man with (two) horns on his head. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg.

B24. †B24. Satyr. Combination of man and goat. --Greek: Fox 268; Jewish: Neuman.

B24.1. †B24.1. Satyr reveals woman's infidelity. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B24.2. †B24.2. Man with goat's head. (Cf. †A1614.1.2.) Irish myth: Cross (†B29.5).

B25. †B25. Man-dog. Icel.: *Boberg; American Indian and Siberian: *Jochelson JE VI, 1912, 336; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 205, III 226, 246, Holm 50, Rink 47, 111, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 633; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 205.

B25.1. †B25.1. Man with dog's head. *Chauvin VII 77 No. 121; H. Cordier RTP V 72ff.; Fb "hundetyrk". --Loomis White Magic 114; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 72.

B25.1.1. †B25.1.1. Dog-headed man has mane of horse (cattle). Irish myth: Cross.

B25.1.2. †B25.1.2. Dog-headed people. Peasants persecuted by one-eyed and dog-headed savages. --Estonian: M. J. Eisen Estnische Mythologie (Leipzig 1925) pp. 202--206; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 73 No. 232; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3911.

B25.2. †B25.2. Dog with human head. India: Thompson-Balys.

B26. †B26. Man-tiger. Hindu: Keith 96, Thompson-Balys.

B26.1. †B26.1. Girl with tiger's legs and ears. Indo-Chinese (Wa tribe): Scott 291.

B27. †B27. Man-lion. Man with lion's head. --Greek: *Grote I 7; Jewish: Neuman; Chauvin VII 87 No. 373bis n. 3.

B28. †B28. Man-elephant. Man with elephant's head. --Hindu: Keith 181.

B29. †B29. Other combinations of beast and man.

B29.1. †B29.1. Lamia. Face of woman, body of serpent (or body of sow, and legs of horse). --*Bolte FFC XXXIX 5 n. 1--Icel.: Herrmann Saxo II 603; Czech: Máchal Slavic 265; India: Thompson-Balys.

B29.2. †B29.2. Echidna. Half woman, half serpent. --Frazer Apollodorus I 131.

B29.2.1. †B29.2.1. Serpent with human head. Jewish: Neuman.

B29.2.2. †B29.2.2. Man with serpent's head. Jewish: Neuman.

B29.2.3. †B29.2.3. Snake body-woman's head. Aurora (New Hebrides): Codrington No. III 12.

B29.3. †B29.3. Man-hog. Irish myth: Cross; Chinese: Werner 335.

B29.4. †B29.4. Man-cat. Irish myth: Cross.

B29.4.1. †B29.4.1. Man with cat's head. Irish myth: Cross.

B29.4.1.1. †B29.4.1.1. Man with head and tail of cat. Irish myth: Cross.

B29.5. †B29.5. Man-wolf. Icel.: Boberg.

B29.6. †B29.6. Man-elk. Hrolfs saga kr. ch. 20.

B29.7. †B29.7. Man-bear. Jewish: Neuman.

B29.8. †B29.8. Man-hedgehog. Upper half of body like hedgehog. --German: Grimm 108.

B29.9. †B29.9. Man-ape. Jewish: Neuman.

B30. †B30. Mythical birds. Penzer VII 56 n.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 29.

B30.1. †B30.1. Mythical white albatross. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 92.

B30.2. †B30.2. Mythical cock. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 276, 303, 313, 331, Boberg.

B31.1. †B31.1. Roc. A giant bird which carries off men in its claws. --Irish myth: Cross; German: Grimm Nos. 51, 161; Penzer I 103ff., II 219; Chauvin VI 3 No. 181 n. 3; Burton I 154 n., V 122f., VI 16n, 48ff., S III 186, S VII 249. --Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 318 n. 151.

B31.1.0.1. †B31.1.0.1. The bird Ziz, Hebrew counterpart of roc. Jewish: Neuman.

B31.1.1. †B31.1.1. Roc's egg. *Chauvin VI 93 No. 256, VII 10 No. 373B.

B31.1.2. †B31.1.2. Roc drops rock on ship. Rock is so large that it destroys ship. --*Chauvin VII 21 No. 373E n. 1; *Basset 1001 Contes I 158.

B31.2. †B31.2. The Bird Gam. Throws sand in a stream and makes a lake. Appears at turn of century. Also carries men. Leaps into the sea and sleeps. --Fb "Fugl Gam", "Gam" IV 173b. --Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 131ff., (1928) 94. --Icel.: *Boberg.

B31.3. †B31.3. Giant ravens. They sit on mountain; when they fly, avalanche comes. --Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 323 No. 139.

B31.3.1. †B31.3.1. Giant swimming raven. Irish myth: Cross.

B31.4. †B31.4. Giant bat. *Chauvin VII n. 9.

B31.5. †B31.5. Simorg: giant bird. --Chauvin VII 12; Malone PMLA XLIII 404.

B31.6. †B31.6. Other giant birds. Penzer I 104, VI 123 n. --Chinese: Giles Strange Stories of a Chinese Studio (New York, 1927) 547. --Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 222 No. 33.

B31.6.1. †B31.6.1. Giant blackbird. Irish myth: Cross.

B31.6.2. †B31.6.2. Giant bird pulls up oak tree by roots. Irish myth: Cross.

B31.6.2.1. †B31.6.2.1. Giant bird alighting on oak tree causes it to tremble. Irish myth: Cross.

B32. †B32. Phoenix. *Hdwb. d. deutschen Aberglaubens I 180; *Gunkel Das Märchen im alten Testament 36f.; Roscher Lexikon III 3450 s. v. "Phoinix". --Fb "phoenix". --Medieval Romance: Wells Manual of Writings 105 (Prose Alexander). --Chinese: Ferguson 98, Eberhard FFC CXX 117 No. 73; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

B32.1. †B32.1. Phoenix renews youth. Fb "ørn" III 1183b; Egyptian: Müller 165f.

B32.1.1. †B32.1.1. Phoenix renews youth when 1,000 years old. Jewish: Neuman.

B33. †B33. Man-eating birds. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 84; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 72.

B33.1. †B33.1. Other devastating birds. Irish myth: Cross.

B33.1.1. †B33.1.1. Devastating birds wither everything with their breath. Irish myth: Cross.

B33.1.2. †B33.1.2. Devastating birds destroy grass. Irish myth: Cross.

B33.1.3. †B33.1.3. Black birds destroy crops. Irish myth: Cross.

B33.1.4. †B33.1.4. Devastating birds with poisonous spells on their wings. Irish myth: Cross.

B34. †B34. Bird of dawn. Golden plumage; three feet. --Chinese: Werner 186.

B35. †B35. Camrosh. Giant bird which collects seeds and sees that they are properly placed. Carries off the people's enemies. --Persian: Carnoy 289; Penzer I 103.

B36. †B36. Milk-producing bird. Africa (Zulu): Callaway 101; India: Thompson-Balys.

B37. †B37. Immortal bird. (cf. †B32.) Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

B39. †B39. Other mythical birds.

B39.1. †B39.1. Bird from paradise. India: Thompson-Balys.

B40. †B40. Bird-beasts. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "ailes".

B41. †B41. Bird-horse.

B41.1. †B41.1. Pegasus. Winged horse. --Greek: Fox 34, 39, 213.

B41.2. †B41.2. Flying horse. Sometimes represented as having wings, sometimes as going through the air by magic. --*Chauvin V 228 No. 130; Fb "hest" IV 211a; BP II 134; *Hdwb. d. deutschen Märchens s. v. "Arabische Motive"; Penzer II 224; Rösch FFC LXXVII 110 --Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 43 (Sleipnir), 185 (Hofvarpnir). --Arabian: Burton I 160, V 246 n., VI 8, VII 46, 53, S II 85; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 838, 1358; Indo-Chinese: Scott Indo-Chinese 314.

B41.2.1. †B41.2.1. Angel horse. Horse draws angels' chariot. --*Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 17ff.

B42. †B42. Griffin. Half lion, half eagle. --*Chauvin VII 13 No. 313B; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 1129f.; Penzer I 104, 141 n. 2; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

B42.1. †B42.1. Hippogriff. Horse with fore-quarters of griffin. --Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 232.

B43. †B43. Winged bull. Spence Myths of Bab. & Assyr. 289f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.

B43.1. †B43.1. Flying buffalo. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B44. †B44. Bird-bear. Icel.: Herrman Saxo II 174ff., *Boberg.

B45. †B45. Air-going elephant. Hindu: Tawney I 328, II 540; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B46. †B46. Vasa Mortis. Bird with four heads, middle like a whale, feathers and feet of a griffin. --Old English: Solomon and Saturnus (Grein-Wülcker) III (2) 58--82, lines 262ff.

B47. †B47. Winged camel. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

B48. †B48. Flying crustacean. (Cf. †B62, †B94.) India: Thompson-Balys.

B49. †B49. Bird-beasts -- miscellaneous.

B49.1. †B49.1. Bird with crocodile head. Jewish: Neuman;

B49.2. †B49.2. Flying ape. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 235.

B49.3. †B49.3. Flying fox. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 235.

B50. †B50. Bird-men. Irish myth: Cross.

B51. †B51. Sphinx. Has face of woman, body and tail of lion, wings of bird. --**Laistner Rätsel der Sphinx; *Frazer Apollodorus I 349 n. 1; **J. Ilberg Die Sphinx in der griechischen Kunst und Saga (Leipzig, 1896); Köhler-Bolte I 115.

B52. †B52. Harpy. Bird with arms and breasts of woman. --Greek: Fox 111, *Grote I 216f.; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 564.

B53. †B53. Siren. Bird with woman's head. --*Encyclopaedia Britannica s.v. "sirens"; Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 310 n. 1 (here considered as half fish, half woman); Roscher Lexikon s. v. "Seirenen"; Penzer VI 282 n. 6; *Frazer Apollodorus I 21, II 291 n. 2; *Weicker Der Seelenvogel in d. alten Literatur und Kunst. --Slavic: Máchal 260; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 41 No. 26. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "sirène"; Gascon: Bladé II 342 No. 10; Jewish: Neuman.

B53.0.1. †B53.0.1. Siren in mermaid form. Irish myth: Cross.

B53.1. †B53.1. Drowning man rescued by siren. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "noyé".

B53.2. †B53.2. Man suckled by siren. Dickson Valentine and Orson 110 n. 26, 112.

B53.3. †B53.3. Gold thrown on shore by siren. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "or".

B53.4. †B53.4. Siren's song causes sleep. Irish myth: Cross.

B55. †B55. Man with bird's head. Chauvin VII 77 No. 121.

B56. †B56. Garuda-bird. Lower part man, upper part bird. --*Penzer I 103, VII 56 n. X 159; Chauvin V 228, VII 12. --Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 345. --Indonesian: Dixon 224. --Panchatantra (trans. Ryder) 94ff.; Penzer-Tawney X 159 "Garuda".

B57. †B57. "Finngálkn", bird with a man's head. Icel.: *Boberg.

B60. †B60. Mythical fish. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B60.1. †B60.1. Parent of all fishes. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 24.

B61. †B61. Leviathan. Giant fish. --Hebrew: Job 41:1, Psalms 104:26, Isaiah 27:1; Jewish: *Neuman. --Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B62. †B62. Flying fish. Irish myth: Cross.

B63. †B63. Mythical octopus. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 22; Marquesas: Handy 74.

B64. †B64. Mythical eel. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 102f.

B65. †B65. Mythical shark. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 128--132.

B68. †B68. Horned water-monster. S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Beliaeff BBAE CXLIII (1) 379.

B70. †B70. Fish-beasts. *Loomis White Magic 64f.

B71. †B71. Sea horse. Horse living in sea. --*Chauvin VII 7 No. 373a n. 1; *Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 133ff.; Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 97. --Irish myth: Cross; Scotch: MacDougall and Calder 309ff.; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 42 No. 31. --Chinese: Ferguson 30.

B72. †B72. Sea cow. Cow living in sea. --Irish myth: Cross. --Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 42 No. 32; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn (1893) 153ff., (1928) 105ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

B72.1. †B72.1. Three sea-cows: one red, one white, one black. Irish myth: Cross.

B73. †B73. Sea-cat. Irish myth: Cross.

B80. †B80. Fish-men. Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 98.

B80.1. †B80.1. Seal-man. Irish myth: Cross.

B80.2. †B80.2. Monster half-man, half-fish. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 30.

B81. †B81. Mermaid. Woman with tail of fish. Lives in sea. --BP III 324; *Fb "havfrue" I, 569, IV 204a; Thien Motive in König Rother 42; Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 98. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "poisson". Icel.: *Boberg; Estonian: Hartland Science of Fairy Tales 201; Irish myth: Cross; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 41 No. 26; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 46 Nos. 58--63; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 636; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

B81.0.1. †B81.0.1. Mermaids are like fishes in the water, like men on land. Icel.: Boberg.

B81.0.2. †B81.0.2. Woman from water world. Irish myth: Cross.

B81.1. †B81.1. Mermaids from Pharoah's children. They were drowned in the Red Sea. --Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 41 No. 27.

B81.2. †B81.2. Mermaid marries man. Fb "havfrue" IV 204a. --Krappe Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen 159 (1931) 161--175; Irish myth: Cross; Livonian: Loorits FFC XLVI 40 No. 25; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 45f. Nos. 55, 57.

B81.2.1. †B81.2.1. Mermaid has son by human father. *Fb "havfrue" I 569b, IV 204a; Icel.: *Boberg.

B81.2.2. †B81.2.2. Mermaids tear their mortal lovers to pieces. Irish myth: Cross.

B81.3. †B81.3. Mermaid leads people astray. Fb "havfrue" I 569b.

B81.3.1. †B81.3.1. Mermaid appears at midnight, entices people into water. England: Baughman.

B81.3.2. †B81.3.2. Mermaid appears once each year, sings in choir, entices young man to follow her. England: Baughman.

B81.4. †B81.4. Mermaid captures a maiden. *Fb "havfrue" IV 204a.

B81.5. †B81.5. Mermaid sits on knight's bedpost. *Fb "havfrue" I 569b.

B81.6. †B81.6. Mermaid has human midwife. *Fb "havfrue" I 569b.

B81.7. †B81.7. Mermaid warns of bad weather. *Fb "havfrue" I 569b, IV 204a. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 143ff., (1928) 101ff.

B81.7.1. †B81.7.1. Mermaid prophesies. Icel.: Boberg.

B81.8. †B81.8. Mermaid cannot pass through ice. *Fb "havfrue" I 569b.

B81.9. †B81.9. Appearance of mermaid. Fb "havfrue" IV 204a; Irish myth: Cross.

B81.9.1. †B81.9.1. Mermaid's hair reaches her waist. *Fb "hår" I 771b.

B81.9.1.1. †B81.9.1.1. Mermaid has wooly hair. U.S.: Baughman.

B81.9.2. †B81.9.2. Mermaid has large breasts. *Fb "havfrue" IV 204a; Boberg.

B81.9.3. †B81.9.3. Mermaid half-beautiful, half-monstrous. Irish myth: Cross.

B81.9.4. †B81.9.4. Giant mermaid. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. [b]†B81.13.13.)

B81.9.5. †B81.9.5. Skin of mermaid.

B81.9.5.1. †B81.9.5.1. Mermaid has white skin. Scotland: Baughman.

B81.9.5.2. †B81.9.5.2. Mermaid has brown skin. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

B81.10. †B81.10. Mermaid swallows man. Irish myth: Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B81.11. †B81.11. Mermaid's singing causes sleep. Girl tumbles from boat and drowns. --Irish myth: Cross.

B81.12. †B81.12. When mermaid appears.

B81.12.1. †B81.12.1. Mermaid appears at midnight. England: Baughman.

B81.12.2. †B81.12.2. Mermaid appears once each year. England: Baughman.

B81.13. †B81.13. Miscellaneous actions of mermaid.

B81.13.1. †B81.13.1. Mermaid asks captain to move boat which blocks entrance to her dwelling. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

B81.13.2. †B81.13.2. Mermaid is washed up on beach. Wales, England: *Baughman.

B81.13.3. †B81.13.3. Sight of mermaid bathing makes man immortal. England: Baughman.

B81.13.4. †B81.13.4. Mermaid gives mortals gold from sea bottom. England: Baughman.

B81.13.5. †B81.13.5. Giant mermaid (man) cast ashore. Irish myth: Cross.

B81.13.6. †B81.13.6. Mermaid sings divinely in church (before enticing man away). England: Baughman.

B81.13.7. †B81.13.7. Mermaid appears as omen of catastrophe. Ireland, England: *Baughman.

B81.13.8. †B81.13.8. Curse by mermaid. Ireland, England: *Baughman.

B81.13.9. †B81.13.9. Mermaid ruins seducer of her adopted daughter. England: Baughman.

B81.13.10. †B81.13.10. Mermaid prevents raising of sunken church bell. (Cf. †C401.4.) England: Baughman.

B81.13.11. †B81.13.11. Mermaid captured. Irish myth: Cross.

B81.13.11.1. †B81.13.11.1. Mermaid caught by fishermen. Irish myth: Cross.

B81.13.12. †B81.13.12. Mermaid lives for three hundred years under lake. Irish myth: Cross.

B82. †B82. Merman. Fb "havmand" IV 205a; *Chauvin V 7 No. 3. --Arabian: Burton V 215, VII 254, 264, 270, IX 169 n., 179, 182ff.; Icelandic: Hálfs saga ok Hálfsrekka (ed. Andrews) 82; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 723; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

B82.1. †B82.1. Merman marries maiden. Fb "havmand" I 571a; English ballad: *Child I 366; Danish: Grundtvig Danmarks Gamle Folkeviser No. 38. --Literary treatment: Arnold "The Forsaken Merman".

B82.1.1. †B82.1.1. Merman demands princess. *Fb "havmand" I 571a; Gaster Thespis 176.

B82.1.2. †B82.1.2. Harp music makes merman restore stolen bride. *Fb "havmand" I 571a, II 725.

B82.2. †B82.2. Merman demands cattle as offering. *Fb "havmand" I 571a.

B82.3. †B82.3. Youth takes service with merman. *Fb "havmand" I 571a.

B82.4. †B82.4. Merman teaches music. *Fb "nökke" II 725a.

B82.5. †B82.5. Merman attacked by putting steel in the water. *Fb "nökke" II 725a.

B82.6. †B82.6. Merman caught by fisherman (released). England: Baughman.

B82.7. †B82.7. Merman lays hands on side of canoe. U. S.: Baughman.

B83. †B83. Fish with human face. *Chauvin 8 No. 373A n. 2.

B90. †B90. Other mythical animals.

B91. †B91. Mythical serpent. Borgese "Giganti e Serpenti" Archivio per lo Studio delle tradizioni popolari XX 507ff., XXI 90ff., 161ff. --Hindu: Penzer I 109 n. 2, II 90 n. 2, 266, III 259 n. 1. --Indo-Chinese: Scott 301; India: Thompson-Balys.

B91.1. †B91.1. Naga. Serpent demon. --Penzer I 203f., VI 28 n. 2; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1354.

B91.2. †B91.2. Plumed serpent. Hopi, Zuñi: Alexander N. Am. 188.

B91.3. †B91.3. Horned snake. Jewish: Neuman; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 357 n. 287f.; (Micmac): Parsons JAFL XXXVIII 95 No. 27; (Cherokee): Alexander N. Am. 68f.; Ladino (Honduras, Nicaragua): Conzemius BBAE CVI 169.

B91.4. †B91.4. Sky-traveling snake. N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Alexander N. Am. 188.

B91.5. †B91.5. Sea-serpent. *Oudemans (A. C.) The Great Sea-Serpent (London 1892). --Norwegian: Storaker (J.T.) Naturrigerne i den norske Folketro (Oslo 1928) 249; Solheim Register 17; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg.

B91.5.1. †B91.5.1. Sea-serpent dilates and contracts. Irish myth: Cross.

B91.5.2. †B91.5.2. Lake-serpent (monster). Irish myth: Cross.

B91.5.2.1. †B91.5.2.1. Lake-serpent (monster) in form of woman. Irish myth: Cross.

B91.6. †B91.6. Serpent causes flood. Irish myth: Cross.

B91.7. †B91.7. Serpent is immortal. Gaster Oldest Stories 81.

B92. †B92. Other mythical reptiles. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 125.

B93. †B93. Mythical spider. India: Thompson-Balys.

B94. †B94. Mythical crustacean.

B94.1. †B94.1. Mythical crab. India: Thompson-Balys.

B95. †B95. Vegetable lamb. Generated from ground. Umbilical cord is in the ground and the lambs will die if it is forcibly severed. They are frightened into severing it themselves and then live. Vertebrae of the neck planted to produce new ones. --*Laufer JAFL XXVIII 115ff.

B95.1. †B95.1. Vegetable lamb born from melons (as from eggs). --Laufer JAFL XXVIII 124.

B95.2. †B95.2. Marine lamb. Wool taken from sea lamb. (Really textiles from shell-fish pinna). --Laufer JAFL XXVIII 103ff.

B96. †B96. Beast with human head and shape of smith's bellows. Irish myth: Cross.

B98. †B98. Mythical frog. S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 140.

B99. †B99. Mythical animals -- miscellaneous. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 371, (Zanzibar): Bateman 158 No. 8, (Basuto): Jacottet 70, 200, 276, (Ibo of Nigeria): Thomas 147, (Kaffir): Theal 84, 172.

B99.1. †B99.1. Mythical salamander. Jewish: Neuman.

B99.2. †B99.2. Mythical worm. Jewish: Neuman.

†B100-†B199. Magic animals.

†B100-†B119. Treasure animals.

B100. †B100. Treasure animals. *Clouston Tales I 123 ff.; India: Thompson-Balys; Penzer I 20 n., VIII 59 n. 3; Cox 510 n. 54.

B100.1. †B100.1. Treasure found in slain helpful animal. *Cox Cinderella passim. --Lithuanian: Leskien 448 No. 25; Breton: Luzel III 134; Portuguese: Pedroso 76 No. 18.

B100.2. †B100.2. Magic animal supplies treasure. *Cox 510; BP III 60, I 346 (Gr. Nos. 130, 36). --Maliseet: Thompson CColl II 413.

B101. †B101. Animals with members of precious metal (jewels).

B101.1. †B101.1. Bird with golden head. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

B101.1.1. †B101.1.1. Bird with wings of silver. Irish myth: Cross.

B101.1.2. †B101.1.2. Bird with golden feet. Jewish: Neuman.

B101.2. †B101.2. Treasure-hog. Alternate bristles of gold and silver; at each step a side of pork falls from him. --Fb "galt".

B101.2.1. †B101.2.1. Boar with golden bristles. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 109, 266.

B101.3. †B101.3. Ram with golden fleece. Cox 510 n. 54. --Icel.: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 108.

B101.4. †B101.4. Hind with golden horns. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 190 n. 1.

B101.4.1. †B101.4.1. Stag with golden antlers and silver feet. Irish myth: Cross.

B101.4.2. †B101.4.2. Stag with gold and silver on horns and neck, and a silver bell. Göngu-Hrólfs saga 273.

B101.5. †B101.5. Monster (whale) with golden teeth. Irish myth: Cross.

B101.6. †B101.6. Fish with gold and silver heads. *Fb "fiske".

B101.7. †B101.7. Serpent with jewel in head. (Cf. †B112, †B176). --*BP II 464; Cosquin Les contes indiens 256ff.; Fb "ædelsten". --Penzer IV 245; Indonesian: Dixon 159 n. 20, 328 n. 20; India: *Thompson-Balys; U.S.: Baughman; Cherokee: Alexander N. Am. 68f; Africa (Cameroon): Meinhof 60.

B101.8. †B101.8. Cow with silver horns. Irish myth: Cross.

B101.8.1. †B101.8.1. Big ox with gold and silver in the horns. Icel: *Boberg.

B101.9. †B101.9. Mongoose with golden hair and silver ears. India: Thompson-Balys.

B102. †B102. Animal of precious metal (jewels).

B102.1. †B102.1. Golden bird. Bird with golden feathers. *Type 550. --Cox 510 n. 54; Fb "fugl", "guldfugl", "fjer" --India: Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Keith 149, Tawney II 507; Panchatantra (trans. Ryder) 333; Missouri French: Carrière.

B102.1.1. †B102.1.1. Golden hawk. Icel.: *Boberg.

B102.1.2. †B102.1.2. Golden peacock. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1052.

B102.1.3. †B102.1.3. Golden goose. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 581, 1264.

B102.2. †B102.2. Golden horse. (Cf. †B181.) --Cox 510 n. 54; Fb "guldhest"; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 461ff., (1931) 316ff.; Icel.: *Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Missouri French: Carrière.

B102.3. †B102.3. Golden deer. India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1131.

B102.4. †B102.4. Golden fish. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "poisson"; India: Thompson-Balys; Irish myth: Cross.

B102.4.1. †B102.4.1. Fish of silver. Irish myth: Cross.

B102.5. †B102.5. Golden calf. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B102.5.1. †B102.5.1. Silver calf. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 85.

B102.6. †B102.6. Golden serpent. German: Grimm No. 136.

B102.7. †B102.7. Golden dog. Jewish: Neuman.

B102.8. †B102.8. Golden crab. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 249.

B103. †B103. Treasure-producing animals.

B103.0.1. †B103.0.1. Treasure-producing turkey. N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Cushing Zuñi Folk-Tales 54ff.

B103.0.2. †B103.0.2. Magic bird produces unlimited food. Irish myth: Cross; Indonesian: Dixon 238 n. 51.

B103.0.3. †B103.0.3. Gold-producing ram. Penzer I 20 n.

B103.0.4. †B103.0.4. Gold-producing serpent. Penzer I 20 n.

B103.0.4.1. †B103.0.4.1. Grateful snake gives gold piece daily. India: Thompson-Balys.

B103.0.5. †B103.0.5. Treasure-giving goat. Fb "buk" IV 77a; Boberg.

B103.0.6. †B103.0.6. Gold-producing lion. Penzer I 20 n.

B103.0.7. †B103.0.7. Magic jewel obtained from elephant. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B103.0.8. †B103.0.8. Treasure received from tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.

B103.1. †B103.1. Treasure-dropping animals.

B103.1.1. †B103.1.1. Gold-producing ass. Droppings of gold. --*Type 563; **Aarne JSFO XXVII (1909) 1--96; Cox 510 n. 54; Penzer V 11 n. 1; *BP I 349ff. (Gr. No. 36). --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "âne"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 10; Missouri French: Carrière; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 1; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 196; Japanese: Ikeda.

B103.1.2. †B103.1.2. Cow drops gold dung. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B103.1.2.1. †B103.1.2.1. Pearl-dropping cow. India: Thompson-Balys.

B103.1.3. †B103.1.3. Gold-producing dog. Droppings of gold. --Penzer V 11 n. 1; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 35f.

B103.1.4. †B103.1.4. Gold-making deer. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 35ff.

B103.1.5. †B103.1.5. Gold-making bird. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 35f.

B103.1.6. †B103.1.6. Magic tortoise fed with salt gives pearls. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 222.

B103.2. †B103.2. Treasure-laying animals.

B103.2.1. †B103.2.1. Treasure-laying bird. Bird lays money or golden eggs or an egg at every step. --Köhler-Bolte I 409; Cox 510 n. 54; Fb "höne" I 570b. --Icel.: *Boberg; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "oiseau"; India: *Thompson-Balys, Panchatantra III 14, (Ryder tr.) 359.

B103.3. †B103.3. Animal giving treasure as milk.

B103.3.1. †B103.3.1. Goat giving coins instead of milk. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B103.4. †B103.4. Animal spitting (vomiting) treasure.

B103.4.1. †B103.4.1. Fish with coin in mouth. Dh II 180.

B103.4.1.1. †B103.4.1.1. Silver and gold run from cod's mouth. Type 1654*.

B103.4.2. †B103.4.2. Serpent with jewel in his mouth. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B103.4.2.1. †B103.4.2.1. Grateful snake spits out lump of gold for his rescuer. India: Thompson-Balys.

B103.4.2.2. †B103.4.2.2. Snake vomits jewels. India: Thompson-Balys.

B103.4.3. †B103.4.3. Dog vomits gold and silver. Irish myth: Cross (†B109.1.1).

B103.5. †B103.5. Animal laying treasure in water.

B103.5.1. †B103.5.1. Serpent lays treasure in lake. Swiss: Jegerlehner 305, n. 3.

B103.6. †B103.6. Animal producing treasure by bite.

B103.6.1. †B103.6.1. Serpent's bite produces ornaments and clothes. India: Thompson-Balys.

B103.7. †B103.7. Animal producing treasure at death.

B103.7.1. †B103.7.1. When destructive bird is killed, barn is found full of gold. India: Thompson-Balys.

B105. †B105. Animal bearing precious ornaments.

B105.1. †B105.1. Hind with gold chain on neck. *Fb "hind".

B105.2. †B105.2. Deer with string of pearls around its neck. India: Thompson-Balys.

B106. †B106. Animal lying on treasure. Serpent with gold under him. --Fb "lindorm" II 433b.

B107. †B107. Animal with treasure inside it.

B107.1. †B107.1. Fish with ingot of gold inside it. Irish myth: Cross.

B108. †B108. Animal as patron of wealth.

B108.1. †B108.1. Serpent as patron of wealth. Japanese: Anesaki 331.

B109. †B109. Treasure animals -- miscellaneous.

B109.1. †B109.1. Magic spider catches pearls. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 222.

B109.2. †B109.2. Centipede plays at night with pearl. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 232f.

B110. †B110. Treasure-producing parts of animals.

B112. †B112. Treasure-producing serpent's crown. (Cf. †B108.1, †B115.1, †B176). --Type 672; BP II 463f. --Icel.: *Boberg; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 132 no. 79; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 46 No. 79; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 73 No. 233.

B113. †B113. Treasure-producing parts of bird. **Aarne MSFO XXV 176 (extensive list of parts).

B113.1. †B113.1. Treasure-producing bird-heart. (Cf. †D1015.1.1.) Brings riches when eaten. --**Aarne MSFO XXV 176; *Type 567; Penzer I 19 n 2; India: Thompson-Balys.

B113.2. †B113.2. Treasure-producing bird-head. (Cf. †D1011.0.1.) --*Aarne MSFO XXV 176.

B113.3. †B113.3. Treasure from bird's feathers. German: Grimm Nos. 60, 64.

B114. †B114. Treasure-producing part of sheep.

B114.1. †B114.1. Treasure-producing sheepskin. India: Thompson-Balys.

B115. †B115. Animal with horn of plenty. *Cox Cinderella 473 n. 2. --Greek: Fox 93. --India: *Thompson-Balys. --Africa (Kaffir): Theal 169, (Basuto): Jacottet 240 No. 35.

B115.1. †B115.1. Ear-cornucopia. Animal furnishes treasure or supplies from its ears. --*Cox Cinderella 475 n. 2. --*Fb "tyr" III 908a, "øre" III 1181a. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "oreille", "boeuf", "nourriture".

B115.2. †B115.2. Wing-cornucopia. Turkey supplies treasure from its wings. --Southern Ute: Lowie JAFL XXXVII 85 No. 56.

B115.3. †B115.3. Animal with tail of plenty. India: Thompson-Balys.

B119. †B119. Treasure-producing parts of animals -- miscellaneous.

B119.1. †B119.1. Dog (whose skin) turns water to wine (mead). Irish myth: Cross.

B119.2. †B119.2. Treasure produced by goat's entrails. German: Grimm No. 130.

B119.3. †B119.3. Armadillo with silver plate over its forehead. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 71.

†B120-†B169. Animals with magic wisdom.

B120. †B120. Wise animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

B120.0.1. †B120.0.1. Animals have second sight. Irish myth: Cross.

B121. †B121. Beasts with magic wisdom.

B121.1. †B121.1. Dog with magic wisdom. --Krappe "The dog king" Scandinavian Studies XVII (1942) 148ff., Icel.: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; Irish: Beal. XXI 310.

B121.1.1. †B121.1.1. Infallible hunting-dog. Greek: Fox 72; Irish myth: Cross.

B121.2. †B121.2. Fox as alchemist. Chinese: Werner 381, Krappe CFQ III (1944) 125f.

B121.3. †B121.3. Cat with magic wisdom. Jewish: Neuman.

B121.4. †B121.4. Ass (mule) with magic wisdom. Jewish: Neuman.

B121.5. †B121.5. Ox with magic wisdom. Jewish: Neuman.

B121.6. †B121.6. Lion with magic wisdom. German: Grimm No. 67.

B122. †B122. Bird with magic wisdom. (Cf. †A1904, †B130, †B211.3.) --Persian: Carnoy 291; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B122.0.1. †B122.0.1. Wise magpie. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 57.

B122.0.2. †B122.0.2. Wise golden peacock. India: Thompson-Balys.

B122.0.3. †B122.0.3. Wise owl. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1038.

B122.0.4. †B122.0.4. Prophesying parrot. India: *Thompson-Balys, Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1038.

B122.0.5. †B122.0.5. Wise eagle (in Yggdrasil). Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 332.

B122.1. †B122.1. Bird as adviser. *BP II 534. --Irish myth: Cross; Greek Grote I 105; Icel.: Gering-Symons Edda-Kommentar II 226; Völsunga saga ch. 19--20 (19); English and Germanic: Wimberly Folklore in Ballads 44ff. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Tibet: Schiefner-Ralston Tibetan Tales 129; Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 67; Africa: Frobenius Atlantis III 244, IV 56; Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 107 No. 22, Nights 118 No. 22; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 142.

B122.1.1. †B122.1.1. Birds tell a secret. Chauvin II 107. --Icel.: *Boberg, Ragnars saga ch. 9 (8) p. 134, Völsunga saga ch. 19--20 (19).

B122.1.2. †B122.1.2. Bird reveals druidic secrets. Irish myth: Cross.

B122.2. †B122.2. Birds as reporters of sights and sounds. Sit on Odin's shoulder and report what they see and hear. --Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 65, Krappe Etudes 29ff.

B122.3. †B122.3. Bird can recite sacred writings. Persian: Carnoy 290.

B122.4. †B122.4. Bird announces time for sunrise and sunset. Chinese: Werner 186f.

B122.5. †B122.5. Wise mother eagle distinguishes between stupid and intelligent eaglets. Irish myth: Cross.

B122.6. †B122.6. Bird summarizes history. Irish myth: Cross.

B122.7. †B122.7. Cock helper advises of coming enemy. India: Thompson-Balys.

B122.8. †B122.8. Parrot scout sent to enemy camp to ascertain strength. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 980.

B123. †B123. Wise reptile.

B123.1. †B123.1. Wise serpent. (cf. †B161--165, †B176.) --*Scott Thumb 173. --Hebrew: Genesis 3:1; Jewish: Neuman; Arabian: Burton III 145, V 305, 328, 390; India: Thompson-Balys.

B123.1.1. †B123.1.1. Serpent's wisdom from eating from tree of knowledge. Jewish: Neuman.

B124. †B124. Wise fish. (Cf. †B175.)

B124.1. †B124.1. Salmon as oldest and wisest of animals. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 189; Irish myth: Cross.

B124.1.1. †B124.1.1. Salmon of knowledge. Irish myth: Cross.

B126. †B126. Amphibian with magic knowledge.

B126.1. †B126.1. Frog with magic knowledge. Jewish: Neuman.

B130. †B130. Truth-telling animals.

B131. †B131. Bird of truth. A bird which reveals the truth. (Cf. †B122, †B141, †B172.) --*Type 707; *BP II 380 (Gr. No. 96); *Köhler-Bolte I 118; *Fb "fugl". --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "oiseau"; Jewish: Neuman; Arabian: Burton Arabian Nights SV 245; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda. --Africa (Angola): Chatelain 153 No. 16, (Ibo [Nigeria]): Thomas 48, (Fjort): Dennett 92 No. 23, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 78 No. 12.

B131.0.1. †B131.0.1. Truth-telling owl. India: Thompson-Balys.

B131.1. †B131.1. Bird reveals murder. *Type 781; *BP I 275 n. 1; Hdwb. d. deutschen Märchens s.v. "Ibycus". --English: Child II 144, 146--155; Irish: Beal XXI 336. --Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 312, (Zulu): Callaway 219, 299, (Thonga): Junod 242, (Basuto): *Jacottet 56 n. 1. --Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 266 No. 73. --Japanese: Ikeda. --S. Am. Indian (Carib): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 129, 147, (Chiriguano): ibid. 162, Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484, (Yuracare): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 144.

B131.1.1. †B131.1.1. Crows reveal the killing of mare. Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 359.

B131.2. †B131.2. Bird reveals treachery. (Cf. †B133.2.) --*Type 707; *BP II 380ff. (Gr. No. 96); Köhler-Bolte I 277; India: Thompson-Balys.

B131.3. †B131.3. Bird betrays woman's infidelity. (Cf. †B134.1.) --Campbell Seven Sages xcviii --Greek: Fox 280; English: Child II 260; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 731.

B131.4. †B131.4. Bird reveals dead rider. Calls out in human voice at seeing living woman riding behind dead man. --English: Child V 65.

B131.5. †B131.5. Peacock's feathers ruffled in presence of poison. (Cf. †B143.1.2.) --Penzer I 110 n. 1.

B131.6. †B131.6. Bird betrays hiding-place of the Virgin. English: Child II 8. --Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 198f.

B131.7. †B131.7. Birds reveal innocence of suspect. Jewish: Neuman.

B131.8. †B131.8. Bird warns to hurry. Chinese: Graham.

B132. †B132. Truth-speaking cow. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B133. †B133. Truth-speaking horse. Type 531; BP III (Gr. No. 126).

B133.0.1. †B133.0.1. Truth-telling ass (mule). Jewish: Neuman.

B133.0.1.1. †B133.0.1.1. Ass alone knows where hidden wind can be found. India: Thompson-Balys.

B133.1. †B133.1. Horse warns hero of danger. English: Child No. 43; Icel.: *Boberg; Irish myth: Cross; Lithuanian: Leskien-Brugmann 359ff.; Russian: v. Löwis of Menar Russische Märchen 13, Rambaud La Russie épique 49; Persian: Nöldeke Das iranische Volksepos 58; India: Thompson-Balys; Missouri French: Carrière.

B133.2. †B133.2. Horse reveals treachery. (Cf. †B131.2.) --Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 68 No. 15.

B133.3. †B133.3. Speaking horse-head. The helpful magic horse (†B181) is killed (†B330). The head is preserved and placed on the wall. It speaks and reveals the treachery practiced against the heroine. --*Type 533; **W. Ljungman Två Folkminnesundersökningar (Göteborg 1925) 41ff; *BP II 273 (Gr. No. 89) 274 n. 1. --Hindu: Keith 122.

B133.4. †B133.4. Horse refuses to carry one who speaks falsehood. Irish myth: Cross.

B133.4.1. †B133.4.1. Horses refuse to remain with owner who has been cursed by clerics. Irish myth: Cross.

B134. †B134. Truth-telling dog. India: Thompson-Balys.

B134.1. †B134.1. Dog betrays woman's infidelity. (Cf. †B1313.) India. Thompson-Balys. --Zuñi: Handy JAFL XXXI 464 No. 17.

B134.1.1. †B134.1.1. Truth-telling dog tells of incest. India: Thompson-Balys.

B134.2. †B134.2. Dog betrays murder. *Fb "hund" I 678b. --Africa (Angola): Chatelain 127 No. 12.

B134.3. †B134.3. Dog as animal of warning. *Fb "hund" I 678. --Icel.: Boberg, India: Thompson-Balys.

B134.3.1. †B134.3.1. Dog warns of coming. Chinese: Graham 123, p. 3.

B134.4. †B134.4. Dog chooses between opposing tribes. Irish myth: Cross.

B134.5. †B134.5. Dog returns from dead to clear master of murder. India: Thompson-Balys.

B135. †B135. Truth-telling cat. India: Thompson-Balys.

B136. †B136. Truth-telling deer. Jewish: Neuman.

B140. †B140. Prophetic animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

B141. †B141. Prophetic domestic beasts.

B141.1. †B141.1. Prophetic goat. Africa (Angola): Chatelain 53 No. 2.

B141.2. †B141.2. Prophetic horse. *Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 156ff.; *Malten Jahrb. d. Kaiserl. deutschen archäologischen Inst. XXIX (1914) 179ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Iliad Book XIX line 407.

B141.2.1. †B141.2.1. Horse weeps for master's (saint's) approaching death. Irish myth: Cross.

B141.3. †B141.3. Ass's behavior predicts the weather. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B141.4. †B141.4. Dog with magic sight. Fb. "hund" IV 227a.

B141.4.1. †B141.4.1. Dog (transformed man) prophesies coming of enemy. Irish myth: Cross.

B141.5. †B141.5. Prophetic cow. India: Thompson-Balys.

B142. †B142. Prophetic wild beasts.

B142.1. †B142.1. Prophetic fox. Chinese: Werner 370.

B142.2. †B142.2. Prophetic jackal.

B142.2.1. †B142.2.1. Jackal gives warning. India: Thompson-Balys.

B142.3. †B142.3. Prophetic hart. Alphabet of Tales No. 416.

B142.4. †B142.4. Prophetic lion. German: Grimm No. 67.

B143. †B143. Prophetic bird. (Cf. †B172.) --*Types 516, 517; BP I 322f., 323 n. 1; Rösch FFC LXXVII 116; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s. v. "Angang" I 428; India: *Thompson-Balys. --Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 266 No. 73.

B143.0.1. †B143.0.1. Swan as prophetic bird. Fb "Svane" III 663; Handwb. d. Abergl. VII 1403. --Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 262.

B143.0.2. †B143.0.2. Magpie as prophetic bird. Fb. "Skade" III 219; Handwb. d. Abergl. III 796 "Elster".

B143.0.3. †B143.0.3. Owl as prophetic bird. India: Thompson-Balys.

B143.0.4. †B143.0.4. Raven as prophetic bird. Jewish: Neuman; Icel.: Boberg.

B143.0.5. †B143.0.5. Hen as prophetic bird. Jewish: Neuman.

B143.0.6. †B143.0.6. Dove as prophetic bird. Jewish: Neuman.

B143.0.7. †B143.0.7. Eagle as prophetic bird. Jewish: Neuman.

B143.0.8. †B143.0.8. Crow as prophetic bird.

B143.0.8.1. †B143.0.8.1. Crows announce coming of hero to otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

B143.1. †B143.1. Bird gives warning. (Cf. †B131.5.) --English: Child I 31ff., 37, II 206 n., 496f., III 10, IV 441, V 284; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 266 No. 73. --Africa (Benga): Nassau 142, No. 16.

B143.1.1. †B143.1.1. Warning crow. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B143.1.2. †B143.1.2. Warning peacock. India: Thompson-Balys.

B143.1.3. †B143.1.3. Warning parrot. India: Thompson-Balys.

B143.1.4. †B143.1.4. Falcon saves master from drinking poisoned water. India: Thompson-Balys.

B143.1.5. †B143.1.5. Golden cock warns against attack. Icel.: *Boberg.

B143.1.6. †B143.1.6. Captured goose warns tortoise: released in gratitude. India: Thompson-Balys.

B143.2. †B143.2. Bird describes doomsday. Irish myth: Cross.

B144. †B144. Prophetic fish. (Cf. †B175.)

B144.1. †B144.1. King of fishes prophesies hero's birth. *Type 303; BP I 528 (Gr. Nos. 60, 85). --Africa (Angola): Chatelain 66 No. 3.

B145. †B145. Prophetic reptile.

B145.1. †B145.1. Prophetic tortoise. Chinese: Ferguson 100.

B145.2. †B145.2. Prophetic snake. Greek: Iliad Book II, lines 308--319.

B145.3. †B145.3. Prophetic worm. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 68.

B147. †B147. Animals furnish omens. India: Thompson-Balys.

B147.1. †B147.1. Beasts furnish omens.

B147.1.1. †B147.1.1. Beasts of good omen.

B147.1.2. †B147.1.2. Beasts of ill-omen.

B147.1.2.1. †B147.1.2.1. Fox as beast of ill-omen. Chinese: Werner 370; Icel.: Boberg.

B147.1.2.2. †B147.1.2.2. Cat as beast of ill-omen. Fb "kat". --Irish myth: Cross.

B147.1.2.3. †B147.1.2.3. Mouse as beast of ill-omen. *Fb "mus" II 631a.

B147.1.2.4. †B147.1.2.4. Jackal as beast of ill-omen. India: Thompson-Balys.

B147.2. †B147.2. Birds furnish omens. *Frazer Fasti II 203, III 378ff.; Irish myth: Cross.

B147.2.1. †B147.2.1. Bird of good omen.

B147.2.1.1. †B147.2.1.1. Raven as bird of good omen. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg.

B147.2.1.2. †B147.2.1.2. Eagle as omen of victory. Icel.: *Boberg.

B147.2.2. †B147.2.2. Bird of ill-omen. (Cf. †B172.) --*Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "Angang" I 428; German: Grimm No. 105.

B147.2.2.1. †B147.2.2.1. Crow as bird of ill-omen. *Fb "krage". --Icel.: Boberg; Hindu: Tawney I 284, 465 n.; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B147.2.2.2. †B147.2.2.2. Gull as bird of ill-omen. *Fb "måge".

B147.2.2.3. †B147.2.2.3. Raven as bird of ill-omen. *Krappe Etudes 31ff.; Fb "ravn" III 22a; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg.

B147.2.2.4. †B147.2.2.4. Owl as bird of ill-omen. Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 1073 s.v. "Eule". --Alphabet of Tales Nos. 87, 88. --India: Thompson-Balys; Icel.: Boberg.

B147.2.2.5. †B147.2.2.5. Eagle as bird of ill-omen. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg.

B147.2.2.6. †B147.2.2.6. Vulture as bird of ill-omen. Irish myth: Cross.

B147.2.2.7. †B147.2.2.7. Peacock as bird of ill-omen. India: Thompson-Balys.

B147.3. †B147.3. Other animals furnish omens.

B147.3.0.1. †B147.3.0.1. Divination by fall of house-lizard. India: Thompson-Balys.

B147.3.1. †B147.3.1. Other animals furnish good omens.

B147.3.1.1. †B147.3.1.1. Crickets as good omens. Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 1167.

B147.3.1.2. †B147.3.1.2. Bees (ants) leave honey on lips of infant to show future greatness. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B147.3.2. †B147.3.2. Other animals furnish bad omens.

B147.3.2.1. †B147.3.2.1. Crickets as bad omens. Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 1166.

B150. †B150. Oracular animals. *Hopf (L.) Tierorakel und Orakeltiere in alter und neuer Zeit (Stuttgart, 1888). --Krappe JAFL LV 228ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

B151. †B151. Animal determines road to be taken. Jewish: Neuman.

B151.1. †B151.1. Beast determines road to be taken.

B151.1.1. †B151.1.1. Horses determine road to be taken. They are left to pick out the road themselves and to stop at the destination. --*DeCock Studien en Essays 200ff.; Wesselski Theorie 30. --Chinese: Graham.

B151.1.1.0.1. †B151.1.1.0.1. Horses travel between clerics without guidance. Irish myth: Cross.

B151.1.1.0.2. †B151.1.1.0.2. Horse stops where murder has occurred. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 39 No. 4**.

B151.1.1.0.3. †B151.1.1.0.3. Horse allowed to go as it pleases, finds unknown person. Chinese: Graham.

B151.1.1.1. †B151.1.1.1. Mare with foal left behind finds road home. The foal is left so that the force of nature in the mare will discover the unknown road home. --Hdwb. d. deutschen Märchens s.v. "Ariadnefaden" n. 15.

B151.1.1.2. †B151.1.1.2. Ass determines road to be taken. Jewish: Neuman.

B151.1.1.2.1. †B151.1.1.2.1. Ass carries usurer's body to the gallows instead of to the church. He has been denied burial in the church. --Alphabet of Tales No. 705.

B151.1.1.2.2. †B151.1.1.2.2. Baalam's ass. Advises master that angel is barring the way. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B151.1.2. †B151.1.2. Bull determines road to be taken. Irish myth: Cross.

B151.1.2.1. †B151.1.2.1. Cow determines road to be taken. India: Thompson-Balys.

B151.1.3. †B151.1.3. Fox determines road to be taken. India: Thompson-Balys.

B151.1.4. †B151.1.4. Elephant determines road to be taken. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 603.

B151.1.5. †B151.1.5. Camel determines road to be taken. Jewish: Neuman.

B151.1.6. †B151.1.6. Dog indicates road to be taken. Icel.: Boberg; Wesselski Theorie 30.

B151.2. †B151.2. Bird determines road to be taken.

B151.2.0.1. †B151.2.0.1. Bird shows way by dropping feathers every seven steps. --Hdwb. d. deutschen Märchens s.v. "Ariadnefaden" n. 14.

B151.2.0.2. †B151.2.0.2. Birds show way to otherworld. Irish myth: Cross.

B151.2.0.3. †B151.2.0.3. Bird shows way by singing. South Africa: Bourhill and Drake Fairy Tales from South Africa 237ff. No. 20.

B152. †B152. Animal selects unknown person.

B152.1. †B152.1. Dog indicates pregnant woman, adulteress, etc. (Cf. †B121.1, †B134, †B153.) --English: Child I 270 n.

B152.2. †B152.2. Fly indicates successful suitor. Girl to marry man on whom specially marked fly lights. --India: *Thompson-Balys.

B152.3. †B152.3. Hawk lighting on man points out criminal. Korean: Zong-in-Sob 123 No. 59.

B153. †B153. Dog indicates hidden treasure. *Norlind Skattsägner 47 n. 1. --India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Mitford 180.

B153.1. †B153.1. Dog indicates other hidden objects. Icel.: Boberg.

B154. †B154. Animal as soothsayer.

B154.1. †B154.1. Ox as soothsayer. All judgments referred to it. (Cf. †B182.2.) --Persian: Carnoy 335.

B154.2. †B154.2. Ant as soothsayer. Ila of Rhodesia: Smith and Dale 396.

B154.3. †B154.3. Fish-eagle as soothsayer. Ila of Rhodesia: Smith and Dale 354.

B155. †B155. Location determined by halting of an animal. --Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. †B153.)

B155.1. †B155.1. Building site determined by halting of animal. Where the animal stops the building is erected. --Fb "kvie" II 338a, "kirke" IV 258a; Sébillot France IV 114, 127; Günter Christliche Legende des Abendlandes 81; Dickson Valentine and Orson 54 n. 66; *Pease Classical Philology XII (1917) 8ff.; Norden on Vergil Aeneid VI, lines 136ff.; Stemplinger Neue Jahrb. XLVII (1920) 41. --Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 70 no. 598; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 125, 145, Aarne FFC XXXIII 46 No. 82; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 133 No. 82; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 167ff., (1931) 117ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Eng., Wales: Baughman.

B155.1.0.1. †B155.1.0.1. Building site determined by other action of animal. Irish myth: Cross.

B155.2. †B155.2. City founded on spot where cow lies down. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 315 n. 1, II 38 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys.

B155.2.1. †B155.2.1. Village founded on spot when cock crows, dog barks, and mithian bellows. India: Thompson-Balys.

B155.2.2. †B155.2.2. Location of settlement at place a cow stops and where milk flows by itself. India: Thompson-Balys.

B155.2.3. †B155.2.3. Birds indicate the place where a town (castle) is to be built. Krappe Revue de l'histoire des Religions CXIV (1936) 236--246.

B155.2.4. †B155.2.4. Pursued animal indicates where city is to be built. India: Thompson-Balys.

B155.3. †B155.3. Animal determines burial place of saint. Günter Christliche Legende des Abendlandes 55; Sloet De Dieren in het Germanische Volksgeloof in Volksgebruik 153f.; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

B155.4. †B155.4. Neighing of horse indicates important spot. Korean: Zong in-Sob IV No. 2.

B157. †B157. Animal leads searchers.

B157.1. †B157.1. Whistling of bird leads searcher. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 68.

B159. †B159. Miscellaneous oracular animals.

B159.1. †B159.1. Birds drop quill when man requires pen. Irish myth: Cross.

B159.2. †B159.2. Horse lies down when grain of wheat falls from load. Irish myth: Cross.

B159.3. †B159.3. Cleric goes with saint whom his cow follows. Irish myth: Cross.

B159.4. †B159.4. Vulture's chicks will not eat dead hero's leg, since they know he has been treacherously murdered. India: Thompson-Balys.

B160. †B160. Wisdom-giving animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

B161. †B161. Wisdom from serpent. *Cox 496 n. 32; Fb "hugormekonge" IV 225a; *Scott Thumb 173. --Irish myth: Cross. --Armenian: Ananikian 74; India: Thompson-Balys.

B161.1. †B161.1. Power of soothsaying from serpents' licking ears. (Cf. †B165.1.1., †B176.) Frazer Apollodorus II 48 n. 2.

B161.2. †B161.2. Fortune learned from serpent. Fb "orm" II 759b.

B161.3. †B161.3. Wisdom from eating serpent. (Cf. †B176.) --*Scott Thumb 173; Fb "hugormekonge"; Chauvin V 255ff. No. 152. --Scotch: Campbell II 377. --Cf. Diegueño: Du Bois AA n.s. VII 628.

B161.4. †B161.4. Power of seeing whether the dead go to heaven or hell is gained from serpent. India: Thompson-Balys.

B162. †B162. Wisdom from fish. (Cf. †B175.)

B162.1. †B162.1. Supernatural knowledge from eating magic fish. (Cf. †B175.) --*Nutt FLR IV 1ff. --Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda.

B163. †B163. Wisdom from other animal.

B163.1. †B163.1. Wisdom from fox. Jewish: Neuman.

B163.1.1. †B163.1.1. Wisdom from eating fox's heart. Jewish: Neuman.

B165. †B165. Animal languages learned from animal.

B165.1. †B165.1. Animal languages learned from serpent (not eaten). (Cf. †B176.) --*Type 670; Aarne FFC XV 28ff. --Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 86 n. 2; India: Thompson-Balys.

B165.1.1. †B165.1.1. Animal languages learned by having ears licked by serpent. (Cf. †B161.1.) --*Penzer VII 3 n. 2; *BP I 133.

B165.1.2. †B165.1.2. Animal languages from stolen serpent's crown. (Cf. †B176.) --*Type 672A; cf. BP II 464.

B165.1.3. †B165.1.3. Cobra writes letters on prince's tongue: "Having heard all kinds of creatures talk, you will understand them." --India: Thompson-Balys.

B165.2. †B165.2. Animal languages learned from frog. *Type 670B*; Jewish: Neuman.

†B170-†B189. Other magic animals.

B170. †B170. Magic birds, fish, reptiles, etc.

B171. †B171. Magic chicken (hen, cock). India: Thompson-Balys.

B171.1. †B171.1. Demi-coq. A cock is cut in two and is made magic. Carries robbers, foxes, and stream of water under wings. --*Type 715; *BP I 258. --Missouri French: Carrière.

B171.1.0.1. †B171.1.0.1. Magic cock carries great loads in his ear (load of grain, fox, tiger, bees, wasps, etc., also fire and water). --India: Thompson-Balys.

B171.1.1. †B171.1.1. Demi-coq crows in king's body, when the king eats him. --Type 715. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B171.2. †B171.2. Magic fighting cock. India: Thompson-Balys.

B172. †B172. Magic bird. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 203. (Cf. †B101--†B103 passim, †B113, †B115.2, †B122, †B131, †B141, †B143, †B147.2, †B151.2, †B155.2.3, †B157.1, †B159.1, †B159.4, †B171.)

B172.1. †B172.1. Magic bird petrifies those who approach. Chauvin VI 8 No. 273 n. 1.

B172.2. †B172.2. Magic bird's song. Brings joy and oblivion for many years. Wakes the dead. --*Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 562; Hartland Science 188f., *Krappe Bull. Hispanique XXXIX 29. --Irish myth: Cross, Plummer clxxxvi; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 104.

B172.2.1. †B172.2.1. Magic bird's song brings sleep. Irish myth: Cross.

B172.2. †B172.2. Magic bird's song dispels grief. Irish myth: Cross.

B172.3. †B172.3. Magic bird collects seeds. Sees that they are properly placed. Also carries off people's enemies. --Persian: Carnoy 289.

B172.4. †B172.4. Bird with magic bones and feathers. Persian: Carnoy 290.

B172.5. †B172.5. Magic falcon gets water of life for hero. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B172.6. †B172.6. Magic birds lure hunters to certain places. Irish myth: Cross.

B172.7. †B172.7. Magic birds chained in couples. Irish myth: Cross.

B172.8. †B172.8. Magic osprey (transformed man) produces lightning. Irish myth: Cross.

B172.9. †B172.9. Magic birds cause hosts to sleep by shaking wings. Irish myth: Cross.

B172.10. †B172.10. Black birds.

B172.10.1. †B172.10.1. Innumerable birds (black birds) fly into and out of tower (steeple) of fire. Irish myth: Cross.

B172.11. †B172.11. Bird steals island. India: Thompson-Balys.

B175. †B175. Magic fish. (Cf. †B107.1, †B124, †B144.) Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 82; Irish myth: Cross.

B175.1. †B175.1. Magic salmon carries hero over water. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 189; Irish myth: Cross; Japanese: Ikeda.

B175.2. †B175.2. Magic tunny (grateful); carries out hero's wish. Later he saves him from drowning and restores his sanity. --Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B176. †B176. Magic reptile.

B176.1. †B176.1. Magic serpent. (Cf. †B108, †B112, †B123, †B161--165.) --Type 516; BP I 42f. (Gr. No. 6); *Liljeblad Tobiasgeschichte 184f.; Norlind Skattsägner 41ff.; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B176.1.1. †B176.1.1. Serpent as deceiver in paradise. Hebrew: Genesis 3:1; Jewish: Neuman; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller. --Indo-Chinese: Scott Indo-Chinese 269.

B176.1.2. †B176.1.2. Magic snake can compress himself to minute size and expand to giant size. India: Thompson-Balys.

B177. †B177. Magic amphibia.

B177.1. †B177.1. Magic toad.

B177.1.1. †B177.1.1. Magic toad under king's bed causes sickness. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX. Cf. Christiansen FFC XXIV 83.

B177.2. †B177.2. Magic frog. Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 124 s.v. "Frosch"; Jewish: Neuman.

B177.3. †B177.3. Magic sea-turtle sucks men to the bottom. Irish myth: Cross.

B178. †B178. Magic crustacean.

B178.1. †B178.1. Magic crab. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 222.

B180. †B180. Magic quadrupeds.

B181. †B181. Magic quadrupeds -- felidae.

B181.1. †B181.1. Magic cat. (Cf. †B211.8, †B422.) --BP 146f.; Norlind Skattsägner 47 n. 1; Irish myth: Cross. See also references to †B422.

B181.1.1. †B181.1.1. Cat with remarkable powers of sight. India: Thompson-Balys.

B181.3. †B181.3. Magic tiger. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 160.

B182. †B182. Magic quadrupeds -- canidae.

B182.1. †B182.1. Magic dog. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B182.1.0.1. †B182.1.0.1. Toy (lap) dogs. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.0.1.1. †B182.1.0.1.1. Magic lap-dog. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.0.2. †B182.1.0.2. Magic dog transformed person. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.0.3. †B182.1.0.3. Magic dog transformed supernatural being. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.1. †B182.1.1. Magic dog vomits any liquor required of him. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.2. †B182.1.2. Magic hostile bitches issue from elf-mound. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.3. †B182.1.3. Dog sight of which renders game helpless. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.3.1. †B182.1.3.1. Magic whelp kills hound by springing down its throat. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.4. †B182.1.4. Dog that is hound by night and sheep by day. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.5. †B182.1.5. Dog that is hound by day and flame of fire by night. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.6. †B182.1.6. Magic dog fragrant. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.7. †B182.1.7. Magic bitches (in human form) enchanted by fairy music. Irish myth: Cross.

B182.1.8. †B182.1.8. Magic brazen dog. Jewish: Neuman.

B182.2. †B182.2. Magic bear. Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. *163, *482; Russian: Andrejev No. *160 I, 480*C.

B183. †B183. Magic quadrupeds -- rodentia.

B183.1. †B183.1. Magic mouse. India: Thompson-Balys.

B183.1.1. †B183.1.1. Magic mouse to be flayed. Mouse orders hero to flay him and to use skin for magic purposes. Later the skin is returned to the mouse. --Africa (Zulu): Calaway 97.

B183.1.2. †B183.1.2. Magic mouse causes disease. Irish myth: Cross.

B184. †B184. Magic quadrupeds -- ungulata.

B184.1. †B184.1. Magic horse. --Types 314, 502, 550; BP II 274, *III 111, 113 n. 4; *Fb "føl", "hest" IV 211b; Penzer VI 72 n. 1; Meyer Germanische Mythologie (1891) 105; *Jones PMLA XXIII 569; Norlind Skattsägner 46 n. 4. --Irish myth: Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. *530A, *530B, *531, *533A, *651; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "cheval"; Missouri French: Carrière; Arabian: Burton V 1ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Cape Verde Is.: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 277 No. 91, 281 No. 92. Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 68 No. 15; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 624.

B184.1.1. †B184.1.1. Horse (mule) with magic speed. *Chauvin V 259 No. 154 n. 1; *Fb "hest" I 598v. --Greek: Fox 119; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 294.

B184.1.1.1. †B184.1.1.1. Horse so fast fly cannot light on him. India: Thompson-Balys.

B184.1.1.2. †B184.1.1.2. Horse as swift as a bird. Icel.: Boberg.

B184.1.1.3. †B184.1.1.3. Swiftest horse on earth. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.1.2. †B184.1.2. Magic horse goes underground. Fb "øg" III 1161b.

B184.1.3. †B184.1.3. Magic horse from water world. *Chauvin VII 7; Icel.: Boberg Irish myth: Cross. --Armenian: Chalatiank Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 152; Japanese: Ikeda.

B184.1.4. †B184.1.4. Magic horse travels on sea or land. Fb "hest" I 598b; Malten (J.) Jahrbuch des kl. deutschen arch. Inst. XXIX 189; Type 516; Rösch FFC LXXVII 108; Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Iliad Book 20 line 273.

B184.1.5. †B184.1.5. Breath of magic horse blows off or sucks in those he pursues. Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 190; Irish myth: Cross.

B184.1.6. †B184.1.6. Flight on magic horse. *Type 314; BP III 94ff. (Gr. No. 136). Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Missouri French: Carrière.

B184.1.6.1. †B184.1.6.1. Flight on invisible horse. Cox Cinderella 476 n. 6.

B184.1.7. †B184.1.7. Magic horse avenges hero's death. Irish myth: Cross; Japanese: Ikeda.

B184.1.8. †B184.1.8. Immortal horse. Greek: Grote I 173.

B184.1.9. †B184.1.9. Magic horse mysteriously recognized by everyone. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 1 (and n. 3).

B184.1.10. †B184.1.10. Magic horse makes prodigious jump. India: Thompson-Balys.

B184.1.11. †B184.1.11. Magic invulnerable horse. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.1.12. †B184.1.12. Magic horse goes through fire. Icel.: Boberg.

B184.2. †B184.2. Magic cow (ox, bull). Krappe Balor 1; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B184.2.0.1. †B184.2.0.1. Magic white cow. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.2.0.1.1. †B184.2.0.1.1. Magic white cows with red ears. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.2.1. †B184.2.1. Magic cow.

B184.2.1.1. †B184.2.1.1. Magic cow gives extraordinary milk.

B184.2.1.1.1. †B184.2.1.1.1. Magic cow gives red milk. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 305 No. 2.

B184.2.1.1.2. †B184.2.1.1.2. Magic cow gives impossible quantity of milk. India: Thompson-Balys.

B184.2.1.2. †B184.2.1.2. Magic soldier-producing cow. Hindu: Keith 145f.

B184.2.1.3. †B184.2.1.3. Cow grants all desires. Penzer II 45 n. 2; India: Thompson-Balys (†B109.4).

B184.2.2. †B184.2.2. Magic ox. (Cf. †B154.) --Types 510, 511; cf. Wesselski Märchen before Grimm, introd. --French Canadian: Barbeau JAF XXXIX 16. --Icel.: Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman. --Africa (Kaffir): Theal 169, (Basuto): Jacottet 240 No. 35. --Cf. the giant blue ox of Paul Bunyan (†B871.1.1.).

B184.2.2.1. †B184.2.2.1. Magic ox from unusual sexual union of animals. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.2.2.2. †B184.2.2.2. Magic cow (ox, bull) from water world. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.2.3. †B184.2.3. Magic bull. Arabian: Burton VIII 120 n., 121, XVII 366f.; Jewish: Neuman.

B184.2.3.1. †B184.2.3.1. Magic bull to be flayed. The bull orders the hero (heroine) to flay him and to use his skin for magic purposes. (Cf. †B192, †B335, †B411.1.) --Cox Cinderella 365 (Swedish). --Wyandot: Thompson CColl II 412.

B184.2.3.2. †B184.2.3.2. Magic bull can be milked. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.2.3.3. †B184.2.3.3. Indra sends down buffalo whose milk is offered to the saints. India: Thompson-Balys.

B184.2.4. †B184.2.4. Magic ox. Jewish: Neuman.

B184.2.5. †B184.2.5. Magic calf. Jewish: Neuman.

B184.3. †B184.3. Magic swine.

B184.3.0.1. †B184.3.0.1. Magic swine issue from elf-mound. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.3.0.2. †B184.3.0.2. Magic swine disappear underground. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.3.0.3. †B184.3.0.3. Magic red swine. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.3.0.4. †B184.3.0.4. Magic swine transformed person. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.3.0.5. †B184.3.0.5. Herd of magic swine that cannot be counted twice with the same result. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.3.1. †B184.3.1. Magic boar. Meyer Germanische Mythologie (1891) 102; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg.

B184.3.1.1. †B184.3.1.1. Magic boar drowns houndpack. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.3.2. †B184.3.2. Magic pig.

B184.3.2.1. †B184.3.2.1. Magic invisible pig. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.3.2.2. †B184.3.2.2. Magic pig turns water into wine for nine days. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.3.2.3. †B184.3.2.3. Skin of magic pig heals wounds. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.4. †B184.4. Magic deer. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.5. †B184.5. Magic goat.

B184.5.1. †B184.5.1. Magic fighting goat. India: Thompson-Balys.

B184.6. †B184.6. Magic sheep. Irish myth: Cross.

B184.6.1. †B184.6.1. Wethers leap from well; payment for saint's baptism. Irish myth: Cross.

B190. †B190. Magic animals: miscellaneous motifs.

B191. †B191. Animal as magician. (Cf. †B154.) --India: Thompson-Balys.

B191.1. †B191.1. Weasel as conjurer. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 321 No. 74.

B191.2. †B191.2. Ox-demon as magician. Chinese: Werner 361.

B191.3. †B191.3. Tiger as magician. India: Thompson-Balys.

B191.4. †B191.4. Rat gives magic medicine. India: Thompson-Balys.

B191.5. †B191.5. Hedgehog builds castle. Icel.: Boberg.

B191.6. †B191.6. Bird as magician. India: Thompson-Balys.

B191.7. †B191.7. Serpent as magician. Jewish: Neuman.

B192. †B192. Magic animal killed. Irish myth: Cross; N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 161 No. 27.

B192.0.1. †B192.0.1. Magic birds die when owner is killed. Irish myth: Cross.

B192.1. †B192.1. Magic pig burned to prevent resuscitation. Irish myth: Cross.

B192.2. †B192.2. Rain-withholding deer killed: rain released. India: Thompson-Balys.

B192.3. †B192.3. Treasure-producing bird killed to please a paramour. India: Thompson-Balys.

B193. †B193. Otter carries flaming wood in mouth. Irish myth: Cross.

B195. †B195. Magic animal used by hero in contest grows bigger with every round. India: Thompson-Balys.

†B200-†B299. Animals with human traits.

B200. †B200. Animals with human traits. See in general the literature dealing with fables, with the Romance of Reynard, with the bear-fox cycle of Europe, with the rabbit fox cycle of America, etc. --Irish myth: Cross Fables: Wienert FFC LVI; Hervieux Les Fabulistes latins; Jacobs The Fables of Aesop; Jewish: Neuman; Reynard the Fox: Graf FFC XXXVIII; Bear-fox cycle: Krohn Bär (Wolf) und Fuchs JSFO VI; Dh IV; Rabbit-fox cycle: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) notes; Beckwith MAFLS XVII notes. See also Panchatantra. --Marquesas: Handy 79; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 146, (Chiriguano): ibid. 161, 179.

B210. †B210. Speaking animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

B210.1. †B210.1. Person frightened by animals successively replying to his remarks. Example: Man riding horse and followed by dog tells horse to jump over a hole. Horse says, "I will not." Man turns to dog and says, "Isn't that strange--a horse talking!" The dog says, "Yes, isn't it." Often the man runs, meeting other animals which answer him, until he falls exhausted. --U.S.: *Baughman.

B210.2. †B210.2. Talking animal or object refuses to talk on demand. Discoverer is unable to prove his claims: is beaten. --U.S. Negro: Baughman.

B210.3. †B210.3. Formerly animals and man spoke the same language. God took the power of speech from the animals because men refused to kill speaking beasts. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B211. †B211. Animal uses human speech. *Chauvin VIII 126 No. 113; *BP I 331. --Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "animaux"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 13; Hindu: Tawney II 599; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 40 No. 28. See also references given under †B200.

B211.0.1. †B211.0.1. Animals speak, praising God, on the night of Christ's Nativity. Irish myth: Cross.

B211.1. †B211.1. Speaking beasts -- domestic.

B211.1.1. †B211.1.1. Speaking sheep. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "mouton"; Missouri-French: Carrière.

B211.1.1.1. †B211.1.1.1. Speaking ram. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Grote I 117; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "belier".

B211.1.1.1.1. †B211.1.1.1.1. Ram stung by hornet on Sabbath says, "Damn!" Pious owner resolves to sell it next day. --U.S.: Baughman.

B211.1.2. †B211.1.2. Speaking goat. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chèvre"; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 55 No. 2.

B211.1.3. †B211.1.3. Speaking horse. *Types 531, 532; BP II 274f., III 18; Penzer II 57; Fb "hest" I 598b; *Loomis White Magic 61; Missouri French: Carrière; Greek: Malten Jahrb. d. Kaiserl. deutschen archäologischen Inst. XXIX (1914) 203f. --Russian: v. Löwis of Menar Russische Märchen 313 No. 53, Rambaud La Russie épique 79; Lithuanian: Leskien-Brugmann Nos. 5, 9; Modern Greek: Hahn Griechische und alban. Märchen Nos. 6, 37; Bulgarian: Strauss Bulgarische Volksdichtungen 212, 309; Turkish: Giese Türkische Märchen 37; Hungarian: Ipolyi Zs. f. deutsche Mythologie II 270; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B211.1.3.1. †B211.1.3.1. Speaking ass. Type 534*. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "âne"; Jewish: Neuman.

B211.1.3.2. †B211.1.3.2. Speaking mule. Africa (Kordofan): Frobenius Atlantis IV 53ff. No. 6.

B211.1.4. †B211.1.4. Speaking hog. Irish myth: Cross; Missouri-French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Benga): Nassau 81 No. 1.

B211.1.4.1. †B211.1.4.1. Boar sings song. Irish myth: Cross.

B211.1.5. †B211.1.5. Speaking cow. French-Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule (†B211.19); Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. *543, 481; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B211.1.5.1. †B211.1.5.1. Speaking ox. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 812.

B211.1.5.2. †B211.1.5.2. Speaking buffalo. India: Thompson-Balys.

B211.1.5.3. †B211.1.5.3. Speaking bullock. India: Thompson-Balys.

B211.1.5.4. †B211.1.5.4. Speaking yak. India: Thompson-Balys.

B211.1.5.5. †B211.1.5.5. Speaking calf. Jewish: Neuman.

B211.1.6. †B211.1.6. Speaking camel. Loomis White Magic 61; India: Thompson-Balys.

B211.1.7. †B211.1.7. Speaking dog. Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chien"; Missouri-French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa: Stanley 105.

B211.1.7.1. †B211.1.7.1. Dog sings song. Africa (Zulu): Callaway 363.

B211.1.8. †B211.1.8. Speaking cat. *Type 545; BP I 329, III 487 (Gr. No. 214). --Danish: Fb "kat" II 108b; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chats"; Missouri-French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Mitford 253, Ikeda; German: Grimm No. 4.

B211.2. †B211.2. Speaking beast -- wild.

B211.2.1. †B211.2.1. Speaking stag. Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "cerf"

B211.2.2. †B211.2.2. Speaking lion. *Loomis White Magic 59; German: Grimm No. 60, 67, 88; French-Canadian: Gautier, Sister Marie Ursule (†B211.20); Moreno: Esdras (†B211.15).

B211.2.2.1. †B211.2.2.1. Speaking tiger. French-Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule (†B211.21); India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 41; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 155, 166.

B211.2.2.2. †B211.2.2.2. Speaking jaguar. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 155.

B211.2.3. †B211.2.3. Speaking bear. German: Grimm Nos. 60, 114, 161; French-Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule (†B211.22).

B211.2.4. †B211.2.4. Speaking wolf. Irish myth: Cross (†B211.25); German: Grimm Nos. 8, 26, 37, 60; Jewish: Neuman.

B211.2.5. †B211.2.5. Speaking fox. German: Grimm Nos. 8, 57, 60, 191; Jewish: Neuman.

B211.2.6. †B211.2.6. Speaking hare (rabbit). Irish myth: Cross; German: Grimm Nos. 8, 60, 66.

B211.2.7. †B211.2.7. Speaking sea-beast. Irish myth: Cross (†B211.17).

B211.2.7.1. †B211.2.7.1. Speaking seal. Irish myth: Cross (†B211.17.1).

B211.2.8. †B211.2.8. Speaking mouse. India: Thompson-Balys.

B211.2.9. †B211.2.9. Speaking rat. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B211.2.10. †B211.2.10. Speaking monkey. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 42.

B211.3. †B211.3. Speaking bird. Type 516; *Cox 527--9; Penzer I 48; Dickson Valentine and Orson 51 n. 60; Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 53; *Fb "fugl"; Krappe Hispanic Review I (1933) 67ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "oiseau". --Arabian: Burton III 126n, 129ff., SV 300; Bloomfield On Talking Birds in Hindu Fiction (Festschrift für Ernst Windisch) 349ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Missouri-French: Carrière; Jewish: Neuman; Africa: Bouveignes 109, (Upoto): Einstein 137, (Duala): Lederbogen V 139. --Cf. Type 720 (BP I 412).

B211.3.1. †B211.3.1. Speaking turkey. Zuñi: Cushing Zuñi Folk Tales 54ff.

B211.3.2. †B211.3.2. Speaking cock. Fb "kok" II 248b.; Missouri-French: Carrière; Jewish: Neuman.

B211.3.2.1. †B211.3.2.1. Speaking chicken. Jewish: Neuman.

B211.3.3. †B211.3.3. Speaking goose. India: Thompson-Balys.

B211.3.4. †B211.3.4. Speaking parrot. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B211.3.5. †B211.3.5. Speaking dove. Greek: Grote I 355; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 181; Africa (Ba Ronga): Einstein 25.

B211.3.6. †B211.3.6. Speaking raven. Jewish: Neuman.

B211.3.7. †B211.3.7. Speaking sparrow. India: Thompson-Balys.

B211.3.8. †B211.3.8. Speaking vulture. Jewish: Neuman.

B211.3.9. †B211.3.9. Speaking crow. French-Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule (†B211.10.1); India: Thompson-Balys.

B211.4. †B211.4. Speaking insects.

B211.4.1. †B211.4.1. Speaking ant. French-Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule (†B211.23).

B211.4.2. †B211.4.2. Speaking bee. German: Grimm No. 107.

B211.5. †B211.5. Speaking fish. *Type 303. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "poisson"; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Missouri-French: Carrière; Africa (Duala): Lederbogen VI 92.

B211.6. †B211.6. Speaking reptile.

B211.6.1. †B211.6.1. Speaking snake (serpent). Loomis White Magic 63; Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 55. Cf. Satan in the Garden of Eden. --Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Missouri-French: Carrière (†B211.14).

B211.7. †B211.7. Speaking amphibia.

B211.7.1. †B211.7.1. Speaking frog. Cf. Type 440; BP I 1 (Gr. No. 1); Fb "frø"; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 171; India: Thompson-Balys.

B211.7.2. †B211.7.2. Speaking toad. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "crapaud"; Missouri-French: Carrière (†B211.13).

B212. †B212. Animal understands human speech. Irish myth: Cross.

B212.0.1. †B212.0.1. All kinds of animals understand the language of heaven. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

B212.0.2. †B212.0.2. First animals knew human language. Jewish: Neuman.

B212.1. †B212.1. Fox understands human speech. Nouvelles Récréations No. 29.

B214. †B214. Animal whistles (sings, etc.) Chinese: Graham.

B214.1. †B214.1. Singing animal.

B214.1.1. †B214.1.1. Singing cow. Jewish: Neuman.

B214.1.2. †B214.1.2. Singing boar. Irish myth: Cross (†B211.5.1).

B214.1.3. †B214.1.3. Singing cat. Jewish: Neuman.

B214.1.4. †B214.1.4. Singing dog. Africa (Zulu): Callaway 363.

B214.1.5. †B214.1.5. Singing lion. Jewish: Neuman.

B214.1.6. †B214.1.6. Singing fox. Jewish: Neuman.

B214.1.7. †B214.1.7. Singing frog. Jewish: Neuman.

B214.1.8. †B214.1.8. Singing crab. India: Thompson-Balys.

B214.1.8.1. †B214.1.8.1. Crab sings about his captivity. India: Thompson-Balys.

B214.1.9. †B214.1.9. Singing mouse. Jewish: Neuman.

B214.1.10. †B214.1.10. Singing snake.

B214.1.11. †B214.1.11. Singing hippopotamus. Africa (Nyang): Ittman 49.

B214.1.12. †B214.1.12. Singing elephant. Africa (Nyang): Ittman 49.

B214.2. †B214.2. Whistling animals.

B214.2.1. †B214.2.1. Whistling toad. Chinese: Graham.

B214.3. †B214.3. Laughing animal.

B214.3.1. †B214.3.1. Laughing toad. Chinese: Graham.

B214.4. †B214.4. Weeping animal.

B214.4.1. †B214.4.1. Weeping toad. Chinese: Graham.

B215. †B215. Animal languages. The various animals have languages of their own. (Cf. †B251.1.2.) --*Type 517, 670, 671; *BP I 131, 322, 323 n. 1; **Aarne FFC XV; *Chauvin V 180, 296.

B215.0.1. †B215.0.1. Animals taught one another's language. India: Thompson-Balys.

B215.1. †B215.1. Bird language. *Types 517, 671, 781; *BP I 322; Cox 497 n. 32; *W. Seelman "Die Vogelsprachen (Vogelparlamente) der mittelalterlichen Literatur" Jahrh. d. Vereins f. niederdeutsche Sprachforschung XIV 102f; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 86 n. 2 (Melampus); Icel.: Völsungasaga p. 45, cf. von Sydow Fåvne; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 90a; Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Penzer *II 107, IV 145; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B215.2. †B215.2. Dog language. *Type 671. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chien".

B215.2.1. †B215.2.1. Dog language understood by fox. Nouvelles Récréations No. 29.

B215.3. †B215.3. Fox language. Nouvelles Récréations No. 29.

B215.4. †B215.4. Frog language. *Type 671.

B215.5. †B215.5. Serpent language. Irish myth: Cross.

B215.5.1. †B215.5.1. Lizard's language. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B215.6. †B215.6. Insects' language. India: Thompson-Balys.

B215.6.1. †B215.6.1. Ant language. India: Thompson-Balys.

B216. †B216. Knowledge of animal languages. Person understands them. --*Types 517, 670, 671; *Toldo Studien zur vgl. Littgsch. VIII 18; *BP I 321; Köhler-Bolte I 145, II 340; *Grunwald Hessische Blätter f. Vksk. LXI 316; Icel.: Boberg; Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "language"; Hindu: Penzer I 107 n. 1, VII 3 n. 2; India: *Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman; Korean: Zong in-Sob 101 No. 55; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 68, 153, 412; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 16 No. 8; Buriat: Holmberg Siberian 427. --Africa (Benga): Nassau 227 No. 34.

B217. †B217. Animal language learned. *Types 517, 670, 671, 672, 673, 670B*, 671*, BP I 132; **Aarne FFC XV; *Frazer "The Language of Animals" Archeological Review I (1888) 166 ff.; *Chauvin VIII 49 No. 17; Cox 496 n. 32. --Wesselski Morlini 314 No. 71; Gaster Exempla 248 No. 352; Wesselski Märchen 221 No. 35; Icel.: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

B217.1. †B217.1. Animal languages learned from eating animal. Irish myth: Cross, *MacCulloch Celtic 166.

B217.1.1. †B217.1.1. Animal languages learned from eating serpent. (Cf. †B176.) --*Type 673; *BP I 131 (Gr. No. 17); *Cox 496 n. 32; *Norlind Skattsägner 37ff.; **Scott Thumb; Philostratres Life of Apollonius (Loeb ed.) 57; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 17 No. 8; Icel.: Boberg.

B217.1.2. †B217.1.2. Animal languages learned from eating dragon's heart. Smith Evolution of the Dragon 82; *BP I 131; *von Sydow Fåvne 35ff.; **Scott Thumb.

B217.2. †B217.2. Animal languages learned from eating plant. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "herbe"; *Cox 496 n. 32.

B217.3. †B217.3. Animal languages learned from ghosts (spirits). Gaster Exempla 248 No. 352. --Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 99.

B217.4. †B217.4. Animal languages learned from carrying churchyard mould in hat. Fb. "kirkegårdsmuld".

B217.5. †B217.5. Bird language learned by having ears magically cleansed. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 363 n. 2 (Athena and Tiresius).

B217.6. †B217.6. Animal languages learned by exchanging tongues with helpful dragon. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B217.7. †B217.7. Stone deity (image of) confers upon man powers of understanding animal language. India: Thompson-Balys.

B217.8. †B217.8. Language of animals learned by Adam from Eve. Jewish: Neuman.

B220. †B220. Animal kingdom (or community). Wienert FFC LVI 47 (classic fables). --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "ville". --India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 348 n. 253a.

B221. †B221. Animal kingdom -- quadrupeds.

B221.1. †B221.1. Kingdom of monkeys. Chauvin VII 40 No. 153; India: Thompson-Balys.

B221.2. †B221.2. Kingdom of rats. India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

B221.2.1. †B221.2.1. Procurator of rats. Serpent has the office. --Fb "lindorm" II 433a.

B221.3. †B221.3. Land of lions. Icel.: Boberg.

B221.4. †B221.4. Land of elephants. Icel.: Boberg.

B221.5. †B221.5. Land of mice. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B221.6. †B221.6. Land of tigers.

B221.6.1. †B221.6.1. Village of wer-tigers. India: Thompson-Balys.

B222. †B222. Kingdom (land) of birds. Arabian: Burton Nights VIII 91; Japanese: Anesaki 324, Ikeda.

B222.1. †B222.1. Land of pigeons. India: Thompson-Balys

B222.2. †B222.2. Land of peacocks. India: Thompson-Balys.

B222.3. †B222.3. Land of parakeets. India: Thompson-Balys.

B222.4. †B222.4. Land of parrots. India: Thompson-Balys.

B223. †B223. Kingdom of fishes. India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Hartland Science 174, Ikeda. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 342 n. 236.

B223.1. †B223.1. Kingdom of sharks. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 140.

B224. †B224. Kingdom of insects.

B224.1. †B224.1. Kingdom of ants. Chauvin VII 40 No. 153 n. 3; Jewish: Neuman.

B225. †B225. Kingdom of reptiles.

B225.1. †B225.1. Kingdom of serpents. Icel.: Boberg; Chauvin V 256f. No. 152; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 388.

B225.1.1. †B225.1.1. Snake kingdom under the sea. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B226. †B226. Kingdom of amphibia.

B226.1. †B226.1. Community of toads. German: Grimm Nos. 63, 127.

B226.2. †B226.2. Community of frogs. Jewish: Neuman.

B230. †B230. Parliament of animals. E. Voigt "Odo de Ciringtonis und seine Quellen" Zs. f. d. Alterthum XXIII (N.F. XI) 283; Africa: Stanley 222, (Fang): Trilles 176, Tessman 54, (Wute): Sieber 205, (Duala): Ebding 142, (Wakweli): Bender 62; India: Thompson-Balys.

B232. †B232. Parliament of birds. (Cf. †B236.1, †B238.) --Type 220; *BP III 278ff. --*Robinson Complete Works of Chaucer 900ff.; T. Wright The Owl and the Nightingale (Percy Society, 1834); Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "oiseaux"; Hindu: *Penzer V 100 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys;--Seneca (Indians): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 695 No. 133.

B232.1. †B232.1. St. Valentine's Day for bird assembly. Sartori Sitte u. Brauch III 88; M. Höfler Das Jahr im oberbayerischen Volksleben (München 1899) 11; G. L. Gomme (ed) Mother Bunch's Closet Newly Broke Open (Leipzig 1839) II (1) 357f.; E. Schröder Korrespondenzblatt des Vereins f. niederdeutsche Sprachforschung XXXVI (1917--1918) 77; *Seelman (cf. †B215 above); Sächs "Das Regiment der anderthalbhundert Vögel" (Stuttgart Verein CV) 278ff.

B233. †B233. Parliament of fishes. (Cf. †B236.2.) --*BP III 284 (Gr. No. 172); *Dh IV 192 ff.

B233.1. †B233.1. Council of fishes decide to get rid of men (who eat fish). India: Thompson-Balys.

B234. †B234. School of animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

B235. †B235. Secrets discussed in animal meeting. *Type 613; *BP II 481 (Gr. Nos. 6, 55, 88, 125, 119a); **Christiansen FFC XXIV; Fb "bjørn" IV 43a; Bloomfield Am. Journ. of Philology XLI 309ff.; Bloomfield in Penzer VII viii;--Missouri-French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys.

B236. †B236. Animal parliament elects king. *Type 221; *Dh IV 192ff.; *BP III 278, 284 (Gr. Nos. 171, 172); Wienert FFC LVI 47 (ET 59--63); Penzer †V100 n. 1. --Africa (Ibo, Nigeria): Basden 280, (Angola): Chatelain 211 Nos. 32, 33.

B236.0.1. †B236.0.1. Animal king chosen as result of a contest. Type 221; *BP III 278; Dh IV 169ff. --India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 155 No. 30.

B236.1. †B236.1. Election of king of birds. (Cf. †B232.) --*Type 221; *BP III 278 (Gr. No. 171); Penzer V 100ff.; India: Thompson-Balys; Panchatantra (tr. Ryder) 304; Bødker Exempler 293 No. 53; Japanese: Ikeda.

B236.2. †B236.2. Election of king of fishes. (Cf. †B233, †B243.) --*BP III 284 (Gr. No. 172); *Dh IV 192ff.

B237. †B237. Drinking-bout assembly of animals. Dh II 298ff.; Riegler Wörter und Sachen VI (1914--15) 194f.

B238. †B238. Animal council assigns place and work to all.

B238.1. †B238.1. Bird council assigns place and work to all. Eagle as judge. (Cf. †B232). --Type 220. Cf. Chaucer "Parlement of Foules".

B238.2. †B238.2. Bird council assigns coats to different birds. India: Thompson-Balys.

B239. †B239. Parliament of animals -- miscellaneous.

B239.1. †B239.1. Election of fox as mediator to appease angry lion. Jewish: Neuman.

B240. †B240. King of animals. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "roi", "bêtes", Fb "konge" II 265a; Jataka Index s.v. "king"; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.

B240.1. †B240.1. Bear as king of animals. *Fb "bjørn" IV 42b.

B240.2. †B240.2. Rabbit as king of animals. Chuh (Indians of Guatemala): Kunst JAFL XXVIII 353 No. 1; India: Thompson-Balys.

B240.3. †B240.3. Wild man as king of animals. Chinese: Werner 392.

B240.4. †B240.4. Lion as king of animals. (Cf. †K961, †K962, †K1632.) --Wienert FFC LVI 47; Benfey Panchatantra I 91, 230; Bødker Exempler 277 No. 17, 303 No. 74; Jewish: Neuman; Graf FFC XXXVII passim; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

B240.4.1. †B240.4.1. Minister of lion-king a crane. India: Thompson-Balys.

B240.5. †B240.5. Tortoise as king of animals. Africa (Mbundu): Bell JAFL XXXV 135ff. No. 15.

B240.6. †B240.6. Gazelle as king of animals. Africa (Luba): De Clerq Zs. f. Kolonialspr. IV 195f. No. 8.

B240.7. †B240.7. Buffalo as king of animals. Africa (Luba): De Clerq Zs. f. Kolonialspr. IV 198ff. No. 10.

B240.8. †B240.8. Fox as king of animals. Wienert FFC LVI 47.

B240.9. †B240.9. Dog as king of animals. Wienert FFC LVI 47.

B240.10. †B240.10. Wolf as king of animals. Wienert FFC LVI 47.

B240.11. †B240.11. Camel as king of animals. Wienert FFC LVI 47.

B240.12. †B240.12. Monkey as king of animals. Wienert FFC LVI 47.

B240.13. †B240.13. Tiger as king of animals. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; India: Thompson-Balys.

B240.14. †B240.14. Elephant as king of animals. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Fang): Trilles 175, (Cameroon): Mansfield passim.

B240.15. †B240.15. Crocodile as king of animals. Africa (Fang): Trilles 158.

B241. †B241. King of beasts (quadrupeds).

B241.1. †B241.1. Various beasts as king of beasts.

B241.2. †B241.2. King of the various kinds of beasts.

B241.2.1. †B241.2.1. King of lions. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "roi"; Malone PMLA XLIII 409.

B241.2.2. †B241.2.2. King of monkeys. Cowell Jataka III 225 No. 407; Penzer V 127ff.; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 287; Chinese: Eberhard 40 No. 27, 411 s.v. "Affenkönig".

B241.2.3. †B241.2.3. King of cats. Fb "kattekonge". --English: Jacobs More Eng. 237; Irish myth: Cross.

B241.2.4. †B241.2.4. King of rats. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "rats"; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 28 No. 12.

B241.2.5. †B241.2.5. King of mice. English: Jacobs English 82 No. 17; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B241.2.6. †B241.2.6. King of hares. Penzer V 101f.; Bødker Exempler 294 No. 54.

B241.2.7. †B241.2.7. King of dogs. Fb "hund" IV 227b.

B241.2.8. †B241.2.8. King of tigers. Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair West African Folk-Tales 105ff. No. 19.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B241.2.8.1. †B241.2.8.1. Newly-born divine twins cared for by mother-of-tigers. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 161.

B241.2.9. †B241.2.9. King of jackals. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B241.2.10. †B241.2.10. King of deer. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 69.

B241.2.11. †B241.2.11. King of elephants. Panchatantra (tr. Ryder) 275, 308; Wienert FFC LVI 47; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 415, 483, 921.

B241.2.12. †B241.2.12. King of the boars. Irish myth: Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 986, II 819f.

B241.2.13. †B241.2.13. King of antelopes. India: Thompson-Balys.

B241.2.14. †B241.2.14. King of mongooses. Africa (Ganda): Rowling Tales of Sir Apolo 44ff.

B241.3. †B241.3. Man transformed to beast becomes leader of herd. Irish myth: Cross.

B242. †B242. King of birds. *Type 221; *BP III 278 (Gr. No. 171). --Irish myth: Cross; Bødker Exempler 293, No. 52.; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "oiseaux"; Missouri-French: Carrière; English: Jacobs English 82 No. 17; Hindu: Tawney I 183, II 65 n.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 40, 437.

B242.1. †B242.1. Various birds as king of birds.

B242.1.1. †B242.1.1. Eagle king of birds. BP III 279; Icel.: Boberg.

B242.1.2. †B242.1.2. Wren king of birds. Wins contest for kingship. (Cf. †B236.1.) --*Type 221; *BP III 278 (Gr. No. 171); Irish myth: Cross; Japanese: Ikeda.

B242.1.2.1. †B242.1.2.1. Wren as "druid of the birds" (drui én). Irish myth: Cross.

B242.1.3. †B242.1.3. Hornbill king of birds. India: Thompson-Balys.

B242.1.4. †B242.1.4. Pelican as king of birds. Africa (Duala): Gehr Zs. f. Kolonialspr. VII 25ff.

B242.1.5. †B242.1.5. Shrike as king of birds. Madagascar (Merina): Renel Contes de Madagascar II 160ff. No. 100.

B242.1.6. †B242.1.6. Jackdaw king of birds. Wienert FFC LVI 47.

B242.1.7. †B242.1.7. Peacock king of birds. Wienert FFC LVI 47.

B242.1.8. †B242.1.8. Owl as king of birds. India: Thompson-Balys.

B242.1.9. †B242.1.9. Swan as king of birds. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 8.

B242.1.10. †B242.1.10. Ziz as king of birds. Jewish: Neuman.

B242.2. †B242.2. King of the various kinds of birds.

B242.2.1. †B242.2.1. King of crows. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "corbeaux"; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B242.2.2. †B242.2.2. King of doves. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B242.2.3. †B242.2.3. King of kites. India: Thompson-Balys.

B242.2.4. †B242.2.4. King of pigeons. India: Thompson-Balys.

B242.2.5. †B242.2.5. King of peacocks. India: Thompson-Balys.

B242.2.6. †B242.2.6. King of quails. India: Thompson-Balys.

B242.2.7. †B242.2.7. King of sparrows. India: Thompson-Balys.

B242.2.8. †B242.2.8. King of parrots. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 572.

B242.2.9. †B242.2.9. King of geese. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 948, II 581.

B242.2.10. †B242.2.10. King of swans. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 98, 210, 242, 447.

B242.2.11. †B242.2.11. King of vultures. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 269.

B242.2.12. †B242.2.12. King of larks. Crane Vitry I No. 4.

B243. †B243. King of fishes. (Cf. †B236.2.) *Type 303; *BP I 528, III 284 (Gr. No. 172); *Dh IV 192ff.; Hartland Science 174. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "poisson"; Missouri French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys. --Africa (Angola): Chatelain 65 No. 3; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 6, 52.

B243.1. †B243.1. Various fishes as king of fishes.

B243.1.1. †B243.1.1. Herring as king of fishes. *BP III 284, 285 n. I (Gr. No. 172).

B243.1.2. †B243.1.2. Eel as king of fishes. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 6.

B243.1.3. †B243.1.3. Shark as king of fishes. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth.

B243.2. †B243.2. King of various kinds of fishes.

B243.2.1. †B243.2.1. King of salmon. Japanese: Hartland Science 174.

B243.2.2. †B243.2.2. King of eels. Fb "ål" III 1190b.

B244. †B244. King of reptiles.

B244.1. †B244.1. King of serpents (snakes). *Type 672; BP II 463f.; *Fb "snogekonge" III 437b, "lindorm" II 433 b, "hugormekonge" I 667. --Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 213ff., (1928) 139ff. --Hindu: Keith 154; Penzer VI 29; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 27, 64, 230, 1149, II 529, 556; Chinese: Eberhard 17 No. 8; Zanzibar: Bateman 202 No. 10.

B244.1.1. †B244.1.1. Queen of watersnakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

B244.1.2. †B244.1.2. Serpent king resides in lake. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 981.

B244.1.3. †B244.1.3. Gigantic hood of serpent king. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 796.

B244.1.4. †B244.1.4. Four royal families of snakes. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 231.

B244.2. †B244.2. Naga-king. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 694.

B244.3. †B244.3. King of lizards. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 657.

B245. †B245. King of amphibians.

B245.1. †B245.1. King of frogs. Type 440, Grimm No. 1; BP I 1ff.; Panchatantra (tr. Ryder) 369; Bødker Exempler 297 No. 61; Cosquin Études 530; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "roi", "grenouille". --English: Jacobs English 237; Hindu: Keith 147; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard 76 No. 43.

B245.2. †B245.2. Turtle king. India: Thompson-Balys.

B246. †B246. King of insects.

B246.1. †B246.1. King of ants. Fb "myre".

B246.2. †B246.2. King (sultan) of flies. Africa (Swahili): Baker FL XXXVIII 183ff., No. 1.

B246.3. †B246.3. King of bees. Chinese: Eberhard 102 No. 59.

B248. †B248. King of dragons. Chinese: Graham.

B250. †B250. Religious animals. Günter Christliche Legende des Abendlandes 80ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Panchatantra (tr. Ryder) 334; Jewish: Neuman.

B251. †B251. Animals praise or worship.

B251.1. †B251.1. Animals rejoice at Christ's birth. Irish myth: Cross; English: Child V 485 s.v. "joy".

B251.1.1. †B251.1.1. Animals worship infant Jesus. *Dh II 12ff. --Alphabet No. 554. --Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B251.1.2. †B251.1.2. Animals speak to one another at Christmas. DeCock Volkskunde XXI 52ff.; Luzel Légendes Chretiennes de la Basse Bretagne II 333; Tille Die Geschichte der deutschen Weinacht 66f.; Wossidlo Mecklenbürgische Volksüberlieferung II (1) 59, 369; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *748; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 47 No. 237; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 637.

B251.1.2.1. †B251.1.2.1. Cock crows, "Christus natus est." English: Child I 240ff., 505f., II 501, IV 451f.

B251.1.2.2. †B251.1.2.2. Cows speak to one another on Christmas. (Cf. †B215.) --Fb "ko" II 240b.

B251.1.2.3. †B251.1.2.3. Cows kneel in stable at midnight of Eve of Old Christmas. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

B251.2. †B251.2. Animals honor saint (cleric). Irish myth: Cross (†B251.13).

B251.2.1. †B251.2.1. Animals sing in honor of a saint. Köhler-Bolte I 148; Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.2. †B251.2.2. Fish perform races as welcome to saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.3. †B251.2.3. Wolves lick saint's shoes. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.4. †B251.2.4. Fly habitually buzzes when cleric returns from matins. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.5. †B251.2.5. Birds beat waters with wings as welcome to saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.6. †B251.2.6. Deer lick saint's tomb daily at noon. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.6.1. †B251.2.6.1. Water-monsters lick saint's feet. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.6.2. †B251.2.6.2. Cow licks saint's feet. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.7. †B251.2.7. Wild animals as saint's disciples. *Loomis White Magic 63.

B251.2.7.1. †B251.2.7.1. Fish come in great numbers to the bank of a stream in order to hear Anthony of Padua preach. *Loomis White Magic 70.

B251.2.8. †B251.2.8. Sea-monster honors saint above all others. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.9. †B251.2.9. Birds lament saint's departure. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.10. †B251.2.10. Cow gives twelve measures of milk for the twelve apostles of Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.10.1. †B251.2.10.1. Brilliantly white cow comes to be milked for infant saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.2.11. †B251.2.11. Lion lies down at feet of saint. Saintyves Saints Successeurs 133.

B251.2.12. †B251.2.12. Birds take part at saint's funeral. Jewish: Neuman.

B251.3. †B251.3. Animals sing songs of praise. Jewish: Neuman (cow, cat, lion, mouse, cock, vulture, fish, frog); Irish myth: Cross.

B251.3.1. †B251.3.1. Birds in otherworld sing religious songs. Patch PMLA XXXIII 626 n. 89; Irish myth: Cross.

B251.4. †B251.4. Animals pray. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

B251.4.1. †B251.4.1. Beast invokes saint's protection. Irish myth: Cross.

B251.4.1.1. †B251.4.1.1. Wild beast seeks protection of saint against hunters. *Loomis White Magic 61f.

B251.5. †B251.5. Animals fast. Irish myth: Cross (†B251.4).

B251.6. †B251.6. Animals keep religious precepts. India: Thompson-Balys.

B251.7. †B251.7. Animal makes religious oath.

B251.7.1. †B251.7.1. Wolf swears by God. Jewish: Neuman.

B251.8. †B251.8. Animals observe sacred revelation.

B251.8.1. †B251.8.1. Singing of birds ceases at time of revelation. Jewish: Neuman.

B251.9. †B251.9. Animals make religious responses. Jewish: Neuman.

B251.10. †B251.10. Animals lick Christ-child. Irish myth: Cross.

B252. †B252. Animal churchmen.

B252.1. †B252.1. Animal monks. Irish: Plummer Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae cxli.; Irish myth: Cross.

B252.2. †B252.2. Birds (in otherworld) call at canonical hours. Irish myth: Cross.

B252.3. †B252.3. Priest of snakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

B253. †B253. Animals perform offices of church.

B253.1. †B253.1. Snakes have mass. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 310 No. 34.

B253.2. †B253.2. Wolves have annual (church) feast. Irish myth: Cross.

B253.3. †B253.3. Fox fasts as penance. (Cf. †B251.4.) --Irish myth: Cross.

B253.4. †B253.4. Spider performs penance. India: Thompson-Balys.

B253.5. †B253.5. The deer with a cross carried between their horns. *Loomis White Magic 61.

B253.6. †B253.6. Deer with candles on the tops of their antlers. *Loomis White Magic 61.

B255. †B255. Miracle wrought for animal. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

B256. †B256. Animal as servant of saint. (Cf. †B292.) --*Loomis White Magic 63; Irish myth: Cross; Irish: Plummer cxliiff.

B256.0.1. †B256.0.1. Animal deluded by saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B256.1. †B256.1. Birds nest in saint's hand (cowl). --Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxlvi.; Irish myth: Cross.

B256.1.1. †B256.1.1. Birds perch on hands and head of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B256.2. †B256.2. St. Anthony's pigs. Pigs dedicated to saint held sacred. --Italian. Novella: Rotunda.

B256.3. †B256.3. Deer makes its horns available as a bookholder to a saint. *Loomis White Magic 61.

B256.3.1. †B256.3.1. Deer furnish bier and bear saint's corpse to church. Irish myth: Cross.

B256.4. †B256.4. Domesticated wolves. *Loomis White Magic 60.

B256.4.1. †B256.4.1. Wolves guard saint's cattle like watchdogs when he is absent. *Loomis White Magic 59.

B256.5. †B256.5. Obedience of the feathered creatures to the commands of saint. *Loomis White Magic 67f.

B256.5.1. †B256.5.1. Birds protect saint and serve him. *Loomis White Magic 68.

B256.6. †B256.6. Boar serves saint. (Cf. †B183.) --Irish myth: Cross.

B256.6.1. †B256.6.1. Boar guards holy man's swine. Irish myth: Cross.

B256.6.2. †B256.6.2. Boar makes music for holy man. Irish myth: Cross.

B256.6.3. †B256.6.3. Boar acts as physician for holy man: licks his wounded feet. Irish myth: Cross.

B256.7. †B256.7. Tiger sweeps temple for saint. India: Thompson-Balys.

B256.8. †B256.8. Saint's prayer causes wolf to bring back child. Saintyves: Saints Successeurs 129.

B256.9. †B256.9. Stags plow for saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B256.10. †B256.10. Fly, wren, fox live with cleric. Irish myth: Cross.

B256.11. †B256.11. Wolf returns sheep stolen from saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B256.12. †B256.12. Whale raises back so that voyaging clerics can land to celebrate. Easter Irish myth: Cross.

B257. †B257. Animal funeral. *Type 2021; *BP II 146 (Gr. No. 80).

B259. †B259. Miscellaneous religious animals.

B259.1. †B259.1. Ass insists upon payment of tithes. When stolen by thieves, the ass refuses to eat for three days because the thieves' provender has not been tithed. --Hebrew: Gaster Exempla 228 No. 235; Jewish: Neuman.

B259.2. †B259.2. Sabbath-keeping cow. Refuses to work on Sabbath. --Jewish: Bin Gorion Born Judas@2 II 92, *342; Jewish: Neuman.

B259.3. †B259.3. Hog will not accept food from excommunicated men. Alphabet No. 312.

B259.4. †B259.4. Bees build church of wax to contain consecrated host. (Cf. †A2012.1.) --*Kittredge Witchcraft 150, 469 n. 112; Alphabet No. 695. --*Loomis White Magic 65. --Irish myth: Cross.

B259.4.1. †B259.4.1. Animals refrain from spoiling consecrated food. Irish myth: Cross.

B259.5. †B259.5. Bird's wings drip blood when birds hear of Day of Judgment. Irish myth: Cross.

B260. †B260. Animal warfare. Wienert FFC LVI 48 (ET 64--68).

B260.1. †B260.1. Two groups of animals make peace treaty. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 213 No. 1 (18); Shuswap: Teit JE II 658f.

B261. †B261. War of birds and quadrupeds. *Type 222; BP II 435 (Gr. No. 102); *Dh III 3ff., 226, IV 197ff. --Crane Vitry No. 153; Scala Celi No. 417. Japanese: Ikeda. --Africa: Frobenius Atlantis VIII 253, IX 115, XI 128.

B261.1. †B261.1. Bat in war of birds and quadrupeds. Because of ambiguous form joins first one side and then the other. Discredited. --Wienert FFC LVI *48 (ET 66, 67), *52 (ET 166), 134 (ST 398, 399); Halm Aesop Nos. 307, 391; Dh IV 197ff.; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Africa (Benga): Nassau 163 No. 21, (Ibo, Nigeria): Basden 281, Thomas 161 (hornbill), (Mpongwe): Nassau 53 No. 8 (crocodile), (Yoruba): Ellis 252 No. 3.

B261.1.1. †B261.1.1. Tame elephant not accepted by wild brethren. India: Thompson-Balys.

B262. †B262. War between domestic and wild animals. *Type 104; *BP I 425. --Japanese: Ikeda.

B263. †B263. War between other groups of animals.

B263.1. †B263.1. War between toads and frogs. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "crapauds".

B263.2. †B263.2. War between elephants and ants. Indonesian: De Vries's list No. 132.

B263.3. †B263.3. War between crows and owls. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Hindu: Penzer V 98--113. --Panchatantra III intr. (tr. Ryder) 291ff; Bødker Exempler 293 No. 52.

B263.4. †B263.4. War between birds and reptiles. India: Thompson-Balys.

B263.5. †B263.5. War between groups of birds. Irish myth: Cross.

B263.5.1. †B263.5.1. War between birds and eagle. Jewish: Neuman.

B263.6. †B263.6. War of monkeys and grasshoppers. Chinese: Graham.

B263.7. †B263.7. War between serpents and storks. Jewish: Neuman.

B263.8. †B263.8. War between lion and other animals. Jewish: Neuman.

B264. †B264. Single combat between animals. Wienert FFC LVI 48. --Indonesia: De Vries's list No. 116. --Icel.: *Boberg; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

B264.1. †B264.1. Fight between animal and houndpack. Irish myth: Cross.

B264.2. †B264.2. Fight between eagle and fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

B264.3. †B264.3. Duel of buffalo and tiger. Buffalo arms self. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B264.4. †B264.4. Fight between snake and millipede. Chinese: Eberhard 32 No. 18.

B264.5. †B264.5. Fight between ape and tortoise. Africa (Togo): Einstein 15f.

B265. †B265. Animals continually rend each other. Irish myth: Cross.

B266. †B266. Animals fight. Irish myth: Cross.

B266.1. †B266.1. Thirsty cattle fight over well. Irish myth: Cross.

B267. †B267. Animal allies. (Cf. †A2493.)

B267.1. †B267.1. Alliance of dog and wolf. Jewish: Neuman.

B267.2. †B267.2. Alliance of sheep and dog. Jewish: Neuman.

B267.3. †B267.3. Alliance of raven and crow. Jewish: Neuman.

B267.4. †B267.4. Alliance of cock and seafowl. Jewish: Neuman.

B268. †B268. Animal soldiers. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B268.1. †B268.1. Army of apes. Hindu: Keith 128; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 328 (monkeys).

B268.2. †B268.2. Cavalry of dogs. Chauvin VII 40 No. 153.

B268.2.1. †B268.2.1. War-dogs. Icel.: *Boberg.

B268.3. †B268.3. War-elephants. Icel.: *Boberg.

B268.4. †B268.4. Sorcerer's army of magic animals. Icel.: Þiðriks saga II 271, *Boberg.

B268.5. †B268.5. Army of birds. India: Thompson-Balys.

B268.5.1. †B268.5.1. Army of quails. Jewish: Neuman.

B268.6. †B268.6. Army of mice. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B268.7. †B268.7. Army of snakes. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Upoto): Einstein 121.

B268.7.1. †B268.7.1. Army of snakes and scorpions. Jewish: Neuman.

B268.8. †B268.8. Insect army. India: Thompson-Balys.

B268.8.1. †B268.8.1. Army of hornets. Jewish: Neuman.

B268.8.2. †B268.8.2. Army of locusts. Jewish: Neuman.

B268.8.3. †B268.8.3. Army of wasps. Jewish: Neuman.

B268.9. †B268.9. Army of tigers. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B268.10. †B268.10. Army of cows. India: Thompson-Balys.

B268.11. †B268.11. Army of cats. India: Thompson-Balys.

B268.12. †B268.12. Army of boars. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 819.

B268.13. †B268.13. Army of hyenas. Africa: Stanley 261.

B270. †B270. Animals in legal relations. **Cabanès Les animaux en justice (L'indiscretions de l'histoire, 5e serie, procedures singulières, Paris, 1920), **Lossouarn Les animaux en justice aux temps jadis (Bordeaux 1905). --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Bødker Exempler 289 No. 40, 294 No. 55.; Jewish: Neuman.

B270.1. †B270.1. Lawsuit between the owl and kite. India: Thompson-Balys.

B270.2. †B270.2. Lawsuit between owl and mouse. Africa. (Wakweli): Bender 38.

B271. †B271. Animals as plaintiffs.

B271.1. †B271.1. Parrot and sparrow argue right to inherit property left by man. Sparrow says his interests are the same as man's; parrot says that he caused all man's wealth, since man sold his feathers. People's decision for parrot. --Africa (Fang): Nassau 237 No. 5.

B271.2. †B271.2. Grain as damages for injury to cat. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 294 No. 10.

B271.3. †B271.3. Animals ring bell and demand justice. A king has a bell which petitioners for justice may ring and thus summon him. The bell is rung by a serpent which is being menaced by a turtle (or by an old horse who wishes to complain against a cruel master). --*Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 648; *Wesselski Theorie 20; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B272. †B272. Animals as defendants in court. **Jacoby Zs. f. Vksk. XXIII (1913) 184.

B272.1. †B272.1. Lawsuit against animals. *Saintyves RTP XXVII 155.

B272.2. †B272.2. Animal tried for crime. *Evans (E.P.) The criminal Prosecution and Capital punishment of Animals (New York 1926), von Amira (K). Tierstrafen und Tierprozesse (Innsbruck, 1891); *Mittheilungen d. Instituts f. öster. Geschichtsforsch. XII (1891) 545; *H. Am. Berkenhoff Tierstrafe, Tierbannung und rechtsrituelle Tiertötung im Mittelalter (Strassburg 1937, diss.); Fb "stævne".

B272.2.1. †B272.2.1. Horse tried for crime. *Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 215ff.

B274. †B274. Animal as judge. Africa: Milligan 98. (Cf. all references to †J1172.3. and †J1130. Cleverness in law court.)

B275. †B275. Animal punished. Wesselski Nasreddin I 208 No. 11, II 186 No. 356. --*Von Amira Tierstrafen und Tierprozesse (Innsbruck, 1891); Jewish: Neuman.

B275.1. †B275.1. Animal executed for crime. *Frazer Old Testament III 415--445; *Wesselski Märchen 231; **Evans The Criminal Prosecution and Capital Punishment of Animals (New York, 1906); Grimm Rechtsaltertümer II 235; Sébillot France III 27; Wilken Verspreide Geschriften IV 181ff.; Jewish: Neuman.

B275.1.1. †B275.1.1. Horse executed for crime. *Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 215ff.

B275.1.2. †B275.1.2. Fox executed for thefts. Nouvelles Récréations No. 29.

B275.1.3. †B275.1.3. Wolf executed for thefts.

B275.1.3.1. †B275.1.3.1. Man hangs wolf who has eaten sheep left in his charge. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B275.1.3.2. †B275.1.3.2. Wolves and wild pigs condemned to death in lion's court for killing and eating sheep. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B275.2. †B275.2. Excommunication of animal. *Saintyves RTP XXVII 155.

B275.3. †B275.3. Animals eating corpse of holy man die. Irish myth: Cross.

B275.4. †B275.4. Animal's revenge for being criticized by a bird: nest destroyed. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B276. †B276. Animal jury. Africa (Baukon): Ittman 89f.

B278. †B278. Captured animal ransoms self. *Type 159; Chauvin VI 147 No. 304, VIII 148 No. 146 note 1. --India: *Thompson-Balys.

B279. †B279. Covenant with animals. Irish myth: Cross.

B279.1. †B279.1. Saint makes covenant with wolves. Irish myth: Cross.

B279.2. †B279.2. Attitudes of animals toward oath. Jewish: Neuman.

B280. †B280. Animal weddings. RTP V 16, VIII 552, JAFL XXXV 392ff. --Japanese: Anesaki 334f.; India: Thompson-Balys.

B281. †B281. Beast wedding.

B281.1. †B281.1. Wedding of fox and hyena. Fox refuses to marry hyena, since, according to belief, hyena yearly changes sex. --Wienert FFC LVI 62 (ET 251), 131 (ST 376, 401); Halm Aesop No 405.

B281.2. †B281.2. Wedding of mouse. (Cf. †B284.1.1.)

B281.2.1. †B281.2.1. Wedding of mouse and weasel. Estonian: Neus Esthnische Volkslieder 352 No. 98C; Greek: Passow Pop. Carmina Graeciae Recentioris 458 No. 623.

B281.2.2. †B281.2.2. Wedding of mouse and cockroach. India: Thompson-Balys.

B281.3. †B281.3. Wedding of wolf. Slavic: Wenzig Westslavischer-Märchenschatz 242ff. (goat); Wendish: Haupt-Schmaler Volkslieder der Wenden I 386 (goat); Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *91; India: Thompson-Balys.

B281.4. †B281.4. Wedding of lynx. Lettish: Ulmann Lettische Volkslieder 136 No. 431 (marten), Baton Chansons nationales latviennes I@2 (Riga 1922) No. 2685 (marten).

B281.5. †B281.5. Wedding of marten. (Cf. †B281.4.)

B281.6. †B281.6. Wedding of pig. Rhaetian: Decurtins "Eine rätoromanische Ballade" Schweizerisches Archiv f. Vksk. XX 93f. (mole).

B281.7. †B281.7. Wedding of ass. French: Arnaudin Chants pop. de la Grande-Lande I 365ff.

B281.8. †B281.8. Wedding of squirrel. French: Mélusine I (1878) 287 (ant).

B281.9. †B281.9. Wedding of cat. (Cf. †B282.4.2.)

B281.9.1. †B281.9.1. The cat as vixen's husband. Frightens the other wild animals invited by the vixen. (Cf. †K2324.) --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *103A.

B281.10. †B281.10. Wedding of monkey. India: Thompson-Balys.

B281.11. †B281.11. Wedding of rat.

B281.11.1. †B281.11.1. Wedding of rat and cockroach. India: Thompson-Balys.

B282. †B282. Bird wedding. *RTP V 15; *Fb "ørn" III 1183b; *Hdwb. d. Aberglaubens s.v. "Vogelhochzeit"; Mélusine I 193, 287, 553; Missouri-French: Carrière.

B282.1. †B282.1. Wedding of turkey and peacock. All birds invited except eagle. This omission starts great conflict. --*Type 224; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XII 169.

B282.2. †B282.2. Wedding of eagle with another bird. Wendish: Haupt-Schmaler Volkslieder der Wenden II 144 No. 194 (kite).

B282.2.1. †B282.2.1. Wedding of eagle and kite. Kite promises to secure ostrich as attendant. Fails and is put to shame. --Wienert FFC LVI 62 (ET 250), 100 (ST 139); Thiele Der lateinische Äsop des Romulus 96.

B282.3. †B282.3. Wedding of lark and another bird.

B282.3.1. †B282.3.1. Wedding of lark and nightingale. German: Wossidlo Mechlenbürgische Volksüberlieferungen II (1) 255 No. 1675; Lettish: Baton Chansons nationales latviennes (Riga 1922) No. 2696.

B282.3.2. †B282.3.2. Wedding of lark and cuckoo. French: Perroud RTP V 15.

B282.3.3. †B282.3.3. Wedding of lark and sparrow. French: Tiersot RTP I 3f.

B282.3.4. †B282.3.4. Wedding of lark and pigeon. French: Lembert Chants et Chansons du Languedoc I 332.

B282.3.5. †B282.3.5. Wedding of lark and spotted woodpecker. Lettish: Andrejanoff Lettische Volkslieder 45 No. 134.

B282.3.6. †B282.3.6. Wedding of lark and finch. French: Daymard Vieux chants recueilles en Quercy 106ff., Kuhff Les Enfantines 178, Lambert Chants et Chansons du Languedoc I 327ff.; Catalonian: Mila y Fontanals Romancerillo Catalán 398f.

B282.4. †B282.4. Wedding of owl.

B282.4.1. †B282.4.1. Wedding of owl and another bird. French: Arnandin Chants pop. de la Grande-Lande I 350ff. (goat-sucker); Slavic: Herder Stimmen der Völker (Slavische Lieder No. 23) (wren).

B282.4.2. †B282.4.2. Wedding of owl and cat. English: Mother Goose rhymes.

B282.5. †B282.5. Wedding of finch with another bird. (Cf. †B285.1.) --French: Rolland Faune Populaire de la France II 180ff. (greenfinch), 182ff. (goldfinch); Canadian: Gagnon Chansons pop. du Canada 279ff.

B282.6. †B282.6. Wedding of goldfinch with another bird. French: Rolland Faune pop. de la France II 182ff. (finch), Bladé poésies pop. de la Gascogne III 104ff. (finch); Ukranian: Chodzko Les chants historiques de l'Ukraine 12f. No. 10.

B282.7. †B282.7. Wedding of bullfinch with another bird. Russian: Ralston Songs of the Russian People 11f. (quail).

B282.8. †B282.8. Wedding of titmouse with another bird. French: Wallonia V (1897) 138f. (cuckoo); Prussian: Frischbier Zehn Masurische Volkslieder 69.

B282.9. †B282.9. Wedding of wren with another bird. Slavic: Herder Stimmen der Völker (Slawische Lieder No. 23) (owl); English: FLJ I 166 (robin), Eckenstein Comparative Studies in Nursery Rhymes (London 1906) (robin); French: Kuhff Les Enfantines 345ff., Mélusine I (1878) 193f.

B282.10. †B282.10. Wedding of sparrow and another bird. French: Tiersot RTP I 3f. (lark); Bukovina: Kaindl Zs. f. Vksk. VII (1897) 427 (jackdaw). --Waldbrühl Slawische Balalaika 302. --Japanese: FLR I 131ff.

B282.11. †B282.11. Wedding of blackbird with another bird. German: Grüner Uber die ältesten Sitten u. Gebräuche der Egerländer (ed. Am. John) 82f., (starling), Vorpahl Deutsche Volkslieder zur Guitarre (Sammlung I, 1915) (bullfinch), Deutsche Volkslieder Archiv (MS. Freiburg im Breisgau and University of Chicago) Nos. †A74020, †A72356, †A63272, †A93372.

B282.12. †B282.12. Wedding of thrush with another bird. German: Hainhoferi Lautenbücher II 130ff., Norrenberg Beiträge zur Localgeschichte des Niederrheins IV 102, Frischbier-Sembrzychi Hundert ostpreussische Volkslieder 52f. No. 32.

B282.13. †B282.13. Wedding of woodpecker with another bird. Estonian: Neus Esthnische Volkslieder 351f. No. 98B.

B282.14. †B282.14. Wedding of magpie with another bird. German: Hoffman-Richter Schlesische Volkslieder 75f., Haupt-Schmaler Volkslieder der Wenden (Pt. I) 256 No. 273 (raven); Lettish: Baton Chansons nationales latviennes (Riga 1922) No. 2684 (wagtail).

B282.15. †B282.15. Wedding of heathcock with another bird. German: Blätter für pommersche Volkskunde IX (1901) 42f.; Lettish: Baton Chansons nationales latviennes (Riga 1922) No. 2691.

B282.16. †B282.16. Wedding of raven with another bird. Danish: Nyerups Udvalg II 97ff.; Grüner-Nielsen Danske Skæmteviser I 34f. No. 15 (crane); Wendish: Haupt-Schmaler Volkslieder der Wenden I 256f. No. 273 (magpie).

B282.17. †B282.17. Wedding of quail with another bird. Russian: Ralston Songs of the Russian People 11f. (bullfinch).

B282.18. †B282.18. Wedding of hoopoe with another bird. Slavic: Wenzig Westslav. Märchenschatz 241; Czech.: Walda Böhmische Granaten 132 No. 163 (jay).

B282.19. †B282.19. Wedding of cuckoo with another bird. French: Perroud RTP V 15 (lark), Wallona (V 1897) 138f. (titmouse).

B282.20. †B282.20. Wedding of pigeon with another bird. French: Lambert Chants et Chansons de Languedoc I 332 (lark), Soleville Chants pop. du Bas-Quercy 303ff. (falcon).

B282.21. †B282.21. Wedding of cock and hen. German: Blätter für pommersche Volkskunde IX (1901) 43ff.

B282.22. †B282.22. Wedding of crow and titmouse.

B282.22.1. †B282.22.1. Crow refuses to marry titmouse, since she is 100 years old. Type 244**.

B282.23. †B282.23. The courtship of the stork and the crane. Go a-courting one another across the marshes but never come to an understanding, as each time either one or the other changes his mind. (Cf. †T91.) --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *223; Russian Andrejev No. *244 I.

B283. †B283. Wedding of fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

B283.1. †B283.1. Wedding of crab. Bulgarian: Rosen Bulgarische Volksdichtungen 232 (frog); Roumanian: Schuller Romänische Volkslieder 34ff. (toad).

B283.2. †B283.2. Wedding of carp. Chinese: JAFL VIII 189f.

B284. †B284. Wedding of amphibians.

B284.1. †B284.1. Wedding of frog. (Cf. †B283.1.)

B284.1.1. †B284.1.1. Wedding of frog and mouse. ("Frog went a-courtin'"). --United States: JAFL XXVI 134f., XXV 392--399 No. 138, Cox Folksongs of the South 470ff. No. 162, Scarborough On the Trail of Negro Folksongs 46ff., Pub. Texas Folklore Soc. V 5--48; English: Williams Folksongs of the upper Thames 133f.; Welsh: Journ. Welsh Folksong Soc. I (IV) 178 No. 18.

B284.2. †B284.2. Wedding of toad. Bulgarian: Rosen Bulgarische Volksdichtungen 233. (Cf. †B283.1.)

B285. †B285. Wedding of insects.

B285.1. †B285.1. Wedding of ant. (Cf. †B281.8.) --Revue des Langues Romanes 2e Ser. IV (1877) 27ff. (louse); Rhaetian: Decurtins "Rätoromanische Christomatie" Romänische Forschungen XXVII (1910) 182f. (grasshopper); French: Arnaudin Chants pop. de la Grande-Lande I 345ff. (finch); Italian: Nigra Canti pop. de Piemonte No. 127 (cricket), *Zs. f. Vksk. XII 167f., 169n. 2 (grasshopper).

B285.2. †B285.2. Wedding of cricket. (Cf. †B285.1.) --Lettish: Andrejanoff Lettische Volkslieder 39 No. 115.

B285.3. †B285.3. Wedding of grasshopper. (Cf. †B285.1.)

B285.4. †B285.4. Wedding of fly. Danish: Abrahamson, Nyerup, og Rahbek Udvalgte Danske Viser (II) 104f. No. 40 (horsefly); German: Hoffmann-Richter Schlesische Volkslieder 71f., Jungbauer Bibliographie d. deutschen Volksliedes in Böhmen 31 (beetle); Zs. f. Vksk. XXII 421.

B285.5. †B285.5. Wedding of flea. French: Bladé Poésies pop. de la Gascogne III 291ff., Soleville Chants pop. du Bas-Quercy 310ff.; Spanish: Marín Cantos pop. Españoles I 74ff.

B285.6. †B285.6. Wedding of butterfly. French: Kuhff Les Enfantines 174, RTP V 16f, Bujeaud Chants de l'Ouest I 38.

B285.7. †B285.7. Wedding of wasp. RTP VIII 552 (hornet).

B285.8. †B285.8. Wedding of cockroach and rat. India: Thompson-Balys.

B286. †B286. Plant wedding.

B286.1. †B286.1. Wedding of garlic and onion. Lettish: Andrejanoff Lettische Volkslieder 39 No. 116.

B290. †B290. Other animals with human traits.

B290.1. †B290.1. Swine march like soldiers. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B291. †B291. Animal as messenger. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Koch-Grünberg Indianermärchen aus N. Am. No. 33. --African: de Clerq Anthropos IV 451, (Fjort) Dennett 123.

B291.0.1. †B291.0.1. Animal tried out as messenger. Hen (cock) the only one successful. --Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 188. No. 27, (Kaffir): Theal 63.

B291.0.2. †B291.0.2. Unwelcome bird (insect) proves to be messenger. *Jochelson JE VI 373 No. 16.

B291.1. †B291.1. Bird as messenger. English: Child II 113n., 356--365 passim, III 4, 8, IV 412, 482, 484f., V 234; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 101; Irish myth: Cross; Warncke Lais der Marie de France@2 cxxxix.; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 90f.; Marquesas: ibid. 91; Mono: Wheeler 9, 21; Mangaia (Cook Is.): Clark 142; Africa (Fang): Einstein 148, 154, (Cameroon): Gantenbein 68.

B291.1.0.1. †B291.1.0.1. Bird as letter carrier. (Cf. †K131.) --India: *Thompson-Balys.

B291.1.1. †B291.1.1. Raven as messenger.

B291.1.1.1. †B291.1.1.1. Ravens carry message to enemies. Irish myth: Cross.

B291.1.1.2. †B291.1.1.2. Raven as devil's messenger. *Fb "ravn" III 21b.

B291.1.2. †B291.1.2. Crow as messenger. India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 567.

B291.1.3. †B291.1.3. Dove as messenger. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 76.

B291.1.4. †B291.1.4. Falcon as messenger. India: Thompson-Balys.

B291.1.5. †B291.1.5. Goose as messenger. India: Thompson-Balys.

B291.1.6. †B291.1.6. Parrot as messenger. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B291.1.7. †B291.1.7. Heron as messenger. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 630.

B291.1.8. †B291.1.8. Vulture as messenger. Africa (Upoto): Einstein 144; Jewish: Neuman.

B291.1.9. †B291.1.9. Eagle as messenger. Africa (Upoto): Einstein 144; Jewish: Neuman.

B291.1.10. †B291.1.10. Hawk as messenger. Africa (Pooloki): Einstein 105.

B291.1.11. †B291.1.11. Swallow as messenger. Chinese: Eberhard 58.

B291.1.12. †B291.1.12. Pigeon as messenger. Jewish: Neuman.

B291.2. †B291.2. Domestic beast as messenger.

B291.2.1. †B291.2.1. Horse as messenger. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B291.2.2. †B291.2.2. Dog as messenger. Icel.: ASB XVII 91; India: Thompson-Balys.

B291.3. †B291.3. Wild beast as messenger.

B291.3.1. †B291.3.1. Fox as messenger. Irish myth: Cross.

B291.3.2. †B291.3.2. Hare (rabbit) as messenger.

B291.3.2.1. †B291.3.2.1. Hares carry taxes to court. India: Thompson-Balys.

B291.4. †B291.4. Other animals as messenger.

B291.4.1. †B291.4.1. Bee as messenger from heaven to earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

B291.4.2. †B291.4.2. Snake as messenger. India: Thompson-Balys.

B291.4.3. †B291.4.3. Whale as messenger. Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 360.

B292. †B292. Animal as servant to man. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 263; Japanese: Ikeda.

B292.0.1. †B292.0.1. Animals with human child as slave. India: Thompson-Balys.

B292.0.2. †B292.0.2. Animals leave wicked and go to pious master. Jewish: Neuman.

B292.1. †B292.1. Animal as shepherd for man.

B292.1.1. †B292.1.1. Baboon as shepherd for man. Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 44 No. 21.

B292.1.2. †B292.1.2. Dog as shepherd for man. Greek Myth: Grote I 228.

B292.2. †B292.2. Animal as domestic servant. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 263.

B292.2.1. †B292.2.1. Monkey as domestic servant. India: Thompson-Balys.

B292.2.2. †B292.2.2. Bird as domestic servant. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 526.

B292.2.2.1. †B292.2.2.1. Bird servant to deity. India: Thompson-Balys.

B292.2.3. †B292.2.3. Lion as domestic servant. Jewish: Neuman.

B292.3. †B292.3. Doe furnishes man milk. Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxliv; Irish myth: Cross.

B292.4. †B292.4. Stags plow for man. Also draw chariot, bear burdens, and allow saints to use their horns as a book rest --Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxliii--cxliv; Irish myth: Cross; English: Baughman.

B292.4.1. †B292.4.1. Wild oxen plow for man. Irish myth: Cross.

B292.4.1.1. †B292.4.1.1. Oxen draw saint's plow around whole district in one day. Irish myth: Cross.

B292.4.2. †B292.4.2. Tiger plows for man. India: *Thompson-Balys

B292.4.3. †B292.4.3. Dog plows for man. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 44f.

B292.5. †B292.5. Bird sings to console man. Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxlvi (swan); Irish myth: Cross.

B292.6. †B292.6. Black cat as servant of giant. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chat".

B292.6.1. †B292.6.1. Thief lives alone with 20 cats that help him keep intruders away. Icel.: *Boberg.

B292.7. †B292.7. Otters supply man with fish and burning wood daily. Irish myth: Cross.

B292.8. †B292.8. Dog as guardian of treasure. *Fb "hund" I 675b (cf. †B576.2).

B292.9. †B292.9. Animal as farm laborer.

B292.9.1. †B292.9.1. Frog works in fields for benefactor. India: Thompson-Balys.

B292.9.2. †B292.9.2. Chicken as laborer. India: Thompson-Balys.

B292.9.3. †B292.9.3. Rat servants cut jungle down, till soil for master. India: Thompson-Balys.

B292.10. †B292.10. Dog made king. Icel.: Herrmann Saxo II 579, *Boberg.

B292.11. †B292.11. Tiger carries load of wood for saint. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B292.12. †B292.12. Serpent as saint's whip. India: Thompson-Balys.

B292.13. †B292.13. Ass as tollkeeper. Jewish: Neuman.

B293. †B293. Animals dance. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Luba): De Clerq Zs. f. Kolonialsprachen IV 193.

B293.0.1. †B293.0.1. Animals dance for king. Jewish: Neuman.

B293.1. †B293.1. Dance of cats. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "dance".

B293.2. †B293.2. Dance of frog(s). Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 76. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "dance".

B293.3. †B293.3. Dance of tigers. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule. --Korean: Zong in-Sob 149 No. 65.

B293.4. †B293.4. Dance of lions. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

B293.5. †B293.5. Dance of nagas (snake men). Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1354.

B294. †B294. Animals in business relations.

B294.1. †B294.1. Fox as divider of dying man's gifts. Fb "ræv" III 113b.

B294.2. †B294.2. Animal handles money.

B294.2.1. †B294.2.1. Monkey's money stolen. India: Thompson-Balys.

B294.2.2. †B294.2.2. Monkey buys liquor. India: Thompson-Balys.

B294.3. †B294.3. Dog sells rotten peas on market: punished by other animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

B294.4. †B294.4. Animals hold fairs. India: Thompson-Balys.

B294.5. †B294.5. Parrot transacts business of trader. India: Thompson-Balys.

B294.6. †B294.6. Rabbit and elephant partners on trading expedition. Africa: Stanley 245.

B294.7. †B294.7. Tortoise and dog partners as thieves. Africa (Cameroon): Meinhof 3.

B295. †B295. Animal drives carriage. *Type 2021; *BP II 146 (Gr. No. 80); Fb "kok" II 248b.

B295.1. †B295.1. Mouse makes boat of bread-crust. Takes animals and birds into boat. It capsizes. --Type 135*.

B296. †B296. Animals go a-journeying. *Types 130, 210; **Aarne FFC XI Die Tiere auf der Wanderschaft; BP I 75, 135, 237; Fb "væder" III 1106b, *"tyr" III 908 ab. --Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesian, Japanese: Dixon *203 n. 41.; Missouri French: Carrière. --Africa (Tonga): Gifford 206. --Cf. N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 302 n. 108.

B296.1. †B296.1. Animal journeys to Rome. Cock, geese, or dog go to Rome to become Pope. --Fb "hund" I 678b, "gås" I 528b, "Rom", "mus" II 634b.

B297. †B297. Musical animals.

B297.0.1. †B297.0.1. Bull lows musically. Irish myth: Cross (†B214).

B297.1. †B297.1. Animal plays musical instrument. Africa (tribes of Western Sudan): Tauxier Le Noir du Yatenga 457 No. 56.

B297.1.1. †B297.1.1. Bird plays timpan. Irish myth: Cross.

B297.1.2. †B297.1.2. Toad and chameleon play drum and xylophone. Africa (Luba): De Clerq Zs. f. Kolonialsprachen IV 193.

B297.2. †B297.2. Transformed women enchanted by music.

B297.2.1. †B297.2.1. Women transformed to bitches enchanted by music. Irish myth: Cross.

B298. †B298. Animal plays game.

B298.1. †B298.1. Monkey plays chess. Nouvelles Récréations No. 88.

B299. †B299. Other animals with human traits -- miscellaneous.

B299.1. †B299.1. Animal takes revenge on man. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

B299.1.1. †B299.1.1. Eagle takes revenge on man. Chinese: Graham.

B299.2. †B299.2. Animals dispute.

B299.2.1. †B299.2.1. Owls and crows dispute over merits of night or day vision. India: Thompson-Balys.

B299.3. †B299.3. Animals discover liquor and get intoxicated. India: Thompson-Balys.

B299.4. †B299.4. Bear asks boy to stay with her cubs. India: Thompson-Balys.

B299.5. †B299.5. Sympathetic animals. Irish myth: Cross.

B299.5.1. †B299.5.1. Animal mutilates self to express sympathy. India: Thompson-Balys.

B299.5.2. †B299.5.2. Animal fasts to express sympathy. India: Thompson-Balys.

B299.5.3. †B299.5.3. Birds weep when man cuts off his hand. Irish myth: Cross.

B299.6. †B299.6. Animal physician. Africa (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 69, Meinhof 33, 36.

B299.7. †B299.7. Festival of animals. Jewish: Neuman; S. Am. Indian (Tenetehara): Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 148.

B299.8. †B299.8. Animals build bridge.

B299.8.1. †B299.8.1. Tigers build bridge. S. Am. Indian (Amuesha): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 150.

B299.9. †B299.9. Animals cultivate crops. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 179.

B299.10. †B299.10. Animal christening. German Grimm No. 74.

†B300-†B599. Friendly animals.

†B300-†B349. Helpful animals -- general.

B300. †B300. Helpful animal. See also entire section †B300--599, especially †B350. --*Krappe "Guiding animals" JAFL LV (1942) 228--246; "Warning animals" FL LIX (1948) 8--15. --*Toldo Studien zur vgl. Littgsch. VIII 38. --Irish myth: Cross. --Hindu: Penzer I 101f., V 157f., 163f., VI 291, VIII 219. --India: Thompson-Balys. --N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 316 n. 146. --Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 313.

B301. †B301. Faithful animal. Köhler-Bolte I 534; Irish myth: Cross.

B301.1. †B301.1. Faithful animal at master's grave dies of hunger. *Type 75*; *Pauli (ed Bolte) No. 428; cf. Alphabet No. 270; Icel.: *Boberg.

B301.1.1. †B301.1.1. Faithful dog follows master's dead body when cast into river. Supports body. --Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B301.1.2. †B301.1.2. Faithful dog helps open mistress' grave -- dies on it. India: Thompson-Balys.

B301.1.3. †B301.1.3. Faithful animal doesn't allow anybody to come near to master's corpse. Þiðriks saga II 154, 386.

B301.2. †B301.2. Faithful animal at master's grave avenges his murder. English: Wells Manual of Writings 121 (Sir Triamour). --*Hibbard 286.

B301.3. †B301.3. Faithful animal plans suicide when it thinks master dead. English: Wells Manual of Writings 66 (Ywain and Gawain); Icel.: Boberg.

B301.4. †B301.4. Faithful horse follows dead master to grave. *Fb "hest" IV 212a.

B301.4.1. †B301.4.1. Faithful horse lays his head on slain master's breast. Irish myth: Cross.

B301.4.1.1. †B301.4.1.1. Faithful horse weeps for coming death of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B301.4.2. †B301.4.2. Faithful horse weeps tears of blood for master. Irish myth: Cross.

B301.4.3. †B301.4.3. Faithful horse joins in keen at hero's death. Irish myth: Cross.

B301.4.3.1. †B301.4.3.1. Faithful horse lays his head in lap of dead master's wife. Irish myth: Cross.

B301.4.4. †B301.4.4. Faithful horse allows only its master to catch and ride it. Icel.: *Boberg.

B301.4.5. †B301.4.5. Faithful horse lies down in order that its mutilated master can mount it. Icel.: *Boberg.

B301.4.6. †B301.4.6. Faithful horse refuses to go before its master mounts it, even when already loaded with two chests with gold. --Icel.: *Boberg.

B301.4.7. †B301.4.7. Faithful horse dies together with its master. Icel.: *Boberg.

B301.4.8. †B301.4.8. Faithful horse fights together with its master. Icel.: *Boberg.

B301.5. †B301.5. Faithful animals resuscitate master. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B301.6. †B301.6. Faithful cattle fight at master's grave until they cast their horns. Irish myth: Cross.

B301.6.1. †B301.6.1. Faithful cattle shed horns in grief for death of man. Irish myth: Cross.

B301.6.2. †B301.6.2. Faithful cow refuses to move for grief at master's death. Irish myth: Cross.

B301.6.3. †B301.6.3. Faithful cows lose milk at king's death. Irish myth: Cross.

B301.7. †B301.7. Faithful lapdog dies when mistress dies. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B301.7.1. †B301.7.1. Faithful dog helps open mistress' grave and dies on it. India: Thompson-Balys.

B301.8. †B301.8. Faithful lion follows man who saved him. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Icel.: Boberg.

B310. †B310. Acquisition of helpful animal. *Hartland Perseus III 191ff.

B311. †B311. Congenital helpful animal. Born at same time as master and (usually) by same magic means. --*Hartland Perseus III 191ff.; *Types 300, 303; *BP I 534ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 179. --Irish myth: Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 83, Welsh ibid. 95; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 221.

B311.1. †B311.1. Helpful animal foster brother. Hero reared by animal's parents. --Africa (Akan-Ashanti): Rattray Akan-Ashanti Folk Tales 206 No. 53, (Kassonke): Monteil Contes Soudanais 126ff.

B312. †B312. Helpful animals obtained by purchase or gift.

B312.1. †B312.1. Helpful animals a gift. German Grimm No. 60, 126; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 40 No. 300; Icel.: Boberg, Þiðriks saga I 314--18; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

B312.2. †B312.2. Helpful animals obtained by exchange. *Type 300; *Hartland Perseus III 195; De Gubernatis Zool. Myth. III 36 n. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 329ff.

B312.3. †B312.3. Helpful animal(s) bequeathed to hero. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Hausa): Best Black Folk Tales 71ff., Tremearne Hausa Superstitions and Customs 374ff. No. 79; Madagascar: (Marofotsy) Renel Contes de Madagascar I 65ff. No. 9.

B312.4. †B312.4. Helpful animal purchased. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Swahili): Steere Swahili Tales 13ff., Meinhof Afrikanische Märchen 9ff. No. 1, Bateman Zanzibar Tales 99ff. No. 7.

B312.4.1. †B312.4.1. Helpful dogs obtained by purchase. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B312.5. †B312.5. Helpful, strong horse caught. Icel.: Boberg.

B313. †B313. Helpful animal an enchanted person. *Types 314, 328 (FFC LXXXIII), 402, 510, 530, 531, 532, 533, 545, 550, 551.

B313.1. †B313.1. Helpful animal reincarnation of parent. The dead mother appears to the heroine in the form of an animal. --*Cox Cinderella 475 n. 4; BP I 187, III 60ff. --India: *Thompson-Balys, *Cosquin Contes indiens 505ff.; Japanese: Ikeda.

B313.2. †B313.2. Helpful animal reincarnation of murdered child. German: Grimm No. 47.

B314. †B314. Helpful animal brothers-in-law. *Type 552; *BP III 424ff. --Missouri French: Carrière.

B315. †B315. Animal helpful after being conquered. *Type 590; BP III 1. --Icel.: *Boberg.

B316. †B316. Abused and pampered horses. Hero is ordered by ogre to feed and care for certain horse and to neglect other horse. Hero disobeys and feeds neglected horse. Latter is enchanted prince and helps hero. (Cf. †B181.) --*Type 314, 502; BP III 18 n. 3. --French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15; Missouri-French: Carrière.

B317. †B317. Helpful bird hatched by hero. Hero holds eagle's egg in hand and hatches it. Young eagle becomes his helper. --German New Guinea: Dixon 141.

B318. †B318. Helpful animals transformed from other animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

B319. †B319. Helpful animal otherwise acquired.

B319.1. †B319.1. Helpful animal sent by God (or a god). Irish myth: Cross.

B319.2. †B319.2. Helpful animal acquired as reward for vigil. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B320. †B320. Reward of helpful animal.

B322. †B322. Helpful animal demands food. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "viande", "oiseau"; Japanese: Ikeda.

B322.1. †B322.1. Hero feeds own flesh to helpful animal. The hero is carried on the back of an eagle who demands food. The hero finally feeds parts of his own flesh. --*Type 301; *BP II 300 (Gr. No. 91); Chauvin VI 3 No. 181 n. 3; Panzer Beowulf 191; Clouston Tales I 241ff., Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 164 (to Gonzenbach No. 61). --Hindu: Penzer I 84 n. 1. 85, VI 122 n. 2, VII 126 n. 2; India: Thompson-Balys; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 304 No. 32; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15. --Missouri French: Carrière. --Apache: Goddard PaAM XXIV 94.

B322.2. †B322.2. Helpful birds demand food. Chinese: Graham.

B325. †B325. Animal bribed for help. English: Child I 57ff., II 144--154, 359, IV 389f., 416; Sicilian: Gonzenbach: I 99 No. 15.

B325.1. †B325.1. Animal bribed with food. (Sop to Cerberus.) --Types 531, 551; BP III 18ff.; *Chauvin VI 6 No. 182; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 76 No. 632; Icel.: *Boberg. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 61 No. 445B, Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 308 n. 113c. --Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 273 No. 86.

B330. †B330. Death of helpful animal.

B331. †B331. Helpful animal killed through misunderstanding.

B331.1. †B331.1. Faithful falcon killed through misunderstanding. Tries to warn the king against drinking water poisoned by snake. --*Chauvin II 122 No. 115, V 289 No. 173. --India: *Thompson-Balys.

B331.1.1. †B331.1.1. Faithful horse killed through misunderstanding. Tries to warn king against drinking water poisoned by snake. India: Thompson-Balys.

B331.2. †B331.2. Llewellyn and his dog. Dog has saved child from serpent. Father sees bloody mouth, thinks the dog has eaten the child, and kills the dog. --*Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 257; Köhler-Bolte I 534; *BP I 425 n. I; Ward Catalogue of Romances II 170; *Penzer V 138 n. 1; *Campbell Sages lxxviii ff.; Benfey Panchatantra I 479ff.; Bødker Exempler 299 No. 64; *Chauvin II 100 No. 59, VIII 67 No. 31; Clouston Tales II 167; *Kittredge Arthur and Gorlagon 223 n. 1; *Frazer Pausanias V 421 . --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; U.S.: Baughman.

B331.2.1. †B331.2.1. Woman slays faithful mongoose which has saved her child. "A Classical Indian Folk-Tale as a Reported Modern Event: The Brahman and the Mongoose" Proceedings, American Philosophical Society, LXXXIII 503--13; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B331.2.2. †B331.2.2. Faithful dog killed by overhasty master: thinks mistakenly he has returned home against orders. (Cf. Llewellyn and his dog.) --*Emeneau "The Faithful Dog as Security for a Debt; A Companion to the Brahman and Mongoose Story-Type" Journal of American Oriental Society LXI 1--17; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B331.3. †B331.3. Faithful parrot killed by mistake. India: Thompson-Balys.

B332. †B332. Too watchful dog killed. Icel.: *Boberg.

B335. †B335. Helpful animal killed by hero's enemy. *Types 510, 533; *BP III 60ff.; *Cox Cinderella 477 n. 7. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda. --N. Am. Indian (Menomini): Hoffman RBAE XIV 236.

B335.1. †B335.1. Man attempts to kill faithful serpent at wife's instigation. Loses everything. --*Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 20 No. 73. --*Ward III 208; *Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 141; *Warnke Die Quellen des Esope der Marie de France 221.

B335.1.1. †B335.1.1. Treacherous wife forces husband to kill helpful dog. India: Thompson-Balys.

B335.2. †B335.2. Life of helpful animal demanded as cure for feigned sickness. Penzer V 127 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B335.3. †B335.3. Unsuccessful attempt by enemy to kill helpful animal. India: Thompson-Balys.

B335.4. †B335.4. Wife demands magic parrot who has accused her. India: Thompson-Balys.

B335.5. †B335.5. Faithful animal killed in battle. Icel.: *Boberg.

B335.6. †B335.6. A small animal (hare, bitch) gives timely warnings to the hero about the trap prepared by his enemy. Animal warning about trap killed. --Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. *452f.

B335.7. †B335.7. Helpful cow to be killed because of refusal to help stepdaughter. Chinese: Graham.

B336. †B336. Helpful animal killed (threatened) by ungrateful hero. --Spanish Exempla: Keller. --Africa (Hausa): Mischlich Neue Märchen aus Afrika 164ff. No. 22, Frobenius Atlantis IX 277ff., 287ff., Nos. 74 and 75, (Swahili): Steere Swahili Tales 13ff., Meinhof Afrikanische Märchen 9ff. No. 1, Bateman Zanzibar Tales 99ff. No. 7.

B338. †B338. Weapons made from bones of helpful horse. India: Thompson-Balys.

B339. †B339. Death of helpful animal -- miscellaneous.

B339.1. †B339.1. Truth-telling dog killed so as to hide murder. India: Thompson-Balys.

B340. †B340. Treatment of helpful animals -- miscellaneous.

B341. †B341. Helpful animal's injunctions disobeyed. Disaster follows. --Type 531; MacCulloch Childhood 229; Missouri French: Carrière; N. Am. Indian (Menomini): Hoffman RBAE XIV 183, (Zuñi): Cushing 54.

B342. †B342. Cat leaves house when report is made of death of one of his companions. His master has been told to say "Robert is dead". As soon as this is said, the cat leaves. --*Boberg Sagnet om den store Pans Dod, København 1934. --Irish: Beal III 66. --U.S.: Baughman; Taylor Washington University Studies X (Hum. Ser.) 60ff.

B343. †B343. Large reward given for return of helpful animal. India: Thompson-Balys.

†B350-†B399. Grateful animals.

B350. †B350. Grateful animals. *Types 329, 480, 531, 554, 554*, 559: *BP I 207ff. (Gr. No. 24), 227, II 21 (Gr. Nos. 17, 62, 191), 454 n. 1, III 18ff. (Gr. No. 126), 365 (Gr. No. 191); Hartland Perseus III 193ff.; Clouston Tales I 223ff.; Penzer I 100f., V 157ff., VI 291, VIII 219, IX 156; *Chauvin II 107 No. 71; *Saintyves Perrault 32ff. --Irish myth: Cross. --Greek: **Marx Griechische Märchen von dankbaren Tieren; *Frazer Apollodorus I 86 n. 2; Arabian: Burton SV 326; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 322; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "fourmi". --N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 316 n. 146a., CColl II 327f., 333, 342, 417; Indonesian: De Vries's list Nos. 56, 65ff., 135; Malay: Dixon 216; *ibid. 218 n. 23; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 167. --Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 214 No. 31.

B360. †B360. Animals grateful for rescue from peril of death. *Types 554, 554*, 560; *BP II 21f., 454; *Dh IV 147ff.; Chauvin II 109 No. 73; Hartland Perseus III 194; *Brown Iwain 16 and passim, 132 n. 3; Hüsing (G.) "Zum Etanamythos" Archiv f. Religionswiss. VI 178ff.; Alphabet No. 166; Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 338, 339), 127 (ST 353), Halm Aesop Nos. 92, 130; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 648. --Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg (†B364.5). --India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 321ff.; Ikeda; Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 29 No. 17; Korean: Zong in-Sob 175 f. No. 76. --Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 163 No. 32; Missouri French: Carrière.

B361. †B361. Animals grateful for rescue from pit. *Type 160; Chauvin I 106 No. 71; Ward II 196; Bødker Exempler 304 No. 75; *Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 119; Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 346), 127 (ST 357), Phaedrus III 2; BP IV 139f; *Moe Samlede Skrifter I 192ff.; Hilka Compilatio Singularis Exemplorum 23; Wesselski Märchen 246 No. 56. --Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 31; Spanish Exempla: Keller; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 649. --Hindu: *Penzer V 157; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 30. --Africa: Frobenius Atlantis IX 385 Nos. 103f., (Swahili): Steere 423, (Zanzibar): Bateman 81 No. 6, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 163 No. 32.

B362. †B362. Animal grateful for rescue from drowning. Wienert FFC LVI 59 (ET 201), 127 (ST 356), Halm Aesop No. 296 (dove rescues ant). --India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Korea: Ikeda.

B363. †B363. Animal grateful for rescue from net. *Type 75; Crane Vitry 194 No. 145. --India: Thompson-Balys --Africa (Zanzibar): Bateman: 81 No. 6.

B363.1. †B363.1. Lion is freed from net by mouse. Mouse asks that his son marry lion's daughter. Request granted. The mouse is trampled to death by his bride. --Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B364. †B364. Animal grateful for other rescue.

B364.1. †B364.1. Animal grateful for rescue from trap. Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 336; India: Thompson-Balys --Africa (Lamba): Doke XXXII No. 15.

B364.2. †B364.2. Animal grateful for rescue from fire. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B364.3. †B364.3. Insect having fallen on back grateful for being turned over. Africa (Ganda): Baskerville King of the Snakes 8ff.

B364.4. †B364.4. Bird grateful for being saved from attacking serpent. Cook Islands: Beckwith Myth 269.

B364.5. †B364.5. Animal grateful for rescue from mud. India: Thompson-Balys.

B365. †B365. Animal grateful for rescue of its young. *Hartland Perseus III 194; Köhler-Bolte I 440, 545, 560, *561. --Japanese: Mitford 261, Ikeda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Missouri-French: Carrière.

B365.0.1. †B365.0.1. Bird grateful for rescue of its young. India: Thompson-Balys.

B365.1. †B365.1. Animal grateful for rescue of its mate. India: Thompson-Balys.

B365.2. †B365.2. Animal grateful to hero for preventing destruction of nest.

B365.2.1. †B365.2.1. Ant grateful for preventing destruction of nest. German: Grimm No. 62.

B365.3. †B365.3. Animal grateful for release of relative. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 65.

B366. †B366. Animal grateful for ransom from captivity. BP II 451 (Gr. No. 104a), *454 n. 1.; Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 337), 127 (ST 354, 489); Halm Aesop No. 6. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

B370. †B370. Animal grateful to captor for release.

B371. †B371. Small animal released from jaws of large one: grateful.

B371.1. †B371.1. Lion spared mouse: mouse grateful. Later releases lion from net. (Cf. †B363.) --Jacobs Aesop 203 No. 11, Halm Aesop 256, (Cf. Type 75.) --Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B371.2. †B371.2. Lion spares fly: fly grateful. Later warns lion. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B374. †B374. Other animals grateful for release.

B374.1. †B374.1. Lion rescued from snake: thankful. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B375. †B375. Release of animal by hunter (fisher). Africa (Angola): Chatelain 159 No. 19 (deer). --German: Grimm No. 60, 191. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B375.1. †B375.1. Fish returned to water: grateful. *Fb "fisk"; Hartland Science 174. --India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham. --Two special forms of this motif are common; in both the fish is returned to the water and rewards the captor. (1). The "King of the Fishes" form: a man captures the king of fishes (†B243) who as a reward for the release tells the man to feed parts of his body (when he is later captured) to his wife and parts to certain animals. As a result the hero and congenital helpful animals (†B311) are born: *Type 303; BP I 528 (Gr. Nos. 60, 85); Sébillot Incidents s.v. "poisson", Gaster Exempla 251 No. 373.; Missouri French: Carrière. --For other references see †B243. --(2) The "Fisher and his Wife" form. The king of the fishes in this case grants the man's wife the power of fulfilling all her wishes; *Type 555; BP I 138 (Gr. No. 19); see †C773.1.2.

B375.1.1. †B375.1.1. Grateful fish grants mad hero his wish: to impregnate a princess. Later the fish saves the hero and his family from death at sea. --Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B375.1.2. †B375.1.2. Fish grateful for being transferred from tank to river. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B375.2. †B375.2. Frog returned to spring: grateful. Teaches hero animals' language (Cf. †B217). --*Type 670B; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B375.3. †B375.3. Bird released: grateful. --*Chauvin II 117 No. 97; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

B375.3.1. †B375.3.1. Eagle released: grateful. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *320.

B375.4. †B375.4. Squirrel released: grateful and helpful. India: Thompson-Balys.

B375.5. †B375.5. Monkey released: grateful. India: Thompson-Balys.

B375.6. †B375.6. Rat released: grateful. India: Thompson-Balys.

B375.7. †B375.7. Leopard released: grateful. Africa (Fang): Tessman 195f.

B375.8. †B375.8. Turtle released: grateful. Korean: Zong in-Sob 169 No. 73.

B375.9. †B375.9. Serpent released: grateful. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 55.

B375.10. †B375.10. Jackal released: grateful. India: Thompson-Balys.

B376. †B376. Wasp released from vase full of honey: grateful. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B380. †B380. Animal grateful for relief from pain. Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys.

B380.1. †B380.1. Grateful hyena leads lost hermit from wilderness as reward for his help. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B381. †B381. Thorn removed from lion's paw (Androcles and the Lion). In gratitude the lion later rewards the man. --*Type 156; *BP III 1 n. 2; Cf. Type 74*; Jacobs Aesop 205 No. 23; Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 345), 127 (ST 357); *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 29; **Brodeur (A.G.) "The Grateful Lion" PMLA XXXIX 485; Herbert Catalogue of Romances III 210; Penzer V 162 n. 1, IX 47 n. 1; Alphabet No. 451; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 278. --*Loomis White Magic 58--61. --Spanish Exempla: Keller. --India: *Thompson-Balys. --Chinese: Graham. --N. Am. Indian (Wyandot): Barbeau GSCan XI 106 No. 29.

B381.1. †B381.1. Wolf fetches a man to remove thorn from his children's paws. Does not attack the man's livestock. --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *156A.

B381.2. †B381.2. Thorn removed from monkey's tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

B382. †B382. Animal grateful for removal of bone lodged in its throat. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

B383. †B383. Man called by animal for help to his cubs in danger. *Loomis White Magic 59.

B384. †B384. Saint cures the blind young ones of a hyena or wolf by the sign of the cross and the application of his saliva. (Cf. †D1500.1.8.1.) The animal mother is grateful. --*Loomis White Magic 59 f.

B385. †B385. Serpent relieved from sand blown in eyes: grateful. India: Thompson-Balys.

B386. †B386. Tigress grateful for opening of abscess. India: Thompson-Balys.

B387. †B387. Tiger grateful for woman assisting tigress as midwife. Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 29.

B388. †B388. Cobra grateful for cure of ulcer. India: Thompson-Balys.

B390. †B390. Animals grateful for other kind acts.

B391. †B391. Animal grateful for food. *Types 300, 531, 550, 554; Warnke Quellen des Esope der Marie de France 221ff.; *BP II 21f., 463; Halm Aesop No. 173; Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 347), 127 (ST 358); Ward III 208; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 141 (Cf. †B335.1.) --Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 387. --Danish: Fb "kalv"; Missouri-French: Carrière --India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Mitford 185f., 270, Anesaki 313, Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 29. --Africa (Benga): Nassau No. 33.

B391.1. †B391.1. Child feeds snake from its milk-bottle. *Type 285; BP II 459, cf. II 463. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B391.1.1. †B391.1.1. Cobra grateful to prince for milk. India: Thompson-Balys.

B391.1.2. †B391.1.2. Snake grateful because man feeds her young snakes milk. India: Thompson-Balys.

B391.1.3. †B391.1.3. Snake grateful for pouring milk into its hole. India: Thompson-Balys.

B391.2. †B391.2. Child shares food with toad. German: Grimm No. 105.

B391.3. †B391.3. Hero kills horse to feed young ravens. German: Grimm No. 17.

B391.4. †B391.4. Animals given water to drink: grateful. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 150.

B392. †B392. Hero divides spoil for animals. *Type 300; Fb "dele" IV 96b; *BP II 22 n. 1. --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *554A.; Italian Novella: Rotunda. --Missouri-French: Carrière; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 70 No. 3.

B392.1. †B392.1. Animals grateful for being given appropriate food. Hero finds dog with hay and horse with meat. He changes it about. --Köhler-Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. VI 63 (to Gonzenbach No. 13.); Missouri-French: Carrière.

B393. †B393. Animals grateful for shelter. Japanese: Mitford 270.

B394. †B394. Cow grateful for being milked. (Cf. †B411.) --Type 510A; Cox passim.

B395. †B395. Buffaloes grateful for care of their calves. India: Thompson-Balys.

B395.1. †B395.1. Buffaloes grateful for being cleaned and combed. India: Thompson-Balys.

B396. †B396. Cows grateful for hero's housekeeping for them. India: Thompson-Balys.

†B400-†B499. Kinds of helpful animals.

†B400-†B449. Helpful beasts.

B400. †B400. Helpful domestic beasts. India: Thompson-Balys.

B401. †B401. Helpful horse. *Type 314, 502, 531, 532; BP III 94ff., III 18ff., II 273ff; *Fb "hest"; *Köhler-Bolte I 468. --Wienert FFC LVI *70 (ET 347), 127 (ST 358); Halm Aesop No. 173 (Cf. BP III 290ff.); Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 94; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 372 n. 1. --Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Italian Novella: Rotunda. --Breton: *Sébillot Incidents s.v. "animaux"; French Canadian: *Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15; Missouri French: Carrière; Cape Verde Islands: *Parson MAFLS XV (1) 277 No. 91, 281 No. 92. --India: *Thompson-Balys. --Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 280, 284.

B401.1. †B401.1. Helpful water-horse. Irish myth: Cross.

B402. †B402. Helpful ass. *Fb "æsel" III 1155a. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B403. †B403. Helpful mule. Breton: "Sébillot Incidents s.v. "mule", "animaux".

B405. †B405. Helpful camel. India: Thompson-Balys. Africa (Hausa): Tremearne FL XXII 464ff. No. 50, Hausa Superstitions and Customs 380ff. No. 80.

B411. †B411. Helpful cow. (Cf. †B354.) --*Type 510A; Cox passim. --Halm Aesop No. 173, Wienert FFC LVI *70 (ET 347), 127 (ST 358). --Irish myth: Cross. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "animaux"; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 52 No. 32.

B411.1. †B411.1. Helpful bull. (Cf. †B182.3.1.) --Cox Cinderella 365 (Swedish). --Irish myth: Cross. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "animaux". --India: Thompson-Balys. --N. Am. Indian (Wyandot): Thompson CColl II 412; Missouri-French: Carrière.

B411.2. †B411.2. Helpful ox. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15. --Irish myth: Cross. --India: Thompson-Balys. --Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 76 No. 12, 240 No. 35, (Kaffir): Theal 169.

B411.3. †B411.3. Helpful calf. Fb "kalv".

B411.4. †B411.4. Helpful buffalo. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B411.4.1. †B411.4.1. Helpful bison. India: Thompson-Balys.

B411.5. †B411.5. Helpful bullock. India: Thompson-Balys.

B411.6. †B411.6. Helpful steer. Jewish: Neuman.

B412. †B412. Helpful sheep. Type 510; *Cox 477 n. 7.; Missouri-French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys.

B413. †B413. Helpful goat. Type 510; Cox 473f. n. 2. --Irish myth: Cross, Beal XXI 325; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chevre", "animaux"; Missouri French: Carrière; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 294 No. 9, 298 No. 13, 325 No. 4. --Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys. --Africa (Angola): Chatelain 53 No. 2, (Benga): Nassau 202 No. 32.

B414. †B414. Helpful hog. Fb "svin" III 676a. --Irish myth: Cross. --India: Thompson-Balys. --Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 144, 197.

B414.1. †B414.1. Helpful boar. India: Thompson-Balys.

B421. †B421. Helpful dog. (Cf. †B524.1.1, †B268.2.1. War-dogs.) *Types 300, 400, 560; *BP II 455ff., I 331, 547; *Emeneau "The Faithful Dog as Security for a Debt," Journal of the American Oriental Society LXI 1--17; *Hartland Perseus III 191ff.; *Aarne MSFO XXV 48; *Dh IV 147ff. --Fable: Halm Aesop No. 173; *BP III 290; Wienert FFC LVI *70 (ET 347), 127 (ST 358). --Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: *Boberg. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chien", "mort", "nourriture"; *Fb "hund" IV 226b; Alphabet of Tales No. 271. --English: Wells Manual of Writings 121 (Sir Triamour); Scotch: Campbell I 7; French Canadian: *Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15, 20; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 48 No. 327; Jamaican: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 270 No: 82. --Jewish: Neuman. India: *Thompson-Balys. --Japanese: Anesaki 322, Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 93 No. 51. --Africa (Zulu): Callaway 51, 142, (Basuto): Jacottet 56 No. 9, 140 No. 20, (Kaffir): Kidd 226 No. 1, Theal 126, (Benga): Nassau 140 No. 16, (Angola): Chatelain 127 No. 12; N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Teit JAFL XXIX 304 (Type 403). See references in †B524.1.

B422. †B422. Helpful cat. *Types 402, 545, 560; *BP I 325, II 30, 455, III 487; *Aarne MSFO XXV 48; *Dh IV 147ff.; *Fb "kat" II 108a. --Irish myth: Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chat"; Missouri French: Carrière; Scotch: Campbell II 279, *284ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Mitford 253; Korean: Zong in-Sob 28 No. 12; Tonga: Gifford 201.

B430. †B430. Helpful wild beasts. India: Thompson-Balys.

B431. †B431. Helpful wild beasts -- felidae.

B431.1. †B431.1. Helpful leopard. Africa (Akan-Ashanti): Rattray Akan-Ashanti Folk Tales 206 No. 53.

B431.2. †B431.2. Helpful lion. (Cf. †B549.1.) --*Type 156 (Cf. all references for †B381), *Type 590; *BP III 1 (Gr. No. 121); *Fb "löve" II 518b; Dickson Valentine and Orson 107 n. 17, 118 n. 51. --Icel.: Boberg. --Irish myth: Cross; English: Wells 66 (Ywain and Gawain), 118f. (Octavian). --*Hibbard 271 n. 3. --Spanish Exempla: Keller. --Italian Novella: Rotunda. --Saintyves Saints Successeurs 252. --French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule; Missouri French: Carrière. --Jewish: Neuman. --India: *Thompson-Balys. --Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 131 No. 24, (Zanzibar): Bateman 82 No. 6.

B431.3. †B431.3. Helpful tiger. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 263; Korean: Zong in-Sob 82, No. 45.

B431.4. †B431.4. Helpful panther. Fable: Phaedrus III 2; Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 346), 127 (ST 357).

B433. †B433. Helpful wild beasts -- mustelidae.

B433.1. †B433.1. Helpful otter. Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxliv, Irish myth: Cross.

B433.2. †B433.2. Helpful badger. Jewish: Neuman; Japanese: Mitford 270ff.

B433.3. †B433.3. Helpful ichneumon. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Nao): Held Märchen und Sagen der afrikanischen Neger 132ff.

B433.4. †B433.4. Helpful mongoose. Chauvin II 100 No. 59; Bødker Exempler 299 No. 64; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B435. †B435. Helpful wild beasts -- canidae and other carnivora.

B435.1. †B435.1. Helpful fox. *Types 506, 545, 550; *BP I 331, 503, III 487, 490ff.; Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 179. --Sébillot RTP III 394; *Fb "höj" I 741, "ræv" III 113b. --Irish myth: Cross; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "animaux". --Missouri French: Carrière, Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys. --Chinese: Werner 380f., Krappe CFQ III (1944) 126, Eberhard FFC CXX 29 No. 17. --Japanese: Mitford 261ff. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 342 n. 233. --Africa (Tonga): Gifford 123.

B435.2. †B435.2. Helpful jackal. BP I 331; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B435.3. †B435.3. Helpful wolf. *Type 428; *Fb "ulv" IV 971a. --English: Wells Manual of Writings 20 (William of Palerne) (werwolf). --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "animaux". --Irish myth: Cross. --Italian Novella: Rotunda. --Jewish: Neuman. --Missouri-French: Carrière. --See also references for †B535.

B435.4. †B435.4. Helpful bear. *Fb "Bjørn" IV 42a, 43a. --Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Missouri-French: Carrière.

B435.5. †B435.5. Helpful seal. Irish myth: Cross.

B435.6. †B435.6. Helpful hyena. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B437. †B437. Helpful wild beasts -- rodentia. --India: Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 317 n. 147. --Tehuelche (Pategonia): Alexander Lat. Am. 335.

B437.1. †B437.1. Helpful rat. *Fb "rotte" III 83b. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 180. --Korean: Zong in-Sob 28 No. 12. --Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 214 No. 31, (Benga): Nassau 208 No. 33.

B437.1.1. †B437.1.1. Helpful bandicoot. India: Thompson-Balys.

B437.2. †B437.2. Helpful mouse. *Type 75, cf. Type 560. --Jewish: Neuman; Penzer V 79 n. 2. --India: *Thompson-Balys, Bødker Exempler 290 Nos 45, 46; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Missouri-French: Carrière. --Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 268. --Africa (Kaffir): Theal 85, Kidd 230 No. 2, (Basuto): Jacottet 190 No. 28.

B437.3. †B437.3. Helpful squirrel. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges. --India: Thompson-Balys. --Chinese: Graham. --Africa (Fang): Trilles Bulletin de la Société Neuchâteloise de Geographie XVI 238ff. No. 23.

B437.4. †B437.4. Helpful rabbit (hare). Fb "hare" IV 201a; Dh I 276ff. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "animaux". --Japanese: Anesaki 318.

B441. †B441. Helpful wild beasts -- primata.

B441.1. †B441.1. Helpful monkey. Penzer IX 47 n. 1; BP I 331. --Jewish: Neuman. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries' List No. 180. --Chile: Pino Saavedra 402, 404.

B441.1.1. †B441.1.1. Helpful ape. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 180. --Africa: Rochemonteix Quelques Contes Nubiens 48ff. No. 4, 55ff. No. 5, Basset Contes populaires d'Afrique 133ff. No. 52, (Bambara): Travélé Proverbes et Contes Bambara 200f. No. 65, (Temne): Schlender 87ff. No. 7, (Swahili): Steere 13ff.

B443. †B443. Helpful wild beasts -- ungulata.

B443.1. †B443.1. Helpful deer (stag, doe). *Fb "hjort", "hind". --Irish myth: Cross; Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxlii--cxliv. --Jewish: Neuman. --India: *Thompson-Balys. --Korean: Zong in-Sob 22 No. 11. --Africa (Angola): Chatelain 159 No. 19.

B443.2. †B443.2. Helpful antelope. Southeastern Africa: Macdonald FL III 352ff. No. 4.

B443.3. †B443.3. Helpful elephant. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 649; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B443.4. †B443.4. Helpful gazelle. BP I 331.

B443.5. †B443.5. Helpful wild hog (boar). Madagascar: Sibree FLJ II 45ff., Renel Contes de Madagascar I 65ff. No. 9, 140ff. No. 25, Ferrand 102ff. No. 32.

B443.6. †B443.6. Helpful hippopotamus. Africa (Ganda): Baskerville King of the Snakes 47f.

B443.7. †B443.7. Helpful wild ox. Irish myth: Cross.

B449. †B449. Helpful wild beasts -- miscellaneous.

B449.1. †B449.1. Helpful hedgehog. Dh I 276ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

B449.2. †B449.2. Helpful mole. Canadian: Gautier (†B449.13).

B449.3. †B449.3. Helpful bat. N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 318 n. 151 b.

B450. †B450. Helpful birds. *Köhler-Bolte I 185, 277; *Type 781; *Chauvin II 109 No 73, V 242 No. 142; *Basset 1001 Contes III 295; *Fb "fugl"; Wesselski Märchen 231. --Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 101; Irish myth: Cross; English: Child Eng.-Scot. Pop. Ballads II 113 n., 356ff., 362f., 365f., III 4, 8; IV 412, 482, 485f.; V 234. --Italian Novella: Rotunda; Missouri French: Carrière. --Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys Japanese: Ikeda. --Indonesian: De Vries' List No. 209. --Mono-Alu: Wheeler 20, 36, 46, 60f. --Papua: Ker 41, 45, 57, 64, 103. --New Hebrides: Codrington No. III 8. N. Am. Indian (Pawnee): Alexander N. Am. 81. --Africa (Benga): Nassau 140 No. 16, (Ekoi): Talbot 233, (Angola): Chatelain 145 No. 14, (Kaffir): Theal 37, 47, 127, (Swahili): Steere 199, (Basuto): Jacottet 104 No. 15.

B451. †B451. Helpful birds -- passeriformes.

B451.1. †B451.1. Helpful lark. Madagascar (Imerina): Ferrand Contes populaires Malgaches 102ff. No. 32.

B451.2. †B451.2. Helpful nightingale. *Chauvin II 117 No. 97; India: Thompson-Balys.

B451.3. †B451.3. Helpful wren. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B451.4. †B451.4. Helpful crow. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham. --Africa (Hausa): Tremearne FL XXII 464ff. No. 50, Hausa Superstitions and Customs 380 ff. No. 80.

B451.5. †B451.5. Helpful raven. *Fb "ravn" III 23a; *Zingerle Sagen aus Tirol 588. --Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 36; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Bødker Exempler 290 Nos. 45, 46; Jewish: Neuman. --Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 53.

B451.6. †B451.6. Helpful magpie. Chinese: Werner 190, Graham.

B451.7. †B451.7. Helpful sparrow. Irish myth: Cross; Japanese: Anesaki 318.

B455. †B455. Helpful birds -- falconiformes.

B455.1. †B455.1. Helpful vulture. Greek: Grote I 105; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B455.2. †B455.2. Helpful falcon. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B455.3. †B455.3. Helpful eagle. See references in †B322.1. --*Fb "fjer", "ørn" IV 1183b; Köhler-Bolte I 545, 560, *561; Reinhard PMLA XXXVIII 433 nn. 24, 26; Gaster Exempla 186 No. 5; Fables: Halm Aesop Nos. 92, 120, Babrius No. 144, Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 338, 339), 127 (ST 353). --Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 118; Finnish: Kalevala rune 7; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "oiseau", "nid". --Missouri French: Carrière; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys. --German New Guinea: Dixon 141f.; Africa (Vai): Ellis 242 No. 49.

B455.4. †B455.4. Helpful hawk. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 1; India: Thompson-Balys.

B455.5. †B455.5. Helpful kite (bird). Hindu: *Penzer IV 192 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B457. †B457. Helpful birds -- charidriiformes.

B457.1. †B457.1. Helpful dove. (Cf. †B362.) --Fable: Halm Aesop No. 296, Wienert FFC LVI 59 (ET 201), 127 (ST 356); Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "talisman". --Missouri-French: Carrière, Italian Novella: Rotunda. --Jewish: Neuman; Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B457.2. †B457.2. Helpful pigeon. Jewish: Neuman.

B461. †B461. Helpful birds -- coraciiformes.

B461.1. †B461.1. Helpful woodpecker. Africa (Shangani): Bourhill and Drake 43ff. No. 5, (Fjort): Dennett 74ff. No. 16.

B461.2. †B461.2. Helpful owl. India: Thompson-Balys.

B463. †B463. Helpful birds -- ciconiiformes.

B463.1. †B463.1. Helpful sea-bird. Type 554*. --Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxlvi; Irish myth: Cross.

B463.2. †B463.2. Helpful heron. India: *Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Ceuici): Alexander Lat. Am. 304.

B463.3. †B463.3. Helpful crane. India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda, Anesaki 323. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 340 n. 227.

B463.4. †B463.4. Helpful stork. Hartland Science 194; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B469. †B469. Helpful birds -- miscellaneous.

B469.1. †B469.1. Helpful grebe. Madagascar (Imerina): Ferrand Contes populaires Malgaches 102ff. No. 32.

B469.2. †B469.2. Helpful swan. Irish myth: Cross; Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxlvi. --Hindu: Keith 108; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B469.3. †B469.3. Helpful goose. *Köhler-Bolte I 347; India: Thompson-Balys.

B469.3.1. †B469.3.1. Helpful wild goose. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges (†B469.5); India: Thompson-Balys.

B469.4. †B469.4. Helpful duck. Fb "and" IV 12b. --Japanese: Anesaki 321, Ikeda; India: Thompson-Balys.

B469.4.1. †B469.4.1. Helpful wild duck. Africa (Betsileo): Renel Contes de Madagascar I 140ff. No. 25, (Imerina): Ferrand 102ff. No. 32.

B469.5. †B469.5. Helpful cock. *Type 670; *Aarne FFC XV 49ff.; Missouri-French: Carrière; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys. --Africa (Fjort): Dennett 105 No. 29.

B469.5.1. †B469.5.1. Helpful chicken. Jewish: Neuman.

B469.6. †B469.6. Helpful guinea-fowl. Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 65 No. 28.

B469.7. †B469.7. Helpful turkey. N. Am. Indian (Zuñi): Cushing 54ff.

B469.8. †B469.8. Helpful cuckoo. Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. 454f.

B469.9. †B469.9. Helpful parrot. Clouston II 196ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys. --Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 252.

B469.9.1. †B469.9.1. Helpful paroquet. India: Thompson-Balys.

B469.10. †B469.10. Helpful pheasant. Korean: Zong in-Sob 97 No. 53.

B470. †B470. Helpful fish. (Cf. †B375.1. and references.) --*Fb "ring" III 61a, "fisk" I 296. --Italian Novella: Rotunda; Missouri-French: Carrière. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "animaux", Hartland Science 174; Arabian: Burton S V 326; Hindu: Keith 99; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries Volksverhalen uit Oost Indië I No. 72 (also in some versions of No. 35). --Polynesian (Celebes): Dixon *72 n. 56; Indonesian, Japanese, N. Pacific Coast American Indian (Micmac): Dixon *157 n. 6; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 65 No. 3.

B470.1. †B470.1. Small fish as helper. Marquesas: Handy 99.

B471. †B471. Helpful shark. Fb "haj". --Tahiti: Dixon 64; Tonga: Gifford 76; Mono-Alu-Fauru: Wheeler 65.

B472. †B472. Helpful whale. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys. --N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327 n. 179. --Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 256ff. Nos. 38, 39, 275 No. 86. --Maori: Dixon 83.

B473. †B473. Helpful dolphin. *Chauvin V 4 No. 2; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 868. --Jewish: Neuman; Greek: Fox 101.

B474. †B474. Helpful salmon. *Type 675.

B475. †B475. Helpful pike. *Fb "gjedde".

B476. †B476. Helpful eel. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 478, 511.

B477. †B477. Helpful octopus. Marquesas: Handy 76.

B480. †B480. Helpful insects. India: *Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Graham.

B481. †B481. Helpful insects -- hymenoptera.

B481.1. †B481.1. Helpful ant. (Cf. †B362.) --Fb "myre". Fable: Halm Aesop No. 296, Wienert FFC LVI 59 (ET 201), 127 (ST 356). --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "fourmi", "animaux". --Missouri-French: Carrière. --Africa (Fjort): Dennett 126. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: Dixon 217, De Vries Volksverhalen I No. 67, II No. 170; Chinese: Graham.

B481.2. †B481.2. Helpful termite. Africa (Nao): Held 132ff.

B481.3. †B481.3. Helpful bee. *Fb "bi" IV 36b. --Finnish: Kalevala rune 15; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda, Anesaki 323.

B481.3.1. †B481.3.1. Helpful bumblebee. Africa (Ganda): Baskerville 8ff.

B481.4. †B481.4. Helpful wasp. *Type 559; Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Madagascar): Sibree FLJ I (1883) 45ff.

B481.5. †B481.5. Helpful hornet. Type 559; Jewish: Neuman; N. Am. Indian (Micmac): Rand 42 No. 6.

B482. †B482. Helpful insects -- coleoptera.

B482.1. †B482.1. Helpful firefly. Indonesian: De Vries Volksverhalen I No. 35, II No. 170.

B482.2. †B482.2. Helpful dungbeetle. Type 559; *BP II 454 n. 1.

B483. †B483. Helpful insects -- diptera.

B483.1. †B483.1. Helpful fly. Type 772*; Dh II 214. --Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 209; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B483.1.0.1. †B483.1.0.1. Fly warns saint against devil hidden in a cup with liquor. *Loomis White Magic 66.

B483.2. †B483.2. Helpful flea. *Chauvin II 197 No. 29.

B484. †B484. Helpful insects -- lepidoptera.

B484.1. †B484.1. Helpful caterpillar. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule (†B489.2).

B485. †B485. Helpful insects -- hemiptera.

B486. †B486. Helpful insects -- orthoptera.

B486.1. †B486.1. Helpful locusts. Arabian: Burton S VI 9.

B486.2. †B486.2. Helpful cricket. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B489. †B489. Helpful insects -- miscellaneous.

B489.1. †B489.1. Helpful spider. (Cf. †1.) *Dh I 144, II 66ff. --N. Am. Indian (Jicarilla Apache): Russell JAFL XI 256; *Loomis White Magic 66; Africa (Duala): Lederbogen Märchen V 141; India: Thompson-Balys.

B490. †B490. Other helpful animals. (Cf. †2.)

B491. †B491. Helpful reptile.

B491.1. †B491.1. Helpful serpent. *Types 612, 670, 672, 673; *BP I 128, 131, II 463; Dh I 276ff. (Cf. †A2145.2.) IV 147ff. (Type 560); *Fb "hugorm" I 666; "snog" III 436b, "blad" IV 44a; *Chauvin II 106 No. 71, VII 25 No. 373F n. 5; Köhler-Bolte I 440; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 648; *Ward Catalogue of Romances III 208; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 141; *Warnke Quellen des Esope der Marie de France 221ff.; Dickson Valentine and Orson 53; *Penzer I 101 n. 1. --Italian Novella: Rotunda; Missouri-French: Carrière. --Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 86 n. 2, 312 n. 2; Jewish: Neuman; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 305 No. 3; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 132 No. 78; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 46 No. 78. --Burmese: Scott Indo-Chinese Myth. 274; Indonesian: De Vries Volksverhalen I No. 67. --Sumatran: Dixon 163; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 95, No. 52. --Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 163 No. 32, (Zanzibar): Bateman 222 No. 10, (Benga): Nassau 208 No. 33.

B491.2. †B491.2. Helpful lizard. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "animaux". --India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham. --N. Am. Indian (Jicarilla Apache): Russell JAFL XI 256.

B491.3. †B491.3. Helpful crocodile. India: Thompson-Balys. --Africa (Madagascar): Sibree FLJ I 2-2ff., Larrouy RTP IV 305, (Temne): Schlenker Temne Traditions 87ff. No. 7.

B491.4. †B491.4. Helpful worm. Chinese, Persian: Coyajee JPASB XXIV 197f.; Jewish: Neuman.

B491.4.1. †B491.4.1. Helpful centipede. Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 30. --Africa (Benga): Nassau 208 No. 33.

B491.4.2. †B491.4.2. Helpful angleworm. Chinese: Graham.

B491.5. †B491.5. Helpful turtle (tortoise). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 514; Tonga: Gifford 50; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 74ff. No. 16.

B493. †B493. Helpful amphibian.

B493.1. †B493.1. Helpful frog. *Type 402, 440, 670B*; *BP I 1ff. (Gr. No. 1), II 30ff. (Gr. No. 63). --Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys: Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 30, 180. --Chile: Pino Saavedra 405. --Africa (Zulu): Callaway 241, (Ba Ronga): Einstein 288, (Basuto): Jacottet 202 No. 30.

B493.2. †B493.2. Helpful toad. Type 402; BP II 30ff. (Gr. No. 63). --Missouri-French: Carrière; Chinese: Graham.

B495. †B495. Helpful crustacean.

B495.1. †B495.1. Helpful crab. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 41 No. 6.

B495.2. †B495.2. Helpful lobster. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 180.

B498. †B498. Helpful mythical animal.

B498.1. †B498.1. Helpful dragon. (Cf. †B11.) --Italian Novella: Rotunda, Swiss Jegerlehner Oberwallis 328 No. 17; Chinese: Graham.

†B500-†B599. Services of helpful animals.

B500. †B500. Magic power from animals. --Type 675; Fb "ønske" III 1179a. --Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Missouri French: Carrière; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 317 n. 146c; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 71 No. 3. (Cf. †B100--†B199 Magic animals.)

B501. †B501. Animal gives part of body as talisman for summoning its aid. *Types 531, 552, 553; BP III 18ff., 424ff.; Malone PMLA XLIII 407; *Fb "fjer" I 301, "hår" I 771b. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v "talisman"; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15; Missouri-French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys. --Persian: Carnoy 290, 331. --Africa (Kaffir): Theal 85, (Swahili): Steere 199; N. Am. Indian (Pawnee): Dorsey MAFLS VIII 102.

B501.1. †B501.1. Buffalo give hero horns for summoning them.

B501.1.1. †B501.1.1. Merry horn and angry horn for summoning buffalo. When all is well hero is to blow on merry-horn; when in trouble on angry-horn. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B501.2. †B501.2. Kite teaches rhyme by which he may be summoned for help. India: Thompson-Balys.

B501.3. †B501.3. Animal gives jewel for summoning him when in need of help. India: Thompson-Balys.

B501.4. †B501.4. Birds give hero feather to burn if he is in difficulty. India: Thompson-Balys.

B505. †B505. Magic object received from animal. *Types 560, 561; *Aarne MSFO XXV 3--82; BP II 451ff., 537; Type 554*; *Köhler-Bolte I 440; Hartland Perseus III 199; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "talisman"; Missouri-French: Carrière. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 37 No. 24. --Africa (Zanzibar): Bateman 221 No. 10, (Basuto): Jacottet 214 No. 31. See also references in †B375.1.

B505.1. †B505.1. Magic object received from animal brother-in-law. *Type 552. --N. Am. Indian (Micmac): Thompson CColl II 409ff.

B505.2. †B505.2. Animal tells hero where to find magic object. (Cf. †B560.) --French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

B505.3. †B505.3. Magic song received from fish. (Cf. †B470.) --Chinese: Graham.

B510. †B510. Healing by animals.

B511. †B511. Animal as healer.

B511.1. †B511.1. Snake as healer. *Chauvin VII 25 No. 373 F note 5; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 648; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

B511.1.1. †B511.1.1. Snake creeps into man's mouth and heals him. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 132 No. 78; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 46 No. 78.

B511.1.2. †B511.1.2. Snake heals mutilated maiden with magic herbs. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B511.1.3. †B511.1.3. Helpful hedgehog forces snake to suck out poison from bitten raja. India: Thompson-Balys.

B511.2. †B511.2. Pig as healer.

B511.2.1. †B511.2.1. Magic pig heals wound its skin touches. Irish myth: Cross.

B511.2.2. †B511.2.2. Magic pig heals wounds by licking. Irish myth: Cross.

B511.3. †B511.3. Faithful horse pushes sleep thorn out of its master's head, so that he awakes. Icel.: Boberg.

B511.4. †B511.4. Rat cures man of wound. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE 143 III 685.

B511.5. †B511.5. Bird heals man. Chinese-Persian: Coyajee JPASB XXIV 185f.; Alu: Wheeler 60; Papua: Ker 103.

B511.5.1. †B511.5.1. Vulture cures blindness. India: Thompson-Balys.

B512. †B512. Medicine shown by animal. It heals another animal with a medicine (herb, water, etc.) and thus shows the man the remedy. Sometimes the medicine resuscitates the dead. (The animal is most frequently the serpent. (Cf. †B491.) --*Type 160, 303, 590, 612; *BP I 128; Chauvin II 106 No. 71; Kittredge Gawain 153 n. 4; Wesselski Märchen 239f. No. 50. --*Krappe Papers and Trans. of Jubilee Cong. of Folk-Lore Soc. 277ff. --*Fb "blad" IV 44a; *Frazer Apollodorus I 312 n. 2. --Icel.: Boberg, Völsunga saga ch. 8.; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda. N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 354 n. 279.

B513. †B513. Remedy learned from overhearing animal meeting. The hero learns how to cure his own blindness and the sickness of the king (princess). --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Missouri-French: Carrière; India: Thompson-Balys. --See references for †B235.

B514. †B514. Animal fetches remedy for man. Missouri-French: Carrière.

B514.1. †B514.1. Grateful fox fetches fox liver as remedy. Japanese: Mitford 261ff.

B514.2. †B514.2. Bee fetches balm from heaven to restore hero's speech. Finnish: Kalevala rune 15.

B514.3. †B514.3. Snake gives man antidote for poison. Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 163 No. 32.

B515. †B515. Resuscitation by animals. *Types 300, 665. Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B516. †B516. Sight restored by animal. India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 31, Rasmussen I 312, III 203, Rink 100, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 169, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 169, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 626.

B520. †B520. Animals save person's life. (Cf. †B540.) --Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 372 n. 1 (horse). --Icel.: *Boberg; Missouri-French: Carrière; Panchatantra III 8 (tr. Ryder) 334; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1260; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 25, 28, 31, 84; Africa (Duala): Lederbogen 76.

B521. †B521. Animal warns of fatal danger. India: *Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman; U.S.: Baughman; Africa (Duala): Lederbogen Märchen 75, (Fang): Trilles 138, (Loango): Pechuël-Loesche 109.

B521.1. †B521.1. Animal warns against poison. Fable: Halm Aesop No. 120, Wienert FFC LVI 70 (ET 338), 127 (ST 353), (eagle). --India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 76 No. 12 (ox).

B521.1.1. †B521.1.1. Horse advises hero not to wash in water (as his false wife told him to) or his eyes will pop out. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B521.1.2. †B521.1.2. Animal warns man against drinking. India: Thompson-Balys.

B521.2. †B521.2. Animal warns against accident.

B521.2.1. †B521.2.1. Eagle saves man from falling wall. The grateful eagle swoops down and takes the man's hat, and thus gets him away from the wall that is about to fall. --Fable: Babrius No. 144, Halm Aesop No. 92, Wienert FFC 70 (ET 339), 127 (ST 353).

B521.3. †B521.3. Animals warn against attack. Icel.: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 87.

B521.3.1. †B521.3.1. Dogs warn against witch. Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 270 No. 82; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 452.

B521.3.2. †B521.3.2. Cackling geese spread alarm. *Frazer Fasti II 175 n. 5.

B521.3.3. †B521.3.3. Flea's bite alarms king. Robber tells flea of plan to rob king. During the robbery the flea bites and awakens the king. --*Chauvin II 197 No. 29.

B521.3.3.1. †B521.3.3.1. Prince awakened by fly on his nose in time to save himself from enemy. India: Thompson-Balys.

B521.3.4. †B521.3.4. Dog warns of pursuit. Irish myth: Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 536.

B521.3.5. †B521.3.5. Owl warns other birds from limed net. India: Thompson-Balys.

B521.4. †B521.4. Animals warn wife of husband's danger. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 252.

B521.5. †B521.5. Owl saves man from plunging over cliff. Flaps wings and arrests man's attention. --Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 124.

B521.6. †B521.6. Birds warn of enemy's approach. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 390.

B522. †B522. Animal saves man from death sentence. India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.

B522.1. †B522.1. Serpent shows condemned man how to save prince's life. Bites the prince and then shows the man the proper remedy (cf. †B512). By thus ingratiating himself the man is freed from false accusation. --*Type 160; Chauvin II 106 No. 71. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Clouston Tales I 230; Bødker Exempler 304 No. 75; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda. --Africa (Vai): Ellis 230 No. 39.

B522.2. †B522.2. Kite steals jewels and thus saves condemned man. Innocent man in possession of stolen jewels, is about to be apprehended. Kite carries off the jewels and saves him. --*Penzer IV 192 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B522.3. †B522.3. Woman slandered as adulteress is thrown into lion pit. Lions do not harm her. --Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B522.4. †B522.4. Eagle carries off condemned child. Irish myth: Cross.

B522.4.1. †B522.4.1. Circling cranes carry away girl. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 480.

B523. †B523. Animal saves man from pursuer. Missouri-French: Carrière.

B523.1. †B523.1. Spider-web over hole saves fugitive. (Cf. †A2221.5.) --Type 967*; *Dh II 66f. --*Wesselski Theorie 42. --Jewish: Neuman, Bin Gorion; Born Judas@2 III 115ff., Grünbaum Neue Beiträge zur Semitischen Sagenkunde 195; Lappish: Qvigstad Lappiske Eventyr I No. 32, II No. 68. --India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Africa (Fang): Trilles 139.

B523.2. †B523.2. Whale fights monster pursuing saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B523.3. †B523.3. Great clam fights hero's pursuer. Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 260.

B524. †B524. Animal overcomes man's adversary. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B524.1. †B524.1. Animals overcome man's adversary by force. English: Wells Manual of Writings 66 (Ywain and Gawain); Irish myth: Cross; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 98 No. 327; India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 493, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 187.

B524.1.1. †B524.1.1. Dogs kill attacking cannibal (dragon). *Type 300; *BP I 547. --Irish myth: Cross; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 20. --Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 56 No. 9, (Zulu): Callaway 51, (Kaffir): Kidd 226 No. 1.

B524.1.2. †B524.1.2. Dogs rescue fleeing master from tree refuge. *Parsons Zs. f. Ethnologie LIV 1--29, MAFLS XVII 271 No. 82. --See also most of African references in †B421.

B524.1.2.1. †B524.1.2.1. Dogs break bonds and kill master's attacker. Type 327; India: Thompson-Balys.

B524.1.3. †B524.1.3. Cat kills attacking rat. Japanese: Ikeda, Mitford 253ff.

B524.1.4. †B524.1.4. Wolf defends master's child against serpent. Malone PMLA XLIII 420; Irish myth: Cross.

B524.1.4.1. †B524.1.4.1. Dog defends master's child against animal assailant. Irish myth: Cross.

B524.1.5. †B524.1.5. Helpful buffaloes tramp hero's enemies to death. India: Thompson-Balys.

B524.1.5.1. †B524.1.5.1. Helpful buffaloes save hero from tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.

B524.1.6. †B524.1.6. Helpful bird kills snake attacking master's wife and child. Africa (Mbundu): JAFL XXXV 136ff. No. 16.

B524.1.7. †B524.1.7. Horse kills master's attacking enemies. Irish myth: Cross.

B524.1.8. †B524.1.8. Shut in with elephants, blackbird orders ants to burrow themselves into the elephants' brains. India: Thompson-Balys.

B524.1.9. †B524.1.9. Grateful hawk attacks hero's enemies. Chinese: Graham.

B524.1.10. †B524.1.10. Helpful centipede kills ogre. Chinese: Graham.

B524.1.11. †B524.1.11. Hero contests with demons, using fighting animals: cock, goat, bull, horse, wild bull, peacock. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B524.1.12. †B524.1.12. Hero saved from ravaging snake by crab companion. India: Thompson-Balys.

B524.2. †B524.2. Animals overcome man's adversary by strategy. Type 545; BP I 325ff., III 487 (Gr. 33a, 214). --Icel.: Boberg; Indonesian: De Vries' list No. 48. --Africa (Kaffir): Kidd 230 No. 2, (Ekoi): Talbot 233, (Basuto): Jacottet 114 No. 27.

B524.2.1. †B524.2.1. Helpful bees (hornets) sting opposing army. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman, Bin Gorion Born Judas@2 III 113ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 323.

B524.2.1.1. †B524.2.1.1. Saint sends swarm of bees or wasps against enemies. *Loomis White Magic 65f.

B524.3. †B524.3. Helpful snake protects man from attack. India: Thompson-Balys.

B524.4. †B524.4. Supernatural bird prevents mother from killing babe. Irish myth: Cross.

B524.5. †B524.5. Broom, transformed into porcupine, drives away would-be ravisher. India: Thompson-Balys.

B524.6. †B524.6. Grateful hare raises animal army for hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

B524.7. †B524.7. Faithful dog kills would-be murderer of sleeping master. India: Thompson-Balys.

B524.8. †B524.8. Chicken picks out one of attacker's eyes. Jewish: Neuman.

B525. †B525. Animal spares man he is about to devour. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 851. --See all references to †B381.

B525.1. †B525.1. Tiger hides woman from all other tigers. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 155, 161, (Carib): ibid. 146.

B526. †B526. Animal saves man from death by burning.

B526.1. †B526.1. Helpful animals quench execution fire. Master is to be burned at stake. --Dh I 315.

B526.2. †B526.2. Helpful mare cools boiling bath for master. Hero is made to bathe in boiling mare's milk. His mare blows on the milk and cools it. --*Köhler-Bolte I 468.

B527. †B527. Animal saves man from death by drowning. Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxlvi (sea birds); Irish myth: Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 747.

B527.1. †B527.1. Fish promises to spare man in coming flood. (Cf. †B375.1.) --Hindu: Keith 99; India: Thompson-Balys.

B527.2. †B527.2. Helpful animal stops leak in Noah's Ark. Dh I 276ff.

B527.3. †B527.3. Owl saves man from drowning: flaps wings to call attention to direction of land. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 125.

B529. †B529. Animal saves person's life -- miscellaneous.

B529.1. †B529.1. Animals (sow, bitch, mare) hide boy in their belly to protect him. India: Thompson-Balys.

B529.2. †B529.2. Dragon swallows arrow (thunderbolt) intended for hero. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B530. †B530. Animals nourish men. Provide food, shelter, or other necessities. --India: Thompson-Balys. --Zanzibar: Bateman 85 No. 6 (ape, lion, snake).

B530.1. †B530.1. Mythical frog as host to woman. S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 146.

B530.2. †B530.2. Elephants look after ascetic in jungle. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 44.

B531. †B531. Animals provide food for men. *Basset 1001 Contes III 295 (birds); *Wesselski Märchen 249 No. 57; Toldo Studien zur vgl. Littgsch. VIII 21; *Fb "hind" I 612 (deer); Alphabet Nos. 361. 636. --Irish myth: Cross, Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxliv (otter). --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "nourriture" (bird, dog); French Canadian: *Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15 (dog); Missouri-French: Carrière; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 328 No 17 (dragon). --Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 217, II 655, 1158; Chinese: Graham; Africa: Stanley 329, (Angola): Chatelain 129 No. 19; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 143, III 80, 198, Rink 227, 413, 462, Holm 84, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 222, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 638, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 176. --S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 6, (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 155.

B531.1. †B531.1. Infants fed by bees. *Pease Cicero De Divinatione 391 (Bk. I 79), 597; S. Am. Indian (Kaiguá): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 139.

B531.2. †B531.2. Unusual milking animal.

B531.2.1. †B531.2.1. Does, tigresses, she-wolves milked into pond, which becomes a pond of milk. India: Thompson-Balys.

B531.3. †B531.3. Helpful animal recovers magic food-producing skin from river bottom. India: Thompson-Balys.

B531.4. †B531.4. Helpful animal drops magic food. India: Thompson-Balys.

B531.5. †B531.5. Birds save man from hunger by pitching themselves to roast in fire he has made. India: Thompson-Balys.

B535. †B535. Animal nurse. Animal nourishes abandoned child. --*Frazer Fasti II 369ff., especially 369 n. 3, 375; Dickson Valentine and Orson 36, 103, 107, 112, 169; *Liebrecht Zur Volkskunde 17ff.; *Nutt FLR IV 1ff.; Penzer II 294; *Fb "ulv" III 971 a (Wolf); *BP II 317, III 60ff. --Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 22 (doe), 56 (bear), 118, 155 (goat, crow, sow), 280, Frazer Apollodorus I 397, II 47 n. 2, Roscher s. v. "Achilleus"; Roman: Fox 307 (Romulus and Remus) (wolf); Persian: Carnoy 330; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chien" (dog); Missouri-French: Carrière; McCartney Papers of Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters IV (1924) 15--42; Wesselski Theorie 19; Icel.: Þiðriks saga I 302--03 (hind), Boberg; English: Wells 118 (Octovian) (lion); Chinese: Ferguson 41. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 387 (Mt. 707), Thompson Tales 316 n. 146b; S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Ehrenreich International Congress of Americanists XIV 662. --Indonesian: De Vries Volksverhalen I Nos. 22, 89; India: *Thompson-Balys; --Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 104 No. 15, 190 No. 28, (Wakweli): Bender 49f.

B535.0.1. †B535.0.1. Cow as nurse cares for children. India: Thompson-Balys.

B535.0.1.1. †B535.0.1.1. Bison as nurse for child. India: Thompson-Balys.

B535.0.2. †B535.0.2. Bandicoot (large rat) as nurse. Cares for children. --India: *Thompson-Balys.

B535.0.3. †B535.0.3. Goat as nurse for child. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

B535.0.4. †B535.0.4. Dog as nurse for child. India: Thompson-Balys.

B535.0.5. †B535.0.5. Abandoned prince grows up in eagle's nest. India: Thompson-Balys.

B535.0.6. †B535.0.6. Frog as nurse for child. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 146.

B535.0.7. †B535.0.7. Bird as nurse for child. Chinese-Persian: *Coyajee JPASB XXIV 188.

B535.0.7.1. †B535.0.7.1. Stork as nurse for child. India: Thompson-Balys.

B535.0.7.2. †B535.0.7.2. Crane as nurse for child. India: Thompson-Balys.

B535.0.8. †B535.0.8. Tiger as nurse for child. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 161, (Amuesa): ibid. 129.

B535.0.9. †B535.0.9. She-wolf as nurse for child. *Loomis White Magic 60; Roman myth: Fox 307.

B535.0.10. †B535.0.10. Sheep and oxen protect exposed child. Chinese: Coyajee JPASB XXIV 188.

B535.0.11. †B535.0.11. She-wolf cares for baby exposed in the forest. *Loomis White Magic 60.

B535.0.12. †B535.0.12. Eagle cares for baby while mother works in field. Africa (Fang): Tessman 134.

B535.0.13. †B535.0.13. Crab as nurse for child. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE 143 III 684.

B535.0.14. †B535.0.14. Serpent as nurse for child. Greek: Grote I 44; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 529.

B535.1. †B535.1. Goat feeds other animals from its body. Permits them to feed from it internally. --Africa (Benga): Nassau 202 No. 32.

B535.2. †B535.2. Animal nurses fight with real parent for children. India: Thompson-Balys.

B536. †B536. Helpful animal cares for wounded (sick) master.

B536.1. †B536.1. Helpful bird cares for blinded master. India: Thompson-Balys.

B537. †B537. Animals adopt mysterious housekeeper. India: Thompson-Balys.

B538. †B538. Animals provide shelter.

B538.1. †B538.1. Bird gives shelter with wings. (Cf. †B450.) --Irish myth: Cross; Günter Christliche Legende des Abendlandes 125; Singer Zs. f. deutsch. Altertum XXXV 184f.; Dunlop-Wilson History of Fiction I 428; Saintyves Saints Successeurs 134; Dh I 321ff.; Hand. d. Abergl. I 187. --Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 104 No. 15.

B538.2. †B538.2. Wolf-tail blankets. Wolves shelter man with their tails. --N. Am. Indian (Ojibwa): Jones-Michelson PAES VII (1) 77, Carson JAFL XXX 491 No. 1.

B540. †B540. Animal rescuer or retriever. Rescue person or retrieve lost object. --Japanese: Anesaki 320.

B540.1. †B540.1. Birds throw some of their feathers to the hero in danger and he flies off. Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. *3270, *404.

B540.2. †B540.2. Helpful horse rescues children. India: Thompson-Balys.

B541. †B541. Animal rescues man from sea. Type 506; BP III 494ff.; Liljeblad Tobiasgeschichte 94; Missouri-French: Carrière.

B541.1. †B541.1. Escape from sea on fish's back. (Cf. †B551.) --*Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 868; *Chauvin V 4 No. 2.

B541.1.1. †B541.1.1. Fish swallows man to rescue him from sea. India: Thompson-Balys.

B541.2. †B541.2. Fox rescues man from sea. Type 506; BP III 494ff.;--N. Am. Indian: Thompson CColl II 405ff. (Passamaquoddy, Shuswap).

B541.3. †B541.3. Bird rescues man from sea. (Cf. †B542, †B450.) --*Liljeblad Tobiasgeschichte 94. --N. Am. Indian (Ojibwa): Thompson CColl II 408.

B541.4. †B541.4. Dog rescues drowning man. Type 540*.

B541.4.1. †B541.4.1. Boat towed by dog. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 505, (Greenland): Rink 196.

B541.5. †B541.5. Fish rescues ship. (Cf. †B470.) --*Charpentier Kleine Beiträge 34 n. 1.

B542. †B542. Animal carries man through air to safety.

B542.1. †B542.1. Bird flies with man to safety. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B542.1.1. †B542.1.1. Eagle carries man to safety. *Type 301; BP II 300 (Gr. No. 91). See all references under †B322.1. --Irish myth: Cross; Missouri-French: Carrière; Finnish: Kalevala rune 7; Japanese: Hartland Science 194, Ikeda. --Africa (Kaffir): Theal 47, 127, (Vai): Ellis 242 No. 49.

B542.1.2. †B542.1.2. Bat rescues man from height. Bat lets him down in a spider-web basket. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 318 n. 151b, Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 95.

B542.1.3. †B542.1.3. Measuring worm rescues from a height. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 76.

B542.2. †B542.2. Escape on flying horse. (Cf. †B41.2.) --*Chauvin V 227f. No. 130; Missouri-French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B542.2.1. †B542.2.1. Transportation to fairyland on griffin's back. India: Thompson-Balys.

B543. †B543. Animal finds stolen person. Scotch: Campbell I 1ff. (dog, hawk, otter). --India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 232 No. 34.

B543.0.1. †B543.0.1. Animal helps on quest for vanished wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

B543.1. †B543.1. Bottlefly finds stolen woman in sky. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 79.

B543.2. †B543.2. Animal finds stolen goods. India: Thompson-Balys.

B543.3. †B543.3. Stolen child rescued by animal nurse. (Cf. †B535.) --Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; *Krappe Balor 80ff.

B543.3.1. †B543.3.1. Elephant rescues stolen girl. India: Thompson-Balys.

B544. †B544. Animal rescues captive. *Fb "höj" I 741 b (fox); Missouri-French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 17 No. 8. --Africa (Zulu): Callaway 147, 241 (dog, frog), (Cameroon): Meinhof 88, 102.

B544.1. †B544.1. Animals help imprisoned master. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 180.

B545. †B545. Animal rescues from trap (net). *Type 75. See references in †B363. --Penzer V 79 n. 2 (mouse); Japanese: Ikeda.

B545.1. †B545.1. Deer in net freed by friendly animals, a crow, a mouse and a tortoise. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B545.2. †B545.2. Rat (mouse) gnaws net. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B546. †B546. Animal searches for dead man. Breton: Sébillot s.v. "mort" (dog).

B547. †B547. Animal rescues man from dangerous place.

B547.1. †B547.1. Animal rescues man from well. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B547.2. †B547.2. Raven rescues man from pit. French-Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule (†B542.3).

B547.2.1. †B547.2.1. Man falls in hole with horse; buzzards gather; he lassoes a number of buzzards, ties them together, frightens them; all fly at once, carry him from hole. (Tall tale.) Cf. Type 1882. --U.S.: Baughman.

B547.3. †B547.3. Centaur rescues man from beast-infested jungle. Greek: Grote I 109.

B547.4. †B547.4. Frog rescues man from kingdom of the snakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

B548. †B548. Animal retrieves lost object.

B548.1. †B548.1. Animals recover lost wishing ring. Grateful cat, dog, and snake compel mouse to steal it from thief. --*Type 560; **Aarne MSFO XXV 3--82; *BP II 455ff.; Dh IV 147ff. --Missouri-French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys. --Indonesian: De Vries' list No. 186; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 24ff. No. 13, 68.

B548.1.1. †B548.1.1. Martens recover lost magic ring from kite. India: Thompson-Balys.

B548.1.2. †B548.1.2. Otters recover lost magic ring from fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

B548.2. †B548.2. Fish brings lost object from bottom of sea.

B548.2.1. †B548.2.1. Fish recovers ring from sea. *Type 554; *BP II 19ff.; *Fb "gjedde" I 440a, "ring" III 61a; Wünsche (A.) Die Sage vom Ring des Polykrates in der Weltliteratur (Beilage zur Allgemeinen Zeitung, 1893, Nos. 179, 180, 185, 188); Chauvin V 17; Köhler-Bolte II 209; Clouston Tales I 398ff.; Saintyves Essais de folklore biblique 402. --Irish myth: Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Fox 101; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 69 No. 515; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys. Cf. †L412.1. Woman casts ring into sea.

B548.2.2. †B548.2.2. Fish recovers key from sea. *Type 554; *BP II 19ff.; *Fb "haj" I 534, "fisk" I 296, "ring" III 61a. --Irish myth: Cross, Beal XXI 308; Missouri-French: Carrière.

B548.2.2.1. †B548.2.2.1. Frog recovers keys from sea. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

B548.2.2.2. †B548.2.2.2. Duck recovers lost key from sea. German: Grimm No. 62.

B548.2.3. †B548.2.3. Fish recovers lost fish-hook from sea. Hatt Asiatic Influences 90f.; *Dixon 157 n. 6 (Indonesian, Japanese, N. Pac. Coast Am. Indian, Micmac); Japanese: Ikeda.

B548.2.4. †B548.2.4. Fish recovers pen from sea. *Type 531.

B548.2.5. †B548.2.5. Fish recovers lost urn from sea. Irish myth: Cross.

B548.3. †B548.3. Otter retrieves lost magic object from bottom of lake. India: Thompson-Balys.

B548.4. †B548.4. Ducks recover lost object from water. Madagascar (Marofotsy): Renel Contes de Madagascar I 65ff. No. 9.

B548.5. †B548.5. Frog recovers Sacred Host from water. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

B548.6. †B548.6. Jewel recovered from sea by helpful parrot. India: Thompson-Balys.

B549. †B549. Animal rescuer -- miscellaneous.

B549.1. †B549.1. Girl saved by lion from ravishment. (Cf. †B443.) --Alphabet No. 775; *Loomis White Magic 58; U.S.: Baughman.

B549.2. †B549.2. Dragon makes bridge across stream for holy man. (Cf. †B11.) --Jewish: Bin Gorion Born Judas@2 II 170, 349.

B549.3. †B549.3. Abandoned child rescued by dog. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B549.4. †B549.4. Animal rescues from cave. Chinese: Eberhart FFC CXX 180.

B549.5. †B549.5. Hero saved from ravaging snake by crab companion. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B550. †B550. Animals carry men. --India: *Thompson-Balys.

B551. †B551. Animal carries man across water. India: Thompson-Balys.

B551.1. †B551.1. Fish carries man across water. (Cf. †B541.1, all references in †R246.) --Gunter Die Christliche Legende des Abendlandes 17, 56, 80 (dolphin). --Chinese: Werner 366. --*Dixon 72 n. 56 (Hawaii, Tahiti, Celebes).

B551.1.0.1. †B551.1.0.1. Fish carries man to upper world. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 42 No. 302* A.

B551.2. †B551.2. Aquatic bird carries man across water. India: Thompson-Balys.

B551.2.1. †B551.2.1. Parrots carry couple across the sea. India: Thompson-Balys.

B551.3. †B551.3. Crocodile carries man across river (ocean). India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 365.

B551.4. †B551.4. Water snake carries boy across river. India: Thompson-Balys.

B551.5. †B551.5. Turtle (tortoise) carries person across river (ocean). Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 997; Tonga: Gifford 53.

B552. †B552. Man carried by bird. See all references in †B542.1. and †B542.1.1. --Chauvin V 230 No. 130, VII 12; *Reinhard PMLA XXXVIII 433 nn. 24, 26. --Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 37 n. 4 (Ganymede); Jewish: Neuman*, Bin Gorion Born Judas@2 I 228; Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "nid"; Irish myth: Cross, Saints' legend (Irish): Plummer cxlvi. --Missouri-French: Carrière. --German New Guinea: Dixon 141f. India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 38f.; Africa: Stanley 83, (Boloki): Weeks 202f., (Upoto): Einstein 138, (Pangwe): Tessman 370, (Fang): ibid. 160.

B552.1. †B552.1. Alexander carried by two birds with meat held in front of them. Jewish: Neuman; Gaster Exempla 186 No. 5.

B552.2. †B552.2. Man carried by peacock. India: Thompson-Balys.

B552.3. †B552.3. Indra carried by cock. India: Thompson-Balys.

B555. †B555. Animals serve as bridge across stream. Jewish: Neuman (snake); Persian: Carnoy 289 (ox); Burmese: Scott Indo-Chinese 274 (snake); Chinese: Werner 190 (magpie); Korean: Zong in-Sob 6 No. 2. (fish and tortoise). --India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Ceuici): Alexander Lat. Am 304 (herons).

B556. †B556. Sea-beast allows voyager to land upon his back. Irish myth: Cross.

B557. †B557. Unusual animal as riding-horse. *BP II 483 (Gr. 108) (cock); Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 72f. (goat, goose, snake); *Fb "buk" IV 77a (goat); Penzer II 143. --Missouri-French: Carrière; Icel.: Boberg; English: Wells 114 (lion, unicorn, leopard); Jewish: Bin Gorion Born Judas@2 III 148; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 392 (tiger).

B557.1. †B557.1. Man carried on goat's horns. (Goat is transformed man.) --German: Grimm No. 163.

B557.2. †B557.2. Saint carried by wild oxen. Irish myth: Cross.

B557.3. †B557.3. Man carried by deer. Irish myth: Cross; *Loomis White Magic 61; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B557.4. †B557.4. Crocodile as means of transportation for a saint. *Loomis White Magic 64.

B557.5. †B557.5. Person carried by lion. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B557.6. †B557.6. Magic dog carries owner in his ear. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 64.

B557.7. †B557.7. Person carried by cat. India: Thompson-Balys.

B557.8. †B557.8. Person carried by cobra. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B557.9. †B557.9. Person carried by locust. India: Thompson-Balys.

B557.10. †B557.10. Person carried by tiger. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B557.11. †B557.11. Person (animal) carried by elephant.

B557.11.1. †B557.11.1. Hero rides on animated wax elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

B557.11.2. †B557.11.2. Hero rides on winged elephant. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B557.11.3. †B557.11.3. Hare rides on winged elephant. Africa (Cameroon): Meinhof 12.

B557.12. †B557.12. Person carried by peacock. --India: *Thompson-Balys.

B557.13. †B557.13. Jackal rides on fox. India: Thompson-Balys.

B557.14. †B557.14. Person carried by frog. India: Thompson-Balys.

B557.15. †B557.15. Wolf carries man. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B558. †B558. Unusual draft-animal.

B558.1. †B558.1. Boat drawn by swans (geese). **Boekenoogen Ridder metter Swane 166ff. --Krappe Balor 44; *Fb "svane" III 664 --Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 262. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 358 n. 287 n.

B558.2. †B558.2. Swans harnessed to chariot. Chauvin V 230 No. 130. --Greek: Sappho "Ode to Aphrodite" (Team of sparrows). --Hindu: Keith 108, Penzer VIII 151f.

B558.3. †B558.3. Hen hitched to wagon. *Fb "höne" I 750b.

B558.4. †B558.4. Deer hitched to wagon. Irish myth: Cross.

B558.5. †B558.5. Mice hitched to wagon. Fb. "mus".

B558.6. †B558.6. Wild animals yoked by saint to his plough. *Loomis White Magic 60.

B558.7. †B558.7. Winged serpents pull chariot through sky. Greek: Grote I 112 (Medea).

B559. †B559. Animals carry men -- miscellaneous.

B559.1. †B559.1. Man carried by toad. Chinese: Graham.

B560. †B560. Animals advise men. Type 400 and references on the whole section in this work concerned with Helpful Animals (†B300--599), since advice is very frequently part of the help. --*BP I 134; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 28.

B560.1. †B560.1. Grateful dragon king gives hero advice. Korean: Zong in-Sob 170, No. 73.

B561. †B561. Animals tell hero their secrets. Do so voluntarily. --*BP II 482.

B562. †B562. Animals' advice leads man to wealth. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B562.1. †B562.1. Animal shows man treasure. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 78 No. 651. --India: *Thompson-Balys; *Norlind Skattsägner 37ff., 41ff.; Chauvin II 109 No. 73, *117 No. 97. --Chinese: Graham, Werner 380; Japanese: Ikeda; Africa (Swahili): Steere 13ff.

B562.1.0.1. †B562.1.0.1. Helpful animal discovers jewel. Africa (Swahili): Steere 13ff., Meinhof Afrikanische Märchen 9ff. No. 1, Bateman 99ff. No. 7.

B562.1.1. †B562.1.1. Hogs root up gold (treasure) for saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B562.1.2. †B562.1.2. Horse kicks up jewel. Irish myth: Cross.

B562.1.3. †B562.1.3. Birds show man treasure. Doves saved by monk from death show him where to dig for treasure. --Spanish Exempla: Keller; Bødker Exempler 305 No. 77.

B562.2. †B562.2. Animal advises about investment. Chinese: Werner 381 (fox).

B563. †B563. Animals direct man on journey. Type 400; Schoepperle Tristan and Isolt I 190f.; Dickson Valentine and Orson 54 n. 67; *Günter Christliche Legende des Abendlandes 235 s.v. "Führung"; *DeCock Studien en Essays 200ff.; *Fb "Ravn" III 23a. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Benga): Nassau No. 33, (Basuto): Jacottet 140 No. 20, 202 No. 30, (Ekoi): Talbot 209.

B563.1. †B563.1. Lion leads lost king from forest. (Cf. †B431.2.) --Dickson Valentine and Orson 123 n. 75.

B563.1.1. †B563.1.1. Horses carry lost riders to safety. India: Thompson-Balys.

B563.1.2. †B563.1.2. Chimpanzee leads lost hunter home. Africa (Duala): Lederbogen 146.

B563.2. †B563.2. Birds point out road to hero. (Cf. †B151.0.3.). --E. Norden P. Vergilius Maro Æneis Buch VI p. 170; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 216 (ravens); Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

B563.3. †B563.3. Squirrel points out road. India: Thompson-Balys.

B563.4. †B563.4. Animal leads cleric to holy place. Irish myth: Cross (†B549.7).

B563.4.1. †B563.4.1. Animal leads lost man home. Irish myth: Cross (†B549.7).

B563.4.1.1. †B563.4.1.1. Tiger guides lost man home; hence men do not eat tigers. India: Thompson-Balys.

B563.4.1.2. †B563.4.1.2. Jackal leads lost men out of wilderness. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B563.5. †B563.5. Wild leopards guide Jesus and the Holy Family through wilderness in flight to Egypt. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

B563.6. †B563.6. Birds as scouts. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 466.

B563.7. †B563.7. Bird conducts navigators to landing place. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 92.

B565. †B565. Parrot gives advice to queen playing chess, and she always wins. India: Thompson-Balys.

B569. †B569. Animals advise men -- miscellaneous.

B569.1. †B569.1. Owl advises old man of projected visit by gods (in disguise). India: Thompson-Balys.

B569.2. †B569.2. Owl advises old man where to plant his crops after listening in to council of gods concerning rainfall distribution for the year. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B569.3. †B569.3. Mosquito gives hero advice as to which choice to make. Korean: Zong in-Sob 18 No. 8.

B570. †B570. Animals serve men. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B571. †B571. Animals perform tasks for man. *Type 554; BP I 134, II *21ff.; Köhler-Bolte I 397; *Fb "fugl" I 381a; Köhler Zs. f. Vksk. VI 71 (to Gonzenbach No. 32). --Arabian: Burton S VI 9--11. --Indonesian, Malay: Dixon 216, 217, *218 n. 23. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 28, 80 No. 46. --Carib: Alexander Lat. Am. 264; Chincha: ibid. 231; Quiché: ibid. 174; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Missouri-French: Carrière.

B571.1. †B571.1. Animals help man overcome monster with external soul. Discover where he keeps his soul. --BP I 134; Type 302. --Missouri-French: Carrière.

B571.2. †B571.2. Animal who arrives late performs tasks for man. (Cf. †L147.1.) --Cosquin I 49f.; Missouri-French: Carrière.

B571.3. †B571.3. Animals fight together with their master. Icel.: *Boberg.

B571.4. †B571.4. Bear husks millet for man. India: Thompson-Balys.

B572. †B572. Animals as carpenter (builder). Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 188, II 819.

B572.1. †B572.1. Animals build palace (house) for man. India: Thompson-Balys; Samoa: Beckwith Myth 536 (rats).

B572.2. †B572.2. Birds build canoe for master. Maori: Clark 98.

B574. †B574. Animals as domestic servants. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 798 (elephant).

B575. †B575. Animal as constant attendant of man. *Pauli (ed Bolte) No. 649; Type 74*; Fb ("orne" II 760, "ravn") III 23a (boar, raven); *Zingerle Sagen aus Tirol 588 (ravens). --Irish myth: Cross; Scotch: Campbell II 279--289; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 15; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 13; English: Wells 20 (William of Palerne), 118f. (Octovian); Jewish: Neuman (steer); Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 921 (owl), Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 37 (birds); Maori: Clark 54 (birds); Africa (Angola): Chatelain 53 No. 2.

B575.1. †B575.1. Wild animals kept as dogs. Icel.: *Boberg; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 308 n. 113d; Eskimo (E. Greenland): Rasmussen I 318, 363, Rink 248 (fox), (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 599 (walrus).

B575.2. †B575.2. Bird rests on person's shoulders. Type 709. --Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 2 (and note 2).

B576. †B576. Animal as guard. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Tonga: Gifford 77 (shark), 84; Fiji: Beckwith Myth 131 (hawk, prawn).

B576.1. †B576.1. Animal as guard of person or house. Rösch FFC LXXVII 107 (Type 516); *Fb "bjørn" IV 42a, "løve" II 518; Chauvin VI 6 No. 182; *Loomis White Magic 63; Dickson Valentine and Orson 198; Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carrière; English: Wells 60 (Syre Gawene and the Carle of Carelyle). --Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 704 (elephant); Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 24 (bird), 129 (shark), 84, 349 (dog). --N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 308 n. 113c. --Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 273 No. 86; Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 55 No 28.

B576.1.1. †B576.1.1. Guardian animals evaded. N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 367 n. 113a.

B576.1.2. †B576.1.2. Robbers frightened by grateful dog. India: Thompson-Balys.

B576.2. †B576.2. Animals guard treasure. *Fb "höne" I 750b, "hund", I 675 b (hen, dog) --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s. v. "animaux"; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 294 No. 9, 325 No. 4. --*Norlind Skattsägner 53; *Winter Deutsche Schatzsagen 54, 61; Danish: Kristensen Da. Sagn III (1895) 455ff.; (1931) 311ff. --England-U.S.: *Baughman (dog, cat, sow, goat, snake, bird, crow, raven, cock, drake, swan and night-bird). India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham (tiger).

B576.3. †B576.3. Animal as herdsman.

B576.3.1. †B576.3.1. Fish guards cow for master. India: Thompson-Balys.

B576.4. †B576.4. Animal guards master's dead body. Jewish: Neuman.

B576.5. †B576.5. Animal as guard of shop. Azov JPASB II 403.

B578. †B578. Dogs track down law-breakers. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B579. †B579. Animals serve man otherwise.

B579.1. †B579.1. Animal accompanies man on journey. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

B579.2. †B579.2. Helpful cow strikes at flies, while boy eats. Chinese: Graham.

B579.3. †B579.3. Animal corrects examination paper for his rescuer. Chinese: Graham.

B579.4. †B579.4. Animals help repair leaky pot. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B579.5. †B579.5. Serpent acts as a rope to collect wood for man. India: Thompson-Balys.

B579.6. †B579.6. Faithful dog is offered as security for a debt. India: Thompson-Balys.

B579.7. †B579.7. Animal earns money for master. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 166.

B580. †B580. Animal helps men to wealth and greatness. *Type 671; BP I 322; *Ward Catalogue of Romances III 208, Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 141, *Warnke Quellen des Esope der Marie de France 221ff. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 189; Papua: Ker XLI 147.

B581. †B581. Animal brings wealth to man. *Type 545; BP I 325, *331; Fb "hjort" I 625a, "kat" IV 225b. --Breton: Hartland Science 174; Missouri-French: Carrière; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman: India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda, Mitford 270 ff.

B582. †B582. Animal helps person to success in love.

B582.1. †B582.1. Animal wooer. India: Thompson-Balys.

B582.1.1. †B582.1.1. Animal wins wife for his master (Puss in Boots). *Type 545B; BP I 325, III 487; Fb "kat" IV 255b. --Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 89 No. 48; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 336.

B582.1.1.1. †B582.1.1.1. Goose brings master sleeping princess. India: Thompson-Balys.

B582.1.2. †B582.1.2. Animal wins husband for mistress. *Type 545A; *BP I 325ff., III 487. --Indonesian: De Vries' List Nos. 180, 209 (monkey, bird).

B582.2. †B582.2. Animals help hero win princess. *Type 554, 559, cf. 552, 553; *BP I 134, II 21, 454 n. 1, III 425. --Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 28.

B582.2.1. †B582.2.1. Hero carried by bird to mistress' chamber. *Chauvin V 242 No. 142.

B582.2.2. †B582.2.2. Rat digs underground passage to girl's chamber for hero. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B582.2.3. †B582.2.3. Swan as matchmaker. India: Thompson-Balys.

B582.2.4. †B582.2.4. Bee as matchmaker. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 175f.

B582.2.5. †B582.2.5. Dove helps deity draw his wife into a net. Marquesas: Handy 115.

B583. †B583. Animal gives treasure to man. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Yoruba): Frobenius Atlantis X 222ff., No. 14, (Swahili): Stigand Black Tales for White Children 97ff. No. 15.

B583.1. †B583.1. Grateful whales disgorge gold. India: Thompson-Balys.

B584. †B584. Animal gives man other gifts. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 29.

B584.1. †B584.1. Fox holds in its mouth a beautiful flower which he gives to hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

B587. †B587. Animal wins contest for man.

B587.1. †B587.1. Magic horse wins jumping contest for man. India: Thompson-Balys.

B587.2. †B587.2. Fly helps loathly suitor pass suitor test. India: Thompson-Balys.

B587.3. †B587.3. Grateful bull draws one hundred carts for wager for master. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 29.

B589. †B589. Animal helps man to wealth and greatness -- miscellaneous.

B589.1. †B589.1. Eagle regains throne for deposed king. India: Thompson-Balys.

B590. †B590. Miscellaneous services of helpful animals.

B591. †B591. Animal avenges murder. Jewish: Neuman.

B591.0.1. †B591.0.1. Animals refuse to devour Cain to avenge murder of Abel. Jewish: Neuman.

B591.1. †B591.1. Lion kills wolf who has killed mistress' sheep. Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 131 No. 24.

B591.2. †B591.2. Horse kicks to death master's murderer. India: Thompson-Balys.

B592. †B592. Animals bequeath characteristics to man. Horse gives him the characteristics of youth (fiery), cow of middle age (avaricious), and the dog of old age (fractious). --Fable: Halm Aesop No. 173; BP III 290; Köhler-Bolte I 42ff.; Babrius No. 74; Wienert FFC LVI *70 (ET 347), 127 (ST 358).

B593. †B593. Animal as house-spirit.

B593.1. †B593.1. Snake as house-spirit. *Fb "snog" III 436b.

B594. †B594. Animal rejuvenates person.

B594.1. †B594.1. Bird rejuvenates person. (cf. †B172). --*Chauvin VI 73f. No. 239.

B596. †B596. Animal helps saint by setting fire to neglected church. Irish myth: Cross.

B597. †B597. Cow gives marvelous supply of milk through virtue of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B598. †B598. Animal as confederate of adulterous wife.

B598.1. †B598.1. Boar as confederate of adulterous wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

B598.2. †B598.2. Deer as confederate of adulterous wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

B599. †B599. Other services of helpful animals.

B599.1. †B599.1. Cock and hen build pyre for benefactor. India: Thompson-Balys.

B599.2. †B599.2. Animal helps person pass test. India: Thompson-Balys.

B599.3. †B599.3. Elephant draws plow to mark boundaries of empire. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 528.

†B600-†B699. Marriage of person to animal.

B600. †B600. Marriage of person to animal. Extremely common. Only a few references are given. --*Wesselski Märchen 247 No. 57; *Chauvin V 177f. No. 101; Fb "kvinde" II 339b; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 303. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 273 n. 3.

B600.1. †B600.1. Various animals tried out as wives. Only one accepted. --N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 348 n. 254b.

B600.1.1. †B600.1.1. Various animals tried out as wives: none accepted. India: Thompson-Balys.

B600.2. †B600.2. Animal husband provides characteristic animal food. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 52, (Greenland): Thalbitzer 6.

B601. †B601. Marriage of person to beast. (Cf. †B641, †B651).

B601.1. †B601.1. Marriage to bear. (Cf. †B611.1, †B631, †B635.1). --*Fb "björn" IV 42b.; Icel.: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 64, 178.

B601.1.1. †B601.1.1. Bear steals woman and makes her his wife. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; India: Thompson-Balys.

B601.2. †B601.2. Marriage to dog. (Cf. †B611.2, †B641.1.) --Irish myth: Cross; N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 272 n. 2. --Africa (Benga): Nassau 165 No. 22; Dobu: Beckwith Myth 349.

B601.3. †B601.3. Marriage to rat. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Bødker Exempler 297 No. 60; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Duala): Lederbogen Märchen V 192, (Mpongwe): Nassau 41 No. 6.

B601.3.1. †B601.3.1. Marriage to mouse. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B601.4. †B601.4. Marriage to leopard. Africa (Benga): Nassau 85 No. 4.

B601.5. †B601.5. Marriage to elephant. Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 61 No. 27.

B601.6. †B601.6. Marriage to lemur. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 349.

B601.7. †B601.7. Marriage to monkey. India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 183; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 411 s.v. "Affenmutter"

B601.7.1. †B601.7.1. Person plans to marry monkey. India: Thompson-Balys.

B601.8. †B601.8. Marriage to swine. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B601.9. †B601.9. Marriage to tiger. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 62f.; S. Am. Indian (Jivaró): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 142.

B601.10. †B601.10. Marriage to deer. Irish myth: Cross.

B601.11. †B601.11. Marriage to jackal. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B601.12. †B601.12. Marriage to cat. India: Thompson-Balys.

B601.13. †B601.13. Marriage to hare. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B601.14. †B601.14. Marriage to fox. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 63, 214; Eskimo (East Greenland): Rasmussen I 137, 143; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 174.

B601.15. †B601.15. Marriage to jaguar. S. Am. Indian (Mataco, Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 62, 64, (Jivaró): Steward-Métraux BBAE 143 III 627, (Eastern Brazil): Lowie ibid. I 434, (Yuracare): Métraux ibid. III 504.

B601.16. †B601.16. Marriage to wolf. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 38, (Bering Strait): Nelson BBAE XVIII 482. --Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 49.

B601.17. †B601.17. Marriage to coati-puri. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Métraux BBAE III 143, 685.

B601.18. †B601.18. Marriage to seal. Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 153; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 127.

B602. †B602. Marriage to bird. (Cf. †B644.) --India: *Thompson-Balys. --Marquesas: Handy 120; New Hebrides: Codrington 397; Papua: Ker 57; Mono Alu: Wheeler 20. --Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 52, 75; (Greenland, Cape York): Rasmussen III 57, 83.

B602.1. †B602.1. Marriage to eagle. India: *Thompson-Balys; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 341 n. 231.

B602.2. †B602.2. Marriage to fulmar. *N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 272 n. 2.

B602.3. †B602.3. Marriage to pigeon. Africa (Zulu): Callaway 78.

B602.4. †B602.4. Marriage to vulture. Arawak, Carib: Alexander Lat. Am. 274.

B602.5. †B602.5. Marriage to crane. India: Thompson-Balys.

B602.6. †B602.6. Marriage to goose. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 47, 77.

B602.7. †B602.7. Marriage to parrot. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 175.

B602.8. †B602.8. Marriage to kingfisher. Africa (Togo): Einstein 7.

B603. †B603. Marriage to fish (whale). (Cf. †B612.) --India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda. --*N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 341 n. 231.

B603.1. †B603.1. Marriage to shrimp. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen I 144.

B603.2. †B603.2. Marriage to eel. Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 103.

B604. †B604. Marriage to reptile. (Cf. †B613, †B622.1, †B642, †B652.)

B604.1. †B604.1. Marriage to snake. (Cf. †B613.1.) --Fb "slange" III 363a; *BP II 251. --India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 388, 1354; Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 49, 176. --Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 272; Buin: Wheeler 43; San Cristoval (Solomon Islands): Beckwith Myth 104. --Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 75, (Greenland): Rink 186, Rasmussen I 148, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 178f., (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 555; (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 516. --S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 65.

B604.2. †B604.2. Marriage to tortoise. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Benga): Nassau 134 No. 15.

B604.2.1. †B604.2.1. Marriage to turtle. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B604.3. †B604.3. Marriage to crocodile. India: Thompson-Balys.

B604.4. †B604.4. Marriage to lizard. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Fang): Einstein 152.

B604.5. †B604.5. Marriage to frog. India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Luba): DeClerq Zs. f. Kolonialsprachen IV 211, (Togo): Einstein 7.

B605. †B605. Marriage to dragon. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 64f.

B610. †B610. Animal paramour.

B610.1. †B610.1. Girl's animal lover slain by spying relatives. BP I 69f. (Gr. No. 8a). --Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 267 No. 78. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 345 n. 244.

B611. †B611. Beast paramour. (Cf. †B601.)

B611.1. †B611.1. Bear paramour. (Cf. †B601.1., †B631, †B635.) India: Thompson-Balys. --N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 345 nn. 244, 245.

B611.2. †B611.2. Dog paramour. (Cf. †B601.2, †B642.) --India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 456; Siberian and North Pacific Coast Natives: Jochelson JE VI 374.

B611.3. †B611.3. Horse paramour. Hindu: Penzer IV 16, IX 153; Japanese: Ikeda; *N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 348 n. 254a.

B611.3.1. †B611.3.1. Sea-horse paramour. Irish myth: Cross.

B611.3.2. †B611.3.2. Lake-horse paramour. Irish myth: Cross.

B611.4. †B611.4. Bull paramour. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 305 n. (Pasiphoe), I 299 n. 2. (Europa); Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 81 No. 11.

B611.5. †B611.5. Deer paramour. Irish myth: Cross.

B611.6. †B611.6. Monkey paramour. India: Thompson-Balys.

B611.7. †B611.7. Rat paramour. India: Thompson-Balys.

B611.8. †B611.8. Tapir paramour. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 60.

B612. †B612. Fish paramour. (Cf. †B603.) --*Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 140 n. 1. --Japanese: Ikeda. --Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 187.

B612.1. †B612.1. Eel paramour. Maori, Mangaia: Dixon 55; Samoa, Mangaia: Beckwith Myth 103; Hawaii: ibid. 136.

B612.2. †B612.2. Dolphin as paramour. Jewish: Neuman.

B613. †B613. Reptile paramour. (Cf. †B604.)

B613.1. †B613.1. Snake paramour. (Cf. †B604.1.) Armenian: Ananikian 74; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda, Anesaki 332. --N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 344 n. 239. --S. A. Indian (Warrau, Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 272; (Amazonia) ibid. 286; (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 65f. --Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 142 No. 20.

B613.1.1. †B613.1.1. Snake woman as paramour. India: Thompson-Balys.

B613.2. †B613.2. Crocodile paramour. Africa (Fang): Trilles 162, (Ekoi): Talbot 333.

B613.3. †B613.3. Lizard paramour. India: Thompson-Balys.

B614. †B614. Bird paramour. India: Thompson-Balys.

B620. †B620. Animal suitor. Missouri-French: Carrière.

B620.1. †B620.1. Daughter promised to animal suitor. *Types 425, 552; *BP II 232 III 424ff. --India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda. --Africa (Angola): Chatelain 65 No. 3.

B621. †B621. Beast as suitor.

B621.1. †B621.1. Bear as suitor. (Cf. †B601.1, †B611.1, †B635.1.) --Fb "björn" IV 43a.

B621.2. †B621.2. Lion as suitor. Fable: Halm Aesop No. 249, Babrius No. 98, Wienert FFC LVI 45 (ET 32), 70 (ET 344), 107 (ST 198).

B621.3. †B621.3. Tiger as suitor. Chinese: Graham; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian: (Jivaró): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 148.

B621.4. †B621.4. Rat as suitor. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B621.5. †B621.5. Leopard as suitor. India: Thompson-Balys.

B621.6. †B621.6. Pig as suitor. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 77.

B621.7. †B621.7. Horse as suitor. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 79.

B621.8. †B621.8. Wolf and wolverine fight over girl. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 38.

B622. †B622. Reptile as wooer.

B622.1. †B622.1. Serpent as wooer. Fb "slange" III 363a.; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B622.2. †B622.2. Crocodile as wooer. India: Thompson-Balys.

B622.3. †B622.3. Tortoise as wooer. India: Thompson-Balys.

B623. †B623. Bird as wooer.

B623.1. †B623.1. Crane as wooer. India: Thompson-Balys.

B623.2. †B623.2. Owl as suitor. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 154.

B623.3. †B623.3. Magpie as suitor. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B623.4. †B623.4. Crow as suitor. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

B623.5. †B623.5. Cock as suitor. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 77.

B625. †B625. Fish as wooer.

B625.0.1. †B625.0.1. Half-man, half-fish as wooer. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 30.

B630. †B630. Offspring of marriage to animal. India: Thompson-Balys.

B631. †B631. Human offspring from marriage to animal. *Type 301, 650; *BP II 300ff., 285ff., especially 293; *Dickson Valentine and Orson 123 n. 76; *Krappe Le Moyen Age XLI 96ff. --Irish myth: Cross; Gaster Oldest Stories 169; India: *Thompson-Balys. --Japanese: Anesaki 332; N. Am. Indian (Thompson River): Teit MAFLS XI 42; Danish: Boberg.

B631.0.1. †B631.0.1. Son warns animal mother. Irish myth: Cross.

B631.0.2. †B631.0.2. Boy kills his animal father for reward. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1169.

B631.1. †B631.1. Animal mother of man helps him. Burmese: Scott Indo-Chinese 274.

B631.2. †B631.2. Human beings descended from seals. Irish myth: Cross.

B631.3. †B631.3. Fish bears men-children. Has swallowed rinsings of man's mouth. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B631.4. †B631.4. Lioness bears man child. Africa (Lamba): Doke MAFLS XX 14 No. 11.

B631.5. †B631.5. Cow bears man child. Africa (Lamba): Doke MAFLS XX 14 No. 11.

B631.6. †B631.6. Tigress bears men-children. India: Thompson-Balys.

B631.7. †B631.7. Human offspring of marriage of person and jaguar. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 62, (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII I 434.

B631.8. †B631.8. Human offspring of marriage of person and lion. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1170.

B631.9. †B631.9. Human offspring of marriage of person and snake. S. Am. Indian (Tapirape): Wagley-Galvao BBAE 143 III 253.

B632. †B632. Animal offspring from marriage to animal. *Fb "kvinde" II 339b, "menneske" II 577b; *MacCulloch Childhood 263ff.; Cox 487. --Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys. --Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 413, 465, Holm 56, 82, Rasmussen I 363, III 200, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 167, 226, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 637, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 80. --N. Am. Indian (Seneca): Curtin Hewitt RBAE XXXII No. 9; cf. Thompson Tales 347 n. 247, 248. --Africa (Zulu): Callaway 79, 349.

B633. †B633. Human and animal offspring from marriage to animal. *Wesselski Märchen 247 No. 57.

B634. †B634. Monstrous offspring from animal marriage. Irish myth: Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1169, 1354.

B634.1. †B634.1. Monstrous offspring of sea-horse and woman. Irish myth: Cross.

B635. †B635. Human foster-child with animal qualities.

B635.1. †B635.1. The Bear's Son. Human son of woman who marries a bear acquires bear characteristics. (Cf. †B601.1.) --*Type 301; *BP II 300ff.; Cosquin I 6; MacCulloch Childhood 270; Panzer Beowulf I 246; *Wesselski Märchen 249 No. 57; *Fb "bjørn" IV 42b; *Dickson Valentine and Orson 118 nn. 49, 50, 172 n. 30.

B635.1.1. †B635.1.1. Eaten meat of bear-lover causes unborn son to have bear characteristics. (Cf. †B611.1.) --Hrolfs saga Kraka 53.

B635.1.2. †B635.1.2. Bear's foster child not used to sun and light. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 53.

B635.1.3. †B635.1.3. Bear says he is boy's father; asks food. Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 47.

B635.2. †B635.2. Wolf boy (girl) running around with wolf and cubs recovered by parents after six years: recognized by scar. India: Thompson-Balys.

B635.3. †B635.3. Child of mortal and deer has deer's hair on temple. Irish myth: Cross.

B635.3.1. †B635.3.1. Culture hero licked by deer mother. Irish myth: Cross.

B635.4. †B635.4. Son of dog ("cu," person). Irish myth: Cross.

B635.4.1. †B635.4.1. Son of three dogs ("con," persons). Irish myth: Cross.

B636. †B636. Offspring of human and animal intercourse. India: Thompson-Balys.

B640. †B640. Marriage to person in animal form.

B640.1. †B640.1. Marriage to beast by day and man by night. (Cf. †D621.) --*Type 425. See references for †D621. --*Tegethoff Amor-Psyche 17; Missouri-French: Carrière; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B641. †B641. Marriage to person in beast form. (Cf. †B601, †B651.)

B641.1. †B641.1. Marriage to person in dog form. (Cf. †B635.4, †D141.) --Irish myth: Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 168; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 421. --Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 244; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 347 n. 247; S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 369.

B641.2. †B641.2. Marriage to woman in deer form. (Cf. †D114.1.) Irish myth: Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 168; India: Thompson-Balys.

B641.2.1. †B641.2.1. Marriage to man in deer form. Africa (Swazi): Bourhill and Drake Fairy Tales from South Africa 212ff. No. 18.

B641.3. †B641.3. Marriage to god in bull form. (Cf. †B611.4, †D133.2) --*Frazer Fasti IV 74 nn. 2, 3 (Europa).

B641.4. †B641.4. Marriage to person in ass form. (Cf. †D132.1.) --*Type 430.

B641.5. †B641.5. Marriage to person in hedgehog form. *Type 441; BP II 234, 482.

B641.6. †B641.6. Marriage to person in horse form. Africa (Hausa): Mischlich Neue Märchen aus Africa 186ff.

B641.7. †B641.7. Marriage to person in monkey form. India: Thompson-Balys.

B641.8. †B641.8. Marriage to person in opossum form. S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3). 132.

B642. †B642. Marriage to person in bird form. (Cf. †B602, †D150.). --Type 432; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B643. †B643. Marriage to person in insect form.

B643.3. †B643.3. Marriage to person in caterpillar form. India: Thompson-Balys.

B644. †B644. Marriage to person in fish form. India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 52.

B645. †B645. Marriage to person in amphibian form.

B645.1. †B645.1. Marriage of person to transformed toad. Korean: Zong in-Sob 176 No. 76.

B645.1.1. †B645.1.1. Marriage to person in toad form. India: Thompson-Balys.

B645.1.2. †B645.1.2. Marriage to person in frog form. India: Thompson-Balys.

B645.2. †B645.2. Marriage to person in crocodile form. (Cf. †D194.) --Africa (Kaffir): Theal 38; India: Thompson-Balys.

B646. †B646. Marriage to person in reptile form. (Cf. †B604, †B652.)

B646.1. †B646.1. Marriage to person in snake form. (Cf. †D191.) Type 433. --India: *Thompson-Balys. --Africa (Zulu): Callaway 57, 321, (Kaffir): Theal 48, (Basuto): Jacottet 126 No. 18, 146 No. 20.

B646.1.1. †B646.1.1. Marriage to person in form of five-headed snake. Africa (Hausa): Stigand Black Tales for White Children 83ff. No. 13.

B647. †B647. Marriage to person in animal form -- miscellaneous.

B647.1. †B647.1. Marriage to person in crustacean form.

B647.1.1. †B647.1.1. Marriage to person in crab form. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B648. †B648. Man becomes deer and marries deer. N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 348 n. 252.

B650. †B650. Marriage to animal in human form. Burmese: Scott Indo-Chinese 272.

B650.1. †B650.1. Animal transformed to man wants to marry woman. Indonesian: De Vries' list No. 156.

B651. †B651. Marriage to beast in human form. (Cf. †B601, †B641.)

B651.1. †B651.1. Marriage to fox in human form. *N. Am. Indian: Thompson Tales 342 n. 233 ("The Fox Woman"). --Chinese: Krappe CFQ III (1944) 124, 129ff., 136f., 141, Eberhard FFC CXX 49, 214. --Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 144, 427, Rasmussen I 150, III 76, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 222--224, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 156, (Ungava) Turner RBAE XI 264; Koryak: Jochelsen JE VI 364; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 144ff.

B651.2. †B651.2. Marriage to buffalo in human form. N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 339 n. 222 ("The Piqued Buffalo Wife").

B651.3. †B651.3. Marriage to lion in human form. Africa (Angola): Chatelain 145 No. 15.

B651.4. †B651.4. Marriage to dog in human form. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 258; Chinese: Werner 421.

B651.5. †B651.5. Marriage to deer in human form. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Maropa): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 448.

B651.6. †B651.6. Marriage to wolf in human form. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 258. --Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 38.

B651.7. †B651.7. Marriage to bear in human form. Eskimo (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 176, (Greenland): Holm 82, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 638f., (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 76.

B651.8. †B651.8. Marriage to seal in human form. Helge Holmström Svanjung-frumotivet 1919, 84ff.; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 258.

B651.9. †B651.9. Marriage to tiger in human form. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B651.10. †B651.10. Marriage to squirrel in human form. India: Thompson-Balys.

B651.11. †B651.11. Marriage to leopard in human form. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 52.

B652. †B652. Marriage to bird in human form.

B652.1. †B652.1. Marriage to swan-maiden. See all references for †D361.1.

B652.2. †B652.2. Man marries crane in human form. Japanese: Ikeda, Anesaki 324.

B652.3. †B652.3. Marriage to dove-maiden. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 260.

B652.4. †B652.4. Marriage to woodpecker in human form. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 146.

B653. †B653. Marriage to insect in human form.

B653.1. †B653.1. Marriage to bee in human form. Indonesian: Dixon 219.

B654. †B654. Marriage to fish in human form. Irish myth: Cross (†B612.0.1); India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 47f., 142; Africa (Congo): Weeks 216.

B655. †B655. Marriage to amphibia in human form.

B656. †B656. Marriage to reptile in human form. (Cf. †B604, †B642.)

B656.1. †B656.1. Marriage to python in human form. Africa (Kaffir): Kidd 249.

B656.2. †B656.2. Marriage to serpent in human form. Hindu: Penzer VI 73 n. 2; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indo-Chinese: Scott 276; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 66; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 76, 201. --Krappe CFQ III (1944) 138ff.

B659. †B659. Marriage to other animals in human form.

B670. †B670. Unusual mating between animals.

B671. †B671. Goose mates with crow. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 884.

B672. †B672. Mythical tiger has family of jaguars. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux RMLP XXXIII 155.

B690. †B690. Marriage of person to animal -- miscellaneous.

B691. †B691. Relatives kill animal-husband but wife throws herself into pyre. India: Thompson-Balys.

†B700-†B799. Fanciful traits of animals.

B700. †B700. Fanciful traits of animals.

B710. †B710. Fanciful origin of animals.

B710.1. †B710.1. Fanciful origin of the jackal. India: Thompson-Balys.

B710.2. †B710.2. Clever and swift horse of fanciful origin.

B710.2.1. †B710.2.1. Clever and swift horse fed with worms' milk on the gold mountain Tecklen in India. Icel.: *Boberg.

B710.2.2. †B710.2.2. Clever and swift horse of dromedary-family. Göngu-Hrólfs saga 239.

B712. †B712. Barnacle goose. Goose born from barnacles. --*Chauvin VII 18 No. 373C; Fb "and" IV 12b; Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. "Baumgans"; Jewish: Neuman.

B713. †B713. Animal born from animal carcass. Jewish: *Neuman.

B713.1. †B713.1. Bees born from carcass of ox. Frazer Fasti of Ovid II 157.

B713.2. †B713.2. Animal born from putrification. Jewish: Neuman.

B714. †B714. Worm (monster) from caul born with child. Irish myth: Cross.

B715. †B715. The cow Audhumla sprang from the dripping rime of the creation of the universe. (Cf. †A1245.4. and †B19.2.1.) --Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 324.

B716. †B716. Animal born from human or animal bones. Jewish: Neuman.

B717. †B717. Animal born from earth. Jewish: Neuman.

†B720-†B749. Fanciful physical qualities of animals.

B720. †B720. Fanciful bodily members of animals.

B721. †B721. Cat's luminous eye. --Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "oeil".; Icel.: Boberg.

B722. †B722. Magic stone in animal's head. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B722.1. †B722.1. Magic love-working stone in swallow's head.--Fb. "svale" III 661b.

B722.2. †B722.2. Magic stone in dog's forehead. Fb "hund" I 678.

B722.3. †B722.3. Luminous jewel in animal's head. *Cosquin Contes indiens 254ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

B722.4. †B722.4. Earthworm has light in its tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

B723. †B723. Tortoise has no liver or teeth. India: Thompson-Balys.

B724. †B724. Spider has no blood in body. India: Thompson-Balys.

B725. †B725. Female bears have no breasts to nurse their young -- suck paws. Jewish: Neuman.

B726. †B726. Double snake -- male and female. Africa (Baluba): Einstein 182.

B730. †B730. Fanciful color, smell, etc. of animals.

B731. †B731. Fanciful color of animal. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.0.1. †B731.0.1. Animals of strange and varied coloring. *Schoepperle Tristan and Isolt II 322 n. 1.

B731.1. †B731.1. Green she-goat. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "chèvre".

B731.2. †B731.2. Green horse. Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 7.

B731.2.1. †B731.2.1. Horse with crimson mane and green legs. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.2.2. †B731.2.2. Artificially colored horses. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.2.3. †B731.2.3. Striped horse with purple mane and white feet. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.3. †B731.3. Multicolored llama. Wool red, blue, and yellow. No need to dye it for weaving. --Chincha (peru): Alexander Lat. Am. 230.

B731.4. †B731.4. Cow with changing colors. Changes every four hours: white, red, black. --Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 310 n. 3.

B731.4.1. †B731.4.1. Cow with white ears. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.4.2. †B731.4.2. Cow with red ears. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.5. †B731.5. Silver, gold, and diamond birds. Czech: Tille FFC XXXIV 162.

B731.6. †B731.6. Hound of every color. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.6.0.1. †B731.6.0.1. Polychromatic dogs. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.6.1. †B731.6.1. Hound half white, half green. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.6.2. †B731.6.2. Blue dogs and cats. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.7. †B731.7. Fancifully colored deer. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.7.1. †B731.7.1. Stag with stripe of every color. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.7.2. †B731.7.2. Fawn with golden lustre. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.8. †B731.8. Red (green) swine. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.9. †B731.9. Purple wether. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.9.1. †B731.9.1. Ram with green feet and horns. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.10. †B731.10. Multicolored worm (serpent). Irish myth: Cross.

B731.11. †B731.11. Blue serpent. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.12. †B731.12. Silver fish with gold fins. Irish myth: Cross.

B731.13. †B731.13. Bird with changing color. Jewish: Neuman.

B731.14. †B731.14. Hyena with three hundred sixty-five different colors. Jewish: Neuman.

B732. †B732. Panther's sweet smell protects him from other beasts. Herbert Catalogue of Romances III 37ff. (Odo of Cheriton), Hervieux Fabulistes latins IV No. 60.

B733. †B733. Animals are spirit-sighted. Scent danger. --Swiss; Jegerlehner Oberwallis 298 No. 9 --Irish myth: Cross. Cf. †B120. Wise animals.

B733.1. †B733.1. Balaam's ass perceives angel. Jewish: Neuman.

B733.2. †B733.2. Dogs howling indicates death. Argentina: Jijena Sanchez Perro Negro 115; Fb "hund" I 676 b; Hdwb. d. Abergl. IV 473.

B733.2.1. †B733.2.1. Cock hears inaudible voice of dying man. Jewish: Neuman.

B735. †B735. Bird gives milk. Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 102 No. 15, (Kaffir): Theal 33; India: *Thompson-Balys.

B736. †B736. Animal sheds tears.

B736.1. †B736.1. Bird sheds tears. (Cf. †D1505.5.1.) --Spanish Boggs FFC XC 59 No. 425D.; Irish myth. Cross.

B736.2. †B736.2. Horse sheds tears (of blood). Irish myth: Cross.

B736.3. †B736.3. Dog sheds tears. Irish myth: Cross.

B736.4. †B736.4. Fox sheds tears. Jewish: Neuman.

B736.5. †B736.5. Stag sheds tears. German: Grimm No. 11.

B736.6. †B736.6. Calf sheds tears. Jewish: Neuman.

B737. †B737. Fish with coat of wool. Irish myth: Cross.

B738. †B738. Animal's skin revolves while flesh and bones remain stationary. Irish myth: Cross.

B739. †B739. Fanciful color, smell etc. of animals -- miscellaneous.

B739.1. †B739.1. Magic cock has elixir in his body which makes people light. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 222.

B740. †B740. Fanciful marvelous strength of animals.

B741. †B741. Lion's roar causes havoc at 300 miles. At 300 miles all women miscarry, at 200 teeth of all men drop out. --Gaster Exempla 187 No. 7; Jewish: Neuman.

B741.1. †B741.1. Cry of giant ox impregnates all fish. Persian: Carnoy 289.

B741.2. †B741.2. Neighing of stallion in Assyria impregnates mares in Egypt.--*De Vries FFC LXXIII 375.

B741.3. †B741.3. Cow whose bellowing defeats army. *Liebrecht Zur Volkskunde 71; Norse: *Boberg.

B741.4. †B741.4. Bellow of bull heard over entire land. Irish myth: Cross.

B742. †B742. Animal breathes fire. Gaster Oldest Stories 69.

B742.1. †B742.1. Lion breathes fire. Breton: Sébillot Incidents s.v. "lion".

B742.2. †B742.2. Birds spit fire. English: Wells 104 (Alexander and Dindimus); Irish myth: Cross.

B742.3. †B742.3. Fire-breathing horses. Hartland Science 243.

B742.4. †B742.4. Fire-breathing dogs. Irish myth: Cross.

B743. †B743. Blowing serpent. Can blow through seven church walls but not through a pair of hose. --Fb "blæseorm".

B744. †B744. Animal travels extraordinary distance. Irish myth: Cross.

B745. †B745. Indestructibility of leech. India: Thompson-Balys.

B746. †B746. Bear could formerly lift mountain. India: Thompson-Balys.

B747. †B747. Animal's strong teeth.

B747.1. †B747.1. Strong teeth of lion. Jewish: Neuman.

B747.2. †B747.2. Locusts with jaw teeth strong as lion's. Jewish: Neuman.

B747.3. †B747.3. Mice gnaw through metal vessels. Jewish: Neuman.

B748. †B748. Snake shoots rapids of mighty river. S. Am. Indian (Pilcomayo River Tribes): Belaieff BBAE CXLIII (1) 379.

B750. †B750. Fanciful habits of animals.

B751. †B751. Animal's fanciful treatment of their young.

B751.1. †B751.1. Snake swallows young to protect them. *Speck JAFL XXXVI 298; England, U.S.: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Coll. I 637f.

B751.2. †B751.2. Pelican kills young and revives them with own blood. Herbert Catalogue of Romances III 37ff. (Odo of Cheriton), Hervieux Fabulistes latins IV No. 57.

B751.3. †B751.3. Eagle tests eaglets by having them gaze at sun. Herbert III 38 (Odo of Cheriton), Hervieux Fabulistes latins IV No. 10; Gaster Thespis 30.

B751.4. †B751.4. The lion blows first life into its cubs three days after their birth. Zs. für deutsche Philol. XXVI 25.

B751.5. †B751.5. Animal neglects its young. Jewish: Neuman (raven, jackal, ostrich).

B751.6. †B751.6. Wolf strongly attracted to his own children. Jewish: Neuman.

B752. †B752. Fanciful behavior of animal at death.

B752.1. †B752.1. Swan song. Swan sings as she dies. --Fb "svane" III 663b.

B752.2. †B752.2. Snake does not die before sunset. --Fb "orm" II 759a; U.S.: Baughman.

B752.3. †B752.3. Snake kills itself by biting part of body (when in danger or torture). U.S.: Baughman.

B754. †B754. Sexual habits of animals. Jewish: *Neuman.

B754.0.1. †B754.0.1. Unusual sexual union of animals. Irish myth: Cross.

B754.1. †B754.1. Animal changes sex periodically.

B754.1.1. †B754.1.1. Hyena changes sex yearly. Fable: Halm Aesop 405, Wienert FFC LVI 62 (ET 251), 131 (ST 376, 401); Jewish: Neuman.

B754.1.2. †B754.1.2. Hare changes sex periodically. Jewish: Neuman.

B754.2. †B754.2. Elephants have sexual desire only after eating mandrakes. English: Wells 182 (The Bestiary).

B754.3. †B754.3. Lions do not mate with their fellows, but prefer leopards. (Cf. †Q551.3.) --*Krappe Balor 82; Frazer Apollodorus I 401.

B754.3.1. †B754.3.1. Female rattlesnakes mate with black snakes rather than with male rattlesnakes. U.S.: Baughman.

B754.4. †B754.4. Male rabbit bears young. Female rabbit escaped Noah on ark and drowned. --Nouvelles Récréations No. 66.

B754.5. †B754.5. Cocks kept from intercourse with hens have tenderest meat. Nouvelles Récréations No. 86.

B754.6. †B754.6. Peacock pregnant without intercourse. Male spits up semen and female eats it. This as a curse. (Cf. †A2236.5.) --India: *Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman (raven).

B754.6.1. †B754.6.1. Unusual impregnation of animal.

B754.6.1.1. †B754.6.1.1. Animal impregnated through mouth (ears). Jewish: Neuman.

B754.7. †B754.7. Unusual parturition of animal.

B754.7.1. †B754.7.1. Crab's offspring born through its chest. India: Thompson-Balys.

B754.7.2. †B754.7.2. Eagle catches gazelle's young as it is born. Jewish: Neuman.

B755. †B755. Animal calls the dawn. The sun rises as a result of the animal's call. --Africa (Benga): Nassau 204 No. 32, (Ekoi): Talbot 384.

B756. †B756. Gold-digging ants. *Chauvin VII 87 No. 373bis; **F. Schiern Ueber den Ursprung der Sage von den goldgrabenden Ameisen (Copenhagen-Leipzig, 1873).

B757. †B757. Rats leave sinking ship. Fb "rotte" III 83a.

B758. †B758. Eagle renews youth. Feathers fall off and regrow. --*Wensinck "Tree and Bird as Cosmological symbols in Western Asia" Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie von Wetenschappen n.s. XXII no. 1 (1921) 38; Hdwb. d. Aberg. I 180 s.v. "Adler". --Herbert Catalogue of Romances III 69 (Odo of Cheriton); Gaster Oldest Stories 80.

B761. †B761. Turtle holds with jaws till it thunders. Ojibwa: Jones-Michelson PAES VII (2) 347 No. 44; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 167 No. 23.

B762. †B762. Monkeys attack by throwing coconuts. *Chauvin VII 22 n. 3.

B762.1. †B762.1. Animal attacks by throwing pebbles. Irish myth: Cross.

B765. †B765. Fanciful qualities of snakes. (Cf. †B91.3, †B751.1, †B752.2.) --Jewish: *Neuman.

B765.1. †B765.1. Snake takes tail in mouth and rolls like wheel. Fb "stålorm".

B765.2. †B765.2. Snake lays aside his crown to bathe. Hoffman-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 120 n. 2.; India: Thompson-Balys.

B765.3. †B765.3. Snake sucks poisonous dew from grass. *Fb "hugorm".

B765.4. †B765.4. Snake milks cows at night. *Kittredge Witchcraft 484 f. nn. 23, 24. --Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 300 No. 9.

B765.4.1. †B765.4.1. Snake attaches itself to a woman's breast and draws away her milk while she sleeps. India: Thompson-Balys.

B765.5. †B765.5. Snake crawls from sleeper's mouth. Fb "hugorm". --Fr. v.d. Leyen Das Märchen 39ff.

B765.6. †B765.6. Snake eats milk and bread with child. Type 672c.; BP II 463; Fb "snog" III 437a.

B765.6.1. †B765.6.1. Snake drinks milk. India: Thompson-Balys.

B765.7. †B765.7. Jointed snake can join its segments when it is broken into pieces. Chinese: Werner 393; U.S.: Baughman.

B765.7.1. †B765.7.1. Snakes may be killed, but do not die. India: Thompson-Balys.

B765.7.2. †B765.7.2. Snake grows back together after it has been severed. U.S.: Baughman.

B765.8. †B765.8. Snake sucks poison from bite it has itself made. **Wesselski Erlesenes 3ff.

B765.9. †B765.9. Poisonous snakes in certain region have no venom. Irish myth: Cross.

B765.10. †B765.10. Snake cracks self like coach whip and chases man. North Carolina: Brown Coll. I 637. U.S.: Baughman.

B765.11. †B765.11. Snake's venom kills tree. North Carolina: Brown Coll. I 637.

B765.12. †B765.12. Venomous snakes play with precious stones. Icel.: Boberg.

B765.13. †B765.13. Copperhead guides rattlesnake to its prey. U.S.: Baughman.

B765.14. †B765.14. Snake has hypnotic stare: person cannot move. U.S.: *Baughman.

B765.14.1. †B765.14.1. Serpent reduces man to a heap of ashes by its fiery gaze. India: Thompson-Balys.

B765.15. †B765.15. Snake stands up, whistles. U.S.: Baughman.

B765.16. †B765.16. Snake has stinger. U.S.: *Baughman.

B765.17. †B765.17. Bullets have no effect on giant serpent; only stroke of lightning effective. Ladino: Conzemius BBAE CVI 169.

B765.18. †B765.18. Snake avoids object.

B765.18.1. †B765.18.1. Snake avoids white ash. U.S.: *Baughman.

B765.18.2. †B765.18.2. Snakes will not cross rope made of hair. U.S.: Baughman.

B765.18.3. †B765.18.3. Snakes will not cross a ring made of Irish earth. U.S.: Baughman.

B765.19. †B765.19. Detached snake fang kills person or animal. U.S.: *Baughman.

B765.20. †B765.20. Snake kills man who has killed snake's mate. U.S., West Indies: *Baughman.

B765.21. †B765.21. Snake revives snakes which have been injured (the doctor snake). U.S.: Baughman.

B765.22. †B765.22. King snake: kills and eats any snake that does not accept his authority. U.S.: Baughman.

B765.23. †B765.23. Snake with legs. U.S.: Baughman.

B765.24. †B765.24. Dragon fly serves as snake's servant, feeds snake; it is called snake-feeder. U.S.: Baughman.

B765.24.1. †B765.24.1. Dragon fly acts as doctor to injured snakes. U.S.: Baughman.

B765.25. †B765.25. Female snake seven years pregnant. Jewish: Neuman.

B765.26. †B765.26. Palm tree grows on serpent's body. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 71.

B766. †B766. Fanciful dangers from animals.

B766.1. †B766.1. Cat mutilates corpses. *Kittredge Witchcraft 178 n. 41; U.S.: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 638.

B766.1.1. †B766.1.1. Cat must be kept from dying person because it will catch the person's soul issuing (from mouth) in form of mouse. (Cf. †E731.3.) --England, U.S.: Baughman.

B766.2. †B766.2. Cat sucks sleeping child's breath. *Kittredge Witchcraft 178 n. 40; England: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 638.

B766.3. †B766.3. Toads suck blood. *Kittredge Witchcraft 183 n. 88.

B766.4. †B766.4. Bite of white she-mule causes certain death. Jewish: Neuman.

B767. †B767. Animals attracted by music. German: Grimm Nos. 8, 114.

B767.1. †B767.1. Fish follow sound of music. Jataka II 157.

B768. †B768. Fancied nourishment of animals.

B768.1. †B768.1. Partridge subsists on moonbeams. Penzer II 235 n. 3.

B768.2. †B768.2. Salamander subsists on fire. Hertz Gesammelte Abhandlungen 257 n.; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

B768.3. †B768.3. Swans live on pearls. India: Thompson-Balys.

B768.4. †B768.4. Serpent subsists on dust. Jewish: Neuman.

B770. †B770. Other fanciful traits of animals.

B771. †B771. Wild animal miraculously tamed.

B771.0.1. †B771.0.1. Wild animal will not harm chaste woman. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B771.1. †B771.1. Animal tamed by maiden's beauty. Penzer VII 52 n. 2, VIII 111; Herbert III 234; Oesterley Gesta Romanorum No. 115; Dickson Valentine and Orson 198 n. 86. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B771.2. †B771.2. Animal tamed by holiness of saint. Saint's legend: Plummer cxlvi; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Icel.: Boberg.

B771.2.1. †B771.2.1. Hungry lions do not harm saint. Loomis White Magic 58.

B771.2.2. †B771.2.2. Animal tamed by saint's prayer. Irish myth: Cross.

B771.2.3. †B771.2.3. Lions made tame by Moses' rod. Jewish: Neuman.

B771.3. †B771.3. Wild animal will not attack royal person. Dickson Valentine and Orson 198 n. 86.

B771.4. †B771.4. Fish trained to answer person's call. Africa: Stanley 54.

B771.5. †B771.5. Wild animal performs for king. Irish myth: Cross.

B772. †B772. Shipwrecked man repulsed by animals. As he floats to shore animals push him back into water. --Chauvin V 149 No. 73 n. 2.

B773. †B773. Animals with human emotions.

B773.1. †B773.1. Animal feels agitation at sight of native land. Irish myth: Cross.

B773.2. †B773.2. Animal (lion) pines away with grief upon his friend's grave. *Loomis White Magic 59.

B773.3. †B773.3. Lion (wolf) protects the saint's body. *Loomis White Magic 58, 60.

B775. †B775. Stork is man while hibernating in Egypt. Fb "stork" III 592a.

B776. †B776. Venomous animals.

B776.0.1. †B776.0.1. Garlic juice dangerous to poisonous animals. Penzer II 296.

B776.1. †B776.1. Venomous sheep destroy enemy. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 63, Irish myth: Cross.

B776.2. †B776.2. Toad considered venomous. (Cf. †B776.5.1.) --Kittredge Witchcraft 181 nn. 67--71; Jewish: Neuman.

B776.3. †B776.3. Venomous hound. Irish myth: Cross.

B776.3.1. †B776.3.1. Venomous dog loosed against saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B776.3.2. †B776.3.2. Mud puppy considered poisonous. U.S.: Baughman.

B776.4. †B776.4. Venomous swine.

B776.4.1. †B776.4.1. Pig with venomous bristles. Irish myth: Cross.

B776.4.2. †B776.4.2. Venomous boar. Irish myth: Cross.

B776.5. †B776.5. Blood of animal considered venomous. Irish myth: Cross.

B776.5.1. †B776.5.1. Blood of toad venomous. Irish myth: Cross.

B776.5.2. †B776.5.2. Blood of lion venomous. Irish myth: Cross.

B776.5.3. †B776.5.3. Blood of snakes venomous. (cf. †B776.7.) --Irish myth: Cross.

B776.5.4. †B776.5.4. Blood of otter venomous. Irish myth: Cross.

B776.5.5. †B776.5.5. Blood of bear venomous. Irish myth: Cross.

B776.6. †B776.6. Venomous worm. Irish myth: Cross.

B776.7. †B776.7. Venomous serpent. (Cf. †B776.5.3.) --Irish myth: Cross; Norse: Herrmann Saxo II 602, MacCulloch Eddic 105, Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

B777. †B777. Breath of bird withers. Irish myth: Cross.

B781. †B781. Animal "drinks apart" mixed liquids. Separates the parts while drinking. --*M. Bloomfield in Penzer VII xviii--xix.

B782. †B782. Sheep sleeps if anyone ties shoe to its ear. India: Thompson-Balys.

B783. †B783. Swine maddened by smell of oak forest. Irish myth: Cross.

B784. †B784. Animal lives in person's stomach.

B784.0.1. †B784.0.1. Frog living in person's stomach rises into throat, croaks every spring. England: Baughman.

B784.1. †B784.1. How animal gets into person's stomach (or body) (various methods).

B784.1.1. †B784.1.1. Person drinking from brook swallows animal eggs (frog or newt). England, Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman.

B784.1.2. †B784.1.2. Person swallows pebble on beach; snake grows in stomach. U.S.: Baughman.

B784.1.3. †B784.1.3. Person swallows snake semen or egg while eating watercress. England: *Baughman.

B784.1.4. †B784.1.4. Girl swallows frog spawn; an octopus grows inside her with tentacles reaching to every part of her body. Eng.: Baughman.

B784.1.5. †B784.1.5. Swallowed blackbeetle reproduces inside person's body. England: Baughman.

B784.1.6. †B784.1.6. Girl eats plums and maggots in them; maggots multiply inside her body. England: Baughman.

B784.1.7. †B784.1.7. Scaly lizard jumps into person's mouth. U.S.: Baughman.

B784.1.8. †B784.1.8. Salamander gets into veins through cracks in feet when person goes barefoot. U.S.: Baughman.

B784.2. †B784.2. Means of ridding person of animal in stomach.

B784.2.0.1. †B784.2.0.1. No remedy possible. England: Baughman.

B784.2.1. †B784.2.1. Patient fed salt: animal comes out for water. The patient is fed salt or heavily salted food and allowed no water for several days. He then stands with mouth open before a supply of fresh water, often a running brook. The thirsty animal emerges to get fresh water. --Ireland, U.S.: *Baughman; Italian Novella: Rotunda (†J1115.2.3).

B784.2.1.1. †B784.2.1.1. Snake (frog) in human body enticed out by milk (water). India: Thompson-Balys.

B784.2.1.2. †B784.2.1.2. Husband ties a cock near wife's feet: snake-parasite in her stomach comes out to catch the cock and is killed by husband. --India: Thompson-Balys.

B784.2.2. †B784.2.2. Patient sits before tempting meal without eating; animal emerges. Ireland, England, U.S.: *Baughman.

B784.2.3. †B784.2.3. Frog is enticed from patient's mouth by offering it a piece of cheese. England: Baughman.

B784.2.4. †B784.2.4. Physician removes animal from stomach of patient. U.S.: *Baughman.

B785. †B785. Animal wards off spirits. Irish myth: Cross.

B786. †B786. Monkeys always copy men. India: Thompson-Balys.

B787. †B787. Birds mock ascetic's devotions. India: Thompson-Balys.

B788. †B788. Bats keep fireflies to light their houses. India: Thompson-Balys.

B791. †B791. Elephants have power of bringing rain. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 41.

B792. †B792. Why certain animals are thought of as good or bad. Jewish: Neuman.

†B800-†B899. Miscellaneous animal motifs.

B800. †B800. Miscellaneous animal motifs.

B801. †B801. Elephants in folktales. *Penzer I 134.

B802. †B802. Horses in tales and legends. (Cf. †B41.1, †B41.2, †B103, †B133, †B149.1, †B151, †B181, †B811.1.) --**Howey Horse in Magic and Myth passim; *Malten Jahrb. d. Kaiserl. deutschen archäologischen Inst. XXIX (1914) 179ff.

B811. †B811. Sacred animals. Egyptian: Müller 159ff.; Icel.: Boberg.

B811.1. †B811.1. Sacred horse. (Cf. †B802.) --Penzer II 57 n. 1.

B811.1.1. †B811.1.1. Helpful horses descended from heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.

B811.2. †B811.2. Sacred armadillo. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3). 484.

B811.3. †B811.3. Sacred animal: cow. India: *Thompson-Balys.

B811.3.1. †B811.3.1. Sacred buffalo. India: Thompson-Balys.

B811.3.2. †B811.3.2. Sacred bull. Jewish: Neuman.

B811.3.3. †B811.3.3. Sacred cattle of sun god. Greek myth: Grote I 313.

B811.4. †B811.4. Sacred cat. India: Thompson-Balys.

B811.5. †B811.5. Sacred swan. India: Thompson-Balys.

B811.6. †B811.6. Sacred fox. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Métraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484.

B831. †B831. Animals try in vain to repair sleigh. They get unsatisfactory materials. --Type 158.

B841. †B841. Long-lived animals. --Frazer Pausanias IV 217; **Wesselski Archiv Orientální IV 1ff.

B841.1. †B841.1. Animals debate as to which is the elder. **Wesselski Archiv Orientální IV 1ff.; *Baum JAFL XXX 378 ff.; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob XXXIII No. 17; Japanese: Ikeda. --Africa (Benga): Nassau 95, 109 Nos. 5, 10, (Fang): Nassau 239 No. 7.

B841.2. †B841.2. Ages of animals (birds, fish) compared with age of human beings. Irish myth: Cross.

B841.2.1. †B841.2.1. Crow lives nine generations of men, deer 36, raven 108, phoenix 972, nymphs 9720. --Frazer Pausanias IV 217.

B841.3. †B841.3. Dog so old his head is skinless. Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 80.

B841.4. †B841.4. Stags live one thousand years. Tupper and Ogle Map 4.

B842. †B842. Faithful old dog to be killed. *Type 101.

B842.1. †B842.1. Faithful old horse to be abandoned. German: Grimm No. 132.

B843. †B843. Immortal animals. Jewish: Neuman.

B843.1. †B843.1. Immortal serpent. Gaster Oldest Stories 81.

B843.2. †B843.2. Immortal donkey. Jewish: Neuman.

B845. †B845. Wild animals herded. *Fb "hare" IV 201a; *Type 570; Irish myth: Cross.

B845.1. †B845.1. Wild pigs kept by demigod as if domesticated. India: Thompson-Balys.

B845.2. †B845.2. Animals chained in couples. Irish myth: Cross.

B846. †B846. Monkeys construct a bridge across the ocean. Penzer II 84 n. 1, 85 n.

B847. †B847. Lions placed in city to prevent entrance. Penzer I 108 n. 3.

B848. †B848. Man unharmed in den of animals. (cf. †B771.2.1.) --Type 403; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: *Neuman.

B848.1. †B848.1. The musician in the wolf-trap: meets wolf already trapped, and saves himself by playing music. (Cf. †K551.3.1.) --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *168; Estonian: Aarne in FFC XXV No. 2002.

B848.2. †B848.2. Girl removes dog from lion's claws without being harmed. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

B852. †B852. When cow calls her calf, all cattle graze. Irish myth: Cross.

B853. †B853. Birds perch on ears of cows. Irish myth: Cross.

B854. †B854. Each of grazing herd of cows eats same amount. Irish myth: Cross.

B855. †B855. Man and bear in the rick of hay. The bear, persecuted by wolves, runs onto the hay-rick where the man was hidden, and defends himself from the wolves with bunches of hay. --Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *167.

B857. †B857. Animal avenges injury. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 18 No. 9; Africa (Fang): Tessman 117f.

B870. †B870. Giant animals. (Cf. †B16.1, †B16.4, †B15.7.12) --Coulter Trans. Am. Philological Association LVII 32ff.

B870.1. †B870.1. Animal extraordinarily heavy for size. Irish myth: Cross.

B871. †B871. Giant beasts.

B871.1. †B871.1. Giant domestic beasts.

B871.1.1. †B871.1.1. Giant cow. Irish myth: Cross.

B871.1.1.1. †B871.1.1.1. Giant ox. Persia: Carnoy 289; Japanese: Ikeda.

B871.1.1.1.1. †B871.1.1.1.1. Gigantic ox-rib (in otherworld). Irish myth: Cross.

B871.1.1.2. †B871.1.1.2. Giant bull. Irish myth: Cross; *Loomis White Magic 82.

B871.1.1.3. †B871.1.1.3. Giant buffalo.

B871.1.2. †B871.1.2. Giant boar. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

B871.1.2.0.1. †B871.1.2.0.1. Giant boar with hinder part as large as can be carried by nine men. Irish myth: Cross.

B871.1.2.1. †B871.1.2.1. Giant hog. Fb "svin" III 676a.; India: Thompson-Balys; Irish myth: Cross.

B871.1.2.1.1. †B871.1.2.1.1. Gigantic hog-rib (in otherworld). Irish myth: Cross.

B871.1.3. †B871.1.3. Giant sheep. Irish myth: Cross.

B871.1.4. †B871.1.4. Giant goat. Africa (Benga): Nassau 202 No. 32.

B871.1.5. †B871.1.5. Giant horse: hair from the tail is seven yards. Nornagests th. ch. 7 p. 67.

B871.1.6. †B871.1.6. Giant cat. Irish myth: Cross.

B871.1.7. †B871.1.7. Giant dog (hound). Irish myth: Cross; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 114, Holm 24.

B871.2. †B871.2. Giant wild beasts.

B871.2.1. †B871.2.1. Giant elephant. Icel.: *Boberg; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 737, II 409; Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 37 No. 5.

B871.2.2. †B871.2.2. Giant tiger. *Chauvin VII 86 n. 7.

B871.2.3. †B871.2.3. Giant panther. *Chauvin VII 86 n. 6.

B871.2.4. †B871.2.4. Giant hippopotamus. Chauvin VII 86 n. 5.

B871.2.5. †B871.2.5. Giant lion. Malone PMLA XLIII 402f.; Irish myth: Cross.

B871.2.6. †B871.2.6. Giant walrus. Irish myth: Cross.

B871.2.7. †B871.2.7. Giant mice. Irish myth: Cross.

B871.2.8. †B871.2.8. Giant hare. Icel.: Boberg.

B871.2.9. †B871.2.9. Giant armadillo. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 71.

B872.1. †B872.1. Giant eagle. India: Thompson-Balys.

B872.2. †B872.2. Giant gull. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 455, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 195.

B872.3. †B872.3. Giant falcon. Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen III 207.

B872.4. †B872.4. Giant auk. Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 430.

B873. †B873. Giant insects.

B873.1. †B873.1. Giant louse. *Type 621; *BP III 483 (Gr. No. 212). See also all references to †F983.2.

B873.2. †B873.2. Giant scorpion. *Chauvin VII 86 No. 373bis.; Jewish: *Neuman.

B873.3. †B873.3. Giant spider. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 347.

B873.4. †B873.4. Giant ant. Jewish: Neuman.

B874. †B874. Giant fish. *Chauvin VII 8 No. 373A n. 2; *Reinhard PMLA XXXVIII 447 n. 81; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 40, 269f., 1014, II 29; Japanese: Ikeda. --Eskimo (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 78, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 640, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 539.

B874.1. †B874.1. Giant river catfish. Ladino: Conzemius BBAE CVI 130f.

B874.2. †B874.2. Giant eel. Irish myth: Cross.

B874.3. †B874.3. Giant whale. Irish myth: Cross; Marquesas: Handy 116.

B874.3.1. †B874.3.1. Whale cast ashore -- three golden teeth and five ounces in each of these teeth. Irish myth: Cross.

B874.3.2. †B874.3.2. Giant whale cast ashore on the night of Christ's Nativity: "fifty men were on the upper parts of its head, and (there was) the limit of vision between each two of them. Such was the amount of ground which the animal occupied. Irish myth: Cross.

B874.4. †B874.4. Giant salmon. Irish myth: Cross.

B874.5. †B874.5. Giant shark. Marquesas: Handy 110.

B874.6. †B874.6. Giant clam. Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 266.

B875. †B875. Giant reptiles.

B875.1. †B875.1. Giant serpent. *Chauvin VII 10 No. 373B n. 2; Jataka Index s.v. "Naga". --Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 216f.; Norwegian: Solheim Register 17; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 181; Irish myth: Cross; Missouri-French: Carrière; Jewish: Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda. --Eskimo (Greenland): Thalbitzer 5; Tonga: Gifford 178; Ladino: Conzemius BBAE CVI 169. --S. Am. Indian (Toba): Métraux MAFLS XL 57, 59, 71.

B875.2. †B875.2. Giant crocodile. *Chauvin VII 86 No. 373bis n. 8; Jewish: *Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 480. --Africa (Fang): Einstein 36f., Trilles 158.

B875.3. †B875.3. Giant turtle. *Chauvin VII 16 No. 373C n. 2.

B875.4. †B875.4. Giant tortoise. Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 339.

B876. †B876. Giant amphibia and other animal forms.

B876.1. †B876.1. Giant frog. Jewish: *Neuman.

B876.2. †B876.2. Giant crustacean.

B876.2.1. †B876.2.1. Giant crab. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 249, 472; Chauvin VIII 83 No. 373bis n. 1.

B877. †B877. Giant mythical animals.

B877.1. †B877.1. Giant sea monster. Irish myth: Cross.

B877.1.1. †B877.1.1. Giant water monster attacks man. Irish myth: Cross.

B877.1.2. †B877.1.2. Giant sea monster overpowered by saint. Irish myth: Cross.

B877.2. †B877.2. Gigantic animal ("reem"). Jewish: *Neuman.

B877.3. †B877.3. Djun, gigantic and ferocious river animal. Africa (Fang): Trilles 186.

B878. †B878. Giant flock of animals (birds.)

B878.1. †B878.1. Giant flock of birds.

B878.1.1. †B878.1.1. Flock of birds so numerous that it shakes trees upon which it perches. Irish myth: Cross.