A Chaucer Bibliography
[Picture: Pilgrims leaving the Tabard Inn]

Compiled by Stephen R. Reimer

email: Stephen.Reimer@UAlberta.Ca

Use CTRL-F to search for a keyword, or click on a topic to jump to an appropriate section:

A. Reference
B. History
C. Social and Ideological Background: i. General
C.ii. Racial Myths
C.iii. Women in the Middle Ages
C.iv. Love, Sexuality, and Marriage
C.v. Family and Household
C.vi. Sumptuary Laws (Legislation regarding Clothing, Food, etc.)
C.vii. The Supposedly Flat Earth
C.viii. Vernacular Architecture / Domestic Space
D. Linguistic Background
E. Literary Background: i. General
E.ii. Genres
E.iii. "Carnival" (Festive Misrule)
F. Individual Authors and Topics: i. Boethius
F.ii. Ovid
F.iii. The Romance of the Rose (Le Roman de la Rose)
G. Geoffrey Chaucer

A. Reference

Allen, Mark, and John H. Fisher. The Essential Chaucer: An Annotated Bibliography of Major Modern Studies. A Reference Publication in Literature. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1987.

Baird-Lange, Lorrayne Y., and Hildegard Schnuttgen. A Bibliography of Chaucer, 1974-1985. Hamden: Archon Books, 1988.

Baugh, Albert C., ed. Chaucer. 2nd ed. Goldentree Bibliographies in Language and Literature. Arlington Heights: AHM Publishing Corp., 1977.

Beidler, Peter G., and Elizabeth M. Biebel, eds. Chaucer's "Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale": An Annotated Bibliography, 1900-1995. The Chaucer Bibliographies 6. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, in association with the University of Rochester, 1998.

Benson, Larry D. A Glossarial Concordance to the Riverside Chaucer. 2 vols. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1699. New York: Garland Publishing, 1993.

Bisson, Lillian M. Chaucer and the Late Medieval World. London: Macmillan, 1998.

Boitani, Piero, and Jill Mann, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Chaucer. 2nd ed. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. [Available online here. Contents: "The social and literary scene in England," by Paul Strohm; "Chaucer's French inheritance," by Ardis Butterfield; "Chaucer's Italian inheritance," by David Wallace; "Old books brought to life in dreams," by Piero Boitani; "Telling the story in Troilus and Criseyde," by Mark Lambert; "Chance and destiny in Troilus and Criseyde and the Knight's Tale," by Jill Mann; "The Legend of Good Women," by Julia Boffey and A. S. G. Edwards; "The Canterbury Tales," by C. David Benson; "The Canterbury Tales I," by J. A. Burrow; "The Canterbury Tales II," by Derek Pearsall; "The Canterbury Tales III," by Robert Worth Frank, Jr.; "The Canterbury Tales IV," by A. C. Spearing; "Literary structures in Chaucer," by Barry Windeatt; "Chaucer's style," by Christopher Cannon; "Chaucer's presence and absence, 1400-1550," by James Simpson; "New approaches to Chaucer," by Carolyn Dinshaw; "Further reading," by Joerg O. Fichte.]

Brown, Peter, ed. A Companion to Chaucer. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 6. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2000. [Available online here. Contents: "Afterlife," by Carolyn Collette (on Chaucer's reputation); "Authority," by Andrew Galloway; "Bodies," by Linda Ehrsam Voigts; "Chivalry," by Derek Brewer; "Christian Ideologies," by Nicholas Watson; "Comedy," by Laura Kendrick; "Contemporary English Writers," by James Simpson; "Crisis and Dissent," by Alcuin Blamires; "France," by Michael Hanly; "Games," by Malcolm Andrew; "Genre," by Caroline D. Eckhardt; "Geography and Travel," by Scott D. Westrem; "Italy," by David Wallace; "Language," by David Burnley; "Life Histories," by Janette Dillon; "London," by Michael Hanrahan; "Love," by Helen Phillips; "Modes of Representation," by Edward Wheatley; "Narrative," by Robert R. Edwards; "Other Thought-Worlds," by Susanna Fein; "Pagan Survivals," by John M. Fyler; "Personal Identity," by Lynn Staley; "Science," by Irma Taavitsainen; "Social Structures," by Robert Swanson; "Style," by John F. Plummer; "Texts," by Tim William Machan; "Translation," by Roger Ellis; "Visualizing," by Sarah Stanbury; "Women," by Nicky Hallett.]

Brown, Peter, ed. A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture, c.1350-c.1500. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 42. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. [Available online here. Contents: Part I: Overviews: "Critical Approaches," David Raybin; "English Society in the Later Middle Ages: Deference, Ambition and Conflict," S. H. Rigby; "Religious Authority and Dissent," Mishtooni Bose; "City and Country, Wealth and Labour," Sarah Rees Jones; "Women's Voices and Roles," Carol M. Meale. Part II: The Production and Reception of Texts: "Manuscripts and Readers," A. S. G. Edwards; "From Manuscript to Modern Text," Julia Boffey; "Translation and Society," Catherine Batt. Part III: Language and Literature: "The Languages of Medieval Britain," Laura Wright; "The Forms of Speech," Donka Minkova; "The Forms of Verse," Donka Minkova. Part IV: Encounters with Other Cultures: "England and France," Ardis Butterfield; "Britain and Italy: Trade, Travel, Translation," Nick Havely; "England's Antiquities: Middle English Literature and the Classical Past," Christopher Baswell; "Jews, Saracens, 'Black Men,' Tartars: England in a World of Racial Difference," Geraldine Heng. Part V: Special Themes: "War and Chivalry," Richard W. Kaeuper and Montgomery Bohna; "Literature and Law," Richard Firth Green; "Images," Peter Brown; "Love," Barry Windeatt. Part VI: Genres: "Middle English Romance," Thomas Hahn and Dana M. Symons; "Writing Nation: Shaping Identity in Medieval Historical Narratives," Raluca L. Radulescu; "Dream Poems," Helen Phillips; "Lyric," Rosemary Greentree; "Literature of Religious Instruction," E. A. Jones; "Mystical and Devotional Literature," Denise N. Baker; "Accounts of Lives," Kathleen Ashley; "Medieval English Theatre: Codes and Genres," Meg Twycross; "Morality and Interlude Drama," Darryll Grantley. Part VII: Readings: "York Mystery Plays," Pamela King; "The Book of Margery Kempe," Ruth Evans; "Julian of Norwich," Santha Bhattacharji; "Piers Plowman," Stephen Kelly; "Subjectivity and Ideology in the Canterbury Tales," Mark Miller; "John Gower and John Lydgate: Forms and Norms of Rhetorical Culture," J. Allan Mitchell; "Thomas Hoccleve, La Male Regle," Nicholas Perkins; "Discipline and Relaxation in the Poetry of Robert Henryson," R. James Goldstein; "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," Kevin Gustafson; "Blood and Love in Malory's Morte Darthur," Catherine La Farge.]

Burnley, David, and Matsuji Tajima. The Language of Middle English Literature. Annotated Bibliographies of Old and Middle English Literature 1. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: Boydell and Brewer, 1994.

Burton, T. L., and Rosemary Greentree, eds. Chaucer's Miller's, Reeve's, and Cook's Tales: An Annotated Bibliography. The Chaucer Bibliographies 5. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, in association with the University of Rochester, 1997.

Correale, Robert M., and Mary Hamel, eds. Sources and Analogues of the "Canterbury Tales." 2 vols. Chaucer Studies. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2002-2009. [Publisher's description: "A new two-volume edition of the sources and major analogues of all the Canterbury Tales prepared by members of the New Chaucer Society. This collection, the first to appear in over half a century, features such additions as a fresh interpretation of Chaucer's sources for the frame of the work, chapters on the sources of the General Prologue and Retractions, and modern English translations of all foreign language texts. Chapters on the individual tales contain an updated survey of the present state of scholarship on their source materials. Several sources and analogues discovered during the past fifty years are found here together for the first time, and some other familiar sources are re-edited from manuscripts closer to Chaucer's copies."]

Crow, Martin M., and Clair C. Olson, eds. Chaucer Life-Records. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

Davidson, Linda K., and Maryjane Dunn-Wood. Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages: A Research Guide. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1379; Garland Medieval Bibliographies 16. New York: Garland, 1992.

Eckhardt, Caroline D., ed. Chaucer's "General Prologue" to the "Canterbury Tales": An Annotated Bibliography, 1900-1982. The Chaucer Bibliographies 3. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, in association with the University of Rochester, 1990.

Ellis, Steve, ed. Chaucer: An Oxford Guide. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. [Publisher's description: "This text combines general essays and contextual information with detailed readings of specific Chaucerian texts. The volume is divided into five parts: 'Historical Contexts,' 'Literary Contexts,' 'Readings,' 'Afterlife' and 'Study Resources.' Each chaper includes a Guide to Further Reading and there is a Chronology at the end of the volume." Contents: Chaucer's life / Ruth Evans -- Society and politics / S. H. Rigby -- Nationhood / Ardis Butterfield -- London / C. David Benson -- Religion / Jim Rhodes -- Chivalry / Mark Sherman -- Literacy and literary production / Stephen Penn -- Chaucer's language: pronunciation, morphology, metre / Donka Minkova -- Philosophy / Richard Utz -- Science / J. A. Tasioulas -- Visual culture / David Griffith -- Sexuality / Alcuin Blamires -- Identity and subjecthood / John M. Ganim -- Love and marriage / Bernard O'Donoghue -- The classical background / Helen Cooper -- The English background / Wendy Scase -- The French background / Helen Phillips -- The Italian background / Nick Havely -- The Bible / Valerie Edden -- Modern Chaucer criticism / Elizabeth Robertson -- Feminisms / Gail Ashton -- The carnivalesque / Marion Turner -- Postmodernism / Barry Windeatt -- New historicism / Sylvia Federico -- Queer theory / Glenn Burger -- Postcolonialism / Jeffrey J. Cohen -- Psychoanalytic criticism / Patricia Clare Ingham -- Editing Chaucer / Elizabeth Scala -- Reception: fifteenth to seventeenth centuries / John J. Thompson -- Reception: eighteenth and nineteenth centuries / David Matthews -- Reception: twentieth and twenty-first centuries / Stephanie Trigg -- Translations / Malcolm Andrew -- Chaucer in performance / Kevin J. Harty -- Chaucer and his guides / Peter Brown -- Printed resources / Mark Allen -- Electronic resources / Philippa Semper.]

Friedman, John B[lock], and Jessica M. Wegmann. Medieval Iconography: A Research Guide. Garland Medieval Bibliographies 20; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1870. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1998. [A bibliographical guide to symbolic objects and animals in medieval art and literature, originating in such questions as "what would a medieval audience understand by Pandarus bringing a pillow to Criseyde's bedside?"]

Galloway, Andrew, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Culture. Cambridge Companions to Culture. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. [Available online here. Publisher's description: "This 'companion' is designed to introduce a range of materials deemed to constitute the culture (or, perhaps better, cultures) of medieval England, from approximately the Norman Conquest to roughly the Reformation. The fields presented here may offer a rather unusual fit with standard courses and disciplines, but the pressures on modern frameworks are intended. It is not unusual, however, for study of early periods to offer some combination of 'literature,' 'history,' 'archaeology,' 'art history,' or other field. Studies in antiquity and the Renaissance do this regularly; and medieval studies was from the outset defined in an equally capacious frame. The cultural life of England over the long period from the Norman Conquest to the Reformation was rich and varied, in ways that scholars are only now beginning to understand in detail. This Companion introduces a wide range of materials that constitute the culture, or cultures, of medieval England, across fields including political and legal history, archaeology, social history, art history, religion and the history of education. Above all it looks at the literature of medieval England in Latin, French and English, plus post-medieval perspectives on the 'Middle Ages.' In a linked series of essays experts in these areas show the complex relationships between them, building up a broad account of rich patterns of life and literature in this period. The essays are supplemented by a chronology and guide to further reading, helping students build on the unique access this volume provides to what can seem a very foreign culture." Contents: Introduction: medieval English culture and its companions / Andrew Galloway -- Part One. Theaters of Culture: Political, Legal, Material: 1. From court to nation / Scott Waugh; 2. The legal revolution and the discourse of dispute in the twelfth century / Paul Hyams; 3. Archaeology and post-Conquest England / David Hinton -- Part Two. Cultural Ideals and Cultural Conflicts: 4. Social ideals and social disruption / Richard Kaeuper; 5. 'Celtic' visions of England / David Dumville; 6. The idea of sanctity and the uncanonized life of Margery Kempe / Rebecca Krug -- Part Three. Literacies, Languages, and Literatures: 7. Visual texts in post-Conquest England / Laura Kendrick; 8. Literacy, schooling, universities / Ralph Hanna; 9. Anglo-Latin literature in the later Middle Ages / David Carlson; 10. The vernaculars of medieval England, 1170-1350 / Elaine Treharne; 11. English literary voices, 1350-1500 / David Lawton -- Part Four. Legacies and Re-creations: 12. Literary reformations of the Middle Ages / Helen Cooper; 13. Re-creating the Middle Ages / Clare Simmons.]

Goodall, Peter, ed. Chaucer's "Monk's Tale" and "Nun's Priest's Tale": An Annotated Bibliography. Toronto Chaucer Bibliographies. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.

Gray, Douglas, ed. The Oxford Companion to Chaucer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. [Available online here. Publisher's description: "Written by an international team of scholars, the Oxford Companion to Chaucer provides a wealth of clear, up-to-date assessments on all aspects of Chaucer. Entries provide information on Chaucer's life and times, his works and the characteristics of them, his language and metre, his reading and the creative uses he made of it, and his major moral and literary themes. Extensive reference is also made to the development of critical opinion about his works over the centuries." "With over 2000 entries this volume provides assessments on all aspects of Chaucer. Entries provide information on Chaucer's life and times, his works and the characteristics in them, his language and metre, his reading and the creative uses he made of it and on his major moral and literary themes."]

Greentree, Rosemary. The Middle English Lyric and Short Poem. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. [An annotated bibliography of editions and critical works.]

Hicks, Michael. Who's Who in Late Medieval England (1272-1485). London: Shepheard-Walwyn, 1991.

Lanham, Richard A. A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms. 2nd ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991.

Lerer, Seth, ed. The Yale Companion to Chaucer. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006. [Publisher's description: "A collection of essays on Chaucer's poetry, this guide provides up-to-date information on the history and textual contexts of Chaucer's work, on the ranges of critical interpretation, and on the poet's place in English and European literary history." Contents: The lives of Geoffrey Chaucer / by Christopher Cannon -- Chaucer as a European writer / by James Simpson -- Chaucer as an English writer / by D. Vance Smith -- Chaucer and rhetoric / by Rita Copeland -- The dream visions / by Deanne Williams -- Lyrics and short poems / by Bruce Holsinger -- Troilus and Criseyde / by Jennifer Summit -- The Canterbury tales / by Seth Lerer -- Chaucer's influence and reception / by Stephanie Trigg -- Chaucer criticism and its legacies / by Ethan Knapp.]

Leyerle, John, and Anne Quick. Chaucer: A Bibliographical Introduction. Toronto Medieval Bibliographies 10. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986.

Matthew, Donald. Atlas of Medieval Europe. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1983.

McAlpine, Monica E., ed. Chaucer's "Knight's Tale": An Annotated Bibliography 1900-1985. The Chaucer Bibliographies 4. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, in association with the University of Rochester, 1991.

McEvedy, Colin. The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1961.

Miller, Robert P., ed. Chaucer: Sources and Background. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Minnis, Alastair. The Cambridge Introduction to Chaucer. Cambridge Introductions to Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. [Available online here. Publisher's description: "Geoffrey Chaucer is the best-known and most widely read of all medieval British writers, famous for his scurrilous humour and biting satire against the vices and absurdities of his age. Yet he was also a poet of passionate love, sensitive to issues of gender and sexual difference, fascinated by the ideological differences between the pagan past and the Christian present, and a man of science, knowledgeable in astronomy, astrology and alchemy. This concise book is an ideal starting point for study of all his major poems, particularly The Canterbury Tales, to which two chapters are devoted. It offers close readings of individual texts, presenting various possibilities for interpretation, and includes discussion of Chaucer's life, career, historical context and literary influences. An account of the various ways in which he has been understood over the centuries leads into an up-to-date, annotated guide to further reading." Contents: Introduction: life and historical contexts -- 1. Love and lore: the shorter poems -- 2. Fictions of antiquity: Troilus and Criseyde and The Legend of Good Women -- 3. The Canterbury Tales, I: war, love, laughter -- 4. The Canterbury Tales, II: experience and authority -- Afterword -- Guide to further reading.]

Morris, Lynn King. Chaucer Source and Analogue Criticism: A Cross-Referenced Guide. New York: Garland, 1985.

Mosser, Daniel W. "A Digital Catalogue of the Pre-1500 Manuscripts and Incunables of the Canterbury Tales." 2nd ed. [2014?] [Available online here.] [Provides descriptions of all 84 of the fifteenth-century manuscripts as well as details of the individual copies of incunable editions. Accompanying articles discuss lost manuscripts and individual scribes.]

Murphy, James J., ed. Medieval Rhetoric: A Select Bibliography. 2nd ed. Toronto Medieval Bibliographies 3. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987.

Oizumi, Akio, ed. A Complete Concordance to the Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Programmed by Kunihiro Miki. 10 vols. Zürich: Georg Olms, 1990.

Peck, Russell A., ed. Chaucer's Lyrics and "Anelida and Arcite": An Annotated Bibliography, 1900 to 1980. The Chaucer Bibliographies 1. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1983.

Peck, Russell A., ed. Chaucer's "Romaunt of the Rose" and "Boece," "Treatise on the Astrolabe," "Equatorie of the Planetis," Lost Works, and Chaucerian Apocrypha: An Annotated Bibliography, 1900-1985. The Chaucer Bibliographies 2. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, in association with the University of Rochester, 1988.

Platt, Colin. The Atlas of Medieval Man. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979.

Rogers, Clifford J., gen. ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. 3 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Rowland, Beryl, ed. A Companion to Chaucer Studies. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Rudd, Gillian. The Complete Critical Guide to Geoffrey Chaucer. The Complete Critical Guides to English Literature. London and New York: Routledge, 2001. [A survey of critical approaches to Chaucer's works.]

Saunders, Corinne J., ed. A Concise Companion to Chaucer. Blackwell Concise Companions to Literature and Culture. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006. [Available online here. Contents: Politics and London life / Marion Turner -- Manuscripts and audience / Julia Boffey and Tony Edwards -- Books and authority / Robert F. Yeager -- Courtly writing / Barry Windeatt -- Dreaming / Steven Kruger -- Love in wartime: Troilus and Criseyde as Trojan history / Andrew Lynch -- Love and the making of the self: Troilus and Criseyde / Corinne Saunders -- Tragedy and romance in Chaucer's 'litel bok' of Troilus and Criseyde / Norman Klassen -- The genre of The Canterbury tales / Genre in the Canterbury Tales / Judith Ferster -- Sexuality, marriage and the family / Neil Cartlidge -- Christianity and the church / John Hirsh -- Reading Chaucer aloud - David Fuller.]

Strayer, Joseph R., ed. Dictionary of the Middle Ages. 13 vols. New York: Scribner's, 1982-1989.

Sutton, Marilyn, ed. Chaucer's "Pardoner's Prologue and Tale": An Annotated Bibliography, 1900 to 1995. The Chaucer Bibliographies 7. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, in association with the University of Rochester, 2000.

Szarmach, Paul E., M. Teresa Tavormina, Joel T. Rosenthal, eds. Medieval England: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, 1998. [Publisher's description: "The Encyclopedia offers expert answers to questions on aspects of life and culture in medieval England--art, architecture, law, literature, kings, commoners, women, music, commerce, technology, warfare, religion, and others. It takes as its scope English social, cultural, and political life from the Anglo-Saxon invasions in the fifth century to the turn of the sixteenth century. It traces England's ties to the Celtic world of Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, to the French and Anglo-Norman world of the Continent, to the Viking and Scandinavian world of the North Sea, and to the world of medieval Christendom. The result is a detailed portrait of the English Middle Ages and their key historical events, personages, and cultural contexts."]

Turner, Marion, ed. Handbook of Middle English Studies. Wiley-Blackwell Critical Theory Handbooks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2013. [Available online here. Publisher's description: "A Handbook to Middle English Studies presents a series of original essays from leading literary scholars that explore the relationship between critical theory and late medieval literature. This book: Includes 26 new essays by leading scholars of late medieval literature; Sets the new standard for an introduction to the study of late medieval literature; Showcases the most current cutting-edge theoretical research; Demonstrates a range of approaches to late medieval literature; Brings together critical theory and medieval literature." Contents: Introduction / Marion Turner. Part 1: Selfhood and Community. Imagination / Aranye Fradenburg; Memory / Anke Bernau; Desire / Elizabeth Scala; Gender / Nicola McDonald; Sexuality / Glenn Burger and Steven F. Kruger; Public Interiorities / David Lawton; Race / Jeffrey Jerome Cohen; Animality / Susan Crane. -- Part 2: Constructing Texts, Constructing Textual History. Authorship / Vincent Gillespie; Audience / Joyce Coleman; Manuscript / Alexandra Gillespie; Material Culture / Jessica Brantley; Genre / Julie Orlemanski; Aesthetics / Maura Nolan; Canon Formation / Thomas A. Prendergast; Periodization / David Matthews. -- Part 3: Politics and Places. Sovereignty / Robert Mills; Class / Isabel Davis; Church / Laura Varnam; City / Jonathan Hsy; Margins / Corinne Saunders; Ecology / Carolyn Dinshaw; Nation / Kathy Lavezzo; Language / Laura Ashe; Postcolonialism / John M. Ganim; A Global Middle Ages / Geraldine Heng.]

Vauchez, André, ed. Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Trans. Adrian Walford. 2 vols. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn; Paris: Editions du Cerf; Rome: Città Nuova, 2000. [Published in slightly different versions, in English, French and Italian. English edition consists of translations from the French and Italian versions, with additional entries and bibliographies. The English version was prepared with the assistance of R. B. Dobson and Michael Lapidge. Available online here.]

Weever, Jacqueline de. A Chaucer Name Dictionary: A Dictionary of Astrological, Biblical, Historical, Literary, and Mythological Names. New York: Garland, 1986.

B. History

Allmand, Christopher. The Hundred Years War: England and France at War, c. 1300-c. 1450. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Barron, Caroline M. London in the Late Middle Ages: Government and People, 1200-1500. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Benedictow, Ole Jørgen. What Disease was Plague?: On the Controversy over the Microbiological Identity of Plague Epidemics of the Past. Brill's Series in the History of the Environment 2. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010. [Publisher's description: "In this monograph, the alternative theories to the established bubonic-plague theory as to the microbiological identity of historical plague epidemics are intensively discussed in the light of the historical sources and the medical primary research and standard works." Contents: The issue and the problems -- The ethics of scholarly work -- Rats -- The spread of bubonic plague over distances -- Mortality in india -- Was historical plague a viral or bacterial disease?: the question of immunity -- Defining feature 1: latency periods -- Defining feature 2: inverse correlation between mortality rate and population density -- Defining feature 3: buboes as a normal clinical feature in epidemics -- Defining feature 4: DNA of yersinia pestis from plague graves -- Defining feature 5: seasonality of bubonic plague -- The beginning: the alternative theories of Shrewsbury and Morris -- Gunnar Karlsson's alternative theory: that historical plague was pure epidemics of primary pneumonic plague -- Twigg's alternative theory -- The alternative theory of Scott and Duncan -- Cohn's alternative theory.]

Bolton, J. L. Money in the Medieval English Economy, 973-1489. Manchester Medieval Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2012. [Publisher's description: "The importance of money as one of the key variables in the workings of the medieval economy is often overlooked. This new study first provides the reader with a background to the problems of modelling the medieval economy and the value of the Fisher equation of exchange to monetary historians, to the pratical processes of strking coins from silver and gold acquired through foreign trade and to the importance of royal control over mints and exchanges. These theories are then used to analyse how money worked within the economy if the early, central and late middle ages with fluctuations in the size of the circulating medium and the availability of credit acting as either a brake on or a stimulus to economic expansion. A full money economy did not emerge until c. 1300 but its existence and flexibility helped the economy survive the severe shocks of the late middle ages." Contents: Part One: Theories and Problems. 1. Modelling the medieval economy: the equation of exchange; 2. Money and the money economy; 3. Coinage and the bullion supply. Part Two: The Coinage and the Economy, c. 973-1489. 4. The coinage from the late tenth century to 1158; 5. A monetarised economy, 973-1158?; 6. The coinage 1158-1351; 7. The emergence of a money economy, 1158-1351; 8. Testing the money economy, 1351-1489; 9. Conclusions.]

Bush, M. L., ed. Serfdom and Slavery: Studies in Legal Bondage. London and New York: Longman, 1996.

Cantor, Norman F. The Last Knight: The Twilight of the Middle Ages and the Birth of the Modern Era. New York: Free Press, 2004. [Publisher's description: "There may be no more fascinating historical period than the late fourteenth century in Europe. The Hundred Years' War ravaged the continent, yet gallantry, chivalry, and literary brilliance flourished in the courts of England and elsewhere. Chaucer wrote brilliant satire, lords and ladies invented courtly rituals of love and romance, yet the vast bulk of Europe's population struggled with plague, economic uncertainty, and violence. It was a world in transition, soon to be replaced by the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration--and John of Gaunt was its central figure. Norman F. Cantor, the best known and most popular historian of the Middle Ages, brings Gaunt to life brilliantly in his newest work, The Last Knight. John of Gaunt was the richest man in Europe, apart from its monarchs, and he epitomized and surpassed the ideals of the late Middle Ages. From chivalry--he was taught at a young age to fight on horseback like the knights of old--to courtly love--his three marriages included two romantic love-matches--he was an ideal leader. He created lavish courts, sponsoring Chaucer and proto-Protestant religious thinkers, and he survived the dramatic Peasants' Revolt, during which his sumptuous London residence was burned to the ground. As the head of the Lancastrian Branch of the Plantagenet family, he was the unknowing father of the War of the Roses, for his son Henry Bolingbroke usurped the crown from Gaunt's nephew, Richard II, after Gaunt had died. He passed away just as one great era gave way to the next: His grandson Henry the Navigator launched the Age of Exploration. Gaunt's adventures represent the culture and mores of the Middle Ages as few others' do, and his death is portrayed by Cantor as the end of that fascinating period. Shakespeare put into Gaunt's mouth the most patriotic speech in the English language: 'this sceptre'd isle . . . This other Eden, demi-paradise.' Yet Shakespeare's version of Gaunt is an old and doddering man whose son took center stage. In fact, in Cantor's capable hands, this great man and those fascinating times are ready for their own starring roles." Contents: Old Europe; The great families; Plantagenet England; Women; Warriors; Spain; The church; Peasants; Politics; Chaucer; The end of the Middle Ages. [John of Gaunt]

Chazelle, Celia Martin, et al., eds. Why the Middle Ages Matter: Medieval Light on Modern Injustice. London and New York: Routledge, 2012. [Publisher's description: "The word 'medieval' is often used in a negative way when talking about contemporary issues; Why the Middle Ages Matter refreshes our thinking about this historical era, and our own, by looking at some pressing concerns from today's world, asking how these issues were really handled in the medieval period, and showing why the past matters now. The contributors here cover topics such as torture, animal rights, marriage, sexuality, imprisonment, refugees, poverty and end of life care. They shed light on relations between Christians and Muslims and on political leadership. This collection challenges many negative stereotypes of medieval people, revealing a world from which, for instance, much could be learned about looking after the spiritual needs of the dying, and about integrating prisoners into the wider community with the emphasis on reconciliation between victim and criminal. It represents a new level of engagement with issues of social justice by medievalists and provides a highly engaging way into studying the middle ages for students."]

Cohn, Samuel Kline, ed. and trans. Popular Protest in Late Medieval Europe: Italy, France, and Flanders. Manchester Medieval Sources Series. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2004.

Cole, Andrew. Literature and Heresy in the Age of Chaucer. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 71. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Coulton, G[eorge] G[ordon]. Parish Life in Medieval England. London: E. Stock, 1907. [A 16-page article, reprinted from The Churchman, April, 1907.]

Davies, R. G., and J. H. Denton, eds. The English Parliament in the Middle Ages. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1981.

Davis, Jennifer R., and Michael McCormick, eds. The Long Morning of Medieval Europe: New Directions in Early Medieval Studies. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Recent advances in research show that the distinctive features of high medieval civilization began developing centuries earlier than previously thought. The era once dismissed as a 'Dark Age' now turns out to have been the long morning of the medieval millennium: the centuries from AD 500 to 1000 witnessed the dawn of developments that were to shape Europe for centuries to come. In 2004, historians, art historians, archaeologists, and literary specialists from Europe and North America convened at Harvard University for an interdisciplinary conference exploring new directions in the study of that long morning of medieval Europe, the early Middle Ages. Invited to think about what seemed to each the most exciting new ways of investigating the early development of western European civilization, this impressive group of international scholars produced a wide-ranging discussion of innovative types of research that define tomorrow's field today. The contributors, many of whom rarely publish in English, test approaches extending from using ancient DNA to deducing cultural patterns signified by thousands of medieval manuscripts of saints' lives. They examine the archaeology of slave labor, economic systems, disease history, transformations of piety, the experience of power and property, exquisite literary sophistication, and the construction of the meaning of palace spaces or images of the divinity. The book illustrates in an approachable style the vitality of research into the early Middle Ages, and the signal contributions of that era to the future development of western civilization. The chapters cluster around new approaches to five key themes: the early medieval economy; early medieval holiness; representation and reality in early medieval literary art; practices of power in an early medieval empire; and the intellectuality of early medieval art and architecture. Michael McCormick's brief introductions open each part of the volume; synthetic essays by accomplished specialists conclude them. The editors summarize the whole in a synoptic introduction. All Latin terms and citations and other foreign-language quotations are translated, making this work accessible even to undergraduates. The Long Morning of Medieval Europe: New Directions in Early Medieval Studies presents innovative research across the wide spectrum of study of the early Middle Ages. It exemplifies the promising questions and methodologies at play in the field today, and the directions that beckon tomorrow." Contents: The early Middle Ages: Europe's long morning, Jennifer R. Davis and Michael McCormick. Part 1: Discovering the early medieval economy, Michael McCormick; Rethinking the structure of the early medieval economy, Chris Wickham; Strong rulers--weak economy?: Rome, the Carolingians, and the archaeology of slavery in the 1st millennium AD, Joachim Henning; The beginnings of hilltop villages in early medieval Tuscany, Riccardo Francovich; Molecular Middle Ages: early medieval economic history in the 21st century, Michael McCormick; The early medieval economy: data, production, exchange, and demand, Angeliki E. Laiou. Part 2: Sounding early medieval holiness, Michael McCormick; Latin hagiography before the 9th century: a synoptic view, Guy Philippart with Michel Trigalet; Donationes pro anima: gift and countergift in the early medieval liturgy, Arnold Angenendt; The early medieval transformation of piety, Thomas Head. Part 3: Representation and reality in the artistry of early medieval literature, Michael McCormick; Observations on early medieval weather in general, bloody rain in particular, Paul Edward Dutton; The King says No: on the logic of type-scenes in late antique and early medieval narrative, Joaquín Martínez Pizarro; Of arms and the (Ger)man: literary and material culture in the Waltharius, Jan M. Ziolkowski; Representations and reality in early medieval literature, Danuta Shanzer. Part 4: Practices of power in an early medieval empire, Michael McCormick; Charlemagne and empire, Janet L. Nelson; A pattern for power: Charlemagne's delegation of judicial responsibilities, Jennifer R. Davis; Practices of property in the Carolingian empire, Matthew J. Innes; The cunning of institutions, Stuart Airlie. Part 5: The intellectuality of early medieval art, Michael McCormick; Charlemagne's balcony: the solarium in 9th-century narratives, Mayke de Jong; Image and object: Christ's dual nature and the crisis of early medieval art, Herbert L. Kessler; Matter and meaning in the Carolingian world, Thomas F. X. Noble.]

Denton, Jeffrey Howard, ed. Orders and Hierarchies in Late Medieval and Renaissance Europe. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

DeVries, Kelly. Medieval Military Technology. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 1992.

Duffy, Seán, and Susan Foran, eds. The English Isles: Cultural Transmission and Political Conflict in Britain and Ireland, 1100-1500. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2012. [Publisher's description: "Leading medieval scholars discuss the impact of English imperialism and the ways in which English and wider European cultural norms were transmitted outwards towards Ireland, Scotland and Wales from the Norman Conquest onwards. Subjects examined include, in the field of language and literature, the resilience of the English language in the face of the forced imposition of French culture by the Normans; national identity in the chivalric literature of late 14th-century Scotland; foreign apologues in the bardic verse of late medieval Ireland, and, in history, Irish perceptions of the Normans from the mid-11th to the mid-12th century; external influences on Welsh saints' cults; native Welsh colonization in Ireland; the survival of monarchy in Scotland in the face of English assault; and the anomaly that was the medieval Lordship of the Isles."]

Duggan, Anne J., ed. Nobles and Nobility in Medieval Europe: Concepts, Origins, Transformations. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2002.

Friar, Stephen. Heraldry for the Local Historian and Genealogist. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1992.

Fulton, Helen. "Cheapside in the Age of Chaucer." In Medieval Cultural Studies: Essays in Honour of Stephen Knight. Ed. Ruth Evans, Helen Fulton, and David Matthews. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006. Pp. 138-151. [On the City of London in the late Middle Ages.]

Gimpel, Jean. The Medieval Machine: The Industrial Revolution of the Middle Ages. 2nd ed. Aldershot: Wildwood House, 1988. [Translated from the French: La révolution industrielle du moyen âge. By studying medieval technology and invention, the author shows how energy resources, manpower, and ingenuity revolutionized medieval agriculture, industry, construction, and mining, creating a genuine industrial revolution, and how the eventual economic and social decline that began in fourteenth-century Europe parallels the failings of modern industrial society.]

Given-Wilson, Chris, ed. and trans. Chronicles of the Revolution, 1397-1400: The Reign of Richard II. Manchester Medieval Sources Series. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993.

Goodman, Anthony. John of Gaunt: The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth-Century Europe. London: Longman, 1992.

Gurr, T. R. "Historical Trends in Violent Crime: A Critical Review of the Evidence." Crime and Justice 3 (1981): 295-353.

Guth, DeLloyd J. Late-Medieval England, 1377-1485. Conference on British Studies, Bibliographical Handbooks. Cambridge, London, New York, and Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, for the Conference on British Studies, 1976. [With a supplement: Rosenthal, Joel T., ed. Late Medieval England (1377-1485): A Bibliography of Historical Scholarship, 1975-1989. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1994.]

Hanawalt, Barbara A., ed. Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. Crime and Conflict in English Communities, 1300-1348. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Harpur, James. Inside the Medieval World: A Panorama of Life in the Middle Ages. London: Cassell, 1995.

Harris, Stephen J., and Bryon L. Grigsby, eds. Misconceptions about the Middle Ages. Routledge Studies in Medieval Religion and Culture 7. New York: Routledge, 2008. [Contents: Was the medieval church corrupt? / Frans van Liere -- Papal infallibility / Elaine M. Beretz -- "The age of faith": everyone in the Middle Ages believed in God / Peter Dendle -- Everyone was an orthodox, educated Roman Catholic / Michael D. C. Drout -- Myth of the virgin nun / Mary Dockray-Miller -- Medieval Popess / Vincent DiMarco -- Medieval monks: funnier than you thought / Liam Ethan Felsen -- Medieval attitudes toward Muslims and Jews / Michael Frassetto -- Crusades: eschatological lemmings, younger sons, papal hegemony, and colonialism / Jessalynn Bird -- Myth of the mounted knight / James G. Patterson -- Myth of the flat earth / Louise M. Bishop -- Medieval sense of self / Ronald J. Ganze -- Middles Ages were a superstitious time / Peter Dendle -- Age before reason / Richard Raiswell -- Rehabilitating medieval medicine / Anne Van Arsdall -- Medieval misconceptions / Bryon Grigsby -- Medieval cuisine: hog's swill or culinary art? / Jean-François Kosta-Théfaine -- What did medieval people eat? / Christopher Roman -- Medieval drama / Carolyn Coulson-Grigsby -- Shakespeare did not write in Old English / Marijane Osborn -- Austere age without laughter / Michael W. George -- King Arthur: the once and future misconception / S. Elizabeth Passmore -- "Peasants revolt"? / Paul Strohm -- Medieval sense of history / Richard H. Godden -- Medieval peasant / Dinah Hazell -- Witches and the myth of the medieval Burning Times / Anita Obermeier -- Medieval child: an unknown phenomenon? / Sophie Oosterwijk -- Were women able to read and write in the Middle Ages? / Helen Conrad-O'Briain -- Teaching Chaucer in Middle English / C. David Benson -- Medieval chastity belt unbuckled / Linda Migl Keyser.]

Harvey, Ruth. The Culture of the Court in the Medieval World. Explorations in Medieval Culture and Society. London: Macmillan; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, [forthcoming].

Hicks, Michael. Richard II: The Man behind the Myth. London: Collins and Brown, 1991.

Holt, Richard. The Mills of Medieval England. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, 1988.

Horrox, Rosemary. Centre and Localities in Medieval England, 12th-16th Century. Explorations in Medieval Culture and Society. London: Macmillan; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, [forthcoming].

Jones, Malcolm. The Secret Middle Ages. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 2002. ["Using the wealth of medieval art, much of it unseen or ignored by museums and art historians, Jones paints a compelling picture of life as imagined by the masses between 1200 and 1500. The civilization that emerges is both like and unlike our own, one teeming with the richness of life and its contradictions. In contrast to most medieval studies, Jones does not focus exclusively on religious or aristocratic art, but looks instead to the products of popular and folk art, such as jewelry, tableware, illustrations, carvings, and textiles. All evoke the vivid creative imagination and strong visual culture of the Middle Ages. This book offers a major reassessment of the high medieval period. Medievalists and those interested in the history of language and customs will find it to be essential reading. Richly illustrated, it provides a brilliant and evocative picture of medieval Europe by a leading authority on medieval folklore. As Jones writes, gems and precious metals may dazzle the eye, but a pewter brooch, though it may look tawdry, is of more real significance and tells us more about the Middle Ages than a treasure chest of royal jewels" (publisher's description).]

Jones, Richard H[utton]. The Royal Policy of Richard II: Absolutism in the Later Middle Ages. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1968.

Karras, Ruth Mazo, Joel Kaye, and E. Ann Matter, eds. Law and the Illicit in Medieval Europe. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. [Contents: The reordering of law and the illicit in eleventh and twelfth-century Europe / Edward M. Peters -- A fresh look at medieval sanctuary / William Chester Jordan -- Heresy as politics and the politics of heresy, 1022-1180 / R. I. Moore -- Legal ethics: a medieval ghost story / James A. Brundage -- The ties that bind: legal status and imperial power / James Muldoon -- Licit and illicit in the Yarnall collection at the University of Pennsylvania: pages from the decretals of Pope Gregory IX / Robert Somerville -- Judicial violence and torture in the Carolingian empire / Patrick Geary -- The ambiguity of treason in Anglo-Norman-French law, c.1150-c.1250 / Stephen D. White -- Illicit religion: the case of Friar Matthew Grabow, O.P. / John Van Engen -- Marriage, concubinage, and the law / Ruth Mazo Karras -- Crusaders' rights revisited: the use and abuse of crusader privileges in early thirteenth-century France / Jessalynn Bird -- Learned opinion and royal justice: the role of Paris masters of theology during the reign of Philip the Fair / William J. Courtenay -- Coin and punishment in medieval Venice / Alan M. Stahl -- Licit and illicit in the rhetoric of the investiture conflict / Alex Novikoff -- Satisfying the laws: the legenda of Maria of Venice / Susan Mosher Stuard -- Canon law and Chaucer on licit and illicit magic / Henry Ansgar Kelly -- Law and science: constructing a border between licit and illicit knowledge in the writings of Nicole Oresme / Joel Kaye.]

Kay, F. George. Lady of the Sun: The Life and Times of Alice Perrers. London: Frederick Muller, 1966.

Keen, M[aurice] H[ugh]. England in the Later Middle Ages: A Political History. London: Methuen, 1973.

Keen, M[aurice] H[ugh]. English Society in the Later Middle Ages, 1348-1500. The Penguin Social History of Britain. London: Allen Lane / Penguin Books, 1990.

Kelly, John. The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2005.

Lander, J. R. The Limitations of English Monarchy in the Later Middle Ages: The 1986 Joanne Goodman Lectures. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989.

Langdon, John. Mills in the Medieval Economy: England, 1300-1540. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. [Publisher's description: "This book examines the evolution of mills--whether powered by water, wind, animals or humans--during an important era of English history. It focuses not only on the structures themselves, but also on the people who acted as entrepreneurs, workers, and customers for the industry. Together they created one of the most recognizable and enduring features of medieval society. The late medieval English milling industry epitomizes one of the most important technical achievements of early societies: the exploitation of wind, water and muscle power for augmenting human endeavours."]

Mathew, Gervase. The Court of Richard II. London: John Murray, 1968.

McDonald, Nicola, ed. Medieval Obscenities. Woodbridge, Suffolk: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2006. ["Obscenity is, if nothing else, controversial. Its definition, consumption and regulation fire debate about the very meaning of art and culture, law, politics and ideology. And it is often, erroneously, assumed to be synonymous with modernity. Medieval Obscenities examines the complex and contentious role of the obscene--what is offensive, indecent or morally repugnant--in medieval culture from late antiquity through to the end of the Middle Ages in western Europe. Its approach is multidisciplinary, its methodologies divergent and it seeks to formulate questions and stimulate debate. The essays examine topics as diverse as Norse defecation taboos, the Anglo-Saxon sexual idiom, sheela-na-gigs, impotence in the church courts, bare ecclesiastical bottoms, rude sounds and dirty words, as well as the modern reception and representation of the medieval obscene. They demonstrate not only the vitality of medieval obscenity, but its centrality to our understanding of the Middle Ages and ourselves" (publisher's description).]

McHardy, Alison K., ed. and trans. The Reign of Richard II: From Minority to Tyranny, 1377-97. Manchester Medieval Sources Series. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2012. [Publisher's description: "The long-awaited prequel to Chronicles of the Revolution covers the first twenty years (1377-97) of Richard II's reign. This richly-documented period offers exceptional opportunities and challenges to students, and the editor has selected material from a wide range of sources: well-known English chronicles, foreign chronicles, and legal, administrative and financial records. These are arranged chronologically to form a coherent narrative of the reign. Clear and lively commentary and notes enable readers to make the fullest use of each document. The introduction describes the complex domestic and international situation which confronted the young king, and offers guidance on the strengths and weaknesses of the reign's leading chronicles. The dramatic and diverse politics of the reign of Richard II make this the ideal special subject, and an accessible, affordable, student-friendly documentary history of Richard II's reign has long been needed. This book is designed to fill that gap." Contents: Prologue: The End of Edward III's Reign 1376-7 -- The Minority: 1377-81 -- The Peasants' Revolt, 1381 -- The Struggle for Power 1382-87 -- The Radcot Bridge Campaign -- The Rule and Fall of the Appellants, 1388-89 -- The Appellants in Power -- From Appeasement to Tyranny, 1389-97 -- The Expedition to Ireland, 1394-95.]

McKisak, May. The Fourteenth Century, 1307-1399. Oxford History of England 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959.

Menocal, Maria Rosa. The Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain. Fwd. Harold Bloom. Boston: Little, Brown, 2002.

Meyerson, Mark D., Daniel Thiery, and Oren Falk, eds. "A Great Effusion of Blood": Interpreting Medieval Violence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

Morris, Richard. Cathedrals and Abbeys of England and Wales: The Building Church, 600-1540. London: Dent, 1979.

Mortimer, Ian. The Time Traveler's Guide to Medieval England: A Handbook for Visitors to the Fourteenth Century. London: Bodley Head / Random House, 2008. [This is intended for a general audience, but the author has academic credentials and there is clearly a great deal of research that has gone into this, and the parts that I have read seem quite good. The conceit of the book is that, as the title suggests, if one were to travel in time to fourteenth-century England, most history books will not have prepared you well; this is a broad social history, describing the sorts of things that one might experience were one to make such a journey.]

Myers, A. R. England in the Late Middle Ages. 8th ed. Pelican History of England 4. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1971.

Ormrod, W. M. The Reign of Edward III: Crown and Political Society in England, 1327-1377. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

Ormrod, W. M. "Who was Alice Perrers?" Chaucer Review 40 (2005-2006): 219-229.

Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino, and Francesco Santi, eds. The Regulation of Evil: Social and Cultural Attitudes to Epidemics in the Late Middle Ages. Micrologus' Library 2. Florence: SISMEL / Edizioni del Galluzzo, 1998. [Articles in English, French or Italian. Contents: Black death and golden remedies. Some remarks on alchemy and the plague / Chiara Crisciani, Michela Pereira -- La peste: dinamiche di interpretazione storiografica / Piero Morpurgo -- Per una storia letteraria della peste / Francesco Gianni -- Les épidémies de peste en Suisse romande. Vers de nouveaux comportements? / Véronique Pasche -- Plague and social attitudes in Renaissance Florence / David McNeil -- Il diritto europeo dei "dottori" (secoli XIV-XVI). Al di là dei provvedimenti locali contro le epidemie / Mario Ascheri -- A propos de la fin de la lèpre: XIIIe-XVe siècles / Françoise Bériac -- Bibolographical contexts -- La peste e la lebbra in Medioevo latino. Un prospetto biblio-geografico / Patrizia Salvadori.]

Pollard, A. J. Late Medieval England, 1399-1509. Longman History of Medieval England. Harlow, Essex, and New York: Longman, 2000.

Porter, Pamela. Medieval Warfare in Manuscripts. London: British Library, 2000.

Razi, Zvi. Life, Marriage, and Death in a Medieval Parish: Economy, Society, and Demography in Halesowen, 1270-1400. Past and Present. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980. [A case study of social patterns in a specific medieval village.]

Reynolds, Susan. Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Rigby, S. H. English Society in the Later Middle Ages: Class, Status and Gender. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995. [A good, well-researched and well-balanced consideration of the crucial questions; Chap. 7 on women's roles is excellent in detailing precisely what women could and could not do at the various levels of the social hierarchy (generally, there were few things which men of a certain class could do which women could not, except that women of every class were not permitted to act independently in matters of politics). Does not, like too many others, make the error of trying to consider issues of gender independently of issues of social class and status.]

Robertson, D. W. Chaucer's London. New Dimensions in History: Historical Cities. New York: Wiley, 1968.

Runciman, Steven (Sir). A History of the Crusades. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951-1954.

Seward, Desmond. The Hundred Years War: The English in France, 1337-1453. New York: Atheneum, 1978.

Singman, Jeffrey L., and Will McLean. Daily Life in Chaucer's England. Daily Life through History. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Smith, Elizabeth Bradford, and Michael Wolfe, eds. Technology and Resource Use in Medieval Europe: Cathedrals, Mills, and Mines. Aldershot, Hants., and Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997. [Essays from a conference held in April 1995. Contents: Introduction: new perspectives on medieval technology and resource use / Elizabeth Bradford Smith and Michael Wolfe -- Technological innovation in High Gothic architecture / Robert Mark -- The Rayonnant Gothic buttresses at Metz Cathedral / Sergio Sanabria and Kristina Luce -- Scale and scantling: technological issues in large-scale timberwork of the High Middle Ages / Lynn T. Courtenay -- The Gothic barn of England: icon of prestige and authority / Niall Brady -- The archaeology of water power in Britain before the Industrial Revolution / David Crossley -- 'Advent and conquests' of the water mill in Italy / Paolo Squatriti -- Mechanization and the medieval English economy / Richard Holt -- Agricultural progress and agricultural technology in medieval Germany: an alternative model / Michael Toch -- Wood, iron, and water in the Othe Forest in the late Middle Ages: new findings and perspectives / Patrice Beck, Philippe Braunstein, and Michel Philippe / Weapons of war and late medieval cities: technological innovation and tactical changes / Bert Hall.]

Stone, Lawrence. "Interpersonal Violence in English Society, 1300-1980." Past and Present no. 101 (Nov. 1983): 22-33. [P. 25 (summarizing findings by Gurr): "It looks as if the homicide rates in thirteenth-century England were about twice as high as those in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and that those of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were some five to ten times higher than those today. Gurr concludes that 'these early estimates of homicide rates . . . sketch a portrait of a society in which men [but rarely women] were easily provoked to violent anger, and were unrestrained in the brutality with which they attacked their opponents. Interpersonal violence was a recurring fact of rural and urban life' ['Historical Trends,' 307]." Conclusion, p. 32: further study is needed, but "[w]hat already seems clear . . . is that medieval English society was twice as violence-prone as early modern English society, and early modern English society at least five times more violence-prone than contemporary English society. It also seems clear that most of this pre-modern violence was outside of the family rather than within it, as today. The notion that there was once upon a time a peace-loving, conflict-free, golden age of the village, whether located in the middle ages or the early modern period, is shown up to be a myth."]

Sumption, Jonathan. The Hundred Years War. 2 vols. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Toy, Sidney. A History of Fortification from 3000 BC to AD 1700. London: Heinemann, 1955.

Turner, Marion. "Greater London." In Chaucer and the City. Ed. Ardis Butterfield. Chaucer Studies 37. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2006. Pp. 25-40.

Underdown, David. Revel, Riot, and Rebellion: Popular Politics and Culture in England, 1603-1660. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Waugh, Scott L. England in the Reign of Edward III. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Waugh, Scott L., and Peter D. Diehl, eds. Christendom and its Discontents: Exclusion, Persecution, and Rebellion, 1000-1500. Cambridge, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Wood, Diana, ed. Medieval Money Matters. Oxford: Oxbow, 2004. [Publisher's description: "In bringing down the barriers between historians and numismatists, the five papers by James Bolton, Richard Britnell, Martin Allen, Pamela Nightingale and Nicholas Mayhew, presented here, demonstrate why medieval money matters. Placing emphasis on the supply of money in circulation in medieval England, the contributors address such issues as when a money economy was established in England, what form it took, and the impact it had on society and the economy. They look in particular at how the availability of coinage affected markets, trade and exchange, credit and debt, and moneylending, and examine both the characteristics of money and its function, drawing on historical and numismatic evidence." Contents: What is money? What is a money economy? When did a money economy emerge in medieval England? / James L. Bolton -- Uses of money in medieval Britain / Richard Britnell -- The English currency and the commercialization of England before the Black Death / Martin Allen -- Money and credit in the economy of late medieval England / Pamela Nightingale -- Coinage and money in England, 1086-c. 1500 / N. J. Mayhew.]

C. Social and Ideological Background
C.i. General

Abou-El-Haj, Barbara. The Medieval Cult of Saints: Formations and Transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Acker, Paul. "The Missing Conclusion of The Book of Physiognomy." Medium Ævum 54 (1985): 266-270.

Ackerman, Robert W[illiam]. "The World View of the Middle Ages." Chap 5 of his Backgrounds to Medieval English Literature. Random House Studies in Language and Literature (SLL) 7. New York: Random House, 1966. Pp. 103-126.

Akasoy, Anna A., Charles Burnett and Ronit Yoeli-Tlalim, eds. Astro-Medicine: Astrology and Medicine, East and West. Micrologus' Library 25. Florence: SISMEL / Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2008. [Collected essays, mostly presented to a colloquium held at the Warburg Institute, London, 2005.]

Akbari, Suzanne Conklin. "From Due East to True North: Orientalism and Orientation." In The Postcolonial Middle Ages. Ed. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen. New Middle Ages. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. Pp. 19-34.

Allen, Rosamund, ed. Eastward Bound: Travel and Travellers, 1050-1550. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004. [Publisher's description: "Eastward Bound looks at travel and travelers in the medieval period. An international range of distinguished contributors offer discussions on a wide range of themes, from the experiences of Crusaders on campaign, to the lives of pilgrims, missionaries and traders in the Middle East. It examines their modes of travel, equipment and methods of navigation, and considers their expectations and experiences en route. The contributions also look at the variety of motives--public and private--behind the decision to travel eastwards. Other essays discuss the attitudes of Middle-Eastern rulers to their visitors. In so doing they provide a valuable perspective and insight into the behavior of the Europeans and non-Europeans alike." Contents: The impact of the crusades on western geographical knowledge / Bernard Hamilton -- Sharing the sites: medieval Jewish travellers to the Land of Israel / Elka Weber -- Travel in the medieval Islamic world: the importance of patronage, as illustrated by 'Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (d. 629/1231) (and other littèrateurs) / Shawkat M. Toorawa -- Just a bunch of dirty stories?: women in the "memoirs" of Usamah Ibn Munqidh / Niall Christie -- The Mendicants as missionaries and travellers in the Near East in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries / Andrew Jotischky -- The intelligent pilgrim: maps and medieval pilgrimage to the Holy Land / Catherine Delano-Smith -- Reviving the crusade: Sanudo's schemes and Vesconte's maps / Evelyn Edson -- The diversity of mankind in The book of John Mandeville / Suzanne Conklin Akbari -- Travels with Margery: pilgrimage in context / Rosalynn Voaden -- Of smelly seas and ashen apples: two German pilgrims' view of the East / Anne Simon -- Late medieval Spanish travellers in the East: Clavijo, Tafur, Encina, and Tarifa / Barry Taylor.]

Anderson, George K. The Legend of the Wandering Jew. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1991.

Bailey, Mark, ed. and trans. The English Manor, c. 1200-1500. Manchester Medieval Sources Series. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2002. [Contents: The composition and origins of the manor -- The characteristics of the medieval manor -- The size and composition of medieval manors -- Origins and development of the manor -- Manorial documents -- Manorial surveys, extents and rentals -- Surveys and extents before c. 1300 -- Land tenures and personal status on the medieval manor -- Surveys, rentals and terriers after c. 1300 -- Historical uses of surveys and extents -- A survey of Shillington, 1086 -- A survey of Shillington, undated -- Extracts from a survey of the estate of the bishop of Durham, 1183 -- A survey of Hartest, 1251 -- A detailed description of the capital messuage of Willington, 1376 -- A description of the capital messuage of Salton, 1479 -- Inventory of manorial goods and stock at Hemsby, 1352 -- A custumal of the manor of Cockerham, 1326-27 -- An extent of Framlingham, 1270 -- An extent of Geddington, 1383 -- An extent of Preston Millers, 1321 -- Extracts from a terrier of Biddenham, 1347 -- An extract from a survey of Culford, 1435 -- A rental of Lackford, 1399 -- An extract from a rental of Cassio, 1332 -- Rent payments made by tenants at Willington and Nether Heworth, 1496 -- The lease of Caddington and Kensworth, 1299 -- The lease of Thorpe Underwood, 1524 -- Manorial accounts -- The management of the manor -- The format of the account -- The evolution of the account -- Historical uses of the account -- An account of Wellingborough, 1258-59 -- An account of Wellingborough, 1321-22 -- An account of Morton, 1479-80 -- An account of Haselor, 1484-85.]

Bailey, Michael D. Fearful Spirits, Reasoned Follies: The Boundaries of Superstition in Late Medieval Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013.

Bartlett, Robert. Trial by Fire and Water: The Medieval Judicial Ordeal. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.

Bejczy, István Pieter. The Cardinal Virtues in the Middle Ages: A Study in Moral Thought from the Fourth to the Fourteenth Century. Brill's Studies in Intellectual History 202. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011.

Bellamy, John G. Crime and Public Order in England in the Later Middle Ages. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973.

Benham, Jenny. Peacemaking in the Middle Ages: Principles and Practice. Manchester Medieval Studies. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2011. [Contents: Pt. I. Meeting places. Meetings between equals -- Meetings between superior and inferior -- pt. II. The 'rituals' of peacemaking. Gift exchanges and banquets: the symbolism of largesse -- Homage, fealty and gestures of submission -- pt. III. The envoys. The envoys and negotiators of peace -- pt. IV. Guaranteeing the peace. Oaths -- Hostages and sureties -- pt. V. Peacemaking and the written word. Treaties, terminology and the written word.]

Binski, Paul. Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation. London: British Museum Press, 1996.

Black, Maggie. Food and Cooking in Medieval Britain: History and Recipes. London: English Heritage, 1999.

Blair, John, and Nigel Ramsay, eds. English Medieval Industries: Craftsmen, Techniques, Products. London: Hambledon, 1991.

Bloch, Marc. The Royal Touch: Sacred Monarchy and Scrofula in France and England. Trans. J. E. Anderson. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973.

Bloomfield, Morton W. The Seven Deadly Sins: An Introduction to the History of a Religious Concept, with Special Reference to Medieval English Literature. East Lansing: Michigan State College Press, 1952.

Bloomfield, Morton W., and Charles W. Dunn. The Role of the Poet in Early Societies. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1990.

Boase, T. S. R. Death in the Middle Ages: Mortality, Judgment and Remembrance. Library of Medieval Civilization. London: Thames and Hudson, 1972.

"The Book of Physiognomy." In The World of Piers Plowman. Ed. and trans. Jeanne Krochalis and Edward Peters. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1975. Pp. 218-228. [Character as revealed through physical features, especially how to read character in the features of the face.]

Braswell, Mary Flowers. The Medieval Sinner: Characterization and Confession in the Literature of the English Middle Ages. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1983.

Brown, Peter. The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity. Lectures on the History of Religions ns 13. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Brown, Peter. The Cult of the Saints, its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity. The Haskell Lectures on the History of Religions ns 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Bullock-Davies, Constance. Menestrellorum Multitudo: Minstrels at a Royal Feast. Cardiff: Wales University Press, 1978.

Bumke, Joachim. The Concept of Knighthood in the Middle Ages. Trans. W. T. H. Jackson and Erika Jackson. New York: AMS Press, 1982.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion. New York: Zone Books, 1991.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages. Publications of the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, UCLA, 16. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1982.

Bynum, Caroline Walker, and Paul Freedman, eds. Last Things: Death and the Apocalypse in the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Canfield, J. Douglas. Word as Bond in English Literature from the Middle Ages to the Restoration. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.

Carey, Hilary M. Courting Disaster: Astrology at the English Court and University in the Later Middle Ages. London: Macmillan, 1992.

Classen, Albrecht, ed. The Book and the Magic of Reading in the Middle Ages. Medieval Casebooks. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.

Cobban, Alan B. English University Life in the Middle Ages. London: University College London Press, 1998.

Cobban, Alan B. Medieval Universities: Their Development and Organization. London: Methuen, 1975.

Cohn, Samuel K[line], Jr. The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe. London: Arnold; New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. [Includes a section on the plague in the Middle Ages.]

Coleman, Simon, and John Elsner. Pilgrimage: Past and Present in the World Religions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Colish, M. L. The Mirror of Language: A Study of the Medieval Theory of Knowledge. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968.

Constable, Giles. "Introduction" [On beards in history, especially the symbolic meanings and social practices surrounding facial hair during the European Middle Ages, being part of the Introduction to an edition of "Apologia de Barbis," by "B" (probably "Burchard"), Abbot of Bellevaux.] In Apologiae Duae: Gozechini, Epistola ad Walcherum; Burchardi, ut videtur, Abbatis Bellevallis, Apologia de Barbis. Ed. R. B. C. Huygens. Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaevalis 62. Turnhout: Brepols, 1985. Pp. 47-130 and four plates between pp. 44 and 45.

Constable, Giles. "Opposition to Pilgrimage in the Middle Ages." Studia Gratiana 19 (1976): 123-146.

Cook, William R., and Ronald B. Herzman. The Medieval World View: An Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Coss, Peter. The Knight in Medieval England. Gloucester: Alan Sutton, 1993.

Costen, Michael. "The Pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in Medieval Europe." In Pilgrimage in Popular Culture. Ed. Ian Reader and Tony Walter. Houndsmills, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1993. Pp. 137-154.

Crane, Susan. The Performance of Self: Ritual, Clothing, and Identity During the Hundred Years War. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.

Craun, Edwin D., ed. The Hands of the Tongue: Essays on Deviant Speech. Studies in Medieval Culture 47. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2007. [Contents: Introduction: marking out deviant speech / Edwin D. Craun. SINS OF THE TONGUE: The tongue is a fire: the discipline of silence in early medieval monasticism (400-1100) / Scott G. Bruce -- "Allas, allas! That evere love was synne": excuses for sin and the wife of Bath's stars / Edwin D. Craun -- "Janglynge in cherche": gossip and the Exemplum / Susan E. Phillips -- Lancelot as casuist / Peter R. Schroeder. PUNISHING DEVIANT SPEECH: "Tongue, you lied": the role of the tongue in rituals of public penance in late medieval Scotland / Elizabeth Ewan -- From urgan myth to didactic image: the warning to swearers / Miriam Gill -- Men's voices in late medieval England / Sandy Bardsley -- Husband and priests: masculinity, sexuality, and defamation in late medieval England / Derek Neal.]

Craun, Edwin D[avid]. Lies, Slander, and Obscenity in Medieval English Literature: Pastoral Rhetoric and the Deviant Speaker. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 31. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. [On the sins of the tongue (slander, jangling, japing, gossip, villainy) as described by medieval preachers and found in the stories of Geoffrey Chaucer, John Gower, and William Langland.]

Crick, Julia C., and Elisabeth van Houts, eds. A Social History of England, 900-1200. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. [Publisher's description: "The years between 900 and 1200 saw transformative social change in Europe, including the creation of extensive town-dwelling populations and the proliferation of feudalised elites and bureaucratic monarchies. In England these developments were complicated and accelerated by repeated episodes of invasion, migration and changes of regime. In this book, scholars from disciplines including history, archaeology and literature reflect on the major trends which shaped English society in these years of transition and select key themes which encapsulate the period. The authors explore the landscape of England, its mineral wealth, its towns and rural life, the health, behaviour and obligations of its inhabitants, patterns of spiritual and intellectual life and the polyglot nature of its population and culture. What emerges is an insight into the complexity, diversity and richness of this formative period of English history." Contents: Introduction / Julia Crick and Elisabeth van Houts -- I.1. Land Use and People / Robin Fleming: I.2. Water and land / Stephen Rippon; I.3. Forest and upland / Oliver Rackham; I.4. Mineral resources / Peter Claughton; I.5. Health and disease / Carole Rawcliffe -- II.1. Authority and Community / Bruce O'Brien: II.2. Lordship and labour / Stephen Baxter; II.3. Order and justice / John Hudson; II.4. War and violence / John Hudson; II.5. Family, marriage, kinship / Elisabeth van Houts; II.6. Poor and powerless / David Pelteret -- III.1. Towns and their Hinterlands/ David Griffiths: III.2. Commerce and markets / Richard Britnell; III.3. Urban planning / Julia Barrow; III.4. Urban populations and association / Charles West -- IV.1. Invasion and Migration / Elisabeth van Houts: IV.2. Ethnicity and acculturation / D. M. Hadley; IV.3. Intermarriage / Elisabeth van Houts; IV.4. The Jews / Anna Sapir Abulafia -- V.1. Religion and Belief / Carl Watkins: V.2. Rites of passage and pastoral care / Sarah Hamilton; V.3. Saints and cults / Paul Anthony Hayward; V.4. Public spectacle / Tom Licence; V.5. Textual communities (Latin) / Teresa Webber; V.6 Textual communities (vernacular) / Elaine Treharne -- VI.1. Learning and Training / Julia Crick: VI.2. Information and its retrieval / Nicholas Karn; VI.3. Esoteric knowledge / Andy Orchard; VI.4. Medical practice and theory / Carole Rawcliffe; VI.5. Subversion / Martha Bayless.]

Csepregi, Ildikó, and Charles Burnett, eds. Ritual Healing: Magic, Ritual, and Medical Therapy from Antiquity Until the Early Modern Period. Micrologus' Library 48. Florence: SISMEL / Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2012. [Papers presented at the meeting held in London, England, Feb. 17-18, 2006.]

Cummins, John. The Hound and the Hawk: The Art of Medieval Hunting. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988.

Curry, Walter C. Chaucer and the Mediaeval Sciences. 2nd ed. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1960.

Curry, Walter C. The Middle English Ideal of Personal Beauty as Found in the Metrical Romances, Chronicles, and Legends of the XIII, XIV and XV Centuries. Baltimore: J. H. Furst, 1916.

Daniell, Christopher. Death and Burial in Medieval England, 1066-1550. London and New York: Routledge, 1997.

Davies, Horton, and Marie-Hélène Davies. Holy Days and Holidays: The Medieval Pilgrimage to Compostela. London: Associated University Presses, 1982.

De Hamel, Christopher. Scribes and Illuminators. Medieval Craftsmen. London: The British Museum, 1992.

Duby, Georges. The Chivalrous Society. Trans. Cynthia Postan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

Duby, Georges. The Three Orders: Feudal Society Imagined. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Eade, John, and Michael J. Sallnow. Contesting the Sacred: The Anthropology of Christian Pilgrimage. London: Routledge, 1991.

Edden, Valerie. "The Devotional Life of the Laity in the Late Middle Ages." In Approaching Medieval English Anchoritic and Mystical Texts. Ed. Dee Dyas, Valerie Edden, and Roger Ellis. Christianity and Culture: Issues in Teaching/Research. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2005. Pp. 35-49.

Edwards, John, ed. and trans. The Jews in Western Europe, 1400-1600. Manchester Medieval Sources Series. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1995.

Eliade, Mircea. The Quest: History of Meaning in Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Emerson, Jan Swango, and Hugh Feiss, eds. Imagining Heaven in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays. Afterword by Jeffrey Burton Russell. Garland Medieval Casebooks 27; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 2096. New York: Garland Publishing, 2000. [On the Christian Otherworld (including issues of heavenly corporality, sexuality, etc.) as presented in Dante's Divine Comedy, "The Vision of Tundale," Bernard of Cluny's De contemptu mundi, the Victorines, Thomas Aquinas, and others.]

Evans, G[illian] R[osemary]. Getting it Wrong: The Medieval Epistemology of Error. Studien und Text zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters 63. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1998. ["Getting it Wrong deals with the dark side of the medieval theory of knowledge, the ways in which perceptions can err, curiosity get out of hand, and knowledge damage the knower. The first and second parts explore the organs, powers and faculties of the soul and the ways in which teaching and learning occur. The third part of the book examines medieval ideas of 'common knowledge' and the ways in which individuals can share or fail to share the knowledge human beings ought to have. The fourth part considers wisdom and folly, security and incompleteness of knowledge, truth and lies" (publisher's description).]

Felsenstein, Frank. "Jews and Devils: Anti-Semitic Stereotypes of Late Medieval and Renaissance England." Literature and Theology 4 (1990): 15-28.

Ferguson, Arthur B. The Indian Summer of English Chivalry: Studies in the Decline and Transformation of Chivalric Idealism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1960.

Finucane, Ronald C. Miracles and Pilgrims: Popular Beliefs in Medieval England. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1977.

Finucane, Ronald C. The Rescue of the Innocents: Endangered Children in Medieval Miracles. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.

French, Katherine L. The People of the Parish: Community Life in a Late Medieval English Diocese. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

French, Katherine L., Gary G. Gibbs, and Beat A. Kümin, eds. The Parish in English Life, 1400-1600. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1997.

Ganz, Peter F., ed. The Role of the Book in Medieval Culture: Proceedings of the Oxford International Symposium, 26 September-1 October 1982. 2 vols. Bibliogia 3 and 4. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols Publishers, 1986.

Gasquet, Francis Aidan. Parish Life in Mediaeval England. The Antiquary's Books. London: Methuen and Co., 1906.

Getz, Faye Marie. Medicine in the English Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Gies, Frances. The Knight in History. New York: Harper and Row, 1984.

Goodich, Michael, ed. Other Middle Ages: Witnesses at the Margins of Medieval Society. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998. ["The fascinating cast of characters on the margins of medieval Europe, including the visionaries and sexual dissidents, the suicidal and psychologically unbalanced, the lepers and converts, reveal the fears of a people for whom life was made both meaningful and terrifying by the sacred. After centuries of historical silence, these and other disenfranchised members of the medieval public have been given a voice by Michael Goodich in a unique collection of texts from the mid-eleventh through the fourteenth centuries. Translated from their original Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic, these texts, many of them first-person narratives or testimonies, give insight into those figures who made medieval society uneasy" (publisher's description).]

Gottfried, Robert S. Doctors and Medicine in Medieval England, 1340-1530. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Grant, Edward. Planets, Stars, and Orbs: The Medieval Cosmos, 1200-1687. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Grudin, Michaela Paasche. "Speech and the Commonwealth." Chap. 1 of her Chaucer and the Politics of Discourse. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1996. Pp. 1-26. [On the idea of the Common Good.]

Gurevich, Aron. Medieval Popular Culture: Problems of Belief and Perception. Trans. János M. Bak and Paul A. Hollingsworth. Cambridge Studies in Oral and Literate Culture 14. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1988. [On "popular" religion and "folk" culture; reconstructing the "beliefs" of medieval commoners. Includes an excellent chapter on the cults of saints and beliefs in miracles: "Peasants and Saints" (Chap. 2; pp. 39-77).]

Hadley, D[awn] M. Death in Medieval England: An Archaeology. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus, 2001.

Hammond, P. W. Food and Feast in Medieval England. London: Alan Sutton, 1993. ["Based on archaeological and written evidence, this book deals with everything we know about Medieval food, from hunting and harvesting to food hygiene and the organization of a large household kitchen. Evaluates the nutritional value of Medieval Food, the customs associated with its serving and eating, and the organization of feasts."]

Hanawalt, Barbara A. Growing Up in Medieval London: The Experience of Childhood in History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Harrison, Dick. Medieval Space: The Extent of Microspatial Knowledge in Western Europe During the Middle Ages. Lund Studies in International History 34. Lund: Lund University Press, 1996. [Challenges Marc Bloch and others who assert that medieval people rarely left their own villages: uses data from Somerset and from locations in Sweden to show that "non-permanent mobility" was quite common (just as other studies have shown that "permanent migrations" were common among the lower classes), that marriage partners often came from quite distant places, and the "microspatial knowledge" of a medieval peasant--the extent of the world around him which he knew with some familiarity--was probably as much as 60 miles or more. "[T]he typical Western European of the high Middle Ages was not an isolated village-dweller" (abstract on verso of title page). While the bulk of the book is taken up with presenting and discussing empirical data from three regions, the introduction and conclusion are more broadly theoretical, introducing ideas of "macrospace" and "microspace" (the latter is the world one actually knows; the former is the mental construct of the rest of the world: a portolan map or the chart of Canterbury Cathedral and it precincts is "microspatial," while a mappemundi is "macrospatial," having more to do with myth and received wisdom than with observation). Harrison has some discussion in his introduction of maps in these terms, as well as of pilgrimage and pilgrimage guidebooks (and the strata of local, regional, and international cults of saints: few saints had more than local significance), and Mandeville's Travels; he discusses the fact that Viking travels to Greenland and North America, and real journeys to China, had no large-scale significance in changing the received ideas about the world. (He also notes that Chinese accounts of contacts with Europeans, and oriental knowledge of the occident, was as sketchy and misinformed as European ideas about the east.)]

Harrison, Dick. Social Militarisation and the Power of History: A Study of Scholarly Perspectives. Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 1999. [A consideration of four "perspectives" on history in four different parts of the world, including (Chap. 4) a view of the "Dark Ages" of Europe as a transition from a world of "peace" and "bureacratic" governance of the Roman world to a more Germanic world of war and warlords (cf. esp. 154 and 170), the world of Hrothgar and of Mynyddog in the Y Gododdin (154) succeeds the world of the Roman senator. This process includes the gradual "militarisation" of Christian doctrine, where the Church focusses upon God as a God of Judaic victories rather than God as a peace-loving Christ; St. Augustine is a significant moment in the process, for he provides a Christian rationale of the "just war" (175, 196), which leads by the eleventh century to the idea of "crusade" (197). Harrison points out that such scholarly perspectives are and are not true: while focussing upon one documentable feature to construct a particular history, other perspectives and other possible histories are ignored. "[T]he image is extremely one-sided. It only shows us Western Europe from the point of view of social militarisation. It does not show agrarian development, the growth of Christian culture (monasteries, convents, saints' vitae, etc.), changes in political behaviour, the shifting balance between towns and countryside, the evolution of new forms of social dependence (what some might refer to as feudalisation), the emergence of new territorial units (all the way from parishes to empires), etc., etc. What we see above is an image of European history from c. 400 to c. 1100 strictly observed through a filter of social militarisation" (197). The conclusion is that history is a construction, "manufactured to suit our present needs" (199), but such constructions are also, then, open to our criticism, historical judgement, and correction (197, 199).]

Haskett, Timothy S., ed. Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages: Papers Presented at the Tenth Annual Medieval Workshop, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 8 February 1997. Victoria, BC: Humanities Centre, University of Victoria, 1998.

Herlihy, David. The Black Death and the Transformation of the West. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Hill, Carole. Women and Religion in Late Medieval Norwich. Royal Historical Society Studies in History, New Series. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2010. [Publisher's description: "The religious attachments and charitable activity of women in and around late medieval Norwich are used here as a case study to consider women and religion in the period more generally. This text demonstrates how links with continental Europe enriched female life." Contents: Introduction -- St Anne -- The cult of St Margaret of Antioch -- The cult of St Mary Magdalen -- St Bridget of Sweden -- Norwich women and the seven corporal works of mercy -- Conclusion -- Appendices: Material evidence for the cult of St Anne in Norwich and Norfolk; Material evidence for the cult of St Margaret of Antioch in Norwich and Norfolk; Material evidence for the cult of St Mary Magdelen in Norwich and Norfolk.]

Hill, Ordelle G. The Manor, the Plowman, and the Shepherd: Agrarian Themes and Imagery in Late Medieval and Early Renaissance English Literature. Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press, 1992.

"The History of Physiognomy." [website]. A Leverhulme Trust International Network; Queen Mary University of London (London), Ecole Normale Supérieure (Paris), and Scuola Normale Superiore (Pisa). [Available online here.]

Hopper, Vincent F. Medieval Number Symbolism: Its Source, Meaning, and Influence on Thought and Expression. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938.

Horrox, Rosemary, ed. and trans. The Black Death. Manchester Medieval Sources Series. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1994. [A collection of contemporary documents, illustrating the spread and consequences of the plague. Contents: Narrative accounts -- The plague in continental Europe -- The plague in the British Isles -- Explanations and responses -- The religious response -- Scientific explanations -- Human agency -- Consequences -- The impact of the plague -- Repercussions.]

Hudson, John. "Violence, Theft, and the Making of the English Common Law." In Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages: Papers Presented at the Tenth Annual Medieval Workshop, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 8 February 1997. Ed. Timothy S. Haskett. Victoria, BC: Humanities Centre, University of Victoria, 1998. Pp. 19-35. [Offers interesting observations on crime and punishment in the Middle Ages, on the use of ordeals, etc.; Hudson makes the point that incarceration was not common (seeking some form of resolution and restitution was the norm); indeed, for many types of crime the punishment was mutilation or execution, and in early periods it was sometimes the case that the public mutilation was carried out by the victim as a form of obtaining satisfaction (31).]

Huizinga, Johan. The Autumn of the Middle Ages. Trans. Rodney J. Payton and Ulrich Mammitzsch. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Humphrey, Chris, and W. M. Ormrod, eds. Time in the Medieval World. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. [Publisher's description: "By exploring some of the more important senses of time which were in circulation in the medieval world, scholars from a wide range of disciplines trace competing definitions and modes of temporality in the middle ages, explaining their influence upon life and culture. The issues explored include anachronism as a feature in earlier senses of time, perceptions of death and of the Last Judgement, time in literary narratives and in music, constructions of time as used in the professions, and original work on the particular systems and technologies which were used for the keeping of time, such as clocks and calendars." Includes essays on Chaucer and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.]

Hunt, Tony. The Medieval Surgery. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1992.

Hussey, Maurice. Chaucer's World: A Pictorial Companion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

Hutchinson, A. M. "Devotional Reading in the Monastery and in the Late Medieval Household." In De cella in seculum: Religious and Secular Life and Devotion in Late Medieval England; An Interdisciplinary Conference in Celebration of the Eighth Centenary of the Consecration of St. Hugh of Avalon, Bishop of Lincoln, 20-22 July, 1986. Ed. Michael G. Sargent. Cambridge, and Wolfeboro, NH: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1989. Pp. 215-227.

Jaritz, G., and G. Moreno-Riano, eds. Time and Eternity: The Medieval Discourse. International Medieval Research. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2003. ["This volume is composed of selected papers from the main strand, 'Time and Eternity,' at the seventh International Medieval Congress held in July 2000 at Leeds. It attests to the fact that the medieval experience of time and eternity was rich and complex, and that its investigation is open to various approaches and methods. Time and (the possibility of impossibility of) its beginning and its end were frontiers to be explored and to be under-stood. To make the reader more familiar with the field of study, the volume begins with Wesley Stevens's plenary address 'A Present Sense of Things Past: Quid est enim tempus?,' a stimulating introduction not only with regard to some of the basic problems in conceptualizing the nature of time but also to the dating of historical events and the use of calendars for that purpose. Following Stevens's essay, the volume is organised into seven broader themes covering a variety of questions and trying to offer new insights into the medieval perception and constructions of time. They deal with the computation or time and the use of calendars; Jewish concepts of time and redemption; Christian philosophies of eternity and time; monastic and clerical conceptions; literary representations; time and art; and apocalyptic expectations. The volume's selection of authors is international in scope and represents some of the leading current scholarship in the field. It proves that we still 'thirst to know the power and the nature of time' (St Augustine)" (publisher's description).]

Jones, Richard H[utton]. "Absolutism and the Common Good." Chap. 11 of The Royal Policy of Richard II: Absolutism in the Later Middle Ages. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1968. Pp. 147-163.

Jussen, Bernhard, ed. Ordering Medieval Society: Perspectives on Intellectual and Practical Modes of Shaping Social Relations. Trans. Pamela E. Selwyn. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Jusserand, Jean A. A. J. English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Trans. Lucy Toulmin Smith. 4th ed. London: E. Benn, 1950.

Kabir, Ananya Jahanara, and Deanne Williams, eds. Postcolonial Approaches to the European Middle Ages: Translating Cultures. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 54. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ["Ranging across a variety of academic disciplines, including art history, cartography, and Anglo-Saxon and Arabic studies, this volume highlights the connections between medieval and postcolonial studies through the exploration of a common theme: translation in its broadest sense as a mechanism of, and metaphor for, cultures in contact, confrontation and competition. The essays form a set of case studies of translation as the transfer of language, culture, and power" (publisher's description).]

Kaeuper, Richard W. Chivalry and Violence in Medieval Europe. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Kantorowicz, Ernst H[artwig]. The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Mediaeval Political Theology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Karant-Nunn, S. C., ed. Varieties of Devotion in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 7. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2003.

Kendall, Alan. Medieval Pilgrims. New York: Putnam's, 1970.

Kerr, Margaret H. "R. v. Hawisa, R. v. Alan the Miller, and William Son of John v. Walter Son of Ralf Hose: Three Murder Trials in England c. 1200." In Crime and Punishment in the Middle Ages: Papers Presented at the Tenth Annual Medieval Workshop, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 8 February 1997. Ed. Timothy S. Haskett. Victoria, BC: Humanities Centre, University of Victoria, 1998. Pp. 87-111. [She begins with a proviso: technically, these are homicide trials, not murder trials, since there was no law of "murder" (in the sense as distinguishing a premeditated act from an accidental one) in thirteenth-century England. Most of the essay is a description of various types of ordeal and the rituals and regulations surrounding them, leading to a somewhat paradoxical conclusion that there was a very real kind of justice available in the medieval system, and that "a person may have been safer while on trial for a crime than at most other times in his or her life" (111). The judicial ordeal and trial by combat were not common practices throughout the Middle Ages as is often thought, but had a relatively short lifespan, being a regular part of the English judicial system only in the late Anglo-Saxon and early Norman periods. Further, of the many cases which Kerr has studied, very few actually went so far as to complete the ordeal: some sort of resolution was found, or a pardon was issued, before the case ever got to the point of the ordeal. In many of the cases where ordeals were endured, we do not know the results, but for those cases where the results are known, there is a remarkable level (ca. 75%) of people acquitted by the ordeal: was God intervening to protect the innocent? or are the results skewed by some more human agency? Kerr's argument is that the priests (who administered the ordeals, to seek out the judgment of God upon the accused) "rigged" the ordeals in the favour of the accused (allowing hot irons to cool before being touched etc.), primarily in order to save people from execution: like the church-sanctioned practice of sanctuary, or the church's "benefit of clergy," the priests were attempting to avoid being involved in execution (100). From the point of view of the church, the proper response to a criminal act involved confession, restitution and penance, leading to absolution and reconciliation, not execution (106). And, in 1215 (at the Fourth Lateran Council), the Church outlawed the use of judicial ordeals, insisting that cases should be tried on the evidence, not by "tempting" God: all of the ordeals except trial by combat ceased in England almost immediately thereafter; trial by combat survived the proscription (in part because it was not administered by priests but by secular authorities, and because it was consonant with aristocratic ideals), and continued to be an option in English law down to 1819 (109) (though Kerr also notes that the judicial battle was not with real weapons and not to the death; it was conducted with wooden sticks and leather shields [110]). Again, of the various relevant cases which Kerr has studied (some 1,832), only two actually got to the point where the battle was fought: in most cases, some other resolution of the dispute was found early, or the accusers dropped their accusations when faced with the necessity of "proving" the charge in battle, or, failing which, he faced being himself mutilated or executed (110-111).]

Kieckhefer, Richard. Magic in the Middle Ages. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. ["Covering the years 500 to 1500, this book examines natural and demonic magic and its position in medieval culture. Kieckhefer argues that magic should not be treated as a fringe subject, but rather as an area vital for the understanding of medieval life."]

Kitzinger, Ernst. Early Medieval Art. 1940; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1964.

Klaassen, Frank. The Transformations of Magic: Illicit Learned Magic in the Later Middle Ages and Renaissance. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2012.

Knowles, David. The Evolution of Medieval Thought. London: Longmans, 1962.

Knowles, David. The Religious Orders in England. 3 Vols. 1948; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Koldeweij, Jos. "The Wearing of Significative Badges, Religious and Secular: The Social Meaning of a Behavioural Pattern." Trans. Ruth Koenig. In Showing Status: Representation of Social Positions in the Middle Ages. Ed. Wim [Willem Pieter] Blockmans, and Antheun Janse. Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe 2. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1999. Pp. 307-328. [Besides using jewellery as ornamentation to display one's prosperity, medieval people in many walks of life also wore "badges," religious or secular, to display one's membership in various forms of elite groups (including membership in the household of a royal or noble family, or membership among those who had visited a particular pilgrimage site). Koldeweij's article is intended to illustrate that there are also a great many surviving badges with literary and erotic motifs, which may have been sold at the end of public performances. [Chaucer's pilgrims include various "badge" wearers, most prominently the Pardoner with his Vernicle, but there are others, and the Prioress's "Amor vincit omnia" brooch might be a badge of a sort, too (Koldeweij describes and illustrates a whole range of badges in the shapes of alphabetic letters, some of which represent "Amours," and some of which may have been purchased at the ends of public dramatic performances or readings of romances [311-316]).]]

LaBarge, Margaret Wade. Medieval Travellers: The Rich and the Restless. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1982.

Ladner, Gerhart B. "Homo viator: Mediaeval Ideas on Alienation and Order." Speculum 42 (1967): 233-259.

Landsberg, Sylvia. The Medieval Garden. London: British Museum, 1995.

Lawrence, Clifford H[ugh], ed. The English Church and the Papacy in the Middle Ages. New York: Fordham University Press, 1965.

Lawrence, Clifford H[ugh]. The Friars: The Impact of the Early Mendicant Movement on Western Society. The Medieval World. London: Longman Academic, 1994.

Lawrence, Clifford H[ugh]. Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages. London and New York: Longman, 1984.

Leff, Gordon. The Dissolution of the Medieval Outlook: An Essay on the Intellectual and Spiritual Change in the Fourteenth Century. New York: Harper and Row, 1976.

Le Goff, Jacques, ed. Medieval Callings. Trans. Lydia G. Cochrane. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. [". . . these essays by eleven renowned medievalists present nuanced profiles of the major social and professional groups--the callings--of the Middle Ages."]

Le Goff, Jacques. "Merchant's Time and Church's Time in the Middle Ages." In his Time, Work, and Culture in the Middle Ages. Trans. Arthur Goldhammer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980. Pp. 29-42. [Church's Time is time as a borrowing from eternity; it is not measurable, and is not available for earthly profit. Merchant's Time is desacralized time, disenchanted time; it is the secularized basis of productive effort and commerce.]

Lehmann, Arthur C., and James E. Myers, eds. Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion: An Anthropological Study of the Supernatural. 5th ed. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing, 2001. [Publisher's description: "A comparative reader that takes an anthropological approach to the study of religious beliefs, both strange and familiar." Contents: Pt. 1: The anthropological study of religion. Religion / Clifford Geertz; Why we became religious, and, The evolution of the spirit world / Marvin Harris; Religious perspectives in anthropology / Dorothy Lee; Steel axes for stone-age Australians / Lauriston Sharp -- Pt. 2: Myth, ritual, symbolism, and taboo. Genesis as myth / Edmund R. Leach; Betwixt and between: the liminal period in rites de passage / Victor W. Turner; Female circumcision in Egypt and Sudan: a controversial rite of passage / Daniel Gordon; An anthropologist's reflections on symbolic usage / Raymond Firth; Taboo / Mary Douglas; You are what you eat: religious aspects of the health food movement / Jill Dubisch; Body ritual among the Nacirema / Horace Miner -- Pt. 3: Shamans, priests, and prophets. Religious specialists / Victor W. Turner; Priests / C. Von Furer-Haimendorf; The shaman: a Siberian spiritualist / William Howells; Dark side of the shaman / Michael Fobes Brown; Reflections after Waco: millennialists and the state / Michael Barkun -- Pt. 4: The religious use of drugs. Drugs / Francis Huxley; The peyote way / J. S. Slotkin; Ritual enemas / Peter T. Furst and Michael D. Coe; The sound of rushing water / Michael Harner; Psychedelic drugs and religious experience / Robert S. de Ropp -- Pt. 5: Ethnomedicine: religion and healing. Eyes of the Ngangas: ethnomedicine and power in Central African Republic / Arthur C. Lehmann; The psychotherapeutic aspects of primitive medicine / Ari Kiev; A school for medicine men / Robert Bergman; Mothering and the practice of "balm" in Jamaica / William Wedenoja; Traditional African psychotherapy: an interview with Thomas Adeoye Lambo / Thomas Bass; The sorcerer and his magic / Claude Lévi-Strauss; Folk medical magic and symbolism in the West / Wayland D. Hand -- Pt. 6: Witchcraft and sorcery. An anthropological perspective on the witchcraze / James L. Brain; Some implications of urban witchcraft beliefs / Phillips Stevens, Jr. Sorcery and concepts of deviance among the Kabana, West New Britain / Naomi M. McPherson; Voodoo death and the mechanism for dispatch of the dying in East Arnhem, Australia / Harry D. Eastwell; Wicca, a way of working / Loretta Orion -- Pt. 7: Demons, exorcism, divination, and magic. Devils, witches, and sudden death / June Nash; Psychosocial interpretations of exorcism / E. Mansell Pattison; Divination / Lucy Mair; Consulting the poison oracle among the Azande / E. E. Evans-Pritchard; Rational mastery by man of his surroundings / Bronislaw Malinowski; Baseball magic (revised 1999) / George Gmelch -- Pt. 8: Ghosts, souls, and ancestors: power of the dead. Sorcerers, ghosts, and polluting women: an analysis of religious belief and population control / Shirley Lindenbaum; A new weapon stirs up old ghosts / William E. Mitchell; The real vampire / Paul Barber; Voodoo / Karen McCarthy Brown; The secrets of Haiti's living dead / Gino del Guercio; Voodoo science / William Booth; Death be not strange / Peter A. Metcalf -- Pt. 9: Old and new religions: the search for salvation. Revitalization movements / Anthony F. C. Wallace; The Ghost Dance religion / Alice Beck Kehoe; Cargo cults / Peter M. Worsley; Urban Rastas in Kingston, Jamaica / William F. Lewis; Serpent-handling as sacrament / Mary Lee Daugherty; New religions and the counter-culture / Elizabeth Puttick -- Pt. 10: The occult: paths to the unknown. The burden of skepticism / Carl Sagan; Occult beliefs / Barry Singer and Victor A. Benassi; Amulets and anthropology: a paranormal encounter with Malay magic / Raymond L. M. Lee; The next level: Heaven's Gate / Newsweek.]

Lewis, C. S. The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964.

Linehan, Peter, and Janet L. Nelson, eds. The Medieval World. London and New York: Routledge, 2001.

Masciandaro, Nicola. The Voice of the Hammer: The Meaning of Work in Middle English Literature. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007. [Contents: "Labour of tonge": the Middle English vocabulary of work -- "Cause & fundacion of alle craftys": imagining work's origins -- "My werk": Chaucer and the subject of swink.]

Mathew, Gervase. "Ideals of Friendship." In Patterns of Love and Courtesy: Essays in Memory of C. S. Lewis. Ed. John Lawlor. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1966. Pp. 45-53.

McCall, Andrew. The Medieval Underworld. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1979.

McNamer, Sarah. Affective Meditation and the Invention of Medieval Compassion. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. [Contents: Introduction: Intimate Scripts in the History of Emotion. Part I, The Origins of an Affective Mode: Compassion and the Making of a True Sponsa Christi; The Genealogy of a Genre; Franciscan Meditation Reconsidered. Part II, Performing Compassion in Late Medieval England: Feeling Like a Woman; Marian Lament and the Rise of a Vernacular Ethics; Kyndenesse and Resistance in the Middle English Passion Lyric. [feelings and emotions, religious and ethical aspects]]

McNamer, Sarah. "Feeling." In Middle English. Ed. Paul Strohm. Oxford Twenty-First Century Approaches to Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. 241-257. [feelings and emotions]

Midmer, Roy. English Mediaeval Monasteries, 1066-1540: A Summary. London: Heinemann, 1979.

Minnis, Alastair, and Rosalynn Voaden, eds. Medieval Holy Women in the Christian Tradition, c.1100-c.1500. Brepols Essays in European Culture 1. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2010. [Contents: Introduction / Alastair Minnis and Rosalynn Voaden -- Introductory essays. Flesh and spirit: the female body / Dyan Elliot -- Religious roles: public and private / Alastair Minnis -- Women's textual authority and the collaboration of clerics / John Coakley -- Communal life: the sister-books / John van Engen -- Women and dissent / Peter Biller -- The British Isles. Holy women in the British Isles: a survey / Anne Clark-Bartlett -- Julian of Norwich / Liz Herbert McAvoy -- Margery Kempe / Anthony Goodman -- France. Holy women in France: a survey / Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski -- Heloise / Constant J. Mews -- Marguerite Porete / Michael G. Sargent -- The German territories. Holy women in the German territories: a survey / Anneke B. Mulder-Bakker -- Hildegard of Bingen / Kathryn Kerby-Fulton -- Elisabeth of Schönau / Anne L. Clark -- Margaret Ebner / Barbara Koch -- Mechthild of Magdeburg / Amy Hollywood and Patricia Z. Beckman -- Mechtild of Hackeborn / Rosalynn Voaden -- Gertrude the Great of Helfta / Alexandra Barratt and Debra L. Stoudt -- Dorothy of Montau / Ute Stargardt -- The Iberian Peninsula. Iberian holy women: a survey / Ronald E. Surtz -- Italy. Italian holy women: a survey / E. Ann Matter -- Agnes of Prague and Guglielma of Milan / Barbara Newman -- Angela of Foligno / Cristina Mazzoni -- Catherine of Siena / Suzanne Noffke -- The Low Countries. Holy women of the Low Countries: a survey / Walter Simons -- Hadewijch / Saskia Murk-Jansen -- Scandinavia. Holy women of Scandinavia: a survey / Claire L. Sahlin.]

Mooney, Linne R., and Estelle Stubbs. Scribes and the City: London Guildhall Clerks and the Dissemination of Middle English Literature, 1375-1425. Manuscript Culture in the British Isles. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2013. [Publisher's description: "Geoffrey Chaucer is called the Father of English Literature not because he was the first author to write in English--he wasn't--but because his works were among those of his generation produced in sufficient numbers to reach a wider audience. He and his contemporaries wrote before the age of print, so the dissemination of his writings in such quantity depended upon scribes, who would manually copy works like The Canterbury Tales in manuscripts. This book is the first to identify the scribes responsible for the copying of the earliest manuscripts (including Chaucer's famous scribe, Adam). The authors reveal these revolutionary copyists as clerks holding major bureaucratic offices at the London Guildhall, working for the mayor and aldermen, officiating in their courts, and recording London business in their day jobs--while copying medieval English literature as a sideline. In particular, they contributed to the new culture of English as the language of not only literature, but government and business as well." Contents: Introduction; The Clerks of the London Guildhall; Richard Osbarn, Chamber Clerk 1400-1437; John Marchaunt, Chamber Clerk 1380-1399, Common Clerk 1399-1417; Adam Pinkhurst, Scrivener and Clerk of the Guildhall, c. 1378-1410; John Carpenter, Common Clerk 1417-1438; Other Scribes Associated with the Guildhall or its Clerks; Conclusions; Epilogue.]

Morris, Colin, and Peter Roberts, eds. Pilgrimage: The English Experience from Becket to Bunyan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Morrison, Susan Signe. Women Pilgrims in Late Medieval England: Private Piety as Public Performance. Routledge Research in Medieval Studies 3. London and New York: Routledge, 2000. [Includes sections on Margery Kempe and Chaucer's Wife of Bath.]

Musson, Anthony, and Edward Powell, ed. and trans. Crime, Law, and Society in the Later Middle Ages. Manchester Medieval Sources Series. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2009. [Contents: Concepts of law and justice -- "Popular" concepts of law and justice -- Crime and disorder -- The development of criminal justice -- The courts in operation -- Arbitration -- The personnel of justice -- Corruption and abuse.]

Newhauser, Richard, ed. In the Garden of Evil: The Vices and Culture in the Middle Ages. Papers in Mediaeval Studies 18. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2005. [Publisher's description: "The areas touched on in this collection of essays are numerous: from late-antique and late-medieval demonology to scholastic analytic philosophy, from sins of the tongue to 'motions' of the heart, from penitentials and sermons to illuminations in the bibles moralisées and works in the conflictus genre, from discourse analysis to textual criticism."]

Newhauser, Richard G., and Susan J. Ridyard, eds. Sin in Medieval and Early Modern Culture. Woodbridge, Suffolk: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2012.

Newman, Francis X., ed. Social Unrest in the Late Middle Ages. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 39. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1986.

Nicolle, David, ed. A Companion to Medieval Arms and Armour. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2002. [Publisher's description: "Arms and armour in Europe developed dramatically during the thousand years from the fifth to the fifteenth century. During this broad sweep of time civilisations rose and fell and population movements swept from east to west, bringing in their wake advances and modifications absorbed and expanded by indigenous populations. So although the primary focus of this book is on the arms and armour of Europe, it also includes neighbouring cultures where these had a direct influence on developments and changes within Europe, from late Roman cavalry armour, Byzantium and the East to the influence of the Golden Horde. A truly impressive band of specialists cover issues ranging from the migrations to the first firearms, divided into three sections: From the Fall of Rome to the Eleventh Century, Emergence of A European Tradition in the High Middle Ages, and New Influences and New Challenges of the Late Middle Ages; throughout there is particular emphasis on the social and technological aspects of medieval military affairs."]

O'Doherty, Marianne. The Indies and the Medieval West: Thought, Report, Imagination. Medieval Voyaging 2. Turnhout: Brepols, 2013. [Publisher's description: "This volume offers a wide-ranging and interdisciplinary treatment of European representations of the Indies between the twelfth and the fifteenth centuries. Drawing on encyclopaedias, cosmographies and cartography, romance, hagiography, and legend, it traces the influence of classical, late antique, and early medieval ideas on the later medieval geographical imagination, including the imagined and experienced Indies of European travellers. Addressing the evidence of Latin and vernacular manuscripts, the book explores readers' encounters with the most widely read travellers' accounts, in particular, those of Marco Polo, Odorico da Pordenone, and Niccolò Conti. Chapters on The Book of Sir John Mandeville, medieval Europe's most idiosyncratic yet popular work of geography, alongside world maps produced across Europe, point to the ways in which representations of the Indies were inflected by temporal concerns, specifically, their relationship to Latin Christendom's past, present, and future."] [the orient, orientalism]

Ohler, Norbert. The Medieval Traveller. Trans. Caroline Hillier. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2010. [Publisher's description: "How did people travel in the middle ages? Evidence shows that despite all the likely deterrents--danger from man and beast, uncertainty of lodging and food, even the basic matter of finding the way--our medieval ancestors moved about far more than we might expect. They set out even on major journeys with a confidence which argues the existence of a network of major routes and minor tracks, the arteries by which new ideas entered Europe's fast-changing civilisation: the knowledge brought back by travellers played an important part in the development of the medieval world. Norbert Ohler lets the travellers speak for themselves, and from the many sources builds up a picture of what travel was really like."]

Olson, Clair C. "The Minstrels at the Court of Edward III." PMLA 56 (1941): 601-612.

Onians, Richard Broxton. The Origins of European Thought about the Body, the Mind, the Soul, the World, Time, and Fate. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1954.

Ormrod, Mark, and Phillip Lindley, eds. The Black Death in England. Stamford, Lincolnshire: Paul Watkins, 1996.

Ousterhout, Robert, ed. The Blessings of Pilgrimage. Illinois Byzantine Studies 1. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

Page, Sophie. Medieval Astrology in Manuscripts. London: British Library, 2002.

Pantin, William Abel. The English Church in the Fourteenth Century. Mediaeval Academy Reprints for Teaching 5. 1955; rpt. Toronto: University of Toronto Press in association with the Mediaeval Academy of America, 1980.

Pfaffenbichler, Matthias. Armourers. Medieval Craftsmen. London: The British Museum, 1992.

Pieper, Josef. The Four Cardinal Virtues. Trans. Richard Winston, et al. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1965.

Platt, Colin. King Death: The Black Death and its Aftermath in Late-Medieval England. London: UCL Press, 1996.

Price, B. B. Medieval Thought: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1992.

Purdon, Liam O., and Cindy L. Vitto, eds. The Rusted Hauberk: Feudal Ideals of Order and their Decline. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994.

"Race and Ethnicity in the Middle Ages." A special issue of The Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31.1 (Winter 2001).

Radulescu, Raluca, Alison Truelove, and Alison Truelove, eds. Gentry Culture in Late-Medieval England. Manchester Medieval Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006. [Publisher's description: "Essays in this fascinating and important collection examine the lifestyles and attitudes of the gentry in late medieval England. They consider the emergence of the gentry as a group distinct from the nobility, and explore the various available routes to gentility. Through surveys of the gentry's military background, administrative and political roles, social behaviour, and education, the reader is provided with an overview of how the group's culture evolved, and how it was disseminated. Studies of the gentry's literacy, creation and use of literature, cultural networks, religious activities and their experiences of music and the visual arts more directly address the practice and expression of this culture, exploring the extent to which the gentry's activities were different from those of the wider population. As a whole, the book offers a broad view of gentry culture that explores, reassesses, and sometimes even challenges the idea that members of the gentry cultivated their own distinctive cultural identity." Contents: Gentility / Philippa Maddern; Chivalry / Maurice Keen; Politics / Peter Fleming; Education and recreation / Nicholas Orme; Literacy / Alison Truelove; Literature / Raluca Radulescu; Cultural networks / Deborah Youngs; Religion / Christine Carpenter; Music / Tim Shaw; Visual culture / Thomas Tolley.] [gentility; gentilesse; class]

Rapp, Francis. "Religious Belief and Practice." In The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 7: c.1415-c.1500. Ed. Christopher Allmand. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Pp. 205-219.

Rashdall, Hastings. The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. 2nd ed. Ed. F. M. Powicke and A. B. Emden. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1936.

Redon, Odile, Françoise Sabban, and Silvano Serventi. The Medieval Kitchen: Recipes from France and Italy. Trans. Edward Schneider. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Rickert, Edith, ed. Chaucer's World. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962.

Ridyard, Susan J., ed. Chivalry, Knighthood, and War in the Middle Ages. Sewanee Mediaeval Studies 9. Sewanee, TN: University of the South Press, 1999.

Ridyard, Susan J., ed. Death, Sickness and Health in Medieval Society and Culture. Sewanee Mediaeval Studies 10. Sewanee, TN: University of the South Press, 2000.

Robertson, D. W., Jr. Chaucer's London. New York: Wiley, 1968.

Rörig, Fritz. The Medieval Town. Trans. D. Bryant. London: B. T. Batsford, 1967.

Rosener, Werner. Peasants in the Middle Ages. Trans. Alexander Stutzer. London: Polity Press, 1991.

Rosenwein, Barbara H., and Lester K. Little, ed. Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1998. [A collection of essays on current controversies in medieval studies, with sections on the Roman empire, feudalism, gender studies, religion and society.]

Rubin, Miri, and Walter Simons, eds. Christianity in Western Europe c.1100-c.1500. Cambridge History of Christianity 4. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. [Contents: Pt. I. Institutions and change, 1100-1200 -- 1. Clerical purity and the re-ordered world / Henrietta Leyser -- 2. The bishops of Rome, 1100-1300 / Anthony Perron -- 3. Religious poverty and the search for perfection / Beverly Mayne Kienzle -- 4. Monastic and religious orders, c. 1100-c. 1350 / Brian Patrick McGuire -- Pt. II. Forging a Christian world, 1200-1300 -- 5. The theological framework / Lesley Smith -- 6. The legal underpinnings / Anders Winroth -- 7. Material support I: parishes / Brigitte Resl -- 8. Material support II: religious orders / Janet Burton -- 9. The Word and its diffusion / KIatherine Jansen -- Pt. III. The erection of boundaries -- 10. Christians and Jews / Ora Limor -- 11. Christendom and Islam / David Nirenberg -- 12. Christians and heretics / Peter Biller -- 13. Women and men / Megan McLaughlin -- 14. Heaven, hell and purgatory, 1100-1500 / Alan E. Bernstein -- Pt. IV. Shapes of a Christian world -- 15. Sacramental life / Miri Rubin -- 16. Religious soundscapes: liturgy and music / Susan Boynton -- 17. Images and their uses / Sara Lipton -- 18. Mary / Rachel Fulton -- 19. Mysticism and transcendence / Amy Hollywood -- Pt. V. Christian life in movement -- 20. On the margins of religious life: hermits and recluses, penitents and tertiaries, beguines and beghards / Walter Simons -- 21. Saints and pilgrimages: new and old / André Vauchez -- 22. Crusade and conquest / Marcus Bull -- Pt. VI. The challenges to a Christian society -- 23. Repression and power / John H. Arnold -- 24. Faith and the intellectuals I / Joseph Ziegler -- 25. Faith and the intellectuals II / Michael Stolz -- Pt. VII. Reform and renewal -- 26. Empowerment through reading, writing and example: the Devotio moderna / Koen Goudriaan -- 27. Demons and the Christian community / Alain Boureau -- 28. Wycliffism and Lollardy / Kantik Ghosh -- 29. Observant reform in religious orders / Bert Roest -- 30. Public purity and discipline: states and religious renewal / Roberto Rusconi -- 31. The Bible in the fifteenth century / Christopher Ocker.]

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Dissent and Order in the Middle Ages: The Search for Legitimate Authority. Twayne Studies in Intellectual and Cultural History 3. Boston: Twayne, 1992.

Ryan, Christopher, ed. The Religious Roles of the Papacy: Ideals and Realities, 1150-1300. Papers in Mediaeval Studies 8. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1989.

Sargent-Baur, Barbara N., ed. Journeys toward God: Pilgrimage and Crusade. Studies in Medieval Culture, Second Series, 30; Occasional Studies Series 5. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1992.

Saunders, Tom. "The Feudal Construction of Space: Power and Domination in the Nucleated Village." In The Social Archaeology of Houses. Ed. Ross Samson. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990. Pp. 181-196. [A Marxist analysis of the spatial construction of feudalism in the medieval village. Abstract: "Social space is both the medium and the outcome of human practice. Any research into social dynamics therefore requires a spatial as well as a temporal dimension. However, the role of social space in the production and reproduction of social relations can only be assessed through concrete research. It is here that the discipline of archaeology has most to offer. The concrete context utilised below is that of medieval feudal society, a society based on rent extraction through the private control of landed estates. Its social structure was thus constituted within a hierarchy of land rights and through a hierarchy of space. Hence the development of politically regulated space was part of the very essence of feudalism. The reflexive relationship between social and spatial relations is examined through an analysis of the nucleated village. The rigorous definition of feudal space, restricting access and physical movement, it seen as being intrinsically linked to the economic power of feudal lords and their domination of the peasantry" (181). Last part of the Introduction: "Drawing on contemporary research within human geography, a materialist interpretation of space is used to explore class and power relations between lord and peasant within the English nucleated village. The argument is structured into three parts: first, there is a methodological discussion on the spatial construction of society; second, a definition of feudalism is offered, outlining the feudal construction of space in the abstract; and third, a concrete examination is made of the spatial data so far recovered from the Raunds area project in Northamptonshire" (182). In the village, the placement of the principal components--manor, church (placed beside and in league with the manor), tenements, and roads--emphasizes feudal dependencies, seen, for instance, in a particularly extreme form in the hamlet of West Cotton (adjacent to Raunds) where the mill was within the enclosed grounds of the manor, accessible to the peasants only by passing through the lord's gatehouse (190).]

Schiffhorst, G. J., ed. The Triumph of Patience: Medieval and Renaissance Studies. Orlando: University Presses of Florida, 1978.

Shannon, Alberta C., OSA. The Medieval Inquisition. 1984; Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 1991.

Sheehan, Michael M., ed. Aging and the Aged in Medieval Europe. Papers in Mediaeval Studies 11. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1990.

Sheridan, Ronald, and Anne Ross. Grotesques and Gargoyles: Paganism in the Medieval Church. Devon: David and Charles, 1975.

Simonsohn, Shlomo. The Apostolic See and the Jews. 8 vols. Studies and Texts 94, 95, 99, 104-106, 109, 110. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1988-1991.

Simson, Otto Georg von. The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order. 2nd ed. Bollingen Series 48. New York: Pantheon Books, 1962.

Smalley, Beryl. The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages. 3rd ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983.

Southern, Richard W. (Sir). The Making of the Middle Ages. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.

Southern, Richard W. (Sir). Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages. The Pelican History of the Church 2. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1970.

Southworth, John. The English Medieval Minstrel. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1990.

Starkie, Walter Fitzwilliam. The Road to Santiago: Pilgrims of St. James. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1965.

Sumption, Jonathan. Pilgrimage: An Image of Mediaeval Religion. London: Faber and Faber, 1975.

Swanson, R. N., ed. and trans. Catholic England: Faith, Religion, and Observance Before the Reformation. Manchester Medieval Sources Series. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1993.

Swanson, R. N. Religion and Devotion in Europe, c.1215-c.1515. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Szittya, Penn R. The Antifraternal Tradition in Medieval Literature. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Taylor, Henry D. The Medieval Mind: A History of the Development of Thought and Emotion in the Middle Ages. 4th ed. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962.

Tentler, Thomas N. Sin and Confession on the Eve of the Reformation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

Thomas, Keith Vivian. Religion and the Decline of Magic. New York: Scribner, 1971. [This is an important study of medieval "superstitions" and their suppression in the time of the Reformation.]

Tinkle, Theresa Lynn. Gender and Power in Medieval Exegesis. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. [Contents: Women on top in medieval exegesis -- Subversive feminine voices: the reception of 1 Timothy 2 from Jerome to Chaucer -- Gender trouble in Augustine's Confessions -- Affective exegesis in the Fleury Slaughter of Iinnocents -- The Wife of Bath's marginal authority.]

Trachtenberg, Joshua. The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and its Relation to Modern Antisemitism. Harper Torchbooks 822. 1943; rpt. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1966.

Trachtenberg, Joshua. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. Temple Books. New York: Atheneum, 1975. [Among other sections of interest, Chap. 15 is on Judaic / Biblical traditions of prophetic dreams and dream interpretation.]

Turnbull, Stephen R. The Book of the Medieval Knight. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1985.

Van Uytven, Raymond. "Showing Off One's Rank in the Middle Ages." In Showing Status: Representation of Social Positions in the Middle Ages. Ed. Wim [Willem Pieter] Blockmans, and Antheun Janse. Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe 2. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1999. Pp. 19-34. [On the "semiotic systems" of using clothing and food to display social status in medieval cultures.]

Von Martels, Z. R. W. M., ed. Alchemy Revisited: Proceedings of the International Conference on the History of Alchemy at the University of Groningen. Collection de Travaux de l'Académie Internationale d'Histoires des Sciences 33. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1990.

Wagner, David L., ed. The Seven Liberal Arts in the Middle Ages. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.

Ward, Benedicta. Miracles and the Medieval Mind. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987.

Watt, Diane. Secretaries of God: Women Prophets in Late Medieval and Early Modern England. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1997.

Webb, Diane. "Pardons and Pilgrims." In Promissory Notes on the Treasury of Merits: Indulgences in Late Medieval Europe. Ed. Robert N[orman] Swanson. Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition 5. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2006. Pp. 241-275.

Webb, Diana. Pilgrimage in Medieval England. London and New York: Hambledon, 2000.

Webb, Diana. Pilgrims and Pilgrimage in the Medieval West. The International Library of Historical Studies 12. London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2001.

White, Lynn, Jr. Medieval Religion and Technology. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.

Williams, Arnold. "Chaucer and the Friars." Speculum 28 (1953): 499-513.

Williams, Arnold. "Relations between the Mendicant Friars and the Regular Clergy in England in the later Fourteenth Century." Annuale Mediaevale 1 (1960): 22-95.

Williman, Daniel, ed. The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 13. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1982.

Wilson, Stephen G., ed. Saints and their Cults: Studies in Religious Sociology, Folklore and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Youngs, Deborah. The Life-Cycle in Western Europe, c.1300-c.1500. Manchester Medieval Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006. [Publisher's description: "This is the first study to examine the entire life cycle in the Middle Ages. Drawing on a wide range of secondary and primary material, the book explores the timing and experiences of infancy, childhood, adolescence and youth, adulthood, old age and, finally, death. It discusses attitudes towards ageing, rites of passage, age stereotypes in operation, and the means by which age was used as a form of social control, compelling individuals to work, govern, marry and pay taxes. The wide scope of the study allows contrasts and comparisons to be made across gender, social status and geographical location. It considers whether men and women experienced the ageing process in the same way, and examines the differences that can be discerned between northern and southern Europe. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries suffered famine, warfare, plague and population collapse. This fascinating consideration of the life cycle adds a new dimension to the debate over continuity and change in a period of social and demographic upheaval." Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Age and life expectancy; 3. Infancy; 4. Boys and girls; 5. Adolescence and youth; 6. Adulthood; 7. Old age; 8. Endings.]

Ziegler, Philip. The Black Death. New York: Harper and Row, 1969.

C.ii. Racial Myths

Benson, C. David. The History of Troy in Middle English Literature: Guido delle Colonne's Historia Destructionis Troiae in Medieval England. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1980.

Birns, Nicholas. "The Trojan Myth: Postmodern Reverberations." Exemplaria 5 (1993): 45-78.

Clark, John. "Trinovantum: The Evolution of a Legend." Journal of Medieval History 7 (1981): 135-151.

Federico, Sylvia. New Troy: Fantasies of Empire in the Late Middle Ages. Medieval Cultures 36. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2003.

Fumo, Jamie C. "Imperial Apollo: From Virgil's Rome to Chaucer's Troy." Chap. 3 of her The Legacy of Apollo: Antiquity, Authority and Chaucerian Poetics. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 2010. Pp. 124-162.

Gordon, George. "The Trojans in Britain." Essays and Studies 9 (1924): 9-30.

Griffin, Nathaniel E. Dares and Dictys: An Introduction to the Study of Medieval Versions of the Story of Troy. Baltimore: J. H. Furst, 1907.

Haas, Judith Patricia. "Trojan Origins and the Translation of Culture in Medieval English and French Romance." Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Cruz, 2000. [DAI 62 (2001-2002): 565A. Abstract: "This dissertation examines the medieval theory of history embedded in vernacular retellings of the legend of Troy. This theory, translatio studii et imperii describes the course of history as the transfer of classical learning and empire from east to west, from the fall of Troy to the rise of Christian Rome. As agents of translatio, the Trojans bring classical civilization not only to Rome but, according to medieval legend, to Britain as well. Under the sway of translatio's historical imperative, writers in the twelfth century undertake the project of translating Latin learning into the vernacular language of romanz. In Chapter One I argue that the Roman d'Enéas's translation of Virgil's Aeneid establishes a romance thematics of recréantise, based on the Trojans' reputation for treachery and unrestrained eroticism. In order to redeem courtly love, the romance produces the threat of Trojan sodomy as a foil. In Chapters Two and Three, I turn to two fourteenth-century Middle English romances that present a challenge to the French literary tradition, a challenge that resonates with the ideology of translatio as well as with the politics of the Hundred Years War. In Chapter Two, I show how Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde uses the pose of the faithful translator to draw connections between political bad faith and the production of a literary tradition through translation. Here Chaucer's ambivalence toward translatio transforms recréantise from a complex sign of male potency and error into a cliché of female infidelity. In Chapter Three, I argue that Gawain, in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, confronts recréantise as the legacy of his Trojan origins. In carrying on the civilizing project of his ancestors, Gawain works to recover chivalry and courtliness in the service of a new English identity."]

Harper, James G. "Turks as Trojans, Trojans as Turks: Visual Imagery of the Trojan War and the Politics of Cultural Identity in Fifteenth-Century Europe." In Postcolonial Approaches to the European Middle Ages: Translating Cultures. Ed. Ananya Jahanara Kabir and Deanne Williams. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Pp. 151-179. [On illustrations in manuscripts of medieval romances that represent Trojans with headgear suggesting that they are "eastern" / "Turkish" / "Saracen."]

Heninger, S. K., Jr. "The Tudor Myth of Troy-novant." Southern Atlantic Quarterly 61 (1961-1962): 378-387.

Iyengar, Sujata. Shades of Difference: Mythologies of Skin Color in Early Modern England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. [Publisher's description: "Was there such a thing as a modern notion of race in the English Renaissance, and, if so, was skin color its necessary marker? In fact, early modern texts described human beings of various national origins--including English--as turning white, brown, tawny, black, green, or red for any number of reasons, from the effects of the sun's rays or imbalance of the bodily humors to sexual desire or the application of makeup. It is in this cultural environment that the seventeenth-century London Gazette used the term 'black' to describe both dark-skinned African runaways and dark-haired Britons, such as Scots, who are now unquestioningly conceived of as 'white.' In Shades of Difference, Sujata Iyengar explores the cultural mythologies of skin color in a period during which colonial expansion and the slave trade introduced Britons to more dark-skinned persons than at any other time in their history. Looking to texts as divergent as sixteenth-century Elizabethan erotic verse, seventeenth-century lyrics, and Restoration prose romances, Iyengar considers the construction of race during the early modern period without oversimplifying the emergence of race as a color-coded classification or a black/white opposition. Rather, 'race,' embodiment, and skin color are examined in their multiple contexts--historical, geographical, and literary. Iyengar engages works that have not previously been incorporated into discussions of the formation of race, such as Marlowe's 'Hero and Leander' and Shakespeare's 'Venus and Adonis.' By rethinking the emerging early modern connections between the notions of race, skin color, and gender, Shades of Difference furthers an ongoing discussion with originality and impeccable scholarship."]

MacDougall, Hugh A. Racial Myth in English History: Trojans, Teutons and Anglo-Saxons. Montreal: Harvest House, 1982.

McCall, John P., and George Rudisill, Jr. "The Parliament of 1386 and Chaucer's Trojan Parliament." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 58 (1959): 276-288.

Mueller, Alex. Translating Troy: Provincial Politics in Alliterative Romance. Interventions: New Studies in Medieval Culture. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 2013. [Contents: Translating destruction into alliterative romance -- Genealogy: Trojan historiography in England -- War: reviving Troy -- Violence: the corporeal terror of the Roman Empire -- Heraldry: Arthur's Roman dragon -- Territory: the Trojan provinces of Britain -- Conclusion. Alliterating England.]

Parsons, A. E. "The Trojan Legend in England: Some Instances of its Application to the Politics of the Times." Modern Language Review 24 (1929): 253-264, 394-408.

Sklar, Elizabeth S. "Guido, the Middle English Troy Books, and Chaucer: The English Connection." Neophilologus 76 (1992): 616-628.

Tatlock, John S. P. The Legendary History of Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1950.

Thompson, Diane P. The Trojan War: Literature and Legends from the Bronze Age to the Present. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., 2004. [Contents: Introduction -- Bronze Age Mycenae and Troy: archaeological evidence -- Oral poetry and the Troy cycle -- Homer's Iliad: the war at Troy -- Homer's Odyssey: the long journey home -- Aeschylus' Agamemnon: dead heroes and wild women--controlling the past -- Euripides' two Iphigenia plays: human sacrifice and resolution -- Virgil's Aeneid: Roman transformation of Homeric myth -- Transmission of Troy stories to the Middle Ages -- Love redeems Eneas; love destroys Achilles: Troy as romance -- Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde: the Christian synthesis -- Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida: human beings alone -- Improving Iphigenia: Racine and Goethe modernize evil -- The Firebrand and The Gate to women's country: women revise the Trojan past -- The tradition continues: Troy in the twentieth century and beyond.]

Waswo, Richard. "Our Ancestors, the Trojans: Inventing Cultural Identity in the Middle Ages." Exemplaria 7 (1995): 269-290. ["Discusses various sources which attribute Trojan ancestry to north European peoples, including Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia regum Britanniae and the Roman d'Eneas" (IMB).]

Whitney, Charles. "The Fall of Troy and the Rise of Elizabethan Drama: Empowering the Audience." Quidditas 23 (2002): 69-81.

C.iii. Women in the Middle Ages

Amt, Emile, ed. Women's Lives in Medieval Europe. London and New York: Routledge, 1993. [A collection of illustrative primary sources regarding medieval women, not only from the Catholic majority, but also from minority groups such as the Jews, Muslims, and various heretical sects.]

Amtower, Laurel, and Dorothea Kehler, eds. The Single Woman in Medieval and Early Modern England: Her Life and Representation. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 263. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2003. [Contents: The single woman as saint: three Anglo-Norman success stories / Jane Zatta -- I want to be alone: the single woman in fifteenth-century legends of St. Katherine of Alexandria / Paul Price -- Gender, marriage, and knighthood: single ladies in Malory / Dorsey Armstrong -- To be or not to be married: single women, money-lending, and the question of choice in late Tudor and Stuart England / Judith M. Spicksley -- A strange hatred of marriage: John Lyly, Elizabeth I, and the ends of comedy / Jacqueline Vanhoutte -- Chaucer's Sely widows / Laurel Amtower -- (Re)creations of a single woman: discursive realms of the Wife of Bath / Jeanie Grant Moore -- Good grief: widow portraiture and masculine anxiety in early modern England / Allison Levy -- Working girls: status, sexual difference, and disguise in Ariosto, Spenser, and Shakespeare / Tracey Sedinger -- "News form the dead": the strange story of a woman who gave birth, was executed, and was resurrected as a virgin / Susan C. Staub -- Frances Howard and Middleton and Rowley's the changeling: trials, tests, and the legibility of the virgin body / Mara Amster.]

Atkinson, Clarissa. The Oldest Vocation: Christian Motherhood in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Baker, Derek, ed. Medieval Women: Dedicated and Presented to Prof. Rosalind M. T. Hill on the Occasion of her 70th Birthday. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1978.

Bardsley, S. "Women's Work Reconsidered: Gender and Wage Differentiation in Late Medieval England." Past and Present 165 (1999): 3-29.

Barratt, Alexandra, ed. Women's Writing in Middle English. Longman Annotated Texts. London: Longman, 1992.

Barron, Caroline M. "The 'Golden Age' of Women in Medieval London." In Medieval Women in Southern England. A Special Issue of Reading Medieval Studies 15 (1989): 35-58. [Argues that women were relatively well off in late medieval London, and less well off in the age of the Tudors.]

Beattie, Cordelia, and Matthew Frank Stevens, eds. Married Women and the Law in Premodern Northwest Europe. Gender in the Middle Ages 8. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2013. [Publisher's description: "There has been a tendency in scholarship on premodern women and the law to see married women as hidden from view, obscured by their husbands in legal records. This volume provides a corrective view, arguing that the extent to which the legal principle of coverture applied has been over-emphasized. In particular, it points up differences between the English common law position, which gave husbands guardianship over their wives and their wives' property, and the position elsewhere in northwest Europe, where wives' property became part of a community of property. Detailed studies of legal material from medieval and early modern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Ghent, Sweden, Norway and Germany enable a better sense of how, when, and where the legal principle of coverture was applied and what effect this had on the lives of married women. Key threads running through the book are married women's rights regarding the possession of moveable and immovable property, marital property at the dissolution of marriage, married women's capacity to act as agents of their husbands and households in transacting business, and married women's interactions with the courts." Contents: Inheritance, property and marriage in medieval Norway / Lars Ivar Hansen -- Spousal disputes, the marital property system, and the law in later medieval Sweden / Mia Korpiola -- When two worlds collide: marriage and the law in medieval Ireland / Gillian Kenny -- Married women, crime and the courts in late medieval Wales / Lizabeth Johnson -- Peasant women, agency and status in late thirteenth- and early fourteenth-century England: some reconsiderations / Miriam Müller -- London's married women, debt litigation and coverture in the Court of Common Pleas / Matthew Frank Stevens -- Married women, contracts and coverture in late medieval England / Cordelia Beattie -- Property, family and partnership: married women and legal capability in late medieval Ghent / Shennan Hutton -- "For his interest"?: Women, debt and coverture in early modern Scotland / Cathryn Spence -- The worth of married women witnesses in the English Church courts, 1550-1730 / Alexandra Shepard -- Married women, work and the law: evidence from early modern Germany / Sheilagh Ogilvie.]

Beer, Frances. Women and Mystical Experience in the Middle Ages. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1992.

Bennett, Judith M. Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England: Women's Work in a Changing World, 1300-1600. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press, 1996.

Bennett, Judith M. "Medieval Women, Modern Women: Across the Great Divide." In Culture and History, 1350-1600: Essays on English Communities, Identities and Writing. Ed. David Aers. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1992. Pp. 147-175. [Argues that there is a continuity between medieval and modern women, and that ideas of a "great divide," of some sort of "great transformation," between then and now does a disservice to feminism.]

Bennett, Judith M., and Amy M. Froide, eds. Singlewomen in the European Past, 1250-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

Berman, Constance H., Charles W. Connell, and Judith Rice Rothschild, eds. The Worlds of Medieval Women: Creativity, Influence, Imagination. Literary and Historical Perspectives of the Middle Ages 2. Morgantown: West Virginia University Press, 1985.

Bernau, Anke, Sarah Salih, and Ruth Evans, eds. Medieval Virginities. Cardiff: University of Wales Press; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003. ["From Joan of Arc to Britney Spears, the figure of the virgin has been the subject of considerable scholarly and popular interest. Yet virginity itself is a paradoxical condition, both perfect and monstrous, present and absent, often visible only insofar as it is under threat. Medieval Virginities traces some of the specific manifestations of virginity in late medieval culture. It shows how virginity is represented in medical, legal, hagiographical and historical texts, as well as how the seductive but dangerous figure of the virgin affects the aims and objectives of these texts. Because virginity is so often thought of as self-identical and ahistorical, Medieval Virginities aims to theorize and historicize its various manifestations and to demonstrate how representations and discussions of virginity continuously shift and change. The variety of subjects and disciplines represented here testify both to the elusiveness of virginity and to its lasting appeal and importance. Medieval Virginities shows how virginity's inherent ambiguity highlights the problems, contradictions and discontinuities lurking within medieval ideologies. It will be essential reading for anyone interested in questions of gender identity, conceptions of the body, subjectivity, truth and representation in medieval culture" (publisher's description). Contents: "Introduction: Virginities and Virginity Studies," by Sarah Salih, Anke Bernalj and Ruth Evans; "When is a Bosom Not a Bosom?: Problems with 'Erotic Mysticism,'" by Sarah Salih; "The Sheela-na-Gig: An Incongruous Sign of Sexual Purity?" by Juliette Dor; "Virginity and Chastity Tests in Medieval Welsh Prose," by Jane Cartwright; "Four Virgins' Tales: Sex and Power in Medieval Law," by Kim M. Phillips; "The Labour of Continence: Masculinity and Clerical Virginity," by John H. Arnold; "Edward the Celibate, Edward the Saint: Virginity in the Construction of Edward the Confessor," by Joanna Huntington; "Alchemy and the Exploration of Late Medieval Sexuality," by Jonathan Hughes; "The Jew, the Host and the Virgin Martyr: Fantasies of the Sentient Body," by Ruth Evans; "Can the Virgin Martyr Speak?" by Robert Mills; "'Saint, Witch, Man, Maid or Whore?': Joan of Arc and Writing History," by Anke Bernau; "Virginity Now and Then: A Response to Medieval Virginities," by Jocelyn Wogan-Browne.]

Blamires, Alcuin. The Case for Women in Medieval Culture. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Blamires, Alcuin, ed. Woman Defamed and Woman Defended: An Anthology of Medieval Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. [Contents: The roots of antifeminist tradition -- The Church Fathers -- The legacy of the Church Fathers -- The satirical tradition in Medieval Latin -- Antifeminist tales -- Vernacular adaptations in the later Middle Ages -- The Wife of Bath -- Responses to antifeminism -- A woman defends women -- Texts.]

Boffey, Julia. "Women Authors and Womens' Literacy in Fourteenth- and Fifteenth-Century England." In Women and Literature in Britain, 1150-1500. 2nd ed. Ed. Carol M. Meale. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Pp. 159-182.

Bom, Myra M. Women in the Military Orders of the Crusades. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. [Publisher's description: "Women, like men, joined the religious military orders that came about during the Crusades such as the Templars, Hospitallers, and Order of Santiago. This study looks deeper into female membership of these orders by placing the discussion of women in medieval military orders in the larger context of female monasticism. While all major religious military orders are taken into account, the focus of this study, and the brunt of new research, is on the female members of the Order of Saint John." Contents: Female monasticism -- Women in military orders -- The Order of Saint John of Jerusalem -- The lay sisters of Saint John of Jerusalem -- Hospitaller sisters in the twelfth century -- Hospitaller sisters in the thirteenth century -- The hospital and its female members.]

Bornstein, Diane. "Women at Work in the Fifteenth Century." Fifteenth-Century Studies 6 (1983): 33-40.

Brown-Grant, Rosalind. Christine de Pizan and the Moral Defence of Women: Reading Beyond Gender. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 40. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Bullough, Vern L., and James A. Brundage, eds. Handbook of Medieval Sexuality. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1696. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. [Includes essays on canon law and church teaching, on medical teachings about sex and procreation, on medieval gender, on medieval marriage, on homosexuality, cross dressing, prostitution, contraception, and castration.]

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women. The New Historicism 1. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Cadden, Joan. The Meanings of Sex Difference in the Middle Ages: Medicine, Natural Philosophy, and Culture. Cambridge Studies in the History of Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. [Publisher's description: "In describing and explaining the sexes, medicine and science participated in the delineation of what was 'feminine' and what was 'masculine' in the Middle Ages. Hildegard of Bingen and Albertus Magnus, among others, writing about gynecology, the human constitution, fetal development, or the naturalistic dimensions of divine Creation, became increasingly interested in issues surrounding reproduction and sexuality. Did women as well as men produce procreative seed? How did the physiology of the sexes influence their healthy state and their susceptibility to disease? Who derived more pleasure from intercourse, men or women? This book explores how scientific ideas about sex differences in the later Middle Ages participated in the broader culture's assumptions about gender. Cadden discusses how medieval natural philosophical theories and medical notions about reproduction and sexual impulses and experiences intersected with ideas about such matters as the social roles of men and women, and the purpose of marriage." Contents: Introduction. Part I: Seeds and Pleasures: The Evolution of Learned Opinions. Chap. 1: "Prelude to Medieval Theories and Debates: Greek Authorities and their Latin Transformations"; Chap. 2: "The Emergence of Issues and the Ordering of Opinions"; Chap. 3: "Academic Questions: Female and Male in Scholastic Medicine and Natural Philosophy." Part II: Sex Difference and the Construction of Gender. Chap. 4: "Feminine and Masculine Types" [physiognomic lore]; Chap. 5: "Sterility: The Pursuit of Progeny and the Failure of Reproductive Function"; Chap. 6: "Is Sex Necessary? The Problem of Sexual Abstinence." Conclusion.]

Caporale-Bizzini, Silvia, ed. Narrating Motherhood(s), Breaking the Silence: Other Mothers, Other Voices. Bern, Berlin, Brussels, Frankfurt-am-Main, New York, Oxford, Vienna: Peter Lang, 2006. ["Feminist theory on motherhood has successfully transformed mothers into subjects of their own discourse, recognized the historical, heterogeneous and socially constructed origins of their life experience while, at the same time, widening our understanding of the notion of mothering. This collection combines a literary and a wider cultural perspective from which to look at the topic of the representation of other or forgotten motherhoods. Mothers who have been forced to live exiled and away from their children, women who after trying to conceive, get pregnant but discover they cannot bear to become mothers, or even literary characters based on an autobiographical experience of a sexually abusive mother. The essays critically point out how writing becomes a tool to think and write about the many aspects of motherhood such as an idealized maternal experience versus the real one or the accepted stereotypes of the good mother and the bad mother" (publisher's description).]

Casey, Kathleen. "The Cheshire Cat: Reconstructing the Experience of Medieval Women." In Liberating Women's History: Critical Essays. Ed. B. A. Carroll. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976. Pp. 224-249.

Charles, Lindsey, and Lorna Duffin, eds. Women and Work in Pre-Industrial England. Oxford Women's Series 8. London, and Dover, NH: Croom Helm, 1985. [Publisher's description: "This book surveys women and work in English society before its transition to industrial capitalism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The time span of the book from 1300 to 1800 allows comparison of women's work patterns across various phases of economic and social organisation." Contents: Women and Work in Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century London -- Women in Fourteenth Century Shrewsbury -- 'Churmaids, Huswyfes and Hucksters': The Employment of Women in Tudor and Stuart Salisbury -- 'Words they are Women, and Deeds they are Men': Images of Work and Gender in Early Modern England -- Women's Labour and the Transition to Pre-industrial Capitalism.]

Clark, Peter. The English Alehouse: A Social History 1200-1830. London and New York: Longman, 1983. [beer and ale; brewing]

Clover, Carol J. "Regardless of Sex: Men, Women, and Power in Early Northern Europe." Speculum 68 (1993): 363-387. [Speculum 68.2 (April 1993) is a Special Issue entitled "Studying Medieval Women: Sex, Gender, Feminism." Clover argues against the assumption of a simple male=powerful, female=victim approach to the Middle Ages, since power relations fluctuated, and even gender was a fairly fluid concept: "sexual difference used to be less a wall than a permeable membrane . . . in a world in which a physical woman could become a social man, a physical man could (and sooner or later [as in old age] did) become a social woman" (p. 387).]

Collis, Louise. Memoirs of a Medieval Woman: The Life and Times of Margery Kempe. New York: Harper and Row, 1983.

Coss, Peter R. The Lady in Medieval England, 1000-1500. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1998.

Crawford, Anne, ed. Letters of the Queens of England, 1100-1547. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1994.

Damico, Helen, and Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, eds. New Readings on Women in Old English Literature. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

DuBruck, Edelgard E., ed. New Images of Medieval Women: Essays Toward a Cultural Anthropology. Mediaeval Studies 1. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1989. [Contents: Filling and fleshing out the feminine figure: innovative representations of women in Les cent nouvelles nouvelles / Judith Bruskin Diner -- Speaking of tongues: the poetics of the feminine voice in Chaucer's Legend of good women / Elizabeth D. Harvey -- Christine de Pisan: speaking like a woman/speaking like a man / Lynne R. Huffer -- Reinmar der alte and the woman as courtly victim / William E. Jackson -- Christine de Pisan's Le dit de poissy: an exploration of an alternate life-style for aristocratic women in fifteenth-century France / Kathleen E. Kells -- Between the pit and the pedestal: images of Eve and Mary in medieval Cornish drama / Evelyn S. Newlyn -- Female nudity and sexuality in medieval art / John A. Nichols -- Israhel von Meckenem's marriage a la mode: the Alltagsleben / Diane G. Scillia -- Elaine and Guinevere: gender and historical consciousness in the Middle Ages / Martin B. Shichtman -- Arms and the lover in the fifteenth-century Spanish novel / James R. Stamm -- Wifely wiles: comic unmasking in Les quinze joyes de mariage / Steven M. Taylor -- Clandestine marriages in the late Middle Ages / Zacharias P. Thundy.]

Edwards, Robert R., and Vickie Ziegler, eds. Matrons and Marginal Women in Medieval Society. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1995.

Ennen, Edith. The Medieval Woman. Trans. Edmund Jephcott. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989.

Erler, Mary C[arpenter]. Women, Reading, and Piety in Late Medieval England. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 46. Cambridge, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Erler, Mary C[arpenter], and Maryanne Kowaleski, eds. Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988.

Eshlean, Lori. "Weavers of Peace, Weavers of War." In Peace and Negotiation: Strategies for Coexistence in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Ed. Diane Wolfthal. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 4. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2000. Pp. 15-37. [On the roles of women in peace and war.]

Ferrante, Joan M. "Public Postures and Private Maneuvers: Roles Medieval Women Play." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Ed. Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Pp. 213-229.

Ferrante, Joan M. Woman as Image in Medieval Literature from the Twelfth Century to Dante. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975.

Fiero, Gloria K., Wendy Pfeffer, and Mathé Allain, eds. and trans. Three Medieval Views of Women: La Contenance des Fames, Le Bien des Fames, Le Blasme des Fames. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.

Gastle, Brian W. "'As if she were single': Working Wives and the Late Medieval English Femme sole." In The Middle Ages at Work: Practicing Labor in Late Medieval England. Ed. Kellie Robertson and Michael Uebel. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Pp. 41-64. [Women within marriage could declare themselves "femmes sole" with economic independence from the household.]

Geary, Patrick J. Women at the Beginning: Origin Myths from the Amazons to the Virgin Mary. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006. [Publisher's description: "In these four artfully crafted essays, Patrick Geary explores the way ancient and medieval authors wrote about women. Geary describes the often marginal role women played in origin legends from antiquity until the twelfth century. Not confining himself to one religious tradition or region, he probes the tensions between women in biblical, classical, and medieval myths (such as Eve, Mary, Amazons, princesses, and countesses), and actual women in ancient and medieval societies. Using these legends as a lens through which to study patriarchal societies, Geary chooses moments and texts that illustrate how ancient authors (all of whom were male) confronted the place of women in their society. Unlike other books on the subject, Women at the Beginning attempts to understand not only the place of women in these legends, but also the ideologies of the men who wrote about them. The book concludes that the authors of these stories were themselves struggling with ambivalence about women in their own worlds and that this struggle manifested itself in their writings." Contents: "Women and Origins in Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages"; "Writing Women Out: Amazons and Barbarians"; "A Tale of Two Judiths"; "Writing Women In: Sacred Genealogy and Gender"; "Women at the End."]

Gee, Loveday Lewes. Women, Art and Patronage from Henry III to Edward III, 1216-1377. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2002. ["In Britain in the high Middle Ages women played an active and significant role as artistic patrons. This study considers who these women were, their social status, the sources of their wealth and their motives for acting as they did, in addition to examining the various buildings, tombs and artefacts which they commissioned. Their piety, interests and concerns, and the cultural and social context of their lives are discussed in the context of the evidence offered by surviving buildings, tombs, manuscripts and seal impressions, together with relevant wills, documents and contemporary texts" (publisher's description).]

Gies, Frances, and Joseph Gies. Women in the Middle Ages. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1978.

Goldberg, P. J. P. "The Public and the Private: Women in the Pre-Plague Economy." In Thirteenth Century England III: Proceedings of the Newcastle upon Tyne Conference 1989. Ed. P. R. Coss and S. Lloyd. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1991. Pp. 75-89.

Goldberg, P. J. P., ed. Women in England, 1275-1525. Manchester Medieval Sources. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.

Goldberg, P. J. P. "Women in Fifteenth-Century Town Life." In Towns and Townspeople in the Fifteenth Century. Ed. John A. F. Thomson. Stroud, Gloucestershire, and Wolfeboro Falls, NH: Alan Sutton, 1988. Pp. 107-128. [That women enjoyed varied roles and a good deal of integration in town life.]

Goldberg, P. J. P., ed. Women in Medieval English Society, c. 1200-1500. Sutton History. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1997. [First published in 1992 as Woman is a Worthy Wight: Women in English Medieval Society, c.1200-1500. The collection is based upon the proceedings of a conference entitled "Woman is a Worthy Wight" held at Cambridge in 1988. This edition has a new Preface (in part, summarizing scholarship on the subject since the original publication), but the texts of the essays are unchanged. Publisher's description: "The authors present a broad, balanced approach to the subject by analysing the position and influence of women in a variety of religious and secular contexts. Among the important areas discussed are marriage and servanthood, work and status, confession and charity, lordship and estate management. . . . The authors consider in detail the workings of medieval marriage, the status of peasant women in the countryside, the provision of charity for women, the information about gender that can be revealed by archaeology, the responsibility of women in the household and their influence on the running of great estates."]

Goldy, Charlotte Newman, and Amy Livingstone, eds. Writing Medieval Women's Lives. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. [Publisher's description: "Medieval women's history is entering a new stage. In the last thirty years medievalists have recovered the sources about women, and have moved women to the foreground of narratives to view society from their vantage point. Prosopographic methods have been implemented to learn about the least documented women though they often lack a human face. This volume responds to various questions of how historians are asking. Can we go beyond the most powerful of women while retaining the personal aspect possible with a biographical approach? How can we write about the mundane aspects of female life rarely deemed worthy of textual mention? How far can we extrapolate from our fragmentary sources and yet remain historical? Scholars working on the history of early modern women have already demonstrated that we can write about women who left only fragmentary evidence of their lives as compelling and illuminating history in part by experimenting with narrative structures. The work in this volume demonstrates that techniques used by these historians can be equally fruitful in writing a more complete history of medieval women. The historians in this collection are looking for ways to expand the ways we examine and write about medieval women. They are interested in the great and the obscure, and women from different times and places. They all attempt to get closer to the life as lived, personified in individual stories. As such, these essays prompt us to rethink what we can know about women, how we can know it, and how we can write about them to expand our insights." Contents: The foundation legend of Godstow Abbey: a holy woman's life in Anglo-Norman verse / Emilie Amt -- Remembering Countess Delphine's books: reading as a means to shape a holy woman's sanctity / Nicole Archambeau -- The letters of Princess Sophia of Hungary, a nun at Admont / Jonathan R. Lyon -- The missing Russian women: the case of Evpraksia Vsevolodovna / Christian Raffensperger -- Leaving Warboys: emigration from a fifteenth-century English village / Anne Reiber DeWindt -- Women as legal agents in late medieval Genoa / Jamie Smith -- Piecing together the fragments: telling the lives of the ladies of Lavardin through image and text / Amy Livingstone -- Girlindis and Alpais: telling the lives of two textile fabricators in the Carolingian empire / Valerie L. Garver -- Agents or pawns? The experiences of the peasant women of Roussillon in the Blanquet family parchments, 1292-1345 / Rebecca Lynn Winer -- Joan de Valence: a lady of substance / Linda E. Mitchell -- Royal women in late medieval Spain: Catalina of Lancaster, Leonor of Albuquerque, and María of Castile / Theresa Earenfight -- Muriel, a Jew of Oxford: using the dramatic to understand the mundane in Anglo-Norman towns / Charlotte Newman Goldy -- Well-behaved women can make history: women's friendships in late medieval Westminster / Katherine L. French.]

Green, D. H. Women Readers in the Middle Ages. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 65. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. ["A comprehensive study of women and reading between c.700 and 1500." Publisher's description: "Throughout the Middle Ages, the number of female readers was far greater than is commonly assumed. D. H. Green shows that, after clerics and monks, religious women were the main bearers of written culture and its expansion. Moreover, laywomen played a vital part in the process whereby the expansion of literacy brought reading from religious institutions into homes, and increasingly from Latin into vernacular languages. This study assesses the various ways in which reading was practised between c.700 and 1500 and how these differed from what we mean by reading today. Focusing on Germany, France and England, it considers the different categories of women for whom reading is attested (laywomen, nuns, recluses, semi-religious women, heretics), as well as women's general engagement with literature as scribes, dedicatees, sponsors, and authors. This fascinating study opens up the world of the medieval woman reader to new generations of scholars and students. Contents: Part I. Reading in the Middle Ages: 1. Literal reading; 2. Figurative reading; Part II. Women and Reading in the Middle Ages: 3. Categories of women readers; 4. Women's engagement with literature.]

Hallett, Nicky. "Women." In A Companion to Chaucer. Ed. Peter Brown. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Pp. 480-494.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Narratives of a Nurturing Culture: Parents and Neighbors in Medieval England." Essays in Medieval Studies 12 (1996): 1-21.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. The Wealth of Wives: Women, Law, and Economy in Late Medieval London. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "London became an international center for import and export trade in the late Middle Ages. The export of wool, the development of luxury crafts and the redistribution of goods from the continent made London one of the leading commercial cities of Europe. While capital for these ventures came from a variety of sources, the recirculation of wealth through London women was important in providing both material and social capital for the growth of London's economy. A shrewd Venetian visiting England around 1500 commented about the concentration of wealth and property in women's hands. He reported that London law divided a testator's property three ways allowing a third to the wife for her life use, a third for immediate inheritance of the heirs, and a third for burial and the benefit of the testator's soul. Women inherited equally with men and widows had custody of the wealth of minor children. In a society in which marriage was assumed to be a natural state for women, London women married and remarried. Their wealth followed them in their marriages and it was administered by subsequent husbands. This study, based on extensive use of primary source materials, shows that London's economic growth was in part due to the substantial wealth that women transmitted through marriage. The Italian visitor observed that London men, unlike Venetians, did not seek to establish long patrilineages discouraging women to remarry, but instead preferred to recirculate wealth through women. London's social structure, therefore, was horizontal, spreading wealth among guilds rather than lineages. The liquidity of wealth was important to a growing commercial society and women brought not only wealth but social prestige and trade skills as well into their marriages. But marriage was not the only economic activity of women. London law permitted women to trade in their own right as femmes soles and a number of women, many of them immigrants from the countryside, served as wage laborers. But London's archives confirm women's chief economic impact was felt in the capital and skill they brought with them to marriages, rather than their profits as independent traders or wage labourers." Contents: Daughters and identities -- Education and apprenticeship -- Inheritance, dowry, and dower -- The formation of marriage -- Recovery of dower and widows' remarriage -- For better or for worse: the marital experience -- Standard of living and women as consumers -- Women as entrepreneurs -- Servants, casual labor, and vendors.]

Hanawalt, Barbara A., ed. Women and Work in Preindustrial Europe. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1986. [Contents: Peasant women's work in the context of marriage. Peasant women's contribution to the home economy in late Medieval England / Barbara A. Hanawalt -- The village ale-wife: women and brewing in fourteenth-century England / Judith M. Bennett -- Slaves and domestic servants. To town to serve: urban domestic slavery in Medieval Ragusa / Susan Mosher Stuard -- Women servants in Florence during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries / Christiane Klapisch-Zuber -- Occupations related to female biology: wet nurses and midwives. Municipal wet nurses in fifteenth-century Montpellier / Leah L. Otis -- Early modern midwifery: a case study / Merry E. Wiesner -- Urban women in work and business. Women in business in Medieval Montpellier / Kathryn L. Reyerson -- Women's work in a market town: Exeter in the late fourteenth century / Maryanne Kowaleski -- Is there a decline in women's economic position in the sixteenth century? Women in the crafts in sixteenth-century Lyon / Natalie Zemon Davis -- Women, the family economy, and the structures of market production in cities of Northern Europe during the late Middle Ages / Martha C. Howell.]

Hand, Joni M. Women, Manuscripts and Identity in Northern Europe, 1350-1550. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2013.

Harrison, Dick. The Age of Abbesses and Queens: Gender and Political Culture in Early Medieval Europe. Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 1998. [A study of political culture of early medieval Europe, especially as reflected in documentary evidence for attitudes towards women (was there a gendered political culture? were there specific spheres of influence in which females had sway?). Harrison argues that gender is an important aspect of medieval political culture, and that men and women in similar circumstances often acted in quite different ways as a result, but that sweeping generalizations about "all-powerful males and permanently suppressed females" have flourished only in the absence of historical research in this field (29). Harrison's conclusion is that the stereotypes of female emotion and irrationality arise in this period ("[w]hat we see [in the texts under consideration] is gender in the process of being constructed"), despite (perhaps because of) very real women exercising very real political power and influence.]

Harwood, Britton J., and Gillian R. Overing, eds. Class and Gender in Early English Literature: Intersections. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1994.

Holloway, Julia Bolton, Constance S. Wright, and Joan Bechtold, eds. Equally in God's Image: Women in the Middle Ages. New York: Peter Lang, 1990.

Jewell, Helen M. Women in Medieval England. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1996. [Contents: The background: women in England before 1100 -- Women of the medieval countryside -- Women in medieval urban communities -- Women of the landholding classes: queens, noblewomen and gentlewomen -- Women and religion -- Conclusions.]

Johnson, Penelope D. Equal in Monastic Profession: Religious Women in Medieval France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. ["A study of women living in religious communities which explores the ways in which gender affected their behavior and also shows how many were respected and self-respecting people who shared with monks a family model of monastic life which was mostly gender-neutral."]

Kanner, Barbara, ed. The Women in England from Anglo-Saxon Times to the Present: Interpretive Bibliographical Essays. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1979.

Karras, Ruth Mazo. "The Regulation of Brothels in Late Medieval England." In Sisters and Workers in the Middle Ages. Ed. Judith M. Bennett, Elizabeth A. Clark, Jean F. O'Barr, B. Anne Vilen, and Sarah Westphal-Wihl. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Pp. 100-134.

Kelly, Kathleen Coyne, and Marina Leslie, eds. Menacing Virgins: Representing Virginity in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Fwd. Margaret Ferguson. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1999.

Kermode, Jenny, and Garthine Walker, eds. Women, Crime, and the Courts in Early Modern England. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1994. [A "collection of seven original essays" which "explores the relationship between the law and women's lives, and demonstrates that women were far from passive victims in a male-dominated legal system."]

Kirshner, Julius, and Suzanne Wemple, eds. Women of the Medieval World: Essays in Honour of John H. Mundy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985.

Kittel, Ruth. "Women under the Law in Medieval England, 1066-1485." In The Women of England from Anglo-Saxon Times to the Present: Interpretive Bibliographical Essays. Ed. Barbara Kanner. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1979. Pp. 124-137.

Kowaleski, Maryanne. "Women's Work in a Market Town: Exeter in the Late Fourteenth Century." In Women and Work in Preindustrial Europe. Ed. Barbara A. Hanawalt. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1986. Pp. 145-164.

Lacy, K. E. "Women and Work in Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century London." In Women and Work in Pre-Industrial England. Ed. Lindsey Charles and Lorna Duffin. Oxford Women's Series 8. London, and Dover, NH: Croom Helm, 1985. Pp. 24-82.

Lampe, David. "Sex Roles and the Role of Sex in Medieval English Literature." In Handbook of Medieval Sexuality. Ed. Vern L. Bullough and James A. Brundage. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1696. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. Pp. 401-426. [On "bedroom scenes" from Beowulf to Malory, with significant sections on Gawain and the Green Knight, Gower, Langland, and (especially) Chaucer.]

Larrington, Carolyne. Women and Writing in Medieval Europe. London: Routledge, 1995.

Lerner, Gerda. The Creation of Feminist Consciousness from the Middle Ages to Eighteen-Seventy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Levin, Carole, and Jeanie Watson, eds. Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1987. [Contents: Role and representation in Medieval and early Renaissance texts. Boccaccio's in-famous women: gender and civic virture in the De mulieribus claris / Constance Jordan -- Zenobia in Medieval and Renaissance literature / Valerie Wayne -- Heloise: inquiry and the Sacra pagina / Eileen Kearney -- The frivolities of courtiers follow the footprints of women: public women and the crisis of virility in John of Salisbury / Cary J. Nederman and N. Elaine Lawson -- Rereadings of Medieval and Renaissance literary texts. Domestic treachery in the Clerk's tale / Deborah S. Ellis -- Enid the disobedient: the Mabinogion's Gereint and Enid / Jeanie Watson -- Communication short-circuited: ambiguity and motivation in the Heptameron / Karen F. Wiley -- Reading Spenser's Faerie Queen--In a different voice / Shirley F. Staton -- Role and representation in English Renaissance texts. Presentations of women in the English popular press / Sara J. Eaton -- The Feme covert in Elizabeth Cary's Mariam / Betty S. Travitsky -- The myth of a feminist humanism: Thomas Salter's The Mirrhor of Modestie / Janis Butler Holm -- "I trust I may not trust thee": women's visions of the world in Shakespeare's King John / Carole Levin -- Recorder Fleetwood and the Tudor queenship controversy / Dennis Moore.]

Leyser, Henrietta. Medieval Women: A Social History of Women in England, 450-1500. Women in England. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1995.

Lucas, Angela M. Women in the Middle Ages: Religion, Marriage and Letters. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983.

Maddern, Philippa. "Honour among the Pastons: Gender and Integrity in Fifteenth-Century English Provincial Life." Journal of Medieval History 14 (1988): 357-371. [The Paston Letters reveal a strong orientation towards the community, with significant scope for women to be involved in public affairs.]

Mann, Jill. Apologies to Women. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Martos, Joseph, and Pierre Hégy, eds. Equal at the Creation: Sexism, Society, and Christian Thought. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Mate, Mavis E. Women in Medieval English Society. New Studies in Economic and Social History 39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ["This book presents a concise and accessible introduction to the various issues and debates surrounding women and their position in medieval society. Professor Mate examines the role women played in the economy, clarifies legal provisions for women and highlights the importance of class, as well as gender, in determining marriage and opportunities" (publisher's description).]

Matter, E. Ann, and John Coakley, eds. Creative Women in Medieval and Early Modern Italy: A Religious and Artistic Renaissance. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994.

McCash, June Hall, ed. The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

McIntosh, Marjorie Keniston. Working Women in English Society, 1300-1620. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. [Publisher's description: "This study explores the diverse and changing ways in which English women participated in the market economy between 1300 and 1620. Marjorie McIntosh assesses women's activity by examining their engagement in the production and sale of goods, service work, credit relationships, and leasing of property." Contents: Introduction: women and their work -- Women's work in its social setting -- Studying working women -- Providing services -- Domestic and personal services -- Financial services and real estate -- Making and selling goods -- General features of women's work as producers and sellers -- Drink work -- The food trades and innkeeping -- Women's participation in the skilled crafts -- Turning the coin: women as consumers.]

McLaughlin, Eleanor. "Women, Power and the Pursuit of Holiness in Medieval Christianity." In Women of Spirit: Female Leadership in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. Ed. Rosemary Ruether, and Eleanor McLaughlin. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979. Pp. 99-130.

McMillan, Ann Hunter. "'Evere an hundred goode ageyn oon badde': Catalogues of Good Women in Medieval Literature." Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1979. [DAI 40 (1979-1980): 5437A. Abstract: "Catalogues of noble pagan women in medieval literature have been largely ignored by scholars. A study of these catalogues reveals the medieval literary treatment of women to be misrepresented by the labels of 'antifeminism' and 'courtly love' usually applied. The catalogues also caution contemporary readers that the medieval attitude toward written authority was much more flexible than is often believed. My first chapter begins with an examination of classical catalogues of women, particularly Ovid's Heroides and the lugentes campi of Vergil's Aeneid. In both of these works, women are depicted as the natural victims of passion, suffering self-imposed martyrdom for their fidelity in love. In early Christian times, St. Jerome praised two other kinds of classical heroines, the virginal maiden and the chaste wife. Many of his classical virgins are 'manly,' in that they exercise male prerogatives as hunters, warriors, and priests. These three types of women--the chaste wife, the 'manly' virgin, and the martyr of love--continue to dominate the catalogues throughout the Middle Ages. The chapter concludes with an overview of medieval treatments of women. The second chapter examines Boccaccio's extremely influential catalogue, De Claris Mulieribus. Writing about virtually all the famous women from classical times, Boccaccio attempts to set up an ideal to which contemporary women should aspire. However, his standards are muddled, and he assumes the inferiority of women to men. My third chapter traces a group of warrior women from their earliest appearance as the neuf preuses in Deschamps to the highly adapted group praised by Thomas Heywood. The glorification of such 'manly' women resulted largely from the popularity of De Claris Mulieribus and tends to share Boccaccio's beliefs about women. Christine de Pisan's Cité des Dames, which makes use of many pagan warrior women and seeks to temper Boccaccio's antifeminism, is also discussed. Chaucer's early use of catalogues of women is the subject of my fourth chapter. Chaucer, drawing mainly upon the idea of love's martyrs from Ovid and Vergil, shows awareness of conflicting authorities and of the double standard which often made women the victims and men the heroes of 'fame.' Thus, the question of what makes a good woman becomes for him an aspect of the larger conflicts between men and women and between experience and authority. The Legend of Good Women and three of the Canterbury Tales are used together in my fifth chapter to illustrate the tendency of the catalogues to reveal more about their tellers than about women. The Merchant, Manciple, and Monk attempt to hide behind 'authority' in their catalogues, but in fact reveal their lack of self-awareness. In the Legend, the Chaucerian narrator finds himself forced by an authority--the God of Love--to praise women in a way that can only be achieved through the deliberate mishandling of his other authorities--old books. The Legend exposes its own purported aims and methods as based on misleading rhetoric and false ideas about women. Chaucer's development of the catalogue from a rhetorical device to a means of characterization reachers [sic] its culmination in Dorigen and the Wife of Bath. These two female characters, whom I discuss in an epilogue, evaluate the examples provided by the catalogues in terms of their own experience, and find them wanting."]

McNamara, Jo Ann Kay, and Suzanne Wemple. "The Power of Women through the Family in Medieval Europe, 500-1100." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Ed. Maryanne Kowaleski and Mary Erler. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Pp. 83-101.

Meale, Carol M. "'. . . Alle the bokes that I haue of latyn, englisch, and frensch': Laywomen and their Books in Late Medieval England." In Women and Literature in Britain, 1150-1500. Ed. Carol M. Meale. 2nd ed. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Pp. 128-158.

Meale, Carol M. "Reading Women's Culture in Fifteenth-Century England: The Case of Alice Chaucer." In Mediaevalitas: Reading the Middle Ages; The J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Ninth Series, Perugia, 1995. Ed. Piero Boitani and Anna Torti. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1996. Pp. 81-101 and 8 plates (between pp. 102-103).

Meale, Carol M. Women and Literature in Britain, 1150-1500. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Meale, Carol M, and Julia Boffey. "Gentlewomen's Reading." In The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, Volume III: 1400-1557. Ed. Lotte Hellinga and J. B. Trapp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 526-540.

Miller, Sarah Alison. Medieval Monstrosity and the Female Body. Routledge Studies in Medieval Religion and Culture 8. New York: Routledge, 2010. [Publisher's description: "Argues that one incarnation of monstrosity in the Middle Ages--the female body--exists in special relation to medieval conceptualizations of the monstrous." Contents: Introduction: the monstrous borders of the female body -- Ovidian poetry -- Virgins, mothers, and monsters: Ovidian and pseudo-Ovidian bodies -- Gynecology -- Gynecological secrets: blood, seed, and monstrous births in De secretis mulierum -- Mystical theology -- Monstrous love: the permeable body of Christ in Julian of Norwich's showings -- Conclusion: the monstrous borders of the self.]

Mirrer, Louise, ed. Upon my Husband's Death: Widows in the Literature and Histories of Medieval Europe. Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Civilization. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991.

Morewedge, Rosemarie T., ed. The Role of Woman in the Middle Ages. Albany: State University of New York, 1975.

Parsons, John Carmi, ed. Medieval Queenship. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, 1994.

Parsons, John Carmi, and Bonnie Wheeler, eds. Medieval Mothering. The New Middle Ages 3; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1979. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1996. [Among other content, "[t]heoretical essays examine medical and literary sources to establish that for male commentators, the narrowly biological, female parameters of maternity were insistently supplanted by images of nurturant mothering, an ungendered activity that could be preempted and associated with male behavior."]

Partner, Nancy F. "No Sex, No Gender." Speculum 68 (1993): 363-387. [Speculum 68.2 (April 1993) is a Special Issue entitled "Studying Medieval Women: Sex, Gender, Feminism." "The two polar terms of sex and gender (alias: body vs. society; nature vs. culture; biology vs. artifice) offered us in current discussions are just not enough conceptual equipment to address the complex issues of psychosexual identity and collective culture. . . . A middle or third term is always needed--'self' or 'sexuality' will do quite well--to acknowledge the developmental negotiations of mind with world which produce men and women who do tend to be recognizably like others of the same sex (and class, society, etc.) when regarded collectively, but yet are quite distinct and individual when seen 'close up.' Gender, as a concept carrying all the explanatory weight for human behaviour, thins out and dehumanizes the individual while never accounting for the deviance, rebellion, and simple idiosyncrasy which happily fill the historical record. The currently missing middle term of psychosexual development would restore the reality that human beings actively negotiate their way into their worlds; they are not passively processed by them" (pp. 441-442).]

Phillips, Kim M. Medieval Maidens: Young Women and Gender in England, c.1270-c.1540. Manchester Medieval Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003. [Publisher's description: "The medieval landscape, as traditionally viewed through the eyes of scholars, was hardly populated by women--aside from the occasional dazzling queen or mistress, strong-willed abbess, or exotic mystic. This picture has been dramatically altered by the scholarship of the last few decades as women have been restored to the medieval scene. However, to date, young unmarried women or 'maidens' have attracted little academic attention. This book aims to fill that gap by examining the experiences and voices of young womanhood. The life-phase of 'adolescence' was rather different for maidens than for young men, and, as such, merits study in its own right. At the same time a study of young womanhood provides insights into ideals of feminine gender roles and identities at different social levels. Young women were engaged in the process of acquiring the gendered selves required of adult women, but were themselves representative of a powerful ideal of femininity. . . ." "The first study on medieval women to treat young women or 'maidens' separately and at length. The book makes a contribution to gender studies through its study of medieval girls' acquisition of appropriate roles and identities, and their own attitudes towards these roles. Examines the experiences and voices of young womanhood. Provides insights into ideals of feminine gender roles and identities at different social levels." Contents: Introduction: Medieval youth, Constructing gender, Approach and sources; Attributes: Bodies, Minds, Exit Points, Perfect Age, Conclusion; Upbringing: Modes of learning, Teachers, Messages, Conclusion; Work: Noble service, Town and country, Conclusion; Sexualities: Sexual boundaries, Flirtation and fantasy, Conclusion; Voices: 'Send more clothes,' 'Marry me,' 'Ave Maria,' Restive voices, Conclusion.]

Power, Eileen. Medieval People. 10th ed. London: Methuen, 1963.

Power, Eileen. Medieval Women. Ed. M. M. Postan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.

Ranft, Patricia. Women and Spiritual Equality in Christian Tradition. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Ranft, Patricia. Women and the Religious Life in Premodern Europe. London: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. [On the achievements of women in religious orders (abbesses, visionaries, contributions to music, science, etc.). Includes sections on Hildegard of Bingen, Heloise, etc.]

Renate Bridenthal, Susan Mosher Stuard, and Merry E. Wiesner, eds. Becoming Visible: Women in European History. 3rd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998. [Contents: Women of ancient Egypt and western Asia / Barbara S. Lesko -- Daughters of Demeter: women in ancient Greece / Marilyn A. Katz -- Matres patriae / matres ecclesiae: women of Rome / Jo Ann McNamara -- Women in early medieval northern Europe / Lisa M. Bitel -- The dominion of gender or how women fared in the high middle ages / Susan Mosher Stuard -- Women in the Renaissance / Carole Levin -- The reformation of women / Susan C. Karant-Nunn -- Spinning out capital: women's work in preindustrial Europe, 1350-1750 / Merry E. Wiesner -- Women and the Enlightenment / Dena Goodman -- A political revolution for women?: the case of Paris / Darline Gay Levy and Harriet B. Applewhite -- Doing capitalism's work: women in the western European industrial economy / Laura L. Frader -- Contextualizing the theory and practice of feminism in nineteenth-century Europe (1789-1914) / Karen Offen -- Socialism, feminism, and the socialist women's movement from the French Revolution to World War II / Charles Sowerwine -- Gender, race, and empire in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Africa and Asia / Margaret Strobel -- Women and the revolutionary process in Russia / Richard Stites -- Women in war and peace, 1914-1945 / Sandi E. Cooper -- The "woman question" in authoritarian regimes / Claudia Koonz -- Friend or foe?: women and state welfare in western Europe / Jane Jenson -- The great divide?: women's rights in eastern and central Europe since 1945 / Barbara Einhorn -- Women in the new Europe / Renate Bridenthal.]

Riddy, Felicity. "Women Talking About the Things of God: A Late Medieval Subculture." In Women and Literature in Britain, 1150-1500. Ed. Carol M. Meale. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Pp. 104-127.

Roberts, Anna, ed. Violence Against Women in Medieval Texts. Gainesville, Tallahassee, Tampa, Boca Raton, Pensacola, Orlando, Miami, Jacksonville: University Press of Florida, 1998.

Rose, Mary Beth, ed. Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: Literary and Historical Perspectives. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986. [Contents: Women's defense of their public role / Merry E. Wiesner -- Heroics of virginity: brides of Christ and sacrificial mutilation / Jane Tibbetts Schulenburg -- Women and the Italian inquisitions / William Monter -- Annihilating intimacy in Coriolanus / Madelon Sprengnether -- John Foxe and the responsibilities of Queenship / Carole Levin -- Shakespeare's comic heroines, Elizabeth I, and the political uses of androgyny / Leah S. Marcus -- Autobiography of a new "creatur": female spirituality, selfhood, and authorship in The book of Margery Kempe / Janel M. Mueller -- Spiritual fun: a study of sixteenth-century Tuscan convent theater / Elissa Weaver -- Countess of Pembroke and the art of dying / Mary Ellen Lamb -- Inventing authority of origin: the difficult enterprise / Tilde Sankovitch -- Gender, genre and history: seventeenth-century English women and the art of autobiography / Mary Beth Rose.]

Rousseau, Constance M., and Joel Thomas Rosenthal, eds. Women, Marriage, and Family in Medieval Christendom: Essays in Memory of Michael M. Sheehan, C.S.B. Studies in Medieval Culture 37. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1998. [From the Introduction: "The eleven essays offered here in Father Sheehan's memory reflect his imprint and spirit as well as the originality of his former students. These essays consider three thematic categories that were dominant in most of Sheehan's own scholarly work. These are the role, position, and contributions of medieval women; the development of Christian marriage, especially in the High Middle Ages; and the secular family with its legal and emotional relationships. . . . The collection expands on several of Sheehan's research areas; it shows a considerable interest in medieval England but does not disregard the Continent." Contents: Michael Sheehan, a personal profile by a friend / Walter H. Principe, C.S.B. -- The interdisciplinary context of a career / J. Ambrose Raftis, C.S.B. -- Bede's women / David A. E. Pelteret -- Dominae or dominatae?: female mysticism and the trauma of textuality / Dyan Elliott -- Salisbury women and the pre-Elizabethan parish / Audrey Douglas -- Individualism and consensual marriage: some evidence from Medieval England / Jacqueline Murray -- "I will never have none ayenst my faders will": consent and the making of marriage in the late medieval diocese of London / Shannon McSheffrey -- "Maritalis affectio": marital affection and property in fourteenth-century York Cause Papers / Frederik Pederson -- Husband and wife in criminal proceedings in Medieval England / Margaret H. Kerr -- The cultural construction of childhood: baptism, communion, and confirmation / Kathryn Ann Taglia -- "Que nos in infancia lactauit": the impact of childhood care-givers on plantagenet family relationships in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries / John Carmi Parsons -- Kinship ties, behavioral norms, and family counseling in the Pontificate of Innocent III / Constance M. Rousseau -- The Curteys women in Chancery: the legacy of Henry and Rye Browne / Timothy S. Haskett.]

Salih, Sarah. Versions of Virginity in Late Medieval England. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. ["This study looks at the question of what it meant to be a virgin in the Middle Ages, and the forms which female virginity took. It begins with the assumptions that there is more to virginity than sexual inexperience, and that virginity may be considered a gendered identity, a role which is performed rather than biologically determined. The author explores versions of virginity as they appear in medieval saints' lives, in the institutional chastity of nuns, and as shown in the book of Margery Kempe, showing how it can be active, contested, vulnerable but also recoverable" (publisher's description).]

Saunders, Corinne J. "Women and Warfare in Medieval English Writing." In Writing War: Medieval Literary Responses to Warfare. Ed. Corinne J. Saunders, Françoise Le Saux, and Neil Thomas. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2004. Pp. 187-212.

Schaus, Margaret, ed. Women and Gender in Medieval Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages 14. New York: Routledge, 2006. [Publisher's description: "From women's medicine and the writings of Christine de Pizan to the lives of market and tradeswomen and the idealization of virginity, gender and social status dictated all aspects of women's lives during the Middle Ages. A cross-disciplinary resource, Women and Gender in Medieval Europe examines the daily reality of medieval women from all walks of life in Europe between 450 CE and 1500 CE, i.e., from the fall of the Roman Empire to the discovery of the Americas. Moving beyond biographies of famous noble women of the middles ages, the scope of this important reference work is vast and provides a comprehensive understanding of medieval women's lives and experiences. Masculinity in the Middle Ages is also addressed to provide important context for understanding women's roles."]

Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts. "Female Sanctity: Public and Private Roles, ca. 500-1100." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Ed. Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Pp. 102-125.

Seabourne, Gwen. Imprisoning Medieval Women: The Non-Judicial Confinement and Abduction of Women in England, c.1170-1509. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2011. [Contents: "By royal power and command": maidens (and other women) in towers -- Confinement of women in war and armed conflict -- Other species of "garde" -- "A dreary and solitary place" or "honourable captivity"? -- Wrongful imprisonment and abduction -- "Countless ravishments of women"? -- Common law -- Escaping the confines of the common law -- "Not averse to the arrangement"? -- Other roles -- Agency and contagion.]

Shahar, Shulamith. The Fourth Estate: A History of Women in the Middle Ages. Trans. Chaya Galai. London: Methuen, 1983.

Sheehan, Michael M., CSB. Marriage, Family and Law in Medieval Europe: Collected Studies. Ed. James K. Farge. Toronto, and Buffalo, NY: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Sheehan, Michael M., CSB. "The Wife of Bath and her Four Sisters: Reflections on a Woman's Life in the Age of Chaucer." Medievalia et Humanistica ns 13 (1985): 23-42. [Rpt. in Critical Essays on Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales." Ed. Malcolm Andrew. London: Open University Press; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991. Pp. 187-204. Again rpt. in Sheehan, Michael M., CSB. Marriage, Family and Law in Medieval Europe: Collected Studies. Ed. James K. Farge. Toronto, and Buffalo, NY: University of Toronto Press, 1996. Pp. 177-??.] This is an excellent essay, summarizing the current state of our knowledge about women in the period of Chaucer. Sheehan objects to the "generalizations" and universalizing tendencies of many current articles, since, on the one hand, there were many distinctions between women of different groups which distinctions are too often blurred by modern writers, and, secondly, we are only just beginning to analyze the available evidence: this field of study is still in its infancy and it is too soon to be drawing broad conclusions.
Sheehan limits himself to the period around 1380 and to the geographical area of England, and he summarizes what is known about five different groups of women at the various stages of their lives (this last is another important but frequently ignored distinction: just as the Squire and his father, the Knight, are equivalent in class and stature, but are quite different in terms of their roles and responsibilities because they are at different ages and stages of development, so, too, such development took place in the lives of women). The five groups which Sheehan identifies are 1) the free and landed woman, to whom the Common Law of England would apply (ranging from the wife of the Knight to the wife of the Yeoman), 2) the free women among the burgesses (such as the Wife of Bath), 3) the rural peasant (ranging from the wife of the Ploughman--not free, but with some substance and comfort--to the Poor Widow of the cottar class in the "Nun's Priest's Tale"), 4) women among the "foreigns" in the cities (most of whom would be attached to trade guilds as workers without the rights of guild members; porters, hawkers, innkeepers, and servants were of this class; so too were most of the beggars and prostitutes), and 5) the religious (this group is somewhat different, since membership was open to all, but to a considerable extent the hierarchy among the lay orders obtained within the nunneries as well). Finally, besides the laws governing womens' rights and obligations, there were many divergent practices between one manor and another (affecting the unfree women in the rural areas), and there is a body of Church teachings which was, to some degree, enforceable.
Having identified these five groups, Sheehan then describes what we know about the birth, childhood, majority, marriage, property rights (in and after marriage), and the deaths and last testaments of women in each of these groups. Several points are worth special note: while it was legal to marry at age 12, in fact the average age at which women were married is probably in the late teens (p. 30). The stereotype of the woman forced into an unwanted marriage must also be set aside: from the thirteenth century on, the free consent of the bride must be obtained before a legal marriage could occur. Further, clandestine marriages (mostly love unions, but always with the risk of deception and later denials and recriminations) were legally binding until as late as the Marriage Act of 1753 (pp. 30-31). There were also provisions for separation (though not necessarily divorce) in cases of abuse, though women of the upper classes had readier access to such remedies than did women of the lower classes (political expediency was often a determining factor in whether marriages were annulled) (p. 32). Husbands did have moral and possibly physical authority over their wives, and they were their wives' legal guardians: thus the wife's property came under her husband's control at marriage. However, this control was limited: the husband was not allowed to "alienate" the wife's property, since at her death her property was to revert to her heirs. There are many court cases recorded of women taking action against their husbands for attempts to "alienate" property (p. 31). And, while generally the eldest child of a union would inherit the mother's as well as the father's property, widows were granted a very significant portion of their husband's estate (a third if there was a son, a half if there was no such male heir). Widowhood conferred upon a woman complete legal independence and often a considerable degree of financial security (pp. 33-34).]

Smith, Susan L. The Power of Women: A Topos in Medieval Art and Literature. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

Stafford, Pauline. Queen Emma and Queen Edith: Queenship and Women's Power in Eleventh-Century England. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1997.

Staples, Kate Kelsey. Daughters of London: Inheriting Opportunity in the Late Middle Ages. Later Medieval Europe 8. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011. [women and the inheritance of property]

Straus, Barrie Ruth. "Freedom through Renunciation?: Women's Voices, Women's Bodies, and the Phallic Order." In Desire and Discipline: Sex and Sexuality in the Premodern West. Ed. Jacqueline Murray and Konrad Eisenbichler. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996. Pp. 245-264.

"Studying Medieval Women: Sex, Gender, Feminism." A Special Issue of Speculum 68.2 (April 1993).

Summit, Jennifer. Lost Property: The Woman Writer and English Literary History, 1380-1589. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. [Contents: "Following Corinne: Chaucer's Classical Women Writers"; "The City of Ladies in the Library of Gentlemen: Christine de Pizan in England, 1450-1526"; "The Reformation of the Women Writer"; "'A ladies penne': Elizabeth I and the Making of English Poetry."]

Taylor, Jane, and Lesley Smith. Women and the Book: Assessing the Visual Evidence. British Library Studies in Medieval Culture. London: British Library, 1997.

Utley, Francis Lee. The Crooked Rib: An Analytical Index to the Argument about Women in English and Scots Literature to the End of the Year 1568. Columbus: The Ohio State University, 1944.

Wallace, David. Strong Women: Life, Text, and Territory, 1347-1645. Clarendon Lectures in English 2007. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. [Contents: Borderline sanctity: Dorothea of Montau, 1347-1394 -- Anchoritic damsel: Margery Kempe of Lynn, c.1373-c.1440 -- Holy Amazon: Mary Ward of Yorkshire, 1585-1645 -- Vice queen of Ireland: Elizabeth Cary of Drury Lane, c.1585-1639.]

Ward, Jennifer C. "The English Noblewoman and her Family in the Later Middle Ages." In The Fragility of Her Sex?: Medieval Irishwomen in Their European Context. Ed. Christine Meek, and Katharine Simms. Blackrock, Ireland: Four Courts Press, 1996. Pp. 119-135.

Ward, Jennifer C. English Noblewomen in the Later Middle Ages. The Medieval World. London and New York: Longman, 1992. ["A look into the often varied life and activities of the noblewoman--her role in household and estate business, the use of wealth and show, and the exercise of hospitality and patronage."]

Warner, Marina. "Word of Mouth: Gossips II." Chap. 3 of her From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales and their Tellers. London: Chatto and Windus, 1994. Pp. 27-50. [Useful if used with caution. Exploring tellers of fairy tales, and the associations with "old wives" tales: who is telling and to whom? Old women are associated with tale telling, gossip, casting spells--sins of the tongue. (Three chapters on "gossips" and various senses of the word, and historical associations.) Warner focuses upon early modern contexts (Chap. 3, for instance, begins and ends in the salons of seventeenth-century Paris), though much of this is equally applicable to the late medieval cultural world; I would hesitate to recommend to students, however, since some of the points made here are peculiarly modern, and students might fail to pay sufficient attention and to make important distinctions. Another problem is that Warner overgeneralizes: what one moralist says becomes what all moralists have to say; similarly, moral advice to speak with care and discretion is represented as an injunction to silence; fails to recognize male praise of well-spoken women (she found a woodcut of "Prudence" as a woman with a padlock on her lips and this is taken as "the" understanding of prudence, but what about Dame Prudence in Chaucer's "Tale of Melibee," who is certainly not silenced? what about many other representations of prudence in terms of her three eyes and "providential" nature, the need to prophecy and advise, to speak out?); and fails to recognize and acknowledge that the Biblical and moral injunctions about careful speech and the dangers of the tongue (in the Epistle of James, etc.) are addressed to men as well as women: yes, there was a cultural tendency to associate loose tongues with the female gender, but Warner fails to acknowledge that men, too, need to exercise discretion and beware of loose tongues.]

Warren, Nancy Bradley. The Embodied Word: Female Spiritualities, Contested Orthodoxies, and English Religious Cultures, 1350-1700. Reformations. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "In The Embodied Word, Nancy Bradley Warren expands on the topic of female spirituality, first explored in her book Women of God and Arms, to encompass broad issues of religion, gender, and historical periodization. Through her analyses of the variety of ways in which medieval spirituality was deliberately and actively carried forward to the early modern period, Warren underscores both continuities and revisions that challenge conventional distinctions between medieval and early modern culture. Drawing on the philosophical writings of Stanley Cavell and Karl Morrison, Warren illuminates a number of medieval and early modern texts, including St. Birgitta of Sweden's Revelations, St. Catherine of Siena's Dialogue, Julian of Norwich's Showings, devotional anthologies created by early modern English nuns in exile, the prophetic and autobiographical texts of Anna Trapnel, and the writings of Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza." Contents: Introduction: from corpse to corpus -- The incarnational and the international: St. Birgitta of Sweden, St. Catherine of Siena, Julian of Norwich, and Aemilia Lanyer -- Medieval legacies and female spiritualities across the "great divide": Julian of Norwich, Grace Mildmay, and the English Benedictine nuns of Cambrai and Paris -- Embodying the "old religion" and transforming the body politic: the Brigittine nuns of Syon, Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza, and exiled women religious during the English Civil War -- Women's life writing, women's bodies, and the gendered politics of faith: Margery Kempe, Anna Trapnel, and Elizabeth Cary -- The embodied presence of the past: medieval history, female spirituality, and traumatic textuality, 1570-1700.]

Warren, Nancy Bradley. Spiritual Economies: Female Monasticism in Later Medieval England. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Watt, Diane, ed. Medieval Women in their Communities. Cardiff: University of Wales Press; Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1997.

Weir, Alison. Katherine Swynford: The Story of John of Gaunt and his Scandalous Duchess. London: Jonathan Cape, 2007. [Reissued under the title Mistress of the Monarchy: The Life of Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster.

Wiethaus, Ulrike, ed. Maps of Flesh and Light: The Religious Experience of Medieval Women Mystics. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1993.

Wilson, Katharina M., and Nadia Margolis, eds. Women in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004. [Publisher's description: "The experiences of women in the Middle Ages have been receiving growing amounts of attention, and we are only now beginning to appreciate the full extent of their contributions. Women significantly shaped medieval political, economic, and cultural life as rulers, religious leaders, wives, patrons, teachers, healers, merchants, warriors, and agricultural laborers. They also produced enduring works in historiography, literature, music, and the visual arts. Comprehensive in scope, meticulous in scholarship, and accessible in style to general readers and specialists alike, this encyclopedia offers full coverage of the myriad roles, experiences, and contributions of women in the medieval world."]

Wood, Diana, ed. Women and Religion in Medieval England. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2003. [Publisher's description: "Nuns and devout noblewomen were celebrated for their achievements in the literature of the medieval period, but more often than not these women only appear on the side-lines of history, while the ordinary wife and mother is virtually invisible. These papers, written by historians and archaeologists, discuss the religious devotion and spiritual life of medieval women from all walks of life. From an analysis of the architecture and economic organisation of nunneries, to an assessment of the medieval Church's response to the pain and perils of childbirth, these papers consider the influence of the church on the lives of women, and the influence that women had on the life and worship of the Church."]

Wright, Sharon Hubbs. "Women in the Northern Courts: Interpreting Legal Records of Familial Conflict in Early Fifteenth-Century Yorkshire." Florilegium 19 (2002): 27-48. [The story of Kathleen Northfolk, a Yorkshire heiress whose uncle tried to do her out of her inheritance, is more complicated and nuanced than Eileen Power, who first brought it to scholarly notice, was aware. This is a story about how Kathleen's mother fought back on behalf of her daughter--and eventually won.]

C.iv. Love, Sexuality, and Marriage

Alanus de Insulis. The Plaint of Nature. Trans. James J. Sheridan. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1980. De planctu Naturae (Of the Complaint of Nature) is a twelfth-century Latin work by Alanus de Insulis (Alain of Lille), an academic and possibly a Cistercian monk, from Lille (in Flanders), teaching in Paris in the mid-twelfth century; he died in 1202 at an age of over 80 years. The Planctus is a Menippean Satire, influenced in form and in content by Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy among others. Jean de Meun (in his part of the Romance of the Rose) makes extensive use of this work, and the character of Genius plays a significant role at the end of the Romance based upon his role here; Chaucer's Parliament of Fowls, especially his depictions of Venus and Nature, are heavily indebted to the Planctus as well. Genius also reappears as the "confessor" in John Gower's Confessio Amantis. Summary: The poet is sad because Nature's laws regarding sex and generation are so widely held in contempt: homosexuality is rampant; women have lost their attraction to men. As the poet laments this state of affairs, a beautiful lady appears, weeping; she wears a crown of stars on her head, and her gown is constantly changing colours like the leaves of the trees. There are pictures of birds on her gown (Alanus lists the type of birds, and his catalogue of birds influenced that of Chaucer in Parliament of Fowls); on her tunic are depicted animals and fish; upon her shoes are pictures of flowers. With her arrival, the whole world has turned more splendid: the sun shines more brightly, the clouds disappear, the birds sing loudly, the sea calms; and wherever this maiden goes it is springtime. Yet she weeps, and she speaks to the poet: I made you and everything else by order of the Creator who dwells in Heaven. I am Nature, and all things obey my laws except humans alone, and it is because of humans that I weep. Men and women both have taken to unnatural sexual practices (which she lists and describes in greater detail than we need here) despite the fact that God ordained that the whole world should depend upon the cycle of birth and death, and that He appointed Nature to oversee this cyclical process. Nature, receiving this commission from God, had then delegated to Venus the responsibility of looking after the procreative bits, and Venus bore a son, Desire, to her husband, the god of marriage, a son who was to help her (note that Desire is represented here as originally having been good and God-ordained). But Desire began to become excessive and misdirected, causing Nature to return to Earth to re-establish order and to give stricter instructions to Venus and Desire. This worked for a time, but eventually Venus became bored with everybody behaving themselves and doing the same thing over and over, so Venus livened the joint up a bit by having an affair with Antigenius, by whom she had a second son, Jocus (Sport), an illegitimate foil to her legitimate son Desire. As a consequence, Justice is now fled, crime abounds, children do not know or trust their parents, and humans have forsaken Reason. Humans have abandoned those things which distinguished them from animals, and now are no better than beasts. At the poet's request, Nature then describes the Seven Deadly Sins and tells how to avoid them. After this, Hymenaeus (god of marriage) appears with his attendants, the ladies Chastity, Generosity, and Temperance, all of them bewailing their current state of neglect. Nature sends Hymenaeus to fetch Genius to aid her and to set the world to rights once more. Genius (god of birth and generation) arrives, attended by Truth, daughter of Genius and Nature. Clad in his priestly garments (as a servant of God), he reads out a sentence of excommunication against all those who do not follow the laws of Nature. At this point, the poet awakens.] [Alan of Lille; complaint]

Allen, Peter L. "Ars Amandi, Ars Legendi: Love Poetry and Literary Theory in Ovid, Andreas Capellanus, and Jean de Meun." Exemplaria 1 (1989): 181-205.

Andreas Capellanus. The Art of Courtly Love. Trans. John Jay Parry. 1941; New York: W. W. Norton, 1969.

Askew, Melvin W. "Courtly Love: Neurosis as Institution." Psychoanalytic Review 59 (1965): 19-29.

Benson, Larry D. "Courtly Love and Chivalry in the Later Middle Ages." In Fifteenth-Century Studies: Recent Essays. Ed. Robert F. Yeager. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1984. Pp. 237-257. [Raises the question of whether (and, if so, how) the concept of "courtly love" can continue to be useful.]

Benton, John F. "The Evidence for Andreas Capellanus Re-Examined Again." Studies in Philology 59 (1962): 471-478.

Bloch, R. Howard. Medieval Misogyny and the Invention of Western Romantic Love. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. [Publisher's description: "In this original work, Bloch shows the striking similarity between the antifeminism of medieval times and its supposed antidote, the romantic idealization of woman." Rev.: (Leslie Cahoon) Chaucer Yearbook 2 (1995): 163-165: Bloch is unable to see subtlety and nuance and irony; he fails to understand complexity. He reduces and flattens all texts to fit his argument and suppresses any contrary evidence.]

Boase, Roger. The Origin and Meaning of Courtly Love: A Critical Study of European Scholarship. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1977.

Brook, Leslie C., ed. Two Late Medieval Love Treatises: Heloises's Art d'Amour and a Collection of Demandes d'Amour. Medium Ævum Monographs ns 16. Oxford: Society for the Study of Mediæval Languages and Literature, 1993.

Brooke, Christopher N[ugent] L[awrence]. The Medieval Idea of Marriage. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Bullough, Vern L., and James Brundage. Handbook of Medieval Sexuality. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1996.

Bullough, Vern L., and James Brundage. Sexual Practices and the Medieval Church. Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1982.

Burger, Glenn. "Labouring to Make the Good Wife Good in the journées chrétiennes and Le Menagier de Paris." Florilegium 23.1 (2006): 19-40. [Florilegium 23.1 is a special issue: Confronting the Present with the Past: Essays in Honour of Sheila Delany, ed. A. E. Christa Canitz and Andrew Taylor. On late medieval texts that offer recommendations for the "good wife" on how to be spiritual and "nun-like" in her devotions even though married; the article, then, serves as a contribution to the study of the development of "lay spirituality" in late medieval Europe (here, particularly, France). While Burger begins and ends with Judith Butler on "hybrid" forms of gender, this is not what I see as the main interest of the article, which is a consideration of a group of interesting texts within the context of changing ideas about marriage in the late Middle Ages. He offers something of a history of the shifts within the idea of marriage in the later Middle Ages, promoted by the Church from the early thirteenth century, as these ideals came to encourage "affective" and "consensual" unions ("companionate marrige") within a "sacramental" relationship, including the idea that classical (Ciceronian) ideals of male-male "friendship" (amicitia) should be applied to the relationship between spouses. He notes along the way that the canon law affirmation of the idea of the "conjugal debt" (that each spouse had an equal right to unfettered sexual access to the other spouse) promoted a rough but effective "equality" between spouses, and he sees in other discussions of marriage within bourgeois households (as in the Menagier and in clerical advice to wives) the promotion of an ideal of practical equality within the home (Burger is looking particularly at bourgeois households, but I would imagine that the same would be true of the lower classes; it is only in the upper classes where issues of property, inheritance, and dynasty would tend to complicate "equality" and reinforce traditional "hierarchies" within marriage).]

Burnley, J[ohn] David. "Fine Amor: Its Meaning and Context." Review of English Studies ns 31 (1980): 139-148. [On the idea of "fine amor" (part of the basis for what in English is called "courtly love").]

Calabrese, Michael. "Ovid and the Female Voice in the De Amore [i.e., Andreas Capellanus, The Art of Courtly Love] and the Letters of Abelard and Heloise." Modern Philology 95 (1997-1998): 1-26.

Camille, Michael. The Medieval Art of Love: Objects and Subjects of Desire. London: Laurence King; New York: Abrams, 1998. [The symbolism of love in European art (paintings, illuminations, tapestries, jewellry) of the Middle Ages.]

Cartlidge, Neil. Medieval Marriage: Literary Approaches, 1100-1300. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1997.

Cherchi, Paolo. Andreas and the Ambiguity of Courtly Love. Toronto Italian Studies. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

Chewning, Susannah Mary. Intersections of Sexuality and the Divine in Medieval Culture: The Word Made Flesh. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005. [Publisher's description: "As distinct from the many recent collections and studies of medieval literature and culture that have focused on gender and sexuality as their major themes, this collection considers and serves to re-think and re-situate religion and sexuality together. Including 'traditional' works such as Chaucer and the Pearl-poet, as well as less well known and studied texts--such as alchemical texts and the Wohunge group--the contributors here focus on the meeting point of these two often-examined concepts. They seek an understanding of where sex and religion distinguish themselves from one another, and where they do not. This volume locates the Divine and the Erotic within the continuum of experience and devotion that characterize the paradox of the medieval world. Not merely original in their approaches, these authors seek a new vision of how these two inter-connected themes--sexuality and the Divine--meet, connect, distinguish themselves, and merge within medieval life, language, and literature." Contents: Part I Secular Literature and Drama: Religion, sexuality, and representation in the York Joseph's Troubles pageant, Michael W. George; The gentrification of Eve: sexuality, speech, and self-regulation in noble conduct literature, Mark Addison Amos; Queer copulation and the pursuit of divine conjunction in two Middle English alchemical poems, Cynthea Masson. Part II Romance and Narrative: Via erotica/via mystica: a tour de force in the Merchant's Tale, M. C. Bodden; 'My Lemman Swete': gender and passion in Pearl, Catherine S. Cox. Part III Saints and Religious Women: Spectators of martyrdom: corporeality and sexuality in the Liflade ant te Passiun of Seinte Margarete, Julie E. Fromer; 'The woman who shares the king's bed': the innocent eroticism of Gertrud the Great of Helfta, Alexandra Barratt; Virgin, mother, whore: the sexual spirituality of Margery Kempe, Liz Herbert McAvoy. Part IV Visionaries and Mystics: Corpus Mysticum: text as body/body as text, David A. Salomon; Cross-dressing souls: same-sex desire and the mystic tradition in A Talkyng of the Loue of God, Michelle M. Sauer; 'Mi bodi henge/wid þi bodi': the paradox of sensuality in Þe Wohunge of Ure Lauerd, Susannah Mary Chewning.]

Coghill, N[eville] K. "Love and 'Foul Delight': Some Contrasted Attitudes." In Patterns of Love and Courtesy: Essays in Memory of C. S. Lewis. Ed. John Lawlor. London: Edward Arnold, 1966. Pp. 141-156.

Cooney, Helen, ed. Writings on Love in the English Middle Ages. Studies in Arthurian and Courtly Cultures. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. [Contents: "The Tenacity of Courtly Love," Bernard O'Donoghue; "Love before Troilus," Helen Cooper; "Love and Loyalty in Middle English Romances," Corinne Saunders; "'The Unequal Scales of Love': Love and Social Class in Andreas Capellanus' De Amore and Some Other Texts," John Scattergood; "'Swich a so my wit kan nat diffyne': Defining Loves in Troilus and Criseyde," Barry Windeatt; "Passion, Interiority, and Philosophical Debate in Troilus," Helen Phillips; "'To see and Not To Be Seen': The Flower and the Leafe and Social and Aesthetic Crisis in the Fifteenth Century," Helen Cooney; "The Wisdom of Old Women: Alisoun of Bath as Auctrice," Alastair Minnis; "'Nat that I chalange any thing of right': Love, Loyalty, and Legality in the Franklin's Tale," Neil Cartlidge; "Romancing the Rose: The Readings of Chaucer and Christine," Martha Driver; "Entrapment or Empowement?: Women and Discourses of Love and Marriage in the Fifteenth Century," Carol M. Meale; "Writing about Love in Late Medieval Scotland," Priscilla Bawcutt.]

Crosland, Jessie. "Ovid's Contribution to the Conception of Love known as 'L'Amour courtois.'" Modern Language Review 42 (1947): 199-206.

d'Avray, David. Medieval Marriage Sermons: Mass Communication in a Culture without Print. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Denomy, A. J. "The De amore of Andreas Capellanus and the Condemnation of 1277." Mediaeval Studies 8 (1946): 107-149.

Denomy, A. J. The Heresy of Courtly Love. New York: D. X. McMullen, 1947.

Donaldson, E. Talbot. "The Myth of Courtly Love." Ventures 5.2 (1965): 16-23. [Reprinted in his Speaking of Chaucer. London: Athlone Press, 1970. Pp. 154-163.]

Dronke, Peter. "'Andreas Capellanus.'" Journal of Medieval Latin 4 (1994): 51-63. [Challenges received opinions on the historicity of Andreas and the situation that he describes; there was probably no such person, and the book should be treated as a work of satire.]

Duby, Georges. The Knight, the Lady, and the Priest: The Making of Modern Marriage in Medieval France. Trans. Barbara Bray. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983. [Trans. of Le chevalier, la femme et le prètre.]

Duby, Georges. Medieval Marriage: Two Models from Twelfth-Century France. The Johns Hopkins Symposia in Comparative History 11. Trans. Elborg Forster. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978. [Originally presented (in French) as the James S. Schouler lectures for 1977 at Johns Hopkins University, Apr. 12, 13, and 15, 1977. Contents: Two models of marriage: the aristocratic and the ecclesiastical -- Incest, bigamy, and divorce among kings and nobles -- A noble house: the Counts of Guines. Also issued as an ACLS ebook: available online here. Informative review by Michael Sheehan in The Catholic History Review, available online here.]

Edwards, Robert R., and Stephen Spector, eds. The Olde Daunce: Love, Friendship, Sex and Marriage in the Medieval World. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1991.

Elliott, Dyan. Spiritual Marriage: Sexual Abstinence in Medieval Wedlock. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Ferrand, Jacques. A Treatise on Lovesickness. Trans. Donald A. Beecher and Massimo Ciavolella. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1990.

Ferrante, Joan M. "Cortes' Amor in Medieval Texts." Speculum 55 (1980): 686-695.

Ferrante, Joan M., and George D. Economou, eds. In Pursuit of Perfection: Courtly Love in Medieval Literature. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1975.

Gies, Frances, and Joseph Gies. Marriage and the Family in the Middle Ages. New York: Harper and Row, 1987.

Gilson, Étienne. "St. Bernard and Courtly Love." Appendix 4 of his The Mystical Theology of Saint Bernard. Trans. A. H. C. Downes. London and New York: Sheed and Ward, 1940. Pp. 170-197. [On the connections between "courtly love" and Christian (specifically Cistercian) mysticism. Includes some consideration of the fact that "courtly love" is not a single concept but plural (all forms of love described in "courtly" texts), so much of the essay concerns the many ways that "love" can be understood in medieval texts.]

Haskell, Ann S. "The Paston Women on Marriage in Fifteenth-Century England." Viator 4 (1973): 459-471.

Hopkins, Amanda, Robert Allen Rouse, and Cory James Rushton, eds. Sexual Culture in the Literature of Medieval Britain. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2014. [Publisher's description: "It is often said that the past is a foreign country where they do things differently, and perhaps no type of 'doing' is more fascinating than sexual desires and behaviours. Our modern view of medieval sexuality is characterised by a polarising dichotomy between the swooning love-struck knights and ladies of romance on one hand, and the darkly imagined and misogyny of an unenlightened 'medieval' sexuality on the other. British medieval sexual culture also exhibits such dualities through the influential paradigms of sinner or saint, virgin or whore, and protector or defiler of women. However, such sexual identities are rarely coherent or stable, and it is in the grey areas, the interstices between normative modes of sexuality, that we find the most compelling instances of erotic frisson and sexual expression. This collection of essays brings together a wide-ranging discussion of the sexual possibilities and fantasies of medieval Britain as they manifest themselves in the literature of the period. Taking as their matter texts and authors as diverse as Chaucer, Gower, Dunbar, Malory, alchemical treatises, and romances, the contributions reveal a surprising variety of attitudes, strategies and sexual subject positions." Contents: Introduction: A Light Thrown upon Darkness: Writing about Medieval British Sexuality / Robert Allen Rouse and Cory James Rushton -- "Open manslaughter and bold bawdry": Male Sexuality as a Cause of Disruption in Malory's Morte Darthur / Kristina Hildebrand -- Erotic (Subject) Positions in Chaucer's Merchant's Tale / Amy S. Kaufman -- Enter the Bedroom: Managing Space for the Erotic in Middle English Romance / Megan G. Leitch -- "Naked as a nedyll": The Eroticism of Malory's Elaine / Yvette Kisor -- "How love and I togedre met": Gower, Amans and the Lessons of Venus in the Confessio Amantis / Samantha J. Rayner -- "Bogeysliche as a boye": Performing Sexuality in William of Palerne / Hannah Priest -- Fairy Lovers: Sexuality, Order and Narrative in Medieval Romance / Aisling Byrne -- Text as Stone: Desire, Sex, and the Figurative Hermaphrodite in the Ordinal and Compound of Alchemy / Cynthea Masson -- Animality, Sexuality and the Abject in Three of Dunbar's Satirical Poems / Anna Caughey-- The Awful Passion of Pandarus / Cory James Rushton -- Invisible Woman: Rape as a Chivalric Necessity in Medieval Romance / Amy N. Vines.]

Hume, Cathy. Chaucer and the Cultures of Love and Marriage. Bristol Studies in Medieval Cultures. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2012. [Publisher's description: "Chaucer's preoccupation with love and marriage has been a focus of criticism for more than a century. Here, the love relationships and marriages in six of the Canterbury Tales, Troilus and Criseyde, and the Legend of Good Women are reappraised from a fresh direction, using late medieval letter collections and advice literature for women to shed new light on the competing cultures of love and marriage that troubled both Chaucer himself and his contemporaries. Beginning with a concise summary of the history of marriage in fourteenth-century England, and making use of recent research in social history, the volume goes on to analyse letter collections and advice books in order to reconstruct late medieval ideology and practice. Among other elements, the author discusses the flirtatiousness of court culture, the anti-love discourse of advice literature, courtship conventions, rival models of marriage among the bourgeoisie and aristocracy, and the pathos of arranged marriages." Contents: Introduction: Marriage and love in late medieval England; 'The name of soveraynetee': The Franklin's Tale; 'Humble servant to youre worthynesse': the Clerk's Tale; Domestic opportunities: The social comedy of the Shipman's Tale; Love in confinement in the Merchant's Tale; The Man of Law's Tale: The medieval marriage market and human suffering; The Knight's Tale and Emily's marriage: Chain of love or prison fetters?; 'Nyce fare': The courtly culture of love in Troilus and Criseyde; Beyond the bounds of good behaviour: Imprudent fidelity in the Legend of Good Women; Conclusion.]

Jackson, W. T. H. "The De amore of Andreas Capellanus and the Practice of Love at Court." Romanic Review 49 (1958): 243-251.

Jaeger, C. Stephen. Ennobling Love: In Search of a Lost Sensibility. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. [Publisher's description: "Stephen Jaeger contends that love and sex in the Middle Ages related to each other very differently than in the post-medieval period. Love was not only a mode of feeling and desiring, or an exclusively private sentiment, but a way of behaving and a social ideal. It was a form of aristocratic self-representation, its social function to show forth virtue in lovers, to raise their inner worth, to increase their honor and enhance their reputation."]

Karras, Ruth Mazo. Sexuality in Medieval Europe: Doing Unto Others. London and New York: Routledge, 2005. [Publisher's description: "Combining research with original interpretations, and quoting sources from medieval Christian Europe, Jewish medieval culture and the Islamic world, this highly readable study provides an overview of medieval culture and how it developed sexual identities that were quite different from the identities we think of today. Using a wide collection of evidence from the late antique period up until the fifteenth century, this informative and intriguing volume illustrates how sex in medieval times was understood, and how, consequently, gender roles and identities were seen very differently from the ways in which our society defines them. Challenging the way the Middle Ages have been treated in general histories of sexuality, the author examines how views at the time were conflicted and complicated. Focusing on 'normal' sexual activity as well as what was seen as transgressive, the chapters cover topics such as chastity, sex within marriage, the role of the church, and non-reproductive activity." Contents: 1. Sex and the Middle Ages; 2. The Sexuality of Chastity; 3. Sex and Marriage; 4. Women Outside of Marriage; 5. Men Outside of Marriage; Afterword: Medieval and Modern Sexuality.]

Kelly, Douglas. Medieval Imagination: Rhetoric and the Poetry of Courtly Love. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978.

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. "Gaston Paris's Courteous and Horsely Love." In The Spirit of the Court: Selected Proceedings of the 4th Congress of the International Courtly Literature Society, Toronto 1983. Ed. Glyn Burgess and Robert Taylor. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1985. Pp. 217-223.

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Love and Marriage in the Age of Chaucer. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1975.

Lazar, Moshé. Amour courtois et "fin'amors" dans la littérature du XIIe siècle. Paris: C. Klincksieck, 1964.

Lazar, Moshé, and Norris J. Lacy, eds. Poetics of Love in the Middle Ages: Texts and Contexts. Fairfax: George Mason University Press, 1989.

MacFarlane, Alan. Marriage and Love in England, 1300-1840. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

Mackin, Theodore. The Marital Sacrament. Marriage in the Catholic Church. New York: Paulist Press, 1989.

Mahoney, John F. "The Evidence for Andreas Capellanus in Re-Examination." Studies in Philology 55 (1958): 1-6.

Mathew, Gervase. "Marriage and Amour Courtois in Late Fourteenth-Century England." In Essays Presented to Charles Williams. Ed. C. S. Lewis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1947. Pp. 128-135.

McCarthy, Conor, ed. Love, Sex and Marriage in the Middle Ages: A Sourcebook. London and New York: Routledge, 2003. [Publisher's description: "Including many texts available for the first time in modern English translation, Conor McCarthy brings together a wide array of writings as well as informative introductions and explanations, to give a vivid impression of how love, sex and marriage were dealt with as central issues of medieval life. With extracts from literary and theological works, medical and legal writings, conduct books, chronicles and love letters, the writings range from well known texts such as the Letters of Abelard and Heloise, Beowulf and The Canterbury Tales to less familiar sources such as church legislation or court case proceedings. An indispensable sourcebook for all students and teachers of medieval history, literature and culture, Love, Sex and Marriage in the Middle Ages contains a wide breadth of material showing the diverse and sometimes disparate approaches to love, sex and marriage in medieval culture, brilliantly illustrating contemporary attitudes and ideologies." Contents: Ecclesiastical Sources: The Church Fathers. Anglo-Saxon England. Theology and Canon Law. Canon Law and Actual Practice. Legal Sources: Anglo-Saxon Law. Norman Law. Biographies, Letters, Chronicles, Conduct Books: Saints' Lives and Female Religious Writings. Letters. Chronicles. Conduct Books. Literary Sources: Old English Literature. Latin Literature. Old French Literature. Middle English Literature. Medical Writings: Medical Writings on Women's Health. Medical Writings on Love.]

McCash, June Hall. "Mutual Love as a Medieval Ideal." In Courtly Literature: Culture and Context; Selected Papers from the 5th Triennial Congress of the International Courtly Literature Society, Dalfsen, The Netherlands, 9-16 August 1986. Ed. Keith Busby and Erik Kooper. Utrechtse Publikaties voor Algemene Literatuurwetenschap / Utrecht Publications in General and Comparative Linguistics 25. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1990. Pp. 429-438.

McSheffrey, Shannon. Marriage, Sex, and Civic Culture in Late Medieval London. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. [Publisher's description: "How were marital and sexual relationships woven into the fabric of late medieval society, and what form did these relationships take? Using extensive documentary evidence from both the ecclesiastical court system and the records of city and royal government, as well as advice manuals, chronicles, moral tales, and liturgical texts, Shannon McSheffrey focuses her study on England's largest city in the second half of the fifteenth century. Marriage was a religious union--one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church and imbued with deep spiritual significance--but the marital unit of husband and wife was also the fundamental domestic, social, political, and economic unit of medieval society. As such, marriage created political alliances at all levels, from the arena of international politics to local neighborhoods. Sexual relationships outside marriage were even more complicated. McSheffrey notes that medieval Londoners saw them as variously attributable to female seduction or to male lustfulness, as irrelevant or deeply damaging to society and to the body politic, as economically productive or wasteful of resources. Yet, like marriage, sexual relationships were also subject to control and influence from parents, relatives, neighbors, civic officials, parish priests, and ecclesiastical judges. Although by medieval canon law a marriage was irrevocable from the moment a man and a woman exchanged vows of consent before two witnesses, in practice marriage was usually a socially complicated process involving many people. McSheffrey looks more broadly at sex, governance, and civic morality to show how medieval patriarchy extended a far wider reach than a father's governance over his biological offspring. By focusing on a particular time and place, she not only elucidates the culture of England's metropolitan center but also contributes generally to our understanding of the social mechanisms through which premodern European people negotiated their lives."]

Miller, Robert P. "The Wounded Heart: Courtly Love and the Medieval Antifeminist Tradition." Women's Studies 2 (1977): 335-350.

Moi, Toril. "Desire in Language: Andreas Capellanus and the Controversy of Courtly Love." In Medieval Literature: Criticism, Ideology and History. Ed. David Aers. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986. Pp. 11-33.

Monson, Don A. "Andreas Capellanus and the Problem of Irony." Speculum 63 (1988): 539-572.

Newman, Francis X., ed. The Meaning of Courtly Love. Albany: State University of New York, 1968.

O'Donoghue, Bernard. The Courtly Love Tradition. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1982.

Oppel, John. "Saint Jerome and the History of Sex." Viator 24 (1993): 1-22. [Despite the Wife of Bath and many modern critics, St. Jerome's work is not antifeminist; it is anti-matrimonial and, in particular, against a certain kind of marriage (one which disempowers women by making them nothing more than child-bearers). The Adversus Jovinianum needs to be viewed in the context of the history of the family rather than as a source of medieval antifeminism.]

Paxson, James J., and Cynthia A. Gravlee, eds. Desiring Discourse: The Literature of Love, Ovid through Chaucer. Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press, 1998.

Payer, Pierre J. The Bridling of Desire: Ideas of Sex in the Later Middle Ages. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993. [Publisher's description: "The later Middle Ages saw the emergence of an integral theory of human sexuality, a systematic account of its origins, role, and significance in the divine plan. Instead of simply dismissing medieval views of sex as misogynist and guilt-ridden, Pierre Payer urges a re-examination of medieval writers' understanding of sexuality within the context of their cosmological perspective." Cf. Beryl Rowland's comment in her review of this book and his Sex and the Penitentials (reviewed together), in Florilegium 14 (1995-1996): 205-211; p. 211: "Taking issue with the popular, present-day view that the sexual codes were devised by neurotic misogynists, obsessed by sex and an overwhelming sense of personal guilt, Payer skillfully argues the contrary view that the writers were for the most part learned, dispassionate philosophers and that the nature, intention, and morality of sex as conceived by them was positive and reasonable."]

Payling, S. J. "The Economics of Marriage in Late Medieval England: The Marriage of Heiresses." Economic History Review 3 (2001): 413-429.

Porter, Pamela. Courtly Love in Medieval Manuscripts. London: British Library, 2003.

Reid, Charles J., Jr. Power Over the Body, Equality in the Family: Rights and Domestic Relations in Medieval Canon Law. Emory University Studies in Law and Religion. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004. [Contents: The right and freedom to contract marriage -- The right of paternal power (ius patria potestatis) -- The right of women (ius mulierum) -- Testamentary freedom and the inheritance rights of children.]

Reiss, Edmund. "Fin'Amors: Its History and Meaning in Medieval Literature." Medieval and Renaissance Studies [8]. Ed. Dale B. J. Randall. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1979. Pp. 74-99.

Ribordy, Geneviève. «Faire les nopces»: Le mariage de la noblesse française, 1375-1475. Studies and Texts 146. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2004. [Publisher's summary: Georges Duby shows that, down to the twelfth century, "[t]wo models of marriage were practised in France. . . . The aristocracy supported endogamous unions, easily arranged and dissolved by parents for political and economic reasons. The Church tried to impose exogamous marriage that was monogamous, insoluble, and based on the consent of the two spouses." Ribordy assesses the continuing conflict between these two models in the late Middle Ages of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. ". . . [I]t would appear that the aristocratic ideal of marriage continued to be practised, despite an awareness of the Church's views on the subject. . . . [T]he aristocratic ideal of marriage would continue to prevail, until marriage became more an affair of the heart than a matter of family interest."]

Robertson, D. W., Jr. "The Concept of Courtly Love as an Impediment to the Understanding of Medieval Texts." In his Essays in Medieval Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980. Pp. 265-272.

Rosenfeld, Jessica. Ethics and Enjoyment in Late Medieval Poetry: Love After Aristotle. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 85. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. [Publisher's description: "Jessica Rosenfeld provides a history of the ethics of medieval vernacular love poetry by tracing its engagement with the late medieval reception of Aristotle. Beginning with a history of the idea of enjoyment from Plato to Peter Abelard and the troubadours, the book then presents a literary and philosophical history of the medieval ethics of love, centered on the legacy of the Roman de la Rose. The chapters reveal that 'courtly love' was scarcely confined to what is often characterized as an ethic of sacrifice and deferral, but also engaged with Aristotelian ideas about pleasure and earthly happiness. Readings of Machaut, Froissart, Chaucer, Dante, Deguileville and Langland show that poets were often markedly aware of the overlapping ethical languages of philosophy and erotic poetry. The study's conclusion places medieval poetry and philosophy in the context of psychoanalytic ethics, and argues for a re-evaluation of Lacan's ideas about courtly love." Contents: Introduction: love after Aristotle -- Enjoyment: a medieval history -- Narcissus after Aristotle: love and ethics in Le Roman de la Rose -- Metamorphoses of pleasure in the fourteenth century Dit Amoureux -- Love's knowledge: fabliau, allegory, and fourteenth-century anti-intellectualism -- On human happiness: Dante, Chaucer, and the felicity of friendship -- Coda: Chaucer's philosophical women.]

Ruether, Rosemary Radford. Christianity and the Making of the Modern Family. Boston: Beacon Press, 2000. [Contents: Families in Jewish and Greco-Roman worlds and early Christianity -- Asceticism, sex, and marriage in patristic and medieval Christianities -- Family, work, gender, and church in the Reformation era -- The making of the Victorian family: 1780-1890 -- From the progressive era through the Great Depression: 1890-1940 -- Changing ideologies and realities: 1940-1975 -- The family agenda of the Christian right -- The many faces of American families in the year 2000 -- Reimagining families: home, work, gender, and faith.]

Salisbury, Eve, ed. The Trials and Joys of Marriage. Middle English Texts. Kalamazoo, MI: Published for TEAMS, by Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 2002. [An anthology of Middle English poems on marriage. The introduction includes a discussion of the various ideas of marriage current in the Middle Ages. Publisher's description: "The disparate texts in this anthology, produced in England between the late thirteenth and the early sixteenth centuries, challenge, and in some cases parody and satirize, the institution of marriage. 'In so doing,' according to the Introduction, 'they allow us to interrogate the traditional assumptions that shape the idea of the medieval household. The trials of marriage seem to outweigh its joys at times and, as some of these texts suggest, maintaining a sense of humor in the face of what must have been great difficulty could have been no easy task.' The texts bridge generic categories. Some are obscure, written by anonymous authors; others are familiar, written by the likes of John Lydgate, John Wyclif, and William Dunbar. Taken together they suggest that, despite the fact that marriage had become a sacrament in the twelfth century and was increasingly recognized by ecclesiastical and secular authorities as a valuable social institution, it was not always a stabilizing and orderly social force." Contents: Satire and Fabliaux in Verse and Prose -- Dame Sirith -- Interludium de clerico et puella -- Select Bibliography and Notes to Interludium de clerico et puella -- The Wright's Chaste Wife -- Ballad of a Tyrannical Husband -- A Talk of Ten Wives on Their Husbands' Ware -- John Lydgate (?), Prohemy of a Mariage Betwixt an Olde Man and a Yonge Wife, and the Counsail -- The Meaning of Marriage -- William Dunbar, The Tretis of the Twa Mariit Wemen and the Wedo -- Didactic Prose and Exempla -- Emperator Felicianus (How a Wife Employed a Necromancer to Cause the Death of Her Husband, and How He Was Saved by a Clerk) Gesta Romanorum -- Godfridus a Wise Emperoure (Of the Magic Ring, Brooch, and Cloth, Which an Emperor Left to His Son: How He Lost Them, and How They Were Recovered) Gesta Romanorum -- The Punished of Adulterers or The Bawd and the Adulterers Gesta Romanorum -- John Wyclif (?), Of Weddid Men and Wifis and of Here Children Also -- John Lydgate, Payne and Sorowe of Evyll Maryage -- How the Goode Wife Taught Hyr Doughter -- How the Goode Man Taght Hys Sone -- Select Secular Lyrics of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries -- In Praise of Women -- Abuse of Women -- The Trials of Marriage -- Against Hasty Marriage, I -- Against Hasty Marriage, II -- A Young and Henpecked Husband's Complaint -- A Henpecked Husband's Complaint -- Old Hogyn's Adventure -- I Have a Gentle Cock.] [How a good wife taught her daughter]

Salisbury, Joyce E., ed. Sex in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays. Garland Medieval Casebooks 3; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1360. New York: Garland Publishing, 1991.

Scaglione, Aldo. Nature and Love in the Late Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.

Schnell, Rüdiger. "The Discourse on Marriage in the Middle Ages." Trans. Andrew Shields. Speculum 73 (1998): 771-786. [Challenges the assumption that medieval discourse on marriage was antifeminist, and that antifeminist attitudes were to be expected among medieval priests; Schnell studies marriage sermons and finds that they generally encourage mutuality, and that they were more likely to blame men than to blame women for marital failures.]

Steadman, J. M. "'Courtly Love' as a Problem of Style." In Chaucer und seine Zeit. Ed. Arno Esch. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1968. Pp. 1-33.

Taylor, Mark Norman. "Chaucer and the Dialectic of Love: Transformations in the Literary Love Tradition since Marcabru." Ph.D. diss., University of Texas at Austin, 1995. [DAI 57 (1996-1997): 207A. Abstract: "The static model of 'courtly love,' which developed nearly a century ago out of critical assumptions no longer tenable, has been discarded but not replaced. Thus there is a need to develop a dynamic paradigm of medieval love literature that can account for mutable variation within the tradition. This study approaches the tradition dialectically as an ongoing debate between moralists and gameplayers. The former, I argue, consistently create and develop literary themes and expressions from socially viable moral imperatives which point toward truth as an absolute. The gameplayers take up the themes of the moralists, appropriating them and divesting them of any consistent moral objective, thus equivocating the moral signification of established terms. A new generation of moralists reinvest their imperatives into this riot of signification, invent new terms, and expand the themes of previous moralists--in this way the tradition develops in new directions. In the interaction of moralists and gameplayers, which this study explores, there is a consistent intertextual pattern of meaning. Viewing courtly love literature in this way allows us to create a model that apprehends the tradition's dynamic structure of variegated meanings voiced by its heteroglossic community, rather than falling back on a model of static and univocal meaning. This study follows one continuous thread of the tradition of courtly love literature, beginning with the twelfth-century troubadours, proceeding through twelfth- and thirteenth-century French and English narrative poetry, and ending in fourteenth-century England. The conclusion considers Renaissance applications of the dialectic. Three authors are highlighted in this study: the early twelfth-century Gascon troubadour Marcabru, the late twelfth-century French romancier Chrétien de Troyes, and the fourteenth-century English poet Geoffrey Chaucer. Other medieval authors and works singled out for extended treatment are: the troubadours Jaufre Rudel, Cercamon, Peire d'Alvernha, and Bernart de Ventadorn; the French Eneas; Marie de France; Andreas Capellanus; Jean de Meun; The Owl and the Nightingale; Middle English lyrics; and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. An appendix includes ten lyrics of Marcabru and two Harley lyrics newly edited for this study."]

Turville-Petre, Thorlac. "Love and Marriage." Chap. 6 of his Reading Middle English Literature. Blackwell Introductions to Literature 15. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Pp. 160-194.

Utley, Francis Lee. "Must We Abandon the Concept of Courtly Love?" Medievalia et Humanistica ns 3 (1972): 299-324.

Wack, Mary F. "Imagination, Medicine, and Rhetoric in Andreas Capellanus' 'De amore.'" In Magister Regis: Studies in Honor of Robert Earl Kaske. Ed. Arthur Gross, Emerson Brown Jr., Giuseppe Mazzotta, Thomas D. Hill, and Joseph S. Wittig. New York: Fordham University Press, 1986. Pp. 101-115.

Wack, Mary F. "The Liber de Heros Morbo of Johannes Afflacius and its Implications for Medieval Love Conventions." Speculum 62 (1987): 324-344. [On lovesickness.]

Wack, Mary F. Lovesickness in the Middle Ages: The Viaticum and its Commentaries. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.

Wack, Mary F. "New Medieval Medical Texts on amor hereos." In Zusammenhänge, Einflüsse, Wirkungen: Kongressakten zum Ersten Symposium de Mediävistenverbandes in Tübingen, 1984. Ed. Joerg O. Fichte, Karl Heinz Göller, and Bernhard Schimmelpfennig. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1986. Pp. 288-298. [On lovesickness.]

Weigand, Hermann J. Three Chapters on Courtly Love in Arthurian France and Germany. New York: AMS Press, 1966.

Williams, Andrew. "Clerics and Courtly Love in Andreas Capellanus' The Art of Courtly Love and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales." Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses 3 (1990): 127-136.

Wilson, Katharina M., and Elizabeth M. Makowski. Wykked Wyves and the Woes of Marriage: Misogamous Literature from Juvenal to Chaucer. SUNY Series in Medieval Studies. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Witte, John, Jr. From Sacrament to Contract: Marriage, Religion, and Law in the Western Tradition. The Family, Religion, and Culture. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1997. [Chap. 1 is on marriage in the Middle Ages. Contents: Introduction: Models of marriage; From sacrament to contract -- Marriage as sacrament in the Roman Catholic tradition -- Marriage as social estate in the Lutheran Reformation -- Marriage of covenant in the Calvinist tradition -- Marriage as commonwealth in the Anglican tradition -- Marriage as contract in the Enlightenment tradition.]

Wollock, Jennifer G. Rethinking Chivalry and Courtly Love. Praeger Series on the Middle Ages. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2011. [Publisher's description: "The age of chivalry is not dead. Nor is the powerful allure of the rites of courtly romance. Tales of knights and ladies, honor, valor, and love continue to inspire books, films, and festivals, with the values they express shaping societies across the globe in profound ways even today. But where did those iconic figures and themes come from and how did they become so ingrained in world cultures?" Contents: Introduction -- Precursors of chivalry -- The rise of courtly love -- Courtly lives -- Chivalric moralities and the impact of courtly love -- The literature of chivalry -- The flowering of courtly love -- The fortune of chivalry -- The persistance of courtly love -- Chivalry and courtly love on a global scale -- Conclusions.]

C.v. Family and Household

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Medievalists and the Study of Childhood." Speculum 77.2 (Apr. 2002): 440-460. [Summarizes views among medievalists on the topic of children in medieval families; includes a summary of various challenges to Ariès (Centuries of Childhood), who argued that medieval people had no great emotional attachment to their children.]

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Peasant Women's Contribution to the Home Economy in Late Medieval England." In Women and Work in Pre-Industrial Europe. Ed. Barbara A. Hanawalt. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986. Pp. 3-19.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. The Ties That Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. [Contents: Introduction -- [pt]. 1. The material environment -- 1. Field and village plans -- 2. Toft and Croft -- 3. Standards of living -- [pt]. 2. Blood ties and family wealth -- 4. Inheritance -- 5. Kinship bonds -- 6. Household size and structure -- [pt]. 3. Household economy -- 7. The family as an economic unit -- 8. The husbandman's year and economic ventures -- 9. Women's contribution to the home economy -- 10. Children and servants at home and in the fields -- [pt]. 4. Stages of life -- 11. Childhood -- 12. Growing up and getting married -- 13. The partnership marriage -- 14. Widowhood -- 15. Old age and death -- [pt]. 5. Surrogate family -- 16. Surrogate parents and children -- 17. Neighbors and brotherhoods -- Epilogue -- Appendix: Coroners' Rolls.]

Herlihy, David. Medieval Households. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.

Houlbrooke, Ralph A. The English Family, 1450-1700. Themes in British Social History. London and New York: Longman, 1984.

Itnyre, Cathy Jorgensen, ed. Medieval Family Roles: A Book of Essays. Garland Medieval Casebooks 15; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1727. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1996.

Joyce, Rosemary A., and Susan D. Gillespie, eds. Beyond Kinship: Social and Material Reproduction in House Societies. Fwd. Clark E. Cunningham. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

L'Estrange, Elizabeth. Holy Motherhood: Gender, Dynasty and Visual Culture in the Later Middle Ages. Manchester Medieval Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2012. [Publisher's description: "This study brings images of holy motherhood and childbearing into the centre of an art-historical enquiry, showing how images worked not only to script and maintain gender and social roles within patriarchal society but also to offer viewers ways of managing those roles. Some of the manuscripts discussed are relatively unknown and their images and texts are made available to readers for the first time. Through an adaptation of Baxandall's 'period eye', the study considers the many 'cognitive habits' acquired by aristocratic lay women--and men--through familiarity with prayers for childbirth, the lying-in ceremony, and the rite of churching. It then uses this methodology to interpret the images and prayers in six bespoke manuscripts, including the Fitzwilliam Hours and the Hours of Marguerite of Foix. The book will appeal to advanced students, academics and researchers of art history, illuminated manuscripts, medieval history and gender studies." Contents: Introduction; Part I: Gender, agency and the interpretation of material culture; 1. The situational eye: viewing, gender and response in the later Middle Ages; 2. De conceptione ad partum: saints, treatises and prayers for successful childbirth; 3. The lying-in month and the rite of churching: post-partum rituals and the material culture of childbearing. Part II: Manuscript case studies from the houses of Anjou, Brittany and France: 4. Holy mothers, sainted monarchs and beata stirps: the Fitzwilliam Hours and Books of Hours for the house of Anjou; 5. Steriles fecundas fecisti: viewing and reading holy motherhood in the manuscripts of four duchesses of Brittany. Conclusion. Appendix I: prayer and translation from the Hours of Marguerite of Foix; Appendix II: prayer and translation from the Prayer Book of Anne of Brittany.]

Neel, Carol, ed. Medieval Families: Perspectives on Marriage, Household, and Children. MART: The Medieval Academy Reprints for Teaching 40. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.

Netting, Robert McC., Richard R. Wilk, Eric J. Arnould, eds. Households: Comparative and Historical Studies of the Domestic Group. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

O'Day, Rosemary. The Family and Family Relationships, 1500-1900: England, France, and the United States of America. Themes in Comparative History. London: Macmillan, 1994. [A historical study of the family, which begins from a presupposition that socio-religious prescriptions are not a good source for the history of the family: given human nature, the search for comfort and harmony will predominate despite all attempts at ideological imposition from outside (husbands and wives have regularly "negotiated their own levels of comfort" apart from legal niceties and moral prescriptions).]

Orme, Nicholas. Medieval Children. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

Phillpotts, B[ertha] S[urtees]. Kindred and Clan in the Middle Ages and After: A Study in the Sociology of the Teutonic Races. Cambridge Archaeological and Ethnological Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1913.

Rees Jones, S., et al. "The Later Medieval English Urban Household." History Compass 5.1 (Jan. 2007): 112-158. [Available online here.]

Riddy, Felicity. "Mother Knows Best: Reading Social Change in a Courtesy Text." Speculum 71.1 (Jan. 1996): 66-86. [On the text and milieu of "What the Goodwife Taught her Daugher," but with a broad relevance to questions of the rise of a "bourgeois ethos" in late medieval towns.]

Robertson, Kellie. "Corporeal Style: Representing the Gentry Household." Chap. 4 of her The Laborer's Two Bodies: Literary and Legal Productions in Britain, 1350-1500. New Middle Ages. Basingstoke, Hants., and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Pp. 119-152. [Considers the structure of the households of the gentry (with many examples from the Paston family), including a substantial section on the central roles that women played.]

Sheehan, Michael M., CSB. Marriage, Family, and Law in Medieval Europe. Ed. James K. Farge. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Yanagisako, S. "Family and Household: The Analysis of Domestic Groups." Annual Review of Anthropology 8 (1979): 161-205.

C.vi. Sumptuary Laws (Legislation regarding Clothing, Food, etc.)

Baldwin, Frances Elizabeth. Sumptuary Legislation and Personal Regulation in England. Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series 44 no. 1. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1926. [The first chapter is on the statutes of Edward III. The later chapters of the book cover the Tudor period down to and including Elizabeth.]

Cunnington, Cecil W., and Phillis Cunnington. Handbook of English Mediaeval Costume. Illus. Barbara Phillipson. London: Faber and Faber, 1952.

Hartley, Dorothy. Mediaeval Costume and Life. London: Batsford, 1931.

Hunt, Alan. Governance of the Consuming Passions: A History of Sumptuary Law. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.

Newton, Stella M. Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince: A Study of the Years 1340-1365. Woodbridge, Suffolk: D. S. Brewer, 1980.

C.vii. The Supposedly Flat Earth

Jones, Charles W. "The Flat Earth." Thought 9 (1934): 296-307. [Jones collects references from medieval sources from Bede on to show that medieval people believed in the sphericity of the earth; medieval people were not "flatearthers." Jones traces some of Bede's sources, and suggests that the idea that medieval people believed in the earth as flat is probably an invention of nineteenth-century historians.]

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. "The Flat Error: The Modern Distortion of Medieval Geography." Mediaevalia 15 (1993 [for 1989]): 337-353.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians. New York: Praeger, 1991. ["Arguing against the fable that when Columbus discovered America he proved that the Earth is round, to the astonishment of his contemporaries, this work discusses geographical knowledge in the Middle Ages, as well as why and how the error was first propogated in the 1820s and 1830s."]

Simek, Rudolf. "The Shape of the Earth in the Middle Ages and Medieval Mappaemundi." In The Hereford World Map: Medieval World Maps and Their Context. Ed. P. D. A. Harvey. London: British Library, 2006. Pp. 293-303. [ Simek considerations representations of the earth in the later Middle Ages. Among other things, Simek declares that he has found no references in post-1000 European literature to a flat earth (educated medieval people knew that the earth was a sphere).]

Stevens, Wesley M. "The Figure of the Earth in Isidore's 'De natura rerum.'" Isis 71 [257] (1980): 268-277.

C.viii. Vernacular Architecture / Domestic Space

Airs, Malcolm, and P. S. Barnwell, eds. The Medieval Great House. Rewley House Studies in the Historic Environment 1. Donington: Shaun Tyas, 2011. [Papers from a conference held at Rewley House, Oxford University Department for Continuing Education, Jan. 2008. Contents: The greater house in late medieval Scotland courtyards and towers ca.1300-ca.1400 / Living like a lord - Greater houses and social emulation in late-Medieval Wales / Status, style and subject in English secular painted decoration, ca.1450-ca.1550/60 / Religious routines and the residences of greater medieval households.]

Barley, Maurice [Willmore]. The English Farmhouse and Cottage. 1961; London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976.

Barley, Maurice [Willmore]. Houses and History. London: Faber and Faber, 1986. [A history of houses in England to ca. 1900, including medieval castles, hall houses, etc. Chap. 8: "Peasant Houses in the Middle Ages."]

Barnwell, P. S., and A. T. Adams. The House Within: Interpreting Medieval Houses of Kent. London: HMSO, for the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 1994.

Brunskill, R. W. Vernacular Architecture: An Illustrated Handbook. 4th ed. London: Faber and Faber, 2000. [Previous editions published under the title Illustrated Handbook of Vernacular Architecture (1987). An encyclopedic guide to the basic types of houses in English history.]

Chapelot, Jean, and Robert Fossier. The Village and the House in the Middle Ages. Trans. Henry Cleere. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. [Trans. of Le village et la maison au moyen âge (Paris: Hachette, 1980).]

Evans, Ruth. "The Production of Space in Chaucer's London." In Chaucer and the City. Ed. Ardis Butterfield. Chaucer Studies 37. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2006. Pp. 41-56.

Grenville, Jane. Medieval Housing. The Archaeology of Medieval Britain. London and Washington: Leicester University Press, 1997.

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "Medieval English Women in Rural and Urban Domestic Space." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 52 (1998): 19-26.

Johnson, Matthew. Housing Culture: Traditional Architecture in an English Landscape. London: UCL Press; Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993. [Includes a discussion of the structure and layout of medieval houses and fields (including social uses of interior space).]

Kingsford, C[harles] L[ethbridge]. "Historical Notes on Mediaeval London Houses." London Topographical Record 10 (1916): 44-144; 11 (1917): 28-81; 12 (1920): 1-66.

McKinney, Carole Lynn. "Women's Domestic Space in Selected Works of Medieval Literature." M.A. thesis, North Carolina State University, 1999.

Pearson, Sarah. The Medieval Houses of Kent: An Historical Analysis. London: HMSO, for the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 1994.

Pearson, Sarah, P. S. Barnwell, and A. T. Adams. A Gazetteer of Medieval Houses of Kent. London: HMSO, for the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, 1994.

Samson, Ross, ed. The Social Archaeology of Houses. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990.

Schofield, John. Medieval London Houses. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, 1994.

Schofield, John. "Social Perception of Space in Medieval and Tudor London Houses." In Meaningful Architecture: Social Interpretations of Buildings. Ed. Martin Locock. Worldwide Archaeology Series 9. Aldershot, Hampshire, and Brookfield, VT: Avebury, 1994. Pp. 188-206.

Smith, J. T., P[atrick] A[rthur] Faulkner, and Anthony Emery. Studies in Medieval Domestic Architecture. Ed. M. J. Swanton. Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland: Monographs. London: Royal Archaeological Institute, 1975. [Contents: "Timber-Framed Building in England," by J. T. Smith (1-26 and Pls. I-VIII); "Medieval Aisled Halls and Their Derivatives," by J. T. Smith (27-44 and Pls. IX-X); "Medieval Roofs: A Classification," by J. T. Smith (45-83 and Pls. XI-XVI); "Domestic Planning from the Twelfth to the Fourteenth Centuries," by P. A. Faulkner (84-117); "Medieval Undercrofts and Town Houses," by P. A. Faulkner (118-133); "Dartington Hall, Devonshire," by Anthony Emery (134-152 and Pls. XVII-XX).]

Smith, Peter. Houses of the Welsh Countryside: A Study in Historical Geography. Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales. London: HMSO, 1975. [A thorough catalogue of house styles from the Middle Ages and modern periods; wonderfully illustrated with photographs, floor plans, and "cutaway" drawings (allowing a view of the interior and exterior in a single drawing).]

Sykes, Christopher. Ancient English Houses, 1240-1612. London: Chatto and Windus, 1990.

Thompson, Michael. The Medieval Hall: The Basis of Secular Domestic Life, 600-1600 AD. Aldershot: Scolar Press; Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1995. [History of the Great Hall in medieval Britain and Europe. "This is the first general account of the history of the great hall in Britain and continental Europe from Anglo-Saxon times to the late middle ages. Using a wide range of literary and archaeological sources in combination with close examination of standing halls and remains, Michael Thompson describes and interprets the development of one of the dominant architectural features of medieval life. He also examines the social functions of the hall--the 'hall-culture,' a way of life turning on the great room at the social and physical centre of secular and religious communities. This broad, well-illustrated and ambitious review will be of great interest to architectural historians, of course, but its social-cultural approach makes it equally valuable to students of medieval history and literature. It informs and is informed by studies of literary sources as diverse as Beowulf and Gawain, monastic rules and Arthurian poetry" (publisher's description). Contents: Introduction; "Halls before the Norman Conquest"; "France and Germany"; "The Monastic Refectory"; "The Hall in the Castle"; "The Triumph of the Native Style"; "The Downward Spread"; "The Hall in the Later Middle Ages"; "The Decline of the Hall"; Conclusion.]

Wood, Margaret. The English Mediaeval House. London: Phoenix House, 1965.

D. Linguistic Background

Blake, Norman F. The English Language in Medieval Literature. Everyman's University Library. London: J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1977.

Bowden, Betsy. Listeners' Guide to Medieval English: A Discography. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 912. New York: Garland, 1988.

Burnley, David. A Guide to Chaucer's Language. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1983.

Curran, S. Terrie. English from Cædmon to Chaucer: The Literary Development of English. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 2002.

Davis, Norman, et al., ed. A Chaucer Glossary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.

Elliott, Ralph W. V. Chaucer's English. The Language Library. London: André Deutsch, 1974.

Fulk, R. D. An Introduction to Middle English: Grammar and Texts. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2012. [Publisher's description: "An Introduction to Middle English combines an elementary grammar of the English language from about 1100 to about 1500 with a selection of texts for reading, ranging in date from 1154 to 1500. The grammar includes the fundamentals of orthography, phonology, morphology, syntax, regional dialectology, and prosody. In the thirty-eight texts for reading are represented a wide range of Middle English dialects, and the commentary on each text includes, in addition to explanatory notes, extensive linguistic analysis. The book includes many useful figures and illustrations, including images of Middle English manuscripts as an aid to learning to decipher medieval handwriting and maps indicating the geographical extent of dialect features. This introduction to Middle English is based on the latest research, and it provides up-to-date bibliographical guidance to the study of the language." Contents: I. HISTORY, ORTHOGRAPHY, AND PRONUNCIATION. A. Historical overview -- B. Orthography. II. PHONOLOGY. A. Stress and syllables -- B. Stressed vowels -- C. Vowels in syllables of lesser stress -- D. Consonants. III. MORPHOLOGY. A. Nouns -- B. Adjectives -- C. Numerals -- D. Pronouns and articles -- E. Verbs. IV. MORPHOSYNTACTIC CHANGE, SYNTAX, AND SEMANTICS. A. Historical overview -- B. The noun phrase and its elements -- C. The prepositional phrase -- D. The verb phrase -- E. The clause. V. REGIONAL DIALECTOLOGY. VI. POETIC FORM. A. Isochronous verse -- B. Anisochronous verse. TEXTS.]

Horobin, Simon. Chaucer's Language. 2nd ed. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. [Publisher's description: "Assuming no previous linguistic knowledge, this book introduces students to Chaucer's language and the importance of reading Chaucer in the original, rather than modern translation. The book leads students gently through basic linguistic concepts with appropriate explanation, highlighting how Chaucer's language differs from present-day English and the significance of this for interpreting his work. Close analysis and comparison with other writers is used to show how Chaucer drew on the variety of Middle English to achieve particular poetic effects." Contents: Why study Chaucer's language? -- Writing in English -- What was Middle English? -- Spelling and pronunciation -- Vocabulary -- Grammar -- Language and style -- Discourse and pragmatics -- Using the Middle English dictionary.]

Horobin, Simon, and Jeremy J. Smith. An Introduction to Middle English. Edinburgh Textbooks on the English Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2002. [Publisher's description: "This book is designed to provide undergraduate students of English historical linguistics with a concise description of the language during the period 1100-1500." Contents: 1. Introduction -- 2. What did Middle English look like? -- 3. Middle English in use -- 4. Spelling and sounds -- 5. The lexicon -- 6. Grammar -- 7. Looking forward. Appendix of texts. Discussion of the exercises.]

Knapp, Peggy A[nn]. Time-Bound Words: Semantic and Social Economics from Chaucer's England to Shakespeare's. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. [A selection of "keywords" of the period is studied for how these words reflect the history and debates of the time ("corage," "estat," "fre," "gloss," "kynde," "lewed," "providence," "queynte," "sely," "thrift," and "virtu").]

Kökeritz, Helge. A Guide to Chaucer's Pronunciation. Medieval Academy Reprints for Teaching 3. 1961; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1978.

Machan, Tim William. "Chaucer and the History of English." Speculum 87.1 (Jan. 2012): 147-175. [Abstract: "Linguistic history, like all history, is written retrospectively. It is written from some historical vantage that allows a critic to survey what has been previously spoken and written and to decide which forms are representative, which aberrant, which tangential, and which proleptic in the ways they figure in a coherent account of language change and development. While speakers use language to accomplish specific tasks in specific situations, historians assemble these utterances into moments of stasis (like dialects or historical stages) and narratives of change. Classifying the linguistic record in this way, language historians make possible large conceptualizations of a sort that typically eludes speakers in ordinary conversation." A central thrust of the argument is that Chaucer's English has generally been taken as the primary example of "Middle English" in histories of the language, but this exaggerates the degree to which Chaucer's idiosyncracies are "typical," and exaggerates the influence that Chaucer's speech habits might have had upon other speakers. To illustrate this, the central portion of the article is on the question of the second-person personal pronoun, and whether or not the plural form was commonly used in place of the singular in "polite" situations (Machan finds that it happens, but not regularly or predictably, either in Chaucer or elsewhere).]

The Middle English Dictionary. Ed. Hans Kurath and Sherman M. Kuhn. 120 fasc. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1956-2001. [Available online here.]

Mossé, Fernand. A Handbook of Middle English. Trans. James A. Walker. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1952.

Samuels, M. L., and J. J. Smith. The English of Chaucer and his Contemporaries. Ed. J. J. Smith. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1989.

Sandved, A. O. Introduction to Chaucerian English. Chaucer Studies 11. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1989.

Stratmann, Francis Henry. A Middle-English Dictionary. 2nd ed., revised by Henry Bradley. 1891; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Wright, Joseph, and Elizabeth Mary Wright. An Elementary Middle English Grammar. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1928.

E. Literary Background
E.i. General

Ackerman, Robert W[illiam]. Backgrounds to Medieval English Literature. Random House Studies in Language and Literature (SLL) 7. New York: Random House, 1966.

Aers, David. Chaucer, Langland and the Creative Imagination. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980.

Aers, David. Community, Gender and Individual Identity: English Writing 1360-1430. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1989. ["David Aers explores the treatment of the community, gender and individual identity in English writing between 1360 and 1430, and focuses on Margery Kempe, Langland, Chaucer and the poet of Sir Gawain. He shows how these texts deal with questions about gender, the making of individual indentity and competing versions of community in ways which still speak powerfully in contemporary analysis of gender formation, sexuality and love."]

Aers, David, ed. Medieval Literature and Historical Inquiry: Essays in Honor of Derek Pearsall. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. [Publisher's description: "Critical historicist readings engage with the politics and ethics of selected medieval texts, addressing a wide range of literature and topics of enquiry: Langland, Chaucer, and the Pearl-poet, Malory and the York Corpus Christi plays; chivalric cultures, their forms of identity and mourning; and the politics, ethics and theology of some of the most fascinating writing in late medieval England. Intended as a tribute to Professor Derek Pearsall, and reflecting his major contribution to medieval literary criticism, they are an important addition to the critical and historical study of the period." Contents: Nicolette Zeeman, "The Condition of Kynde"; C. David Benson, "Piers Plowman as Poetic Pillory: The Pillory and the Cross"; Elizabeth Fowler, "The Empire and the Waif: Consent and Conflict in the Man of Law's Tale"; David Aers, "Chaucer's Tale of Melibee: Whose Virtues?"; Lynn Staley, "Pearl and the Contingencies of Love and Piety"; Paul Strohm, "John Lydgate, Jacque of Holland, and the Poetics of Complicity"; Lee Patterson, "The Heroic Laconic Style: Reticence and Meaning from Beowulf to the Edwardians"; Christopher Cannon, "Malory's Crime: Chivalric Identity and the Evil Will"; Sarah Beckwith, "Absent Presences: The Theater of Resurrection in York"; "Derek Pearsall's Published Writings."]

Akbari, Suzanne Conklin. Seeing Through the Veil: Optical Theory and Medieval Allegory. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004. [Publisher's description: "During the later Middle Ages, new optical theories were introduced that located the power of sight not in the seeing subject, but in the passive object of vision. This shift had a powerful impact not only on medieval science but also on theories of knowledge, and this changing relationship of vision and knowledge was a crucial element in late medieval religious devotion. In Seeing through the Veil, Suzanne Conklin Akbari examines several late medieval allegories in the context of contemporary paradigm shifts in scientific and philosophical theories of vision. After a survey on the genre of allegory and an overview of medieval optical theories, Akbari delves into more detailed studies of several medieval literary works, including the Roman de la Rose, Dante's Vita Nuova, Convivio, and Commedia, and Chaucer's dream visions and Canterbury Tales. The final chapter, 'Division and Darkness,' centres on the legacy of allegory in the fifteenth century. Offering a new interdisciplinary, synthetic approach to late medieval intellectual history and to major works within the medieval literary canon, Seeing through the Veil will be an essential resource to the study of medieval literature and culture, as well as philosophy, history of art, and history of science." Includes two chapters on the Romance of the Rose, two on Dante, and two on Chaucer ("Chaucer's Dream Visions" and "Chaucer's Personification and Vestigial Allegory in the Canterbury Tales").]

Allen, David G., and Robert A. White, eds. Traditions and Innovations: Essays on British Literature of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1990.

Allen, Judson Boyce. The Ethical Poetic of the Later Middle Ages: A Decorum of Convenient Distinction. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982.

Althoff, Gerd, Johannes Fried, and Patrick J. Geary, eds. Medieval Concepts of the Past: Ritual, Memory, Historiography. Publications of the German Historical Institute, Washington, DC. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, in association with the German Historical Institute, 2002.

Amtower, Laurel, and Jacqueline Vanhoutte, eds. A Companion to Chaucer and his Contemporaries: Texts and Contexts. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2009. [A collection of documents illustrating the background ideas and debates. Publisher's description: "s within their sometimes alien historical and cultural contexts. Chapters open with an overview that suggests how contemporary debates and attitudes influence meaning in works like the Canterbury Tales, Piers Plowman, and Mankind. The main body of the text is thematically arranged primary documents and illustrations, such as excerpts from the chronicles, law treatises, sermons, court records, medical and alchemical tracts, and performance records, as well as maps and manuscript illustrations." Contents: Chapter 1: Politics and Ideology in the Fourteenth Century; Chapter 2: "From every shires ende": The Structure of Society; Chapter 3: "Of mete and drynk": Daily Life in Medieval England; Chapter 4: "Hooly thought and werk": Religious Life, Ritual, and Prayer; Chapter Five: "Trouthe and honour, freedom and curteisie": War, Pageantry, and the Knighthood; Chapter 6: "Gladly wolde he lerne and gladly teche": Reading, Literacy, and Education; Chapter 7: "Magyk natureel": Science, Medicine, Psychology, and Alchemy; Chapter 8: "To Flaundres wol I go": International Influences and Exchanges.]

Anderson, David. Before the Knight's Tale: Imitation of Classical Epic in Boccaccio's "Teseida." University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 1988.

Areford, David S., and Nina A. Rowe. Excavating the Medieval Image: Manuscripts, Artists, Audiences: Essays in Honor of Sandra Hindman. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004. [Publisher's description: "Medieval images, especially manuscript illuminations, have long been treated independently of the contexts in which they were created. These beautiful miniature paintings, frequently valued as keepers of documentary evidence or as curious artistic commodities, have only recently become the focus of art historians concerned with new questions related to artistic working methods, audience and the status of the visual in the Middle Ages and the modern era. Excavating the Medieval Image argues that the illuminated image is best understood as thoroughly integrated in the material context of the manuscript--and thus, integrated in a cultural context of production and reception. Seen in this way, the illuminated manuscript becomes a kind of archaeological site, which must be carefully unearthed layer by layer. The fourteen essays gathered here are written by scholars of both medieval and Renaissance art history, and demonstrate varied methodological approaches that combine the pursuits of traditional connoisseurship and iconography with those of critical theory and historiography. In addition, the authors contribute more broadly to important interdisciplinary issues such as the study of gender, text and image, and the history of literacy and the book." Contents: Excavation and image, Nina A. Rowe and David S. Areford; Part 1 Texts and Pictures: Portraits and counterfeits: Villard de Honnecourt and 13th-century theories of representation, Stephen Perkinson; The limits of text and image? Matthew Paris's final project, the Vitae duorum Offarum, as a historical romance, Cynthia Hahn; Making the past present in Laurent de Premierfait's translation of De senectute, Anne D. Hedeman; Illuminating the Arras Mystery Play, Laura Weigert with the collaboration of Pascale Charron. Part 2 Women and Power: 'Richement et pompeusement parée': the collier of Margaret of York and the politics of love in late medieval Burgundy, Jean C. Wilson; The horse and the hawk: representations of Mary of Burgundy as sovereign, Ann M. Roberts; Recycling Radegund: identity and ambition in the Breviary of Anne de Prye, Véronique P. Day; Manual of dynastic history or devotional aid? Eleanor of Toledo's Book of Hours, Rowan Watson; 'Parlant de moy': manuscripts of La Coche by Marguerite of Navarre, Sherry C. M. Lindquist. Part 3 Art and Artists: Giovan Pietro da Birago, illuminator of Milan: some initials cut from choir books, Jonathan J. G. Alexander; Post Poyet, Roger S. Wieck; Ungrateful dead: Bruegel's Triumph of Death re-examined, Larry Silver. Part 4 Manuscripts and Modernity: Introducing Monsieur Gonfond, a 'Peasant-Illuminator' from St-Rémy-de-Provence, Charlotte Daudon Lacaze; Genesis in Vienna: the Sarajevo Haggadah and the invention of Jewish art, Michael Batterman. Appendix: Bibliography of writings by Sandra Hindman.]

Armstrong, Guyda. The English Boccaccio: A History in Books. Toronto Italian Studies. Toronto, and Buffalo, NY: University of Toronto Press, 2013. [Publisher's description: "The Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio has had a long and colourful history in English translation. This new interdisciplinary study presents the first exploration of the reception of Boccaccio's writings in English literary culture, tracing his presence from the early fifteenth century to the 1930s. Guyda Armstrong tells this story through a wide-ranging journey through time and space--from the medieval reading communities of Naples and Avignon to the English court of Henry VIII, from the censorship of the Decameron to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, from the world of fine-press printing to the clandestine pornographers of 1920s New York, and much more. Drawing on the disciplines of book history, translation studies, comparative literature, and visual studies, the author focuses on the book as an object, examining how specific copies of manuscripts and printed books were presented to an English readership by a variety of translators. Armstrong is thereby able to reveal how the medieval text in translation is remade and re-authorized for every new generation of readers."] [Contents: "Here begynneth the book callyd J. Bochas": The De casibus virorum illustrium between Italy and England; The De mulieribus claris in English Translation, 1440-1550; Boccaccio in Print in the Sixteenth Century; "One Hundred Ingenious Novels": Refashioning the Decameron, 1620-1930; The Minor Works in the Nineteenth Century: Dante and Chaucer; The Early Twentieth-Century Recovery of the Minor Works.]

Ashe, Laura, Ivana Djordjevič and Judith Weiss, eds. The Exploitations of Medieval Romance. Studies in Medieval Romance. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2010. [Publisher's description: "As one of the most important, influential and capacious genres of the Middle Ages, the romance was exploited for a variety of social and cultural reasons: to celebrate and justify war and conflict, chivalric ideologies, and national, local and regional identities; to rationalize contemporary power structures, and identify the present with the legendary past; to align individual desires and aspirations with social virtues. But the romance in turn exploited available figures of value, appropriating the tropes and strategies of religious and historical writing, and cannibalizing and recreating its own materials for heightened ideological effect. The essays in this volume consider individual romances, groups of writings and the genre more widely, elucidating a variety of exploitative manoeuvres in terms of text, context, and intertext." Contents: The fairies in the fountain: promiscuous liaisons / Neil Cartlidge -- Saracens and other Saxons: using, misusing, and confusing names in Gui de Warewic and Guy of Warwick / Ivana Djordjevic -- The exploitation of ideas of pilgrimage and sainthood in Gui de Warewic / Judith Weiss -- Chanson de geste as romance in England / Melissa Furrow -- Patterns of availability and demand in Middle English translations de romanz / Rosalind Field -- Reading a Christian-Saracen debate in fifteenth-century Middle English Charlemagne romance: the case of Turpines story / Diane Vincent -- Subtle crafts: magic and exploitation in medieval English romance / Corinne Saunders -- Meeting grounds: gardens in Middle English romance / Arlyn Diamond -- 'Als for the worthynes of the romance': exploitation of genre in the Buik of Kyng Alexander the Conquerour / Anna Caughey -- Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and the limits of chivalry / Laura Ashe.]

Astell, Ann W. Political Allegory in Late Medieval England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Augustine (Saint). On Christian Doctrine. Trans. D. W. Robertson, Jr. The Library of Liberal Arts. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958.

Baswell, Christopher. Virgil in Medieval England: Figuring the "Aeneid" from the Twelfth Century to Chaucer. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Battles, Dominique. The Medieval Tradition of Thebes: History and Narrative in the OF "Roman de Thèbes," Boccaccio, Chaucer, and Lydgate. Studies in Medieval History and Culture. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Baxter, Ron. Bestiaries and their Users in the Middle Ages. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton Publishing; London: Courtauld Institute, 1998.

Bennett, H. S. Chaucer and the Fifteenth Century. Oxford History of English Literature 2.1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1947. [In the 1990 reprint of the whole series, this volume was retitled Chaucer and Fifteenth-Century Verse and Prose and renumbered Vol. 2.]

Bennett, J. A. W. Middle English Literature. Ed. Douglas Gray. Oxford History of English Literature 1.2. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986. [In the 1990 reprint of the whole series, this volume was renumbered Vol. 1.]

Bennett, Michael J. "The Court of Richard II and the Promotion of Literature." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 3-20.

Benson, Larry D. Contradictions, from "Beowulf" to Chaucer: Selected Studies of Larry D. Benson. Ed. Theodore M. Andersson and Stephen A. Barney. Aldershot, Hants.: Scolar Press; Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1995. [Includes reprintings of several of his Chaucer essays: 4. Chaucer's Spelling Reconsidered -- 5. The Order of The Canterbury Tales -- 8. The Occasion of The Parliament of Fowls -- 9. The "Love-Tydynges" in Chaucer's House of Fame -- 10. The "Queynte" Punnings of Chaucer's Critics -- 11. The Beginnings of Chaucer's English Style -- 13. Courtly Love and Chivalry in the Later Middle Ages.]

Benson, Larry D., ed. The Learned and the Lewd: Studies in Chaucer and Medieval Literature. Harvard English Studies 5. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974.

Bernardo, Aldo S., and Saul Levin, eds. The Classics in the Middle Ages: Papers of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 69. Binghamton, NY: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York, 1990.

Bertolet, Craig E. Chaucer, Gower, Hoccleve and the Commercial Practices of Late Fourteenth-Century London. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2013. [Publisher's description: "As residents of fourteenth-century London, Geoffrey Chaucer, John Gower, and Thomas Hoccleve each day encountered aspects of commerce such as buying, selling, and worrying about being cheated. Many of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales address how pervasive the market had become in personal relationships. Gower's writings include praises of the concept of trade and worries that widespread fraud has harmed it. Hoccleve's poetry examines the difficulty of living in London on a slender salary while at the same time being subject to all the temptations a rich market can provide. Each writer finds that principal tensions in London focused on commerce--how it worked, who controlled it, how it was organized, and who was excluded from it. Reading literary texts through the lens of archival documents and the sociological theories of Pierre Bourdieu, this book demonstrates how the practices of buying and selling in medieval London shaped the writings of Chaucer, Gower, and Hoccleve. Craig Bertolet constructs a framework that reads specific Canterbury tales and pilgrims associated with trade alongside Gower's Mirour de L'Omme and Confessio Amantis, and Hoccleve's Male Regle and Regiment of Princes. Together, these texts demonstrate how the inherent instability commerce produces also produces narratives about that commerce." Contents: Introduction; The commercial polity; Buying and markets; Debts and credit; Shopkeeping; Innkeepers and the hospitality trade.]

Bertolet, Craig E. "The Rise of London Literature: Chaucer, Gower, Langland and the Poetics of the City in Late Medieval English Poetry." Ph.D. diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1995. [Abstract: "The extent to which London influenced late fourteenth-century English poetry has been a matter for some debate. Though not enjoying a literary tradition like Florence's, London did play a significant role in the shaping of English poetry. This dissertation demonstrates that a number of economic, social, and political elements came together in the late fourteenth century to provide a moment in English literature where London acquired a significant cultural presence in the poetry of Geoffrey Chaucer and his contemporaries: William Langland and John Gower. Urban poetry is plain in style. It elevates the importance of the community and addresses questions of just price, commodity, and the balancing of one's books. Elements of this paradigm would have been available to these three poets in French literature and, specifically for Chaucer whom we know read them, the works of Dante and Boccaccio. Using the market values of the city, Langland's Piers Plowman becomes as much an exploration of the value of the soul as it is a quest for the soul's redemption. As a result, Langland's poem critiques more than just the moral aspects of his society but the economic and social elements as well. Gower's Confessio Amantis concerns the role of truth in human society; many of the tales show that characters who seek truth prosper, while those who do not perish. Urban poetry for Chaucer expands the possibilities of the debate genre by allowing the incorporation of various speakers from every level of English society. But exchange takes other forms in his poetry, such as in the fabliaux where tricks are repaid in kind so that, by the end of the tale, all books appear to be balanced. In addition to questions of justice, Chaucer also explores the importance of the community to human relations. Those characters who separate from the community or cause others to be separated from it imperil its safety and, if they cannot be reformed, they must be avoided. City poetry declined in England after Chaucer's death, yet the influence of the city continues beyond the fourteenth century to drama and prose fiction."]

Boffey, Julia. Fifteenth-Century English Dream Visions: An Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. [Publisher's description: "Medieval poetry in the form of real, experienced or fictional dreams was a liberating genre for writers that openned up a whole range of possibilities in terms of characterisation, narrative and subject matter. This book examines five 15th-century English poems: Lydgate's Temple of Glass; The Kingis Quair of James I of Scotland; Love's Renewal from the English poems of Charles of Orleans; the anonymous Assembly of Ladies; and Skelton's Bouge of Court. The texts have been 'lightly modernized,' each with an introduction, commentary and notes, and the general introduction discusses the significance and different types of dream poems."]

Boitani, Piero. English Medieval Narratives in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. Trans. Joan K. Hall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Boitani, Piero. The Tragic and the Sublime in Medieval Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Boitani, Piero, and Anna Torti, eds. Poetics: Theory and Practice in Medieval English Literature: J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Seventh Series, Perugia, Italy, 1990. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1991.

Bolens, Guillemette. The Style of Gestures: Embodiment and Cognition in Literary Narrative. Fwd. by Alain Berthoz. Rethinking Theory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012. [Translation of Style des gestes. Contents: The body in literature -- Kinesic tropes and action verbs -- Verecundia and social wounding in the legend of Lucrece -- Face-work and ambiguous feats in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.]

Bowers, John M. Chaucer and Langland: The Antagonistic Tradition. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007. ["Although Geoffrey Chaucer and William Langland together dominate fourteenth-century English literature, their respective masterpieces, The Canterbury Tales and Piers Plowman, could not be more different. While Langland's poem was immediately popular and influential, it was Chaucer who stood at the head of a literary tradition within a generation of his death. John Bowers asks why and how Chaucer, not Langland, was granted this position. His study reveals the political, social, and religious factors that contributed to the formation of a literary canon in fourteenth-century England" (publisher's description).]

Breen, Katharine. Imagining an English Reading Public, 1150-1400. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 79. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "This original study explores the importance of the concept of habitus--that is, the set of acquired patterns of thought, behaviour and taste that result from internalising culture or objective social structures--in the medieval imagination. Beginning by examining medieval theories of habitus in a general sense, Katharine Breen goes on to investigate the relationships between habitus, language, and Christian virtue. While most medieval pedagogical theorists regarded the habitus of Latin grammar as the gateway to a generalized habitus of virtue, reformers increasingly experimented with vernacular languages that could fulfill the same function. These new vernacular habits, Breen argues, laid the conceptual foundations for an English reading public. Ranging across texts in Latin and several vernaculars, and including a case study of Piers Plowman, this interdisciplinary study will appeal to readers interested in medieval literature, religion and art history, in addition to those interested in the sociological concept of habitus." Contents: The fourteenth-century crisis of habit -- Medieval theories of habitus -- The grammatical paradigm -- A crusading habitus -- Piers Plowman and the formation of an English literary habitus.]

Brewer, Charlotte, and Barry Windeatt, eds. Traditions and Innovations in the Study of Medieval English Literature: The Influence of Derek Brewer. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2013. [Publisher's description: "Derek Brewer (1923-2008) was one of the most influential medievalists of the twentieth century, first through his own publications and teaching, and later as the founder of his own academic publishing firm. His working life of some sixty years, from the late 1940s to the 2000s, saw enormous advances in the study of Chaucer and of Arthurian romance, and of medieval literature more generally. He was in the forefront of such changes, and his understandings of Chaucer and of Malory remain at the core of the modern critical mainstream. Essays in this collection take their starting point from his ideas and interests, before offering their own fresh thinking in those key areas of medieval studies in which he pioneered innovations which remain central: Chaucer's knight and knightly virtues; class-distinction; narrators and narrative time; lovers and loving in medieval romance; ideals of feminine beauty; love, friendship and masculinities; medieval laughter; symbolic stories, the nature of romance, and the ends of storytelling; the wholeness of Malory's Morte Darthur; modern study of the medieval material book; Chaucer's poetic language and modern dictionaries; and Chaucerian afterlives. This collection builds towards an intellectual profile of a modern medievalist, cumulatively registering how the potential of Derek Brewer's work is being reinterpreted and is renewing itself now and into the future of medieval studies." Contents: Derek Brewer: Chaucerian studies, 1953-78 / Derek Pearsall -- Brewer's Chaucer and the knightly virtues / Alastair Minnis -- Class distinction and the French of England / Christopher Cannon -- Time in Troilus and Criseyde / A. C. Spearing -- Virtue, intention and the mind's eye in Troilus and Criseyde / Mary Carruthers -- Falling in love in the Middle Ages / Jill Mann -- The idea of feminine beauty in Troilus and Criseyde, or Criseyde's eyebrow / Jacqueline Tasioulas -- 'Greater love hath no man': friendship in medieval English romance / Corinne Saunders -- Gowerian laughter / R. F. Yeager -- Derek Brewer's romance / James Simpson -- Malory and late medieval Arthurian cycles / Elizabeth Archibald -- The ends of storytelling / Helen Cooper -- Manuscripts, facsimiles, approaches to editing / A. S. G. Edwards -- Words and dictionaries: OED, MED and Chaucer / Charlotte Brewer -- Afterlives: the fabulous history of Venus / Barry Windeatt.]

Brewer, Derek S., ed. Chaucer and Chaucerians: Critical Studies in Middle English Literature. London: Nelson, 1966.

Brewer, Derek S. English Gothic Literature. The History of Literature. New York: Schocken Books, 1987.

Brosamer, Matthew James. "Medieval Gluttony and Drunkenness: Consuming Sin in Chaucer and Langland." Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1998. [DAI 58 (1997-1998): 4643A.]

Burke, Peter. Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe. London: Temple Smith; New York: New York University Press, 1978. [Includes an excellent chapter on "carnival" and the carnivalesque influences on popular culture.]

Burnley, J[ohn] David. Courtliness and Literature in Medieval England. Longman Medieval and Renaissance Library. London and New York: Longman, 1998. ["Courtliness is an important feature of medieval literature, and the ideals of social behavior and personal refinement play an integral part in much of the literature and poetry of the period. Courtliness and Literature in Medieval England traces the development of courtliness from its emergence in the exclusive world of the aristocratic courts of the 12th century to a bourgeois respectability in the 15th century. Using such literary examples as Chaucer and the 'Gawain' poet, David Burnley illustrates how the literature of the time reflected the framework of social and aesthetic ideals of medieval society" (publisher's description). Contents: Ch. 1: "Prologue"; Ch. 2: "The Emergence of Courtliness"; Ch. 3: "The Aesthetic Ideal: Personal Beauty"; Ch. 4: "Courtly Values"; Ch. 5: "The Qualities of Courtliness"; Ch. 6: "Courtliness and the Individual"; Ch. 7: "Courtliness and Language"; Ch. 8: "Courtly Literature"; Ch. 9: "Courtly Love"; Ch. 10: "Courtliness and Religion"; Ch. 11: "Epilogue."]

Burrow, J. A. English Poets in the Late Middle Ages: Chaucer, Langland and Others. Variorum Collected Studies CS1002. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Variorum, 2012. [Publisher's description: "This volume brings together a selection of lectures and essays in which J. A. Burrow discusses the work of English poets of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries: Chaucer, Gower, Langland, and Hoccleve, as well as the anonymous authors of Pearl, Saint Erkenwald, and a pair of metrical romances. Six of the pieces address general issues, with some reference to French and Italian writings ('Autobiographical Poetry in the Middle Ages', for example, or 'The Poet and the Book'); but most of them concentrate on particular English poems, such as Chaucer's Envoy to Scogan, Gower's Confessio Amantis, Langland's Piers Plowman, and Hoccleve's Series. Although some of the essays take account of the poet's life and times ('Chaucer as Petitioner', 'Hoccleve and the 'Court''), most are mainly concerned with the meaning and structure of the poems. What, for example, does the hero of Ipomadon hope to achieve by fighting, as he always does, incognito? Why do the stories in Piers Plowman all peter out so inconclusively? And how can it be that the narrator in Chaucer's Book of the Duchess so persistently fails to understand what he is told?" Contents: Thinking in poetry: three medieval examples; The poet and the book; The sinking island and the dying author: R.W. Chambers 50 years on; The languages of medieval England; Autobiographical poetry in the Middle Ages: the case of Thomas Hoccleve; Poems without endings; Politeness and privacy: Chaucer's Book of the Duchess; Vituperations in Chaucer's poetry; Chaucer's Sir Thopas and La Prise de Nuevile; Chaucer as petitioner: three poems; The poetry of Amans in Confessio Amantis; Gower's poetic styles; The endings of stories in Piers Plowman; Lady Meed and the power of money; God and the fullness of time in Piers Plowman; The old and new ploughs in Piers Plowman; Hoccleve and the 'court'; Hoccleve and the Middle French poets; An 18th-century edition of Hoccleve; Hoccleve's questions: intonation and punctuation; The 14th-century Arthur; The Avowing of King Arthur; The uses of incognito: Ipomadon A.]

Burrow, J. A. Essays on Mediaeval Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984.

Burrow, J. A. Gestures and Looks in Medieval Narrative. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 48. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Burrow, J. A. Medieval Writers and their Work: Middle English Literature and its Background, 1100-1500. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Burrow, J. A. Ricardian Poetry: Chaucer, Gower, Langland and the Gawain Poet. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971.

Calin, William. The French Tradition and the Literature of Medieval England. University of Toronto Romance Series. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

Canitz, A. E. Christa, and Gernot R. Wieland, eds. From Arabye to Engelond: Medieval Studies in Honour of Mahmoud Manzalaoui. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1999. [Arabia; the East; the Orient; Orientalism]

Carruthers, Mary J. The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 10. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Carruthers, Mary J. The Experience of Beauty in the Middle Ages. Oxford-Warburg Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. [Contents: Introduction: making sense -- Artful play -- Sensory complexion and style -- Taking the bitter with the sweet -- Taste and good taste -- Varietas -- Ordinary beauty.]

Carruthers, Mary J. "Reading with Attitude, Remembering the Book." In The Book and the Body. Ed. Dolores Warwick Frese and Katherine O'Brien O'Keeffe. University of Notre Dame Ward-Phillips Lectures in English Language and Literature 14. Notre Dame and London: University of Notre Dame Press, 1997. Pp. 1-33.

Carruthers, Mary J., ed. Rhetoric Beyond Words: Delight and Persuasion in the Arts of the Middle Ages. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 78. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "In the Middle Ages, liturgies, books, song, architecture and poetry were performed as collaborative activities in which performers and audience together realized their work anew. Essays by leading scholars analyse how the medieval arts invited and delighted in collaborative performances designed to persuade. The essays cast fresh light on subjects ranging from pilgrim processions within Chartres Cathedral, to polyphonic song, and the 'rhetoric of silence' perfected by the Cistercians. Rhetoric is defined broadly in this book to encompass its relationship to its sister arts of music, architecture, and painting, all of which use materials and media in addition to words, sometimes altogether without words. Contributors have concentrated on those aspects of formal rhetoric that are performative in nature, the sound, gesture, and facial expressions of persuasive speech in action. Delivery (performance) is shown to be at the heart of rhetoric, that aspect of it which is indeed beyond words." Contents: "Working by words alone": the architect, scholasticism and rhetoric in thirteenth-century France / Paul Binski -- Grammar and rhetoric in late medieval polyphony: modern metaphor or old simile? / Margaret Bent -- Nature's forge and mechanical production: writing, reading and performing song / Elizabeth Eva Leach -- Rhetorical strategies in the pictural imagery of fourteenth-century manuscripts: the case of the Bohun psalters / Lucy Freeman Sandler -- Do actions speak louder than words? The scope and role of pronuntiatio in the Latin rhetorical tradition, with special reference to the Cistercians / Jan M. Ziolkowski -- Vultus adest (the face helps): performance, expressivity and interiority / Monika Otter -- Special delivery: were medieval letter writers trained in performance? / Martin Camargo -- The concept of ductus, or journeying through a work of art / Mary Carruthers -- Ductus and memoria: Chartres cathedral and the workings of rhetoric / Paul Crossley -- Ductus figuratus et subtilis: rhetorical interventions for women in two twelfth-century liturgies / William T. Flynn -- Terribilis est locus iste: the Pantheon in 609 / Susan Rankin.]

Carruthers, Mary J., and Elizabeth D. Kirk, eds. Acts of Interpretation: The Text in its Context: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literatures in Honor of E. Talbot Donaldson. Norman: Pilgrim Books, 1982.

Carruthers, Mary J., and Jan M. Ziolkowski, eds. The Medieval Craft of Memory: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures. Material Texts. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. [An anthology of medieval memory texts, to supplement Carruthers' The Book of Memory. "In antiquity and the Middle Ages, memory was a craft, and certain actions and tools were thought to be necessary for its creation and recollection. Until now, however, many of the most important visual and textual sources on the topic have remained untranslated or otherwise difficult to consult. Mary Carruthers and Jan M. Ziolkowski bring together the texts and visual images from the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries that are central to an understanding of memory and memory technique. These sources are now made available for a wider audience of students of medieval and early modern history and culture and readers with an interest in memory, mnemonics, and the synergy of text and image. The art of memory was most importantly associated in the Middle Ages with composition, and those who practiced the craft used it to make new prayers, sermons, pictures, and music. The mixing of visual and verbal media was commonplace throughout medieval cultures: pictures contained visual puns, words were often verbal paintings, and both were used equally as tools for making thoughts. The ability to create pictures in one's own mind was essential to medieval cognitive technique and imagination, and the intensely pictorial and affective qualities of medieval art and literature were generative, creative devices in themselves" (publisher's description).]

Chaganti, Seeta. The Medieval Poetics of the Reliquary: Enshrinement, Inscription, Performance. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. [Contents: The poetics of enshrinement -- Silent inscription, spoken ceremony: Saint Erkenwald and the enshrined judge -- The N-town assumption's impossible reliquary -- Enshrining form: Pearl as inscriptional object and devotional event -- Reliquaries of the mind: figuration, enshrinement, and performance in The pardoner's tale.]

Chambers, E. K. English Literature at the Close of the Middle Ages. Oxford History of English Literature 2.2. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1945.

Chance, Jane, ed. Gender and Text in the Later Middle Ages. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996.

Chance, Jane. The Literary Subversions of Medieval Women. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. [Publisher's description: "This study of medieval women as postcolonial writers defines the literary strategies of subversion by which they authorized their alterity within the dominant tradition. To dismantle a colonizing culture, they made public the private feminine space allocated by gender difference: they constructed 'unhomely' spaces. They inverted gender roles of characters to valorize the female; they created alternate idealized feminist societies and cultures, or utopias, through fantasy; and they legitimized female triviality--the homely female space--to provide autonomy. While these methodologies often overlapped in practice, they illustrate how cultures impinge on languages to create what Deleuze and Guattari have identified as a minor literature, specifically for women as dis-placed. Women writers discussed include Hrotsvit of Gandersheim, Hildegard of Bingen, Marie de France, Marguerite Porete, Catherine of Siena, Margery Kempe, Julian of Norwich, and Christine de Pizan." Contents: Introduction: the discursive strategies of the marginalized -- St. Agnes and the emperor's daughter in Saxon Hrotsvit of Gandersheim: feminizing the founding of the early Roman church -- Marie de France versus King Arthur: Lanval's gender inversion as Breton subversion -- Marguerite Porete's annihilation of the character reason in her fantasy of an inverted church -- Unhomely Margery Kempe and St. Catherine of Siena; "Comunycacyon" and "Conuersacion" as homily -- Conclusion: toward a minor literature: Julian of Norwich's annihilation of original sin.]

Chance, Jane. Medieval Mythography: From Roman North Africa to the School of Chartres, A.D. 422-1177. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994.

Cherewatuk, Karen, and Ulrike Wiethaus. Dear Sister: Medieval Women and the Epistolary Genre. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 1993.

Cherniss, Michael D. Boethian Apocalypse: Studies in Middle English Vision Poetry. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1986.

Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome, ed. The Postcolonial Middle Ages. New Middle Ages. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Coleman, Janet. English Literature in History, 1350-1400: Medieval Readers and Writers. London: Hutchinson, 1981.

Curtius, Ernst R. European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages. Trans. W. R. Trask. Bollingen Series 36. New York: Pantheon Books, 1953.

Dalrymple, Roger, ed. Middle English Literature: A Guide to Criticism. Blackwell Guides to Criticism. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. [Publisher's description: "The guide brings together a cross-section of key critical work, in order to demonstrate how different schools of thought have treated major interpretative concerns, including authorship, textual form, genre, and literature and history. Extracts from some of the major authories in the field introduce readers to such diverse approaches as New Criticism, textual criticism, genre criticism, historicism, feminism, psychoanalysis, and queer theory. By enabling readers to research the critical reception of key works, and to forge new connections between different approaches, this guide steers them through the critical terrain of Middle English studies."]

Davenport, Tony [W(illiam) A(nthony)]. Medieval Narrative: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Davidoff, Judith M. Beginning Well: Framing Fictions in Late Middle English Poetry. Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988. ["Explores the symbolic effects of narrative patterns in Middle Englilsh verse, in relation to medieval assumptions about narrative structures."]

Dean, James M., and Christian K. Zacher, eds. The Idea of Medieval Literature: New Essays on Chaucer and Medieval Culture in Honor of Donald R. Howard. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1992.

Delany, Sheila. Medieval Literary Politics: Shapes of Ideology. Cultural Politics. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.

Delany, Sheila. Writing Woman: Women Writers and Women in Literature, Medieval to Modern. New York: Schocken Books, 1983.

Delumeau, Jean. History of Paradise: The Garden of Eden in Myth and Tradition. New York: Critical Continuum Books / Continuum Publishing, 1995.

Demers, Patricia. Women's Writing in English: Early Modern England. Women's Writing in English. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005. ["In this introduction to the diversity and scope of the writing by women in England from the beginning of the sixteenth century to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Patricia Demers discusses the creative realities of women writers' accomplishments and the cultural conditions under which they wrote. There were deep suspicions and restrictions surrounding the education of women during this period, and thus the contributions of women to literature, and to the print industry itself, are largely unknown. This wide-ranging examination of the genres of early modern women's writing embraces translation (from Latin, Greek, and French) in the fields of theological discourse, romance and classical tragedy, original meditations and prayers, letters and diaries, poetry, closet drama, advice manuals, and prophecies and polemics. A close study of six major authors--Mary Sidney, Aemilia Lanyer, Elizabeth Tanfield Cary, Lady Mary Wroth, Margaret Cavendish, and Katherine Philips--explores their work as poets, dramatists, and romantic fiction writers. Demers invites readers to savour the subtlety and daring with which these women authors made writing an expressly social craft" (publisher's description). Contents: 1. Studying Early Modern Women Writers; 2. Women in Early Modern England: Chiselling the Image, Unwinding the Rhetoric; Reading Early Modern Women's Writing; Educating Women; Praising and Blaming Women; Wiving and Thriving; Childbearing; 3. The Genres of Early Modern Women's Writing; Translation: Margaret Beaufort, Margaret Roper, Elizabeth Tudor, Mary Bassett, Jane Lumley, the Cooke Sisters, Anne Vaughan Lock, Margaret Tyler, Mary Sidney Herbert; Theological Debate, Romantic Intrigue, and Classical Tragedy: Elizabeth Cary, Judith Man, Katherine Philips; Meditations and Testimonials; Prayers; Letters and Diaries; Poetry; Elizabethan poets: Isabella Whitney, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, Anne Vaughan Lock, Lady Mary Sidney Herbert, Anne Dowriche, Elizabeth Melville; Esther Inglis and Elizabeth Jane Weston in the Republic of Letters; Jacobean polemical Talents: Aemilia Lanyer, Bathsua Reginald, Rachel Speght, Mary Wroth; Caroline, Protectorate, and Restoration Poets' Complication of Early Modern Selfhood: Diana Primrose, Mary Fage, An Collins, 'Eliza,' Elizabeth Major, Gertrude Thimelby, Anne Bradstreet, Mary Cavendish, Katherine Philips; Drama and the Dramatic; 'Closet' Drama: Translations, Adaptations, Original Creations; Mothers' Advice Books: Elizabeth Grymeston, Dorothy Leigh, Elizabeth Clinton, Elizabeth Joscelin, Elizabeth Richardson; Prophecies and Polemics, Petitions and Missionary Accounts: Radical Women and Godly Zeal; 4. Six Major Authors: Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke (1561-1621); Aemilia Lanyer (1569-1645); Elizabeth Tanfield Cary, Viscountess of Falkland (1585-1639); Lady Mary Wroth (1587-1653); Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle (1623-1673); Katherine Philips, the Matchless Orinda (1632-1664).]

Despres, Denise. Ghostly Sights: Visual Meditation in Late-Medieval Literature. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1989.

Dinshaw, Carolyn, and David Wallace, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Women's Writing. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. [Available online here. Publisher's description: "The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Women's Writing seeks to recover the lives and particular experiences of medieval women by concentrating on various kinds of texts: the texts they wrote themselves as well as texts that attempted to shape, limit, or expand their lives. The first section investigates the roles traditionally assigned to medieval women (as virgins, widows, and wives); it also considers female childhood and relations between women. The second section explores social spaces, including textuality itself: for every surviving medieval manuscript bespeaks collaborative effort. It considers women as authors, as anchoresses 'dead to the world,' and as preachers and teachers in the world staking claims to authority without entering a pulpit. The final section considers the lives and writings of remarkable women, including Marie de France, Heloise, Joan of Arc, Julian of Norwich, Margery Kempe, and female lyricists and romancers whose names are lost, but whose texts survive." Contents: Contributors; Chronology, Chris Africa; Introduction, Carolyn Dinshaw and David Wallace; Part I. Estates of Women: 1. "Female Childhoods," Daniel T. Kline; 2. "Virginity," Ruth Evans; 3. "Marriage," Dyan Elliott; 4. "Widows," Barbara Hanawalt; 5. "Between Women," Karma Lochrie; Part II. Texts and Other Spaces: 6. "Women and authorship," Jennifer Summit; 7. "Enclosure," Christopher Cannon; 8. "At home; out of the house," Sarah Salih; 9. "Beneath the pulpit," Alcuin Blamires; Section III. Medieval Women: 10. "Heloise," Christopher Baswell; 11. "Marie de France," Roberta L. Krueger; 12. "The Roman de la Rose, Christine de Pizan, and the querelles des femmes," David F. Hult; 13. "Lyrics and romances," Sarah McNamer; 14. "Julian of Norwich," Nicholas Watson; 15. "Margery Kempe," Carolyn Dinshaw; 16. "Continental women mystics and English readers," Alexandra Barratt; 17. "Joan of Arc," Nadia Margolis.]

Doob, Penelope Reed. The Idea of the Labyrinth from Classical Antiquity through the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Dyas, Dee. Pilgrimage in Medieval English Literature, 700-1500. Woodbridge, Suffolk: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2001.

Economou, George D. The Goddess Natura in Medieval Literature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972. [Alan of Lille's The Complaint of Nature and its influence on The Romance of the Rose (Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun), Geoffrey Chaucer, and John Gower.]

Edwards, Robert R. Ratio and Invention: A Study in Medieval Lyric and Narrative. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1989.

Emmerson, Richard K., and Bernard McGinn. The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993.

Emmerson, Richard K., and Ronald B. Herzman. The Apocalyptic Imagination in Medieval Literature. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

Epstein, Steven. The Medieval Discovery of Nature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. [Publisher's description: "This book examines the relationship between humans and nature that evolved in medieval Europe over the course of a millennium." Contents: The discovery of nature -- The invention of mules -- Like produces like -- The nature of property -- The nature of disaster -- Conclusion.]

Evans, Rudy, and Lesley Johnson, eds. Feminist Readings in Middle English Poetry: The Wife of Bath and All Her Sect. London: Routledge, 1995.

Everett, Dorothy. Essays on Middle English Literature. Ed. Patricia Kean. 1959; Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978.

Ferster, Judith. Fictions of Advice: The Literature and the Politics of Counsel in Late Medieval England. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

Fisher, John H. "Wyclif, Langland, Gower, and the Pearl-Poet on the Subject of Aristocracy." In Studies in Medieval Literature in Honor of Professor Albert Croll Baugh. Ed. MacEdward Leach. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1961. Pp. 139-157.

Fletcher, Alan J. The Presence of Medieval English Literature: Studies at the Interface of History, Author, and Text in a Selection of Middle English Literary Landmarks. Cursor mundi 14. Turnhout: Brepols, 2012. [Publisher's description: "The modern period has read its own contingent values into Middle English literature, and a modern canon of vernacular medieval literary texts has evolved as a result. While this book works with a selection of texts that have achieved such canonical status, it brings to light some of the ways in which they nevertheless resist the flattening domestications and expectations of modern taste. It illustrates how they formerly existed as constituents of a past world richer, stranger, and less familiar than much modern opinion has supposed. Thus the book aims to recuperate lost senses in which the age in which these texts were conceived and written was present within them, as well as ways in which they may have been present to their age. This twin idea of 'presence' is the thread that binds a series of chapters on English verse and prose written between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries together." Contents: Presences -- The Owl and the nightingale: the interpretative stakes of time, place, and author -- Sir Orfeo: the 'taken' discourses of order and intelligibility -- Pearl: the limits of history -- Piers Plowman: the essential (ephemeral) project -- The Canterbury tales and some other Chaucerian compositions: the pursuit of heresy and dangerous textual liaisons -- Morte Darthur: the endgame of authority -- Location, location, location.]

Ford, Boris, ed. Chaucer and the Alliterative Tradition. New Pelican Guide to English Literature, 1.1. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1982.

Gardiner, F. S. The Pilgrimage of Desire: A Study of Theme and Genre in Medieval Literature. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971.

Gellrich, Jesse M. The Idea of the Book in the Middle Ages: Language Theory, Mythology, and Fiction. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Geoffrey de Vinsauf. Poetria Nova of Geoffrey of Vinsauf. Trans. Margaret F. Nims. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1967.

Giancarlo, Matthew. Parliament and Literature in Late Medieval England. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. [Contents: Parliament and voice in the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries -- Parliament, criticism, and complaint in the later fourteenth century -- Property, purchase, parliament: the estates of man in John Gower's Mirour de l'Omme and Cronica tripertita -- "Oure is the voys": Chaucer's parliaments and the mediation of community -- Parliament, Piers Plowman and the reform of the public voice -- Petitioning for show: complaint and the parliamentary voice, 1401-1414.]

Gilbert, Jane. Living Death in Medieval French and English Literature. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 84. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. [Publisher's description: "This book is about the ways in which certain medieval literary texts use death, dying and the dead to think about problems relating to life--problems political, social, ethical, philosophical or existential. More specifically, it is about the dynamic interface between life and death and about figures caught at that interface, hence 'living death.' There are ghosts and revenants who, although dead, actively speak and will, disturbing the properly living. And there are those who while alive exist under a deathly shadow that forecloses their engagement with life and isolates them from their fellows. Vampires, ghosts and zombies are currently fashionable in popular culture; in literary criticism, tropes of the interstitial, the intermediary or the 'third' are in vogue. What I have attempted to do in this book is to use some of the latter--in particular, Lacan's notion of l'entre-deux-morts--to think through some medieval examples of phenomena related to the former: dead who return to place demands on the living; living who foresee, organize or desire their own deaths. . . . Medieval literature contains many figures caught at the interface between life and death--the dead return to place demands on the living, while the living foresee, organize or desire their own deaths. Jane Gilbert's original study examines the ways in which certain medieval literary texts, both English and French, use these 'living dead' to think about existential, ethical and political issues. In doing so, she shows powerful connections between works otherwise seen as quite disparate, including Chaucer's Book of the Duchess and Legend of Good Women, the Chanson de Roland and the poems of Francois Villon. Written for researchers and advanced students of medieval French and English literature, this book provides original, provocative interpretations of canonical medieval texts in the light of influential modern theories, especially Lacanian psychoanalysis, presented in an accessible and lively way." Contents: Introduction: living death -- 1. Roland and the second death -- 2. The knight as thing: courtly love in the non-cyclic prose Lancelot -- 3. The Ubi Sunt topos in Middle French: sad stories of the death of kings -- 4. Ceci n'est pas une marguerite: anamorphosis in Pearl -- 5. Becoming woman in Chaucer: on ne naît pas femme, on le devient en mourant -- Conclusion: living dead or dead-in-life?]

Goldie, Matthew Boyd, ed. Middle English Literature: A Historical Sourcebook. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2003. [A collection of fourteenth- and fifteenth-century documents to aid students in the study of late medieval literature. Contents: "Conventions and Institutions," "Force and Order," "Gender, Sexuality, and Difference," "Images," "Labor and Capital," "Style and Spectacle," "Textualities."]

Gordon, Robert K., ed. The Story of Troilus as told by Benoît de Sainte-Maure, Giovanni Boccaccio, Geoffrey Chaucer, Robert Henryson. Mediaeval Academy Reprints for Teaching 2. 1934; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1979.

Gradon, Pamela. Form and Style in Early English Literature. London: Methuen, 1971.

Green, D. H. Irony in the Medieval Romance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Green, D. H. "On Recognizing Medieval Irony." In The Uses of Criticism. Ed. A. P. Foulkes. Bern, 1976. Pp. 11-55.

Green, Richard Firth. Poets and Princepleasers: Literature and the English Court in the Late Middle Ages. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980.

Griffin, Benjamin. Playing the Past: Approaches to English Historical Drama, 1385-1600. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. ["Two overlapping areas of English historical drama are examined in this study. The first is the large group of plays dramatising the lives of powerful people in the past of the English nation (native-subject drama), from the end of the fourteenth century to the end of the sixteenth, and the second is the select group of these plays produced in the 1580s, at the height of their flourishing. Griffin charts the development of historical drama from the Mass and Saint plays on Thomas Becket, through the Reformation and its legacy, to the later history plays, showing that the history play is neither Shakespeare's nor an Elizabethan invention, but has its roots in medieval drama. The use made by Shakespeare and Marlowe of the various types of historical drama--the sacrificial, the festive and the formless genealogical--is discussed, and the decline of the history play examined, reviewing and amending critical explanations of the extinction of the genre" (publisher's description).]

Griffin, Miranda. "Dirty Stories: Abjection in the Fabliaux." New Medieval Literatures 3 (1999): 229-260.

Guillaume de Machaut. "Le Jugement du roy de Behaigne" and "Remede de Fortune." Ed. James I. Wimsatt and William W. Kibler; music ed. by Rebecca A. Baltzer. The Chaucer Library. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1989.

Hanna, Ralph, [III]. London Literature, 1300-1380. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 57. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. [On the literary culture of London in the years before Chaucer, including Anglo-Norman and Latin texts as well as Middle English. The focus of the book is on English romances (the Auchinleck Manuscript and MS Laud misc. 622) and William Langland's Piers Plowman. Publisher's description: "Hanna emphasises the uneasy boundaries legal thought and discourse shared with historical and 'romance' thinking, and shows how the technique of romance, Latin writing associated with administrative culture, and biblical interests underwrote the great pre-Chaucerian London poem, William Langland's Piers Plowman."]

Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth. "A Woman's View of Courtly Love: The Findern Anthology." Journal of Women's Studies in Literature 1 (1979): 179-194. [Female authorship of the love poems in the Findern manuscript is a possibility: the female point of view is consistently presented.]

Hassig, Debra, ed. The Mark of the Beast: The Medieval Bestiary in Art, Life, and Literature. Garland Medieval Casebooks 22; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 2076. New York: Garland Publishing, 1999.

Hassig, Debra. Medieval Bestiaries: Text, Image, Ideology. RES Monographs on Anthropology and Aesthetics. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Heffernan, Thomas J., ed. The Popular Literature of Medieval England. Tennessee Studies in Literature 28. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1985.

Hen, Yitzhak, and Matthew Innes, eds. The Uses of the Past in Early Medieval Europe. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Henderson, Arnold Clayton. "Animal Fables as Vehicles of Social Protest and Satire: Twelfth Century to Henryson." In Third International Beast Epic, Fable, and Fabliau Colloqium. Ed. Jan Goosens and Timothy Sodmann. Cologne: Bohlau, 1981. Pp. 160-173.

Hieatt, Constance B. The Realism of Dream Visions: The Poetic Exploitation of the Dream Experience in Chaucer and his Contemporaries. The Hague: Mouton, 1967.

Hines, John. The Fabliau in English. Longman Medieval and Renaissance Library. London and New York: Longman, 1993.

Holloway, Julia Bolton. The Pilgrim and the Book: A Study of Dante, Langland and Chaucer. New York: Peter Lang, 1987.

Housley, Norman. "Perceptions of Crusading in the Mid-Fourteenth Century: The Evidence of Three Texts." Viator 36 (2005): 415-433.

Houwen, L. A. J. R. "Animal Parallelism in Medieval Literature and the Bestiaries: A Preliminary Investigation." Neophilologus 78 (1994): 483-496.

Houwen, L. A. J. R., ed. Animals and the Symbolic in Mediaeval Art and Literature. Mediaevalia Groningana 20. Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1997.

Howard, Donald R. Writers and Pilgrims: Medieval Pilgrimage Narratives and their Posterity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

Jackson, W. H., ed. Knighthood in Medieval Literature. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1981.

Jackson, W. T. H. The Literature of the Middle Ages. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962.

Johnson, Eleanor. Practicing Literary Theory in the Middle Ages: Ethics and the Mixed Form in Chaucer, Gower, Usk, and Hoccleve. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2013. [Contents: Formalism and ethics: the practice of literary theory -- Formal experiments with ethical writing: prosimetrum and protrepsis -- Sensible prose and a sense of meter: Chaucer's aesthetic sentence in the Boece and Troilus and Criseyde -- The consolation of tragedy: protrepsis in the Troilus -- Prosimetrum and the Canterbury philosophy of literature -- Political protrepsis: Usk and Gower -- Hoccleve and the convention of mixed-form protrepsis -- Conclusion: a mixed-form tradition of literary theory and practice.]

Johnston, Mark, ed. Medieval Conduct Literature: An Anthology of Vernacular Guides to Behaviour for Youths, with English Translations. Intro. Roberta L. Krueger; texts edited and translated by Kathleen Ashley [et al.]. Medieval Academy Books 111. Toronto, and Buffalo, NY: University of Toronto Press, for the Medieval Academy of America, 2009. [Includes text in Castilian, Italian, Middle English, Middle High German, Old French, and Old Occitan. Contents: Introduction: Teach your children well: Medieval conduct guides for youths / Roberta L. Krueger -- The French Enseignemenz a Phelippe and Enseignement a Ysabel of Saint Louis / Kathleen Ashley -- The Occitan Enssenhamen l'escudier and Essenhamen de la donzela of Amanieu de Sescás / Mark D. Johnston -- The German Winsbecke, Winsbeckin, and Winsbecke parodies (selections) / Ann Marie Rasmussen and Olga Trokhimenko -- The Italian Reggimento e costumi di donna (selections) and Documenti d'amore (selections) of Francesco da Barberino / Eleonora Stoppino -- The Castilian Castigos del rey don Sancho (selections) and Castigos y dotrinas que un sabio dava a sus hijas / Emily C. Francomano -- The English How the Good Wijf Taughte Hir Doughtir and How the Wise Man Taught His Sonne / Claire Sponsler. [good wife taught her daughter and wise man taught his son]]

Kahn-Blumstein, Andrée. Misogyny and Idealization in the Courtly Romance. Studien zur Germanistik, Anglistik und Komparatistik 41. Bonn: Bouvier, 1977.

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn, Maidie Hilmo, and Linda Olson. Opening Up Middle English Manuscripts: Literary and Visual Approaches. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2012.

Kessel-Brown, Deirdre. "The Emotional Landscape of the Forest in the Mediaeval Love Lament." Medium Ævum 59 (1990): 228-247. [Where the garden (the "locus amoenus"--Kessel-Brown uses Curtius's phrase) is the landscape of "lovers' fulfilment," the forest "provides imagery for those unhappy in love" (p. 228).]

Keys, Mary M. Aquinas, Aristotle, and the Promise of the Common Good. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Kindrick, Robert L. Henryson and the Medieval Arts of Rhetoric. Garland Studies in Medieval Literature 8. New York: Garland, 1993.

Knox, Dilwyn. Ironia: Medieval and Renaissance Ideas about Irony. Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition 16. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1989.

Kratzmann, Gregory, and James Simpson, eds. Medieval English Religious and Ethical Literature. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1986.

Kruger, Steven F. Dreaming in the Middle Ages. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 14. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. [On dream-vision poetry and medieval dream theory.]

Kugel, James L., ed. Poetry and Prophecy: The Beginnings of a Literary Tradition. Myth and Poetics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Lampert-Weissig, Lisa. Medieval Literature and Postcolonial Studies. Postcolonial Literary Studies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010. [Contents: Navigating the field: postcolonial medieval literary studies -- Rethinking theoretical perspectives on orientalism, nationalism and colonialism -- Postcolonial medieval studies: how is the field viewed? -- The case of al-Andalus -- Norman frontiers and the twelfth-century werewolf renaissance -- Race, periodisation and medieval romance -- A global vision: The travels of Sir John Mandeville -- Mapping the future of the past -- Whose long memories? -- The hand of the dead in the land of the living -- Resisting memoricide: medievalisms of east and west in contemporary fiction.]

Lavezzo, Kathy, ed. Imagining a Medieval English Nation. Medieval Cultures 37. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. [Includes "Chaucer Imagines England (in English)" by Peggy A. Knapp; also "Hymeneal Alogic: Debating Political Community in 'The Parliament of Fowls'" by Kathleen Davis.]

Lawlor, John, ed. Patterns of Love and Courtesy: Essays in Memory of C. S. Lewis. London: Edward Arnold, 1966.

Lewis, C. S. The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition. London: Oxford University Press, 1936.

Lindahl, Carl, John McNamara, John Lindow, eds. Medieval Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Myths, Legends, Tales, Beliefs, and Customs. 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2000.

Lynch, Kathryn L. The High Medieval Dream Vision: Poetry, Philosophy, and Literary Form. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1988. ["A redefinition of the dream vision form which attends to its role in contemporary philosophical debate."]

Machan, Tim William, ed. Medieval Literature: Texts and Interpretations. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 79. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1991.

Macrobius. Commentary on the Dream of Scipio. Trans. William H. Stahl. New York: Columbia University Press, 1952.

Mann, Jill. Life in Words: Essays on Chaucer, the "Gawain"-Poet, and Malory. Ed. and intro. Mark David Rasmussen. Toronto, and Buffalo, NY: University of Toronto Press, 2014. [Publisher's description: "This volume collects fifteen landmark essays published over the last three decades by the distinguished medievalist Jill Mann. Bringing together her essays on Chaucer, the Gawain-poet, and Malory, the collection foregrounds the common interest in the semantic implications of key vocabulary such as 'authority,' 'adventure,' and 'price' that links them together. "Mann, one of the finest critics of Middle English literature in her generation, uses the concepts suggested by the language of medieval literature itself as a way into the masterpieces of Middle English, including The Canterbury Tales, Troilus and Criseyde, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, and the Morte Darthur. "An extended introduction by Mark Rasmussen brings out the nature of the themes that run through the collection, analyses the critical methods in play, and assesses their significance in the context of Middle English studies over the last thirty years." Contents: Editor's Introduction, "Jill Mann's Patience." Essays: "Troilus's Swoon"; "Shakespeare and Chaucer: 'What is Criseyde Worth?'"; "Chance and Destiny in Troilus and Criseyde and the Knight's Tale"; "Chaucerian Themes and Style in the Franklin's Tale"; "Anger and 'Glosynge' in the Canterbury Tales"; "The Authority of the Audience in Chaucer"; "Parents and Children in the Canterbury Tales"; "Satisfaction and Payment in Middle English Literature"; "Price and Value in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight"; "Courtly Aesthetics and Courtly Ethics in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight"; "Sir Gawain and the Romance Hero"; "Knightly Combat in Malory's Morte Darthur"; "'Taking the Adventure': Malory and the Suite du Merlin"; "The Narrative of Distance, The Distance of Narrative in Malory's Morte Darthur"; "Malory and the Grail Legend."]

Manning, Stephen. Wisdom and Number. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1962. [On the nature of medieval lyrics.]

Margherita, Gayle. The Romance of Origins: Language and Sexual Difference in Middle English Literature. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 1994.

McDonald, Nicola, ed. Pulp Fictions of Medieval England: Essays in Popular Romance. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004. ["Middle English popular romance is the most audacious and compendious testimony to the imaginary world of the English Middle Ages. Yet, with few exceptions, it remains under read and under studied. Pulp fictions of medieval England demonstrates that popular romance not only merits and rewards serious critical attention, but that it is crucial to our understanding of the complex and conflicted world of medieval England. The book comprises ten essays on individual popular romances, with a focus on romances that, while enormously popular in the Middle Ages, have been neglected by modern scholarship. Each essay provides valuable introductory material, and there is a sustained argument across the contributions that the romances invite innovative, exacting and theoretically charged analysis. However, the essays do not support a single, homogenous reading of popular romance: the authors work with assumptions and come to conclusions about issues as fundamental as the genre's aesthetic codes, its political and cultural ideologies, and its historical consciousness that are different and sometimes opposed. This is a sign of healthy scholarship and of the vitality of the field of inquiry. Nicola McDonald's collection and the romances it investigates, are crucial to our understanding of the aesthetics of medieval narrative and to the ideologies of gender and sexuality, race, religion, political formations, social class, ethics, morality and national identity with which those narratives engage. It is essential reading for specialists of medieval English literature and for theorists of medieval and modern popular culture; yet its inclusion of detailed introductory material makes it equally accessible to students, both undergraduate and postgraduate, taking survey courses in medieval literature" (publisher's description).]

McKeon, Richard P. Selections from Medieval Philosophers. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1929-1930.

Medcalf, Stephen, ed. The Later Middle Ages. The Context of English Literature. London: Methuen, 1981. [Though by now somewhat dated, this is still a tremendously useful introduction to the historical background of medieval literature. In particular, I recommend Starkey's essay on the "household" for its emphasis on the centrality of the family (not the individual) as the primary economic unit in society, for its discussion of marriage, of love and mistresses, as well as the significance of the organization of the royal household and its support of people like Geoffrey Chaucer or Thomas Hoccleve.]

Metilzki, Dorothee. The Matter of Araby in Medieval England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. [Arabia; the East; the Orient; Orientalism]

Meyer-Lee, Robert J. Poets and Power from Chaucer to Wyatt. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 61. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Middleton, Anne. "The Idea of Public Poetry in the Reign of Richard II." Speculum 53 (1978): 94-114.

Minnis, A. J., ed. Middle English Poetry: Texts and Traditions; Essays in Honour of Derek Pearsall. York Manuscripts Conferences 5. Woodbridge, Suffolk: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2001.

Minnis, A. J., and Charlotte C. Morse, Thorlac Turville-Petre, eds. Essays on Ricardian Literature in Honour of J. A. Burrow. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Mohl, Ruth. The Three Estates in Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Columbia University Studies in English and Comparative Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 1933.

Moorman, Charles. A Knyght there Was: The Evolution of the Knight in Literature. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1967.

Morse, Ruth, and Barry Windeatt, eds. Chaucer Traditions: Studies in Honour of Derek Brewer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Murphy, James J. Latin Rhetoric and Education in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Variorum Collected Studies Series. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005. ["The essays in this volume deal with the history of rhetoric and education for the thousand years from the early Middle Ages to the European Renaissance. They represent the author's pioneering efforts over four decades to piece together a kind of mosaic which will provide elements necessary to construct a history of that thousand years of language activity. Some essays deal with individual writers like Giles of Rome, Peter Ramus, Gulielmus Traversanus, or Antonio Nebrija, some focus on the influence of Cicero and Quintilian and other ancient sources. The essays dealing specifically with education open up different inquiries into the ways language use was promoted, and by whom. Others explore the relations between Latin rhetoric and medieval English literature and, finally, several deal with the impact of printing, a subject still not completely understood" (publisher's description).]

Murphy, James J. Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: A History of Rhetorical Theory from Saint Augustine to the Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

Murphy, James J., ed. Three Medieval Rhetorical Arts. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.

Muscatine, Charles. The Old French Fabliaux. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.

Muscatine, Charles. Poetry and Crisis in the Age of Chaucer. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1972.

Nederman, Cary J. Worlds of Difference: European Discourses of Toleration, c.1100-c.1550. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000.

Nitzsche, Jane Chance. The Genius Figure in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975.

Nolan, Barbara. "Promiscuous Fictions: Medieval Bawdy Tales and their Textual Liaisons." In The Body and the Soul in Medieval Literature. Ed. Piero Boitani and Anna Torti. The J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Tenth Series, Perugia, 1998. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1999. Pp. 79-105.

Owst, Gerald R. Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England: A Neglected Chapter in the History of English Letters and of the English People. 2nd ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1961.

Owst, Gerald R. Preaching in Medieval England: An Introduction to Sermon Manuscripts of the Period c. 1350-1450. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought. 1926; rpt. New York: Russell and Russell, 1965.

Palmer, R. Barton, ed. Chaucer's French Contemporaries. Georgia State Literary Studies 10. New York: AMS, 1992.

Patch, Howard. The Goddess Fortuna in Medieval Literature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1927.

Patterson, Lee, ed. Literary Practice and Social Change in Britain, 1380-1530. New Historicism: Studies in Cultural Politics 8. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Patterson, Lee. Negotiating the Past: The Historical Understanding of Medieval Literature. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

Paxson, James J., Lawrence M. Clopper, and Sylvia Tomasch, eds. The Performance of Middle English Culture: Essays on Chaucer and the Drama in Honor of Martin Stevens. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer, 1998. [Contents: "Sponsorship, Reflexivity and Resistance: Cultural Readings of the York Cycle Plays," by Kathleen Ashley (9-24); "Eliding the 'Medieval': Renaissance 'New Historicism' and Sixteenth-Century Drama," by Richard K. Emmerson (25-41); "'Se in what stat thou doyst indwell': The Shifting Constructions of Gender and Power Relations in Wisdom," by Marlene Clark, Sharon Kraus, and Pamela Sheingorn (43-57); "The Chaucerian Critique of Medieval Theatricality," by Seth Lerer (59-76) ["Knight's Tale," "Miller's Tale"]; "The Experience of Modernity in Late Medieval Literature: Urbanism, Experience and Rhetoric in Some Early Descriptions of London," by John M. Ganim (77-96) [William Fitz Stephen, Descriptio; John Stow, Survey of London]; "Noah's Wife's Flood," by Alfred David (97-109) [Mystery cycles and "Miller's Tale"]; "Textual Pleasure in the Miller's Tale," by Richard Daniels (111-123); "Petrarch, Chaucer and the Making of the Clerk," by Warren Ginsberg (125-141) ["Clerk's Tale"]; "The Crisis of Mediation in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde," by Robert W. Hanning (143-159) [Pandarus, narrator]; "Reading Chaucer Ab Ovo: Mock-Exemplum in the Nun's Priest's Tale," by Peter W. Travis (161-181); "A Postmodern Performance: Counter-Reading Chaucer's Clerk's Tale and Maxine Hong Kingston's 'No Name Woman,'" by William McClellan (183-196).]

Peck, Russell A. "Number as Cosmic Language." In Essays in the Numerical Criticism of Medieval Literature. Ed. Caroline D. Eckhardt. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1980. Pp. 15-64. [numerology; number symbolism]

Pleij, Herman. Dreaming of Cockaigne: Medieval Fantasies of the Perfect Life. Trans. Diane Webb. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. [On the Earthly Paradise and paradises in general, including gardens and pleasure parks.]

Powell, Susan, and Jeremy J. Smith, eds. New Perspectives on Middle English Texts: A Festschrift for R. A. Waldron. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2000.

Putter, Ad, and Jane Gilbert, eds. The Spirit of Medieval English Popular Romance. Longman Medieval and Renaissance Library. Harlow, Essex, and New York: Longman, 2000.

Reiss, Edmund. The Art of the Middle English Lyric: Essays in Criticism. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1972.

Reiss, Edmund. "Number Symbol and Medieval Literature." Mediaevalia et Humanistica 1 (1970): 161-174.

Roberts, Lawrence D. Approaches to Nature in the Middle Ages. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 16. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1982.

Rooney, Kenneth. Mortality and Imagination: The Life of the Dead in Medieval English Literature. Disputatio 12. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011.

Root, Jerry. "Space to speke": The Confessional Subject in Medieval Literature. American University Studies 2: Romance Languages and Literature 225. New York, Bern, Berlin, Frankfurt am Main, Paris, Vienna: Peter Lang, 1997. [On the Fourth Lateran Council (1215), with its new teachings on the need for regular confession, and its influence upon vernacular literature, which "creates a new and more popular language of the self. The literary texts of Chaucer, Machaut, and Juan Ruiz clearly demonstrate the influence of a confessional 'self' and use the language of confession to explore and construct the self as literary subject" (publisher's advertisement).]

Rosenthal, Joel T. Telling Tales: Sources and Narration in Late Medieval England. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003. [Publisher's description: "One of the great challenges facing historians of any era is to make the strangeness of the past comprehensible in the present. This task is especially difficult for the Middle Ages, which can seem particularly alien to modern sensibilities. In Telling Tales Joel Rosenthal takes us on a journey through some familiar sources from fourteenth- and fifteenth-century England to show how memories and recollections can be used to build a compelling portrait of daily life in the late Middle Ages. Rosenthal is a senior medievalist whose work over the years has spanned several related areas including family history, women's history, the life cycle, and memory and testimony. In Telling Tales he brings all of these interests to bear on three seemingly disparate bodies of sources: the letters of Margaret Paston, depositions from a dispute between the Scropes and Grosvenors over a contested coat of arms, and Proof of Age proceedings, whereby the legal majority of an heir was established. In Rosenthal's hands these familiar sources all speak to questions of testimony, memory, and narrative at a time when written records were just becoming widespread. In Margaret Paston we see a woman who helped hold family and family business together as she mastered the arduous and complex task of letter writing. From the knights whose tales were elicited for the Scrope and Grosvenor case, it was the bonding of men at arms in the Hundred Years War. From the Proof of Age, we have brief tales that are rich in the give-and-take of daily life in the village--memories of baptisms, burials, a trip to market, a fall from a roof, or marriage to another juror's sister. An example of the historian at the top of his craft, Telling Tales shows how medievalists can turn scraps of recollection into a synthetic story, one that enables us to recapture the strange and lost country of the European Middle Ages."]

Rowland, Beryl. "Seven Kinds of Irony." Intro. to Essays on Chaucerian Irony. By Earle Birney. Ed. Beryl Rowland. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1985. Pp. xv-xxx.

Rudd, Gillian. Greenery: Ecocritical Readings of Late Medieval English Literature. Manchester Medieval Literature. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "'Greenery' offers new readings of Middle English texts, both familiar and less familiar, through the contemporary lens of eco-criticism. The uncomplicated style offers possible readings rather than a sealed version of what each text means in green terms." Contents: Introduction: green reading -- Earth -- Trees -- Wilds, wastes and wilderness -- Sea and coast -- Gardens and fields.]

Russell, J. Stephen. The English Dream Vision: Anatomy of a Form. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1988.

Salter, David. Holy and Noble Beasts: Encounters with Animals in Medieval Literature. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001. ["Because animals are neither wholly similar to, nor entirely different from, human beings, they have provided men and women with an endlessly fruitful point of departure from which to explore what it means to be human. The way in which human identity is inextricably bound up with the animal kingdom is particularly evident in medieval hagiography and romance (arguably the two most popular and prestigious genres of medieval literature), where the holiness of saints and the heroism of knights is frequently revealed through their miraculous encounters with wild beasts. Through an analysis of these literary sources, the book explores the broad range of attitudes towards animals and the natural world that were current in western Europe during the later middle ages. It argues that through their depictions of animals, medieval writers were not only able to reflect upon their own humanity, but were also able to explore the meaning of more abstract values and ideas (such as civility, sanctity and nobility) that were central to the culture of the time" (publisher's description).]

Salter, Elizabeth. Fourteenth-Century English Poetry: Contexts and Readings. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.

Saunders, Corinne J., ed. A Companion to Medieval Poetry. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 67. Chichester, and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. [Contents: The World of Anglo-Saxon England / Andy Orchard -- Old English language and the alliterative tradition / Richard Dance -- Old English manuscripts and readers / Rohinin Jayatilaka -- Old English and Latin poetic traditions / Andy Orchard -- Germanic legend and Old English heroic poetry / Hugh Magennis -- Old English biblical and devotional poetry / Daniel Anlezark -- Old English wisdom poetry / David Ashurst -- Old English epic poetry: Beowulf / Daniel Anlezark -- World of medieval England: from the Norman conquest to the fourteenth century / Conor McCarthy -- Middle English language and poetry / Simon Horobin -- Middle English manuscripts and readers / Ralph Hanna -- Legendary history and chronicle: Lazamons's "Brut" and the chronicle tradition / Lucy Perry -- Medieval debate-poetry and "The Owl and the Nightingale" / Neil Cartlidge -- Lyrics, sacred and secular / David Fuller -- Macaronic poetry / Elizabeth Archibald -- Popular romance / Nancy Mason Bradbury -- Arthurian and courtly romance / Rosalind Field -- Alliterative poetry: religion and morality / John Sacttergood -- Alliterative poetry and politics / John Scattergood -- Poet of Pearl, Cleanness and Patience / A. V. C. Schmidt -- Sir Gawain and the Green Knight / Tony Davenport -- Langland's "Piers Plowman" / Lawrence Warner -- Chaucer's "Troilus and Criseyde" / Alcuin Blamires -- Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales" / Corinne Saunders -- Poetry of John Gower / R. F. Yeager -- England in the long fifteenth century / Matthew Woodcock -- Poetic language in the fifteenth century / A. S. G. Edwards -- Manuscript and print: books, readers and writers / Julia Boffey -- Hoccleve and Lydgate / Daniel Wakelin -- Women and writing / C. Annette Grisé -- Medieval Scottish poetry / Douglas Gray -- Courtiers and courtly poetry / Barry Windeatt -- Drama: sacred and secular / Pamela King.]

Saunders, Corinne J. The Forest of Medieval Romance: Avernus, Broceliande, Arden. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1993.

Saunders, Corinne J. Rape and Ravishment in the Literature of Medieval England. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2001. [Publisher's description: "This work explores and untangles the theme of rape, and its counterpart ravishment, in Anglo-French cultural tradition between the disintegration of the classical world and the Renaissance. Tracing debate and dialogue across intellectual and literary discourses, Corinne Saunders places Middle English literary portrayals of rape and ravishment in the context of shifting legal, theological and medical attitudes. The treatment of rape and ravishment is considered across a wide range of literary genres: hagiography, where female saints are repeatedly threatened with rape; legendary history, as in the stories of Lucretia and Helen; and romance, where acts of rape and ravishment challenge and shape chivalric order, and romance heroes are conceived through rape. Finally, the ways in which Malory and Chaucer write and rewrite rape and ravishment are examined."]

Scanlon, Larry, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Literature, 1100-1500. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. [Contents: Re-inventing the vernacular: Middle English language and its literature / Wendy Scase -- Textual production and textual communities / Richard Firth Green -- Religious writing: hagiography, pastoralia, devotional and contemplative works / Richard Newhauser -- Romance / Christine Chism -- Dialogue, debate, and dream vision / Steven F. Kruger -- Drama / Sarah Beckwith -- Lyric / Ardis Butterfield -- Lollard writings / Rita Copeland -- William Langland / Ralph Hanna -- The Gawain-poet / Sarah Stanbury -- John Gower / Diane Watt -- Geoffrey Chaucer / Larry Scanlon -- Julian of Norwich / Lynn Staley -- Thomas Hoccleve / Ethan Knapp -- John Lydgate / James Simpson -- Margery Kempe / Rebecca Krug -- Sir Thomas Malory / David Wallace -- Robert Henryson / Sally Mapstone.]

Scattergood, [Vincent] John. "Literary Culture at the Court of Richard II." In English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages. Ed. V[incent] J[ohn] Scattergood, and J. W. Sherborne. Colston Papers. London: Duckworth, 1983. Pp. 29-43. [Rpt. in his Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996. Pp. 114-127.]

Scattergood, [Vincent] John. Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996.

Schieberle, M. Feminized Counsel and the Literature of Advice in England, 1380-1500. Disputatio 26. Turnhout: Brepols, 2014. [Publisher's description: "The term 'feminized counsel' denotes the advice associated with and spoken by women characters. This book demonstrates that rather than classify women's voices as an opposite against which to define masculine authority, late medieval vernacular poets embraced the feminine as a representation of their subordination to kings, patrons, and authorities. The works studied include Gower's 'Confessio Amantis,' Chaucer's 'Legend of Good Women' and 'Melibee,' and English translations of Christine de Pizan's 'Epistre Othea.' To advise readers, these texts draw on the politicized genre of mirrors for princes. Whereas Latin mirrors such as the 'Secretum secretorum' and Giles of Rome's 'De regimine principum' represented women as inferior, weak, and detrimental to masculine authority, these vernacular texts break traditional expectations and portray women as essential and authoritative political counsellors. By considering Latin and French sources, historical models of queens' intercessions, and literary models of authoritative female personifications, this study explores the woman counsellor as a literary topos that enabled poets to criticize, advise, and influence powerful readers. 'Feminized Counsel' elucidates the manner in which vernacular poets concerned with issues of counsel, mercy, and power identified with fictional women's struggles to develop authority in the political sphere. These women counsellors become enabling models that paradoxically generate authority for poets who also lack access to traditionally recognized forms of intellectual or literary authority."]

Seymour, M. C., ed. English Writers of the Late Middle Ages. Authors of the Middle Ages 1. Aldershot, and Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1994.

Silverstein, Theodore. Literate Laughter: Critical Essays in Medieval Narrative and Poetry. Ed. John C. Jacobs. Fwd. by Winthrop Wetherbee. Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt-am-Main, New York, Oxford, Vienna: Peter Lang, 2002. [A collection of previously published essays by Silverstein, including several on Gawain and the Green Knight.]

Sinnreich-Levi, Deborah M., and Gale Sigal, eds. Voices in Translation: The Authority of "Olde Bookes" in Medieval Literature; Essays in Honor of Helaine Newstead. Pref. Harold M. Proshansky. Foreward Allen Mandelbaum. Intro. Frederick Goldin. AMS Studies in the Middle Ages 17. New York: AMS, 1992.

Solopova, Elizabeth, and Stuart Lee. Key Concepts in Medieval Literature. Palgrave Key Concepts: Literature. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. [Publisher's description: "Key Concepts in Medieval Literature provides the reader with an introduction to the major authors, themes and critical perspectives in Old and Middle English literature. Together with looking at significant authors and works in the period, the book emphasises the key historical and literary concepts that inform the evolution of literature through the age. Short contextual essays offering an overview of relevant historical and philosophical themes accompany the literary discussion. Clearly presented, the book merges essential analytical and technical skills with contemporary literary discussions, allowing the reader to become aware of the breadth and depth of such a large and diverse genre."]

Spearing, A. C. Criticism and Medieval Poetry. 2nd ed. London: Edward Arnold, 1972.

Spearing, A. C. Medieval Dream Poetry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Spearing, A. C. The Medieval Poet as Voyeur: Looking and Listening in Medieval Love-Narratives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Spearing, A. C. "The Poetic Subject from Chaucer to Spenser." In Subjects on the World's Stage: Essays on British Literature of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Ed. David C. Allen and Robert A. White. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1995. Pp. 13-37.

Spiegel, Gabrielle M. The Past as Text: The Theory and Practice of Medieval Historiography. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Staley, Lynn. The Island Garden: England's Language of Nation from Gildas to Marvell. ReFormations: Medieval and Early Modern. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2012. [Contents: Introduction: The language of place -- Writing in the shadow of Bede: England, the island garden -- The island garden and the anxieties of enclosure -- The fourteenth century and place -- Susanna and her garden -- Conclusion: island discourse.]

Staley, Lynn. Languages of Power in the Age of Richard II. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2003. [Staley "offer[s] a way of 'reading' history through its refractions in literature. . . . [She] scrutinizes the ways in which Chaucer and other courtly writers participated in these attempts to articulate the concept of princely power. As one who took it upon himself to comment on the various means by which history is made, Chaucer emerges from Staley's narrative as a poet without peer" (publisher's description).]

Stanbury, Sarah. The Visual Object of Desire in Late Medieval England. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Little remains of the rich visual culture of late medieval English piety. The century and a half leading up to the Reformation had seen an unparalleled growth of devotional arts, as chapels, parish churches, and cathedrals came to be filled with images in stone, wood, alabaster, glass, embroidery, and paint of newly personalized saints, angels, and the Holy Family. But much of this fell victim to the Royal Injunctions of September 1538, when parish officials were ordered to remove images from their churches. In this highly insightful book Sarah Stanbury explores the lost traffic in images in late medieval England and its impact on contemporary authors and artists. For Chaucer, Nicholas Love, Margery Kempe, the image debate provides an urgent language for exploring the demands of a material devotional culture--though these writers by no means agree on the ethics of those demands. As Stanbury contends, England in the late Middle Ages was keenly attuned to and troubled by its 'culture of the spectacle,' whether this spectacle took the form of a newly-made queen in Chaucer's Clerk's Tale or of the animate Christ in Norwich Cathedral's Despenser Retable. In picturing images and icons, these texts were responding to reformist controversies as well as to the social and economic demands of things themselves, the provocative objects that made up the fabric of ritual life." Contents: Introduction: Premodern fetishes -- Fetish, idol, icon. Knighton's Lollards, Capgrave's Katherine, and Walter Hilton's "Merk ymage" -- The despenser retable and 1381 -- Chaucer's sacramental poetic. Chaucer and images -- Translating Griselda -- The Clergeon's tongue -- Moving pictures. Nicholas Love's Mirror: dead images and the life of Christ -- Arts of self-patronage in The book of Margarey Kempe.]

Sturges, Robert S. Medieval Interpretation: Models of Reading in Literary Narrative, 1100-1500. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991.

Tinkle, Theresa. Medieval Venuses and Cupids: Sexuality, Hermeneutics, and English Poetry. Figurae: Reading Medieval Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995.

Tracy, Larissa. Torture and Brutality in Medieval Literature: Negotiations of National Identity. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2012. [Contents: Rending the flesh: the orthodoxy of torture in hagiography -- Resisting the rod: torture and the anxieties of continental identity -- The matter of the north: Icelandic sagas and cultural autonomy -- The matter of Britain: defining English identity in opposition to torture -- Laughing at pain: the comic uses of torture and brutality -- Medieval torture and early-modern identity -- Conclusion.]

Treharne, Elaine M., ed. Writing Gender and Genre in Medieval Literature: Approaches to Old and Middle English Texts. Essays and Studies ns 55. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, for the English Association, 2002. ["The essays in this annual English Association volume provide useful examples of how the conventions behind and the expectations evoked by literary modes and genres help to shape what purports to be an entirely essential and/or socially constructed aspect of identity of the 'he,' 'she,' or 'I' of the literary text. Ranging across materials from Old English Biblical poetry and hagiography to the late Middle English romances and fabliaux, the essays are united by a commitment to a variety of traditional scholarly methodologies. But each examines afresh an important aspect of what it means to be man or women, husband, son, mother, daughter, wife, devotee or love in the context of particular kinds of medieval literary texts" (publisher's description).]

Treharne, Elaine M., and Greg Walker, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "The study of medieval literature has experienced a revolution in the last two decades, which has reinvigorated many parts of the discipline and changed the shape of the subject in relation to the scholarship of the previous generation. 'New' texts (laws and penitentials, women's writing, drama records), innovative fields and objects of study (the history of the book, the study of space and the body, medieval masculinities), and original ways of studying them (the Sociology of the Text, performance studies) have emerged. This has brought fresh vigour and impetus to medieval studies, and impacted significantly on cognate periods and areas. The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English brings together the insights of these new fields and approaches with those of more familiar texts and methods of study, to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of medieval literature today. It also returns to first principles in posing fundamental questions about the nature, scope, and significance of the discipline, and the directions that it might take in the next decade." Contents: Speaking of the medieval / Elaine Treharne -- Literary production. Books and manuscripts / A. S. G. Edwards; Textual copying and transmission / Orietta Da Rold; The professionalization of writing / Simon Horobin; Writing, authority, and bureaucracy / Nicholas Perkins; The impact of print: the perceived worth of the printed book in England, 1476-1575 / Elizabeth Evenden -- Literary consumption. Literature and the cultural elites / Ralph Hanna; The verse of heroes / Jayne Carroll; Insular romance / Siân Echard; A York primer and its alphabet: reading women in a lay household / Nicola Mcdonald; Performing communities: civic religious drama / John J. McGavin -- Literature, clerical and lay. Change and continuity: the English sermon before 1250 / Bella Millett; Authorizing female piety / Diane Watt; Visions and visionaries / Andrew Galloway; Writing, heresy, and the anticlerical muse / Mishtooni Bose; Acquiring wisdom: teaching texts and the lore of the people / Daniel Anlezark -- Literary realities. The Yorkshire partisans and the literature of popular discontent / Andrew Prescott; The Gothic turn and twelfth-century English chronicles / Thomas A. Bredehoft; Anti-social reform: writing rebellion / Stephen Kelly; Secular medieval drama / Elisabeth Dutton; Sweit rois- delytsum lyllie: metaphorical and real flowers in medieval verse / Gillian Rudd -- Complex identities. Authority, constraint, and the writing of the medieval self / Kathryn Kerby-Fulton; Complex identities: selves and others / Kathy Lavezzo; The chosen people: spiritual identities / Samantha Zacher; Individuality / Alcuin Blamires; Emergent Englishness / Jacqueline -- Literary place, space, and time. Regions and communities / Helen Fulton; The city and the text: London literature / Alison Wiggins; Reading communities / Wendy Scase; Scottish writing / Elizabeth Elliot; Places of the imagination: the Gawain-poet / Thorlac Turville-Petre -- Literary journeys. Pilgrimages, travel writing, and the medieval exotic / Jeffrey Jerome Cohen; Britain: ordinary myths and the stories of peoples / Anke Bernau; Maps and margins: other lands, other peoples / Alfred Hiatt; Monsters and the exotic in medieval England / Asa Simon Mittman and Susan M. Kim; Spiritual quest and social space: texts of hard travel for God on Earth and in the heart / Mary Baine Campbell -- Epilogue. When did "the medieval" end: retrospection, foresight, and the end(s) of the English Middle Ages / Greg Walker.]

Trigg, Stephanie, ed. Medieval English Poetry. Longman Critical Readers. London and New York: Longman, 1993.

Veldhoen, N. H. G. E., and H. Aertsen, eds. Companion to Early Middle English Literature. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Free University Press, 1995.

Wallace, David, ed. The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. New Cambridge History of English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. [Contents: Part I: After the Norman Conquest -- Old English and its afterlife / Seth Lerer; Anglo-Norman cultures in England, 1066-1460 / Susan Crane; Early Middle English / Thomas Hahn; National, world and women's history: writers and readers in post-Conquest England / Lesley Johnson, Jocelyn Wogan-Browne; Latinitas / Christopher Baswell; Romance in England, 1066-1400 / Rosalind Field. Part II: Writing in the British Isles -- Writing in Wales / Brynley F. Roberts; Writing in Ireland / Terence Dolan; Writing in Scotland, 1058-1560 / R. James Goldstein; Writing history in England / Andrew Galloway; London texts and literate practice / Sheila Lindenbaum. Part III: Institutional Productions -- Monastic productions / Christopher Cannon; The friars and medieval English literature / John V. Fleming; Classroom and confession / Marjorie Curry Woods, Rita Copeland; Medieval literature and law / Richard Firth Green; Vox populi and the literature of 1381 / David Aers; Englishing the Bible, 1066-1549 / David Lawton. Part IV: After the Black Death -- Alliterative poetry / Ralph Hanna; Piers Plowman / Kathryn Kerby-Fulton; The Middle English mystics / Nicholas Watson; Geoffrey Chaucer / Glending Olson; John Gower / Winthrop Wetherbee; Middle English lives / Julia Boffey. Part V: Before the Reformation -- Hoccleve, Lydgate and the Lancastrian court / Paul Strohm; Lollardy / Steven Justice; Romance after 1400 / Helen Cooper; William Caxton / Seth Lerer; English drama: from ungodly ludi to sacred play / Lawrence M. Clopper; The allegorical theatre: moralities, interludes and Protestant drama / John Watkins; The experience of exclusion: literature and politics in the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII / Colin Burrow; Reformed literature and literature reformed / Brian Cummings; Chronological outline of historical events and texts in Britain, 1050-1550 / William P. Marvin.]

Wasserman, Julian N., and Lois Roney, eds. Sign, Sentence, Discourse: Language in Medieval Thought and Literature. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1989.

Watkins, Eric, ed. The Divine Order, the Human Order, and the Order of Nature: Historical Perspectives. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. [Contents: Powers versus laws: God and the order of the world according to some late medieval Aristotelians / Marilyn McCord Adams -- The order of nature and moral luck: Maimonides on divine providence / Steven Nadler -- God, laws, and the order of nature: Descartes and Leibniz, Hobbes, and Spinoza / Daniel Garber -- Malebranche's causal concepts / Robert Merrihew Adams -- Laws and order: Malebrance, Berkeley, Hume / Tad M. Schmaltz -- Laws of nature in seventeenth-century England: from Cambridge Platonism to Newtonianism / Peter Harrison -- Laws and powers in Leibniz / Donald Rutherford -- Change in the monad / Martha Brandt Bolton -- Rational hope, moral order, and the revolution of the will / Andrew Chignell -- Kant on the natural, moral, human, and divine orders / Eric Watkins.]

Wenzel, Siegfried. "Pestilence and Middle English Literature: Friar John Grimestone's Poems on Death." In The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague; Papers of the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Centre for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Ed. Daniel Williman. Intro. Nancy Siraisi. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 13. Binghamton, NY: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies (Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton), 1982. Pp. 131-159. [Six papers from the 1977 conference. Primarily on the verses of Grimestone, but within a broader context of plague references in Middle English literature, including Langland, Chaucer, and Lydgate. Argues that critics and historians (such as Ziegler) who describe the mentality of the late Middle Ages as "obsessed" with gruesome and macabre forms of death, or wracked by religious doubt because of the plague, cannot be justified with respect to England; such claims might be truer on the Continent but not in England (the flagellants are not to be found in England, for instance, and the literary references are not obsessive or especially macabre [cf., with similar results, Pearsall's later essay, "Signs of Life in Lydgate's 'Danse Macabre'"]). Pp. 148-149: Wenzel describes briefly the Dance of Death at St. Paul's (n. 92 mentions Lydgate's verses), as an imported Continental rather than English tradition, and which remained relatively rare in England (n. 102 also mentions that the "Dance of Death" is primarily an expression of "estates satire" rather than a response to plague). P. 150: Chaucer's Knight, when interrupting the Monk, recommends the avoidance of "heaviness" for reasons of health, which is also the position of Lydgate, expressed in the opening lines of "Doctrine for Pestilence" (lines 1-3 are quoted), and this may have been the more usual "English" approach to the plague, along with a strong (but very traditional: no crisis and spiritual doubt involved) moralism, as in the "Pardoner's Tale": death and pestilence should cause one to think of the need for penitence and virtue (151-152).]

White, Hugh. Nature, Sex, and Goodness in a Medieval Literary Tradition. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. [Alan of Lille's The Complaint of Nature (and its presentation of the Goddess Natura) and its influence on The Romance of the Rose (Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun), Geoffrey Chaucer, and John Gower. On the ethics of human sexuality and reproduction.]

Whitehead, Christiania. Castles of the Mind: A Study of Medieval Architectural Allegory. Cardiff: University of Wales, 2003. [Publisher's description: "Why does Tertullian compare virginity to a citadel? Why does Birgitta say that the Virgin Mary is like the Temple of Solomon? And why does Chaucer symbolise love and fame through a rich Gothic-style palace? All of these metaphors are part of a literary tradition that employs architecture as a symbolic structure representing a wide range of ideological systems, from fame and honour, to love and church community. Divided into two parts, this study examines the use of architecture for allegorical representation in two literary traditions which Whitehead labels Christian and classicising, dating from antiquity to the end of the Middle Ages."]

Whitman, Jon. Allegory: The Dynamics of an Ancient and Medieval Technique. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Wiggins, Alison. "The City and the Text: London Literature." In The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature in English. Ed. Elaine M. Treharne and Greg Walker. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Pp. 540-556.

Williams, David. Deformed Discourse: The Function of the Monster in Medieval Thought and Literature. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press; Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1996.

Williams, Deanne. The French Fetish from Chaucer to Shakespeare. Cambridge Studies in Renaissance Literature and Culture 47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Wogan-Browne, Jocelyn, ed. The Idea of the Vernacular: An Anthology of Middle English Literary Theory, 1280-1520. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999. [Contents: Using This Volume: A Note on Conventions and Treatment of Text -- Authorizing Text and Writer -- Robert Mannyng, Chronicle: Prologue -- John Barbour, The Bruce: Prologue -- Geoffrey Chaucer, Complaint of Venus: Envoi -- Thomas Usk, The Testament of Love: Prologue (Extract) -- John Walton, Translation of Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy: Prefacio Translatoris -- Thomas Hoccleve, The Complaint: Prologue and Extract -- John Lydgate, Troy Book: Prologue (Extract) -- John Metham, Amoryus and Cleopes: Prologue and Ending -- George Ashby, Active Policy of a Prince: Prologue -- Guy de Chauliac, Cyrurgie: Prologue (Extract) -- Osbern Bokenham, Legendys of Hooly Wummen: Prologus -- Speculum Devotorum (Myrowre to Devout Peple): Prefacyon (Extract) -- Julian of Norwich, A Revelation of Love (Short Text): Prologue and Chapter 6 -- Margery Kempe, The Book of Margery Kempe: Two Prologues -- The General Prologue to the Wycliffite Bible: Chapter 12 (Extract) -- Reginald Pecock, Prologue to the Donet and The Repressor of Over Much Blaming of the Clergy (Extracts) -- Addressing and Positioning the Audience -- Northern Homily Cycle: Prologue -- John Trevisa, Dialogue Between the Lord and the Clerk on Translation (Extract) and Epistle to Thomas, Lord Berkeley, on the Translation of Higden's Polychronicon -- Thomas Norton, Ordinal of Alchemy: Probemium -- On Translating the Bible into English (Extract) -- The Holi Prophete David Seith (Three Extracts) -- The Knowing of Woman's Kind in Childing: Translator's Prologue -- John Capgrave, Life of St. Gilbert: Prologue -- Bishop Fox, The Rule of Seynt Benet: Prefatory Letter -- The Amesbury Letter: Prologue -- William Caxton, Translation of Christine de Pizan's Book of Fayttes of Armes and of Chyvalrye: Prologue -- John Gower, Confessio Amantis: Prologue, Two Versions (Extracts) -- Knyghthode and Bataile: Proem -- The Nightingale: Prose Introduction and Proem -- The Croxton Play of the Sacrament: Banns -- South English Legendary: Prologue -- William Caxton, Translation of Geoffroy de la Tour-Landry, Book of the Knight of the Tower: Prologue -- Spektakle of Luf: Prologue -- Models and Images of the Reading Process -- A Talking of the Love of God: Prologue -- Pseudo-Augustinian Soliloquies: Prologue and Digression -- The Cloud of Unknowing: Prologue -- Julian of Norwich, A Revelation of Love (Long Text): Explicit -- The Orchard of Syon: Prologue -- Pore Caityf: Prologue -- The Prick of Conscience: Prologue (Extract) -- Richard Rolle, The English Psalter: Prologue -- Dives and Pauper: Part One, Chapters 1-3 (Extract) -- Nicholas Love, The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ: Prologue (Extract) -- Sermon of Dead Men: Peroration -- The Mirror of Our Lady: Three Prologues -- The Wars of Alexander: Opening -- Cursor Mundi: Prologue (Extract) -- John Skelton, Translation of Poggio Bracciolini, Bibliotheca Historica of Diodorus Siculus: Prologue (Extract) -- Gavin Douglas, Eneados: Book V, Prologue -- William Caxton, Reynard the Fox: Prologue -- Robert Henryson, Fables: Prologue -- William Langland, Piers Plowman: C Text, Passus XV (Extract) -- Mechtild of Hackeborn, The Book of Ghostly Grace: Epilogue (Extract) -- Eleanor Hull, A Commentary on the Penitential Psalms: Psalm 50 (Selections) -- Margery Kempe, The Book of Margery Kempe: Book I, Chapter 58-59 (Extract) -- King James I of Scotland, The Kingis Quair: Opening -- Brian Anslay, Translation of Christine de Pizan's Book of the City of Ladies: Chapter 1, with Dedicatory Verses by Henry Pepwell -- Five Essays -- The Notion of Vernacular Theory / Ruth Evans, Andrew Taylor, Nicholas Watson, Jocelyn Wogan-Browne -- The Politics of Middle English Writing / Nicholas Watson -- Authors, Scribes, Patrons, and Books / Andrew Taylor -- Historicizing Postcolonial Criticism: Cultural Difference and the Vernacular / Ruth Evans -- An Afterword on the Prologue / Ruth Evans -- Alternative Arrangements of the Excerpts -- Glossary: The Language of Middle English Literary Theory -- Middle English Terms -- Select Latin Terms -- Jocelyn Wogan-Browne.]

Wolterbeek, Marc. Comic Tales of the Middle Ages: An Anthology and Commentary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Yamamoto, Dorothy. The Boundaries of the Human in Medieval English Literature. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. [Revision of the author's thesis (Ph.D.), Oxford Brookes University. Contents: "Introduction"; "The Bestiary: Establishing Ground Rules"; "Birds: The Ornament of the Air"; "The Fox: Laying Bare Deceit"; "The Heraldic Image"; "Bodies in the Hunt"; "A Reading of The Knight's Tale"; "The Wild Man 1: Figuring Identity"; "The Wild Man 2: The Uncourtly Other"; "Women and the Wild"; "Conclusion."]

Zumthor, Paul. Toward a Medieval Poetics. Trans. Philip Bennett. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.

E.ii. Genres

Allen, Charles Albert, ed. Satire: Theory and Practice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1962.

Baranski, Zygmunt G. "Dante, the Roman Comedians, and the Medieval Theory of Comedy." The Italianist 15, Supp. 2 (1995): 61-99.

Bergson, Henri. Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic. Trans. Cloudesley Brereton and Fred Rothwell. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1911. ["Originally appeared in a series of three articles in . . . the Revue de Paris" (Translators' pref.).]

Corngold, Stanley. "Some Theoretical and Historical Complications in Hegel's Aesthetics of Comedy." In After Poststructuralism: Writing the Intellectual History of Theory. Ed. Tilottama Rajan and Michael J. O'Driscoll. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002. Pp. 25-42.

Dyson, A. E. The Crazy Fabric: Essays in Irony. London: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965.

Edwards, Anthony T. "Historicizing the Popular Grotesque: Bakhtin's Rabelais and His World and Attic Old Comedy." In Bakhtin and the Classics. Ed. R. Bracht Branham. Rethinking Theory. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2002. Pp. 27-55.

Fowler, Alastair. Kinds of Literature: An Introduction to the Theory of Genres and Modes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Freudenburg, Kirk. The Walking Muse: Horace on the Theory of Satire. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Frye, Northrop. The Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957. [Includes extensive essays on the nature of comedy, tragedy, romance, and satire.]

Frye, Northrop. "The Nature of Satire." University of Toronto Quarterly 14 (1944-1945): 75-89.

Frye, Northrop. "Old and New Comedy." Shakespeare Survey 22 (1959): 1-5.

Frye, Northrop. The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of Romance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Gans, Eric. Signs of Paradox: Irony, Resentment, and Other Mimetic Structures. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997.

Goldstein, Jeffrey H., and Paul E. McGhee, eds. The Psychology of Humor: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Issues. Fwd. H. J. Eysenck. New York: Academic Press, 1972.

Gruner, Charles R. The Game of Humor: A Comprehensive Theory of Why We Laugh. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1997. [Contents: 1. Win Or Lose: The Games We Play -- 2. Conflict in Daily Life -- 3. Drollery in Death, Destruction, and Disaster -- 4. Comic Scripts: Laughing at People, Groups, and Concepts -- 5. Sexual, Sexist, and Scatological Humor -- 6. The Special Case of Puns: Wordplay is a Game to be Won, Too -- 7. The Mirage of "Innocent" Humor.]

Hamamoto, Hideki. "Irony from a Cognitive Perspective." In Relevance Theory: Applications and Implications. Ed. Robyn Carston and Seiji Uchida. Pragmatics and Beyond ns 37. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1997.

Herbert, Christopher. Trollope and Comic Pleasure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Highet, Gilbert. The Anatomy of Satire. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962.

Hutcheon, Linda. Irony's Edge: The Theory and Politics of Irony. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. [Publisher's description: "Irony's Edge is a fascinating, compulsively readable study of the myriad forms and the effects of irony. It sets out, for the first time, a sustained, clear analysis of the theory and the political contexts of irony, using a wide range of references, mostly from contemporary culture. Examples extend from Madonna to Wagner, from a clever quip in conversation to a contentious exhibition in a museum. And the stakes are high--many radical artists and cultural activists consider irony to be usefully subversive; others see it as more suspect. After all, irony can just as easily legitimate as undermine relations of power." Contents: Introduction: The "Scene" of Irony -- 1. Risky Business: The "Transideological" Politics of Irony -- 2. The Cutting Edge -- 3. Modeling Meaning: The Semantics of Irony -- 4. Discursive Communities: How Irony "Happens" -- 5. Intention and Interpretation: Irony and the Eye of the Beholder -- 6. Frame-Ups and Their Marks: The Recognition or Attribution of Irony -- 7. The End(s) of Irony: The Politics of Appropriateness.]

Kendrick, Laura. "Medieval Satire." In European Writers: The Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Ed. George Stade. New York: Scribner's, 1983. Pp. 337-375.

Koestler, Arthur. "The Comic and Other Theories of the Comic: Bergson and Freud." In his Insight and Outlook. New York: Macmillan, 1949. Pp. 3-110; 417-440.

Lang, Berel. "The Limits of Irony." New Literary History 27 (1996): 571-588.

Meredith, George. An Essay on Comedy and the Uses of the Comic Spirit. Ed. Lane Cooper. New York: Scribner, 1918.

Michelson, Bruce. Literary Wit. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2000.

Mills, Brett. "Humour Theory." In The Television Genre Book. Ed. Glen Creeber, Toby Miller, and John Tulloch. London: British Film Institute, 2001. P. 63.

Morreall, John. Taking Laughter Seriously. Albany: State University of New York, 1983.

Muecke, D. C. Irony and the Ironic. London and New York: Methuen, 1982.

Nelson, T. G. A. Comedy: An Introduction to Comedy in Literature, Drama, and Cinema. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Olson, Elder. The Theory of Comedy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968.

Pogel, Nancy, and Paul P. Somers Jr. "Literary Humor." In Humor in America: A Research Guide to Genres and Topics. Ed. Lawrence E. Mintz. London: Greenwood, 1988. Pp. 1-34.

Purdie, Susan. Comedy: The Mastery of Discourse. Theory/Culture Series. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

Reynolds, Suzanne. "Dante and the Medieval Theory of Satire: A Collection of Texts." The Italianist 15, Supp. 2 (1995): 145-157.

Reynolds, Suzanne. "'Orazio satiro' (Inferno IV.89): Dante, the Roman Satirists, and the Medieval Theory of Satire." The Italianist 15, Supp. 2 (1995): 128-144.

Sacks, Sheldon. "Toward a Grammar of the Types of Fiction." Chap. 1 of Fiction and the Shape of Belief: A Study of Henry Fielding with Glances at Swift, Johnson, and Richardson. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1964. Pp. 1-69. [This includes a very useful definition of "satire."]

Silk, M. S. Aristophanes and the Definition of Comedy. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Storey, Robert. "Comedy, its Theorists, and the Evolutionary Perspective." Criticism 38 (1996): 407-441.

Storey, Robert. "A Critique of Recent Theories of Laughter and Humor, with Special Reference to the Comedy of Seinfeld." Interdisciplinary Literary Studies 2.2 (Spring 2001): 75-92.

Sutton, Dana Ferrin. The Catharsis of Comedy. Greek Studies. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1994.

Veatch, Thomas C. "A Theory of Humor." Humor: The International Journal of Humor Research 11.2 (May 1998): 161-216. [Available online here.]

E.iii. "Carnival" (Festive Misrule)

Abrahams, Roger D., and Richard Bauman. "Ranges of Festival Behavior." In The Reversible World: Symbolic Inversion in Art and Society. Ed. Barbara A. Babcock. Symbol, Myth, and Ritual Series. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1978. Pp. 193-208. [Papers from the "Forms of Symbolic Inversion" Symposium, Toronto, 1972. The authors argue against the "safety valve" theory of ritual inversion (posited by Max Gluckman and others).]

Axton, Richard. "Festive Culture in Country and Town." In Medieval Britain. Ed. Boris Ford. The Cambridge Cultural History of Britain 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Pp. 141-153.

Babcock, Barbara A. Introduction. In The Reversible World: Symbolic Inversion in Art and Society. Ed. Barbara A. Babcock. Symbol, Myth, and Ritual Series. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1978. Pp. 13-36. [Papers from the "Forms of Symbolic Inversion" Symposium, Toronto, 1972. Anthropological studies of cultural symbols of "inversion," by which is meant "ritualized 'role reversals,'" substitutions of categories, or the "rites of rebellion," to use Max Gluckman's phrase (p. 22). Babcock describes Gluckman's idea of rebellion (as expressed in his paper "Rituals of Rebellion in South East Africa" and his book Custom and Conflict in Africa) as the "steam valve" theory of social conflict (Ventilsitten; cathartic), in which ritualized inversion does not seriously challenge the established order, but, in fact, preserves it by dispelling the forces of opposition. Gluckman, says Babcock, is probably pursuing an idea expressed by Trotsky, that seasonal folk "rebellions" tended to be a hindrance to the development of true "revolutionary consciousness" (22). By contrast, and more recently, Victor Turner and others have discussed "disorder" as being a fundamental part of the liminal phase of every rite of passage (not just seasonal rites), as the "Nay" to society's "Yea," as an expression of the chaos which underlies all order (24). (Turner's approach to ritual is fundamental to the essays in this collection generally, and Turner himself provides an essay which responds to all of the others.)]

Bakhtin, M[ikhail] M[ikhailovich]. Rabelais and his World. Trans. Hélène Iswolsky. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1968.

Billington, Sandra. Midsummer: A Cultural Sub-Text from Chrétien de Troyes to Jean Michel. Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2001. ["This book is based on fresh and original research from archives in France and the Low Countries, concerning customs and beliefs practised around the midsummer solstice. The information has never previously been considered and it reveals a festive treatment of divisiveness, which might also be politically engaged. The book shows how in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries these traditions were not solely observed by the lower classes. A study of texts throughout the Middle Ages shows that the significance of St John's Day was a valued source for some major writers, and it can be argued that it was even the rationale for works such as Chrétien's Yvain and the anonymous Perlesvaus. The midsummer customs also appear in the civic records of Leuven and Metz, in periods where the city authorities were strong enough to break free of feudal controls. Their civic freedom was expressed at the Feast of the Baptist's Nativity, and this appropriation by the bourgeoisie informs the romance, Galeran. The rationale of Midsummer is to examine the disparate, but interlinked[,] uses of the customs, and to bring to the awareness of scholars festive influences current in Europe before the better known influence of Carnival; also to discuss their seminal importance for early fiction and for the theatre. The book further reveals that pre-Christian belief in Chance/Fortune was supported by the phenomenon of the Solstice and that John the Baptist's Nativity, placed on 24 June, provided a way for Christian Fathers to allow for this, safely" (publisher's description).]

Billington, Sandra. Mock Kings in Medieval Society and Renaissance Drama. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. ["King-led outlaw defiance, riotous lords of misrule, proud midsummer mock kings, and stately Inns of Court princes: all could be seen as reflections of the dominant social order, and all influenced the writings of Shakespeare and his contemporaries."]

Bristol, Michael. "Acting Out Utopia: The Politics of Carnival." Performance 6 (1973): 13-28.

Cartlidge, Neil. "The Battle of Shrovetide: Carnival against Lent as a Leitmotif in Late Medieval Culture." Viator 35 (2004): 517-542. [Abstract: "This essay is concerned with the ways in which medieval writers and artists depicted the imagined conflict between Carnival and Lent--a metaphorical contrast that, as it happens, has often been appropriated by modern critics writing about the Middle Ages, most notably by Mikhail Bakhtin. Such an appropriation is not entirely unjustified, for it is an idea prominent in medieval culture, and perhaps even more prominent than Bakhtin's work actually demonstrates. Yet in a critical context the use of this imagery tends towards a rigid reductiveness that is sharply at odds with the richly complex and varied ways in which it appears in late medieval art and literature. In order to illustrate this point and to give an impression of the large field of texts at issue, the article provides a necessarily selective survey that briefly addresses in turn: a pair of letters attached to Guido Faba's (Latin) Rota Nova; the Old French poem La Bataille de Caresme et de Charnage; some dramatic texts in both French and German; and, finally, Pieter van Brueghel's famous painting 'The Battle between Carnival and Lent.' In the end, this article suggests, modern analysts of late medieval culture have been too ready to accept this metaphorical dichotomy as a self-sufficient account of the medieval world, and too slow to acknowledge the sophistication and self-consciousness with which medieval writers and artists themselves employed it."]

Cox, Harvey Gallagher. The Feast of Fools: A Theological Essay on Festivity and Fantasy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969. ["Festivity" (carnival) exposes "the arbitrary quality of social rank and enables people to see that things need not always be as they are" (6).]

Ganim, John M. "Bakhtin, Chaucer, Carnival, Lent." Chap. 2 of his Chaucerian Theatricality. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991. Pp. 17-30.

Hole, Christina. English Custom and Usage, Illustrated from Prints and Photographs. 2nd ed. London: B. T. Batsford, 1943.

Humphrey, Chris. The Politics of Carnival: Festive Misrule in England. Manchester Medieval Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.

Hutton, Ronald. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991. [This is the first of three books in which Hutton pursues the idea of "pagan survivals" in the folk customs and ceremonies of Britain (here attempting to discover what we actually know about pre-Christian religions in Britain); by his own admission (see the preface to Rise and Fall of Merry England) he found little evidence of any such survivals. Publisher's description: "This is the first survey of religious beliefs of the British Isles from the Old Stone Age to the coming of Christianity. Ronald Hutton considers a fascinating range of evidence for Celtic and Romano-British paganism, from burial sites and cairns, to jewellery, weapons, literary texts and folklore."]

Hutton, Ronald. The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The Ritual Year, 1400-1700. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. [This is the second of three books in which Hutton pursues the idea of "pagan survivals" in the folk customs and ceremonies of Britain; by his own admission (see the preface to Rise and Fall of Merry England) he found little evidence of any such survivals. In Rise and Fall, Hutton explores the idea of "Merry England," the passing of which is often lamented in the time of the Stuarts and of the Puritan interregnum in the seventeenth century; he finds that it actually flourished in the period of the early Tudors, passing away about the same time as Queen Elizabeth. It is marked by a variety of ceremonies and rituals that define the "ritual year" (a concept first proposed by Phythian-Adams), between Christmas and midsummer each year. While it has been a commonplace among folklorists and historians that these activities must date from time immemorial and have pagan roots, in fact for most of them there is no historical record prior to the fifteenth century: they are mostly Christian inventions, created principally for the raising of funds for the parish.]

Hutton, Ronald. Stations of the Sun: The Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. [This is the third of three books in which Hutton pursues the idea of "pagan survivals" in the folk customs and ceremonies of Britain; by his own admission (see the preface to Rise and Fall of Merry England) he found little evidence of any such survivals. Here he explores the history of rituals and festivals connected to the seasons and the annual cycle of the agricultural year.]

Judge, Roy. "Changing Attitudes to May Day, 1844-1914, with Special Reference to Oxfordshire." Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Dialect and Folk Life Studies, University of Leeds, 1987.

Judge, Roy. "May Day and Merrie England." Folklore 102 (1991): 131-148.

Judge, Roy. May Day in England: An Introductory Bibliography; Based on the Holdings of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library of the English Folk Dance and Song Society. 3rd ed. FLS [Folklore Society Library] Books Bibliographies 1; Vaughan Williams Memorial Library Leaflet 20. London: Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, 1999.

Kendrick, Christopher. Utopia, Carnival, and Commonwealth in Renaissance England. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.

Kightly, Charles. The Customs and Ceremonies of Britain: An Encyclopaedia of Living Traditions. London: Thames and Hudson, 1986.

LeRoy Ladurie, Emmanuel. Carnival in Romans. Trans. Mary Feeney. New York: George Braziller, 1979. [Trans. of Le carnaval de Romans. A festival in sixteenth-century Romans-sur-Isère, France, takes a political and violent turn; this is a study of the politics of "carnival" with a focus on this particular event.]

Milis, Ludo J. R., ed. The Pagan Middle Ages. Trans. Tanis Guest. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1998. ["Many aspects of the pagan past continued to survive into the Middle Ages despite the introduction of Christianity, influencing forms of behaviour and the whole mentality of the period. The essays collected in this stimulating volume seek to explore aspects of the way paganism mingled with Christian teaching to affect many different aspects of medieval society, through a focus on such topics as archaeology, the afterlife and sexuality, scientific knowledge, and visionary activity" (publisher's description).]

Phythian-Adams, Charles. Local History and Folklore: A New Framework. London: Bedford Square Press of the National Council of Social Service, for the Standing Conference for Local History, 1975. [The "survivalist" interpretation of folk customs (i.e., merely explaining them as "survivals" of ancient religious rites) does not help us to account for innovations (there are many new customs which arise, and many local practices which are not replicated elsewhere), nor does it explain why certain practices continue and others die out (what social needs were felt to be fulfilled in the here and now of the person practicing what may or may not have been an ancient custom?). What is needed is a new dialogue between the folklorist and the historian, to develop a fuller understanding of the role of folk customs in the lives of real villagers.]

Stallybrass, Peter, and Allon White. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986. [On cultural boundaries and their transgression. While the examples used are primarily from the seventeenth century and after, the general approach used here could be usefully applied to medieval cultures.]

Turner, Victor W[itter]. Dramas, Fields and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1974.

Turner, Victor W[itter]. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-structure. The Lewis Henry Morgan Lectures 1966. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1969.

F. Individual Authors and Topics
F.i. Boethius

Chadwick, Henry. Boethius: The Consolations of Music, Logic, Theology, and Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Dronke, Peter. "Boethius, Alanus and Dante." Romanische Forschungen 78 (1966): 119-125.

Frakes, Jerold C. The Fate of Fortune in the Early Middle Ages: The Boethian Tradition. Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters 23. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1988.

Kaylor, Noel Harold, Jr. The Medieval "Consolation of Philosophy": An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1215; Garland Medieval Bibliographies 7. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1992. [Chap. 5 (pp. 163-217) is on "The Middle English Tradition" (Chaucer's "Boece" and later versions).]

Kaylor, Noel Harold, Jr., and Philip Phillips, eds. A Companion to Boethius in the Middle Ages. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012.

Kaylor, Noel Harold, Jr., and Philip Phillips, eds. Vernacular Traditions of Boethius's "De consolatione Philosophiae." MIP Research in Medieval Culture. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 2016. [Publisher's description: "Vernacular Traditions of Boethius's 'De consolatione Philosophiae' provides an overview of the widespread reception and influence of Boethius's masterpiece in England and Germany, as well as in the Low Countries, Italy, Poland, Catalonia, and Byzantium. As this volume demonstrates, Boethius is not only a significant Roman author but also a significant translator and adapter of works written originally in Greek on logic and the mathematical sciences, which places him firmly as an important figure at the moment of transition from antiquity to the Middle Ages. The two introductory articles in this collection demonstrate how well Boethius deserves his accolade as 'the last of the Romans' and 'the first of the Scholastics.' The articles and the edition in this volume attest the global reach of Boethius's influence today, not only through the dissemination of his theological and scholarly works, but primarily through the many vernacularizations of his final testament to the world, his Consolatio."]

Léglu, Catherine E., and Stephen J. Milner, eds. The Erotics of Consolation: Desire and Distance in the Late Middle Ages. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. [On the influence of Boethius in the Middle Ages, including a section on "The Book of the Duchess."]

Lerer, Seth. Boethius and Dialogue: Literary Method in The Consolation of Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Magee, John. Boethius on Signification and Mind. Philosophia Antiqua 52. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1989.

Means, Michael H. The Consolatio Genre in Medieval English Literature. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1972.

Minnis, A. J., ed. The Medieval Boethius: Studies in the Vernacular Translations of De Consolatione Philosophiae. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1988.

O'Daly, Gerard. The Poetry of Boethius. London: Duckworth, 1991.

Patch, Howard R. The Tradition of Boethius. New York: Oxford University Press, 1935.

Reiss, Edmund. Boethius. Twayne's World Authors Series 672. Boston: Twayne, 1982.

F.ii. Ovid

Allen, Peter L. The Art of Love: Amatory Fiction from Ovid to the "Romance of the Rose." The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

Brown, Sarah Annes. The Metamorphosis of Ovid: From Chaucer to Ted Hughes. New York, NY: St. Martin's, 1999.

Heyworth, Gregory George. "The Amorous Scripture: Ovidian Romance and the Rhetoric of Culture." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 2000. [DAI 61 (2000-2001): 4375A. Abstract: "This dissertation is a contribution to the history of cultural influence, of classical mores, poetic and aesthetic postures as practiced in Ciceronian and Augustan Rome, distilled, transformed and transmitted in the writings of Ovid to a renascent Europe hungry for cultural sophistication. It is a study of how romance formed popular attitudes of culture by manipulating rhetorical tropes, genres, and levels of decorum. Part one of the dissertation follows the steps in the romance translation of the Ovidian cultus--an Augustan ideal of refined, civilized behavior--into a scripture of social codes and rhetorical topics. Taking Ovidian topoi as subversive models of political order, the initial chapters frame questions in the development of social and individual consciousness in the Middle Ages. The first chapter on Marie de France examines the classical hunt as an allegory of antisocial individualism, tracing the concept of thira (man-hunting) in the Odyssey, Plato and Aristotle, to Ovid, Seneca, Cicero, and thence to Augustine and the Middle Ages where it found expression in such topics as werewolfism and images such as the pilotless bark. The second chapter on Chrétien de Troyes takes as its focal points the sowing and reaping topos, the economic formula of centuple reward, and the vocabulary of honor and leisure (los-repos). The third chapter on Chaucer considers the influence of Ovid's satirical observation 'love and majesty do not go well together' as a political doctrine chastening the private, domestic politics of Augustus and Richard II. Chapter four on Shakespeare considers the tragic unities of time and place in Romeo and Juliet against Ovidian mistiming and misplacement. It observes the ludic dimensions of Shakespeare's stage, and how he measures out its temporal and spatial dimensions by games of vocal hide-and-seek. The final chapter on Milton looks at specific instances of social, scientific, and poetic indecorum in Paradise Lost as catalysts to a fall from epic toward romance sensibilities. Icarus, Daedalus, Bellerophon, Phaethon, and Narcissus work as thematic indices, I argue, to the various experiences of fall, while their pagan presence within a Christian epic represents and anxious compromise of decorum. Ultimately, the fall of man in Milton becomes a trope for the metamorphosis of generic expectation."]

Hyatte, Reginald. "Ovidius, Doctor Amoris: The Changing Attitudes towards Ovid's Eroticism in the Middle Ages as Seen in the Three Old French Adaptations of the Remedia Amoris." Florilegium 4 (1982): 123-136.

Martindale, Charles, ed. Ovid Renewed: Ovidian Influences on Literature and Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Sadlek, Gregory M. Idleness Working: The Discourse of Love's Labor from Ovid through to Chaucer and Gower. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America, 2004. [Publisher's description: "Roman and medieval poets and authors not only explored the physicality and sexuality of love, driven by passion and desire, but also saw love as a labour, a project to be worked on and achieved to reach the final goal. In this study, Sadlek examines the evolution of labour ideology in the works of Ovid, Andreas Capellanus, Alan of Lille, Guillaume de Lorris, Jean de Meun, John Gower and Geoffrey Chaucer, devoting a chapter to each. In studying the develeopment of love's labour in these works, Sadlek reveals a tradition that began with Ovid and changed with the times, from a rhetorical and playful labour of courtship to a more serious and philosophical labour of love geared towards procreation."]

Schotter, Anne Howland. "Transformation of Ovid in the Twelfth-Century Pamphilus." In Desiring Discourse: The Literature of Love, Ovid through Chaucer. Ed. James J. Paxson, and Cynthia A. Gravlee. Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press, 1998. Pp. 72-86.

F.iii. The Romance of the Rose (Le Roman de la Rose)

"The Roman de la Rose Digital Library" (digitized RR manuscripts) [Available online here.]

Adams, Tracy. "Performing the Medieval Art of Love: Medieval Theories of the Emotions and the Social Logic of the Roman de la Rose of Guillaume de Lorris." Viator 38 (2007): 55-74. [Abstract: "Medieval artes amatoriae seem to teach how to simulate love through words and gestures. This essay suggests that, like other medieval treatises on the emotions, medieval artes amatoriae are grounded in the assumption that by acting out the gestures and words associated with an emotion, one begins to experience it. Like their prototype, Ovid's Ars amatoria, these works are interested in creating the emotion of love in the seducer, the one who performs the signs. Focussing on the Guillaume de Lorris section of Le Roman de la Rose, the essay argues that in the often-noted gradual effacement of the distance between the lover and the story's narrator, this romance carefully depicts the psycho-physiological transformation of the lover assimilating the emotion of love. The essay further argues that purpose of medieval artes amatoriae was to teach their readers how to master the art of falling in love for the purpose of making them agreeable to socially-useful marrriages."]

Arden, Heather. The Romance of the Rose. Twayne's World Authors Series 791. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987.

Bernardo, Aldo S. "Sex and Salvation in the Middle Ages: From the Romance of the Rose to the Divine Comedy." Italica 67 (1990): 305-318. [Heather M. Arden, in The "Roman de la Rose": An Annotated Bibliography, p. 273, item 582: "A general comparison of the Rose and the Divine Comedy, especially in regard to the poets' opposing conceptions of love. The author first shows how the Fiore rewrites the Rose in malo (negatively) by stripping lust and carnality of non-essential elements; then how the Divina commedia constitutes an 'antidote' to 'the lecherous and carnal lovers' (309) of the preceding works. More specifically, many elements of the Rose, such as flowers and the rose itself, are given spiritual meaning by Dante's poem, which is 'a total deconstruction and reconstruction of the undisputed French masterpiece of erotic allegory' (311)."]

Brownlee, Kevin, and Sylvia Huot, eds. Rethinking the "Romance of the Rose": Text, Image, Reception. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.

Fleming, John V. Reason and the Lover. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Fleming, John V. The "Roman de la Rose": A Study in Allegory and Iconography. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.

Gunn, Alan M. F. The Mirror of Love: A Reinterpretation of "The Romance of the Rose." Lubbock: Texas Tech Press, 1952.

Hill, Jillian M. Medieval Debate on Jean de Meung's "Roman de la Rose." Studies in Medieval Literature 4. Lewiston, NY; Queenston, ON; Lampeter, Dyfed, Wales: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992.

Hill, Thomas D. "Narcissus, Pygmalion, and the Castration of Saturn: Two Mythological Themes in the Roman de la Rose." Studies in Philology 71 (1974): 404-426.

Hult, David F., ed. and trans. Debate of the "Romance of the Rose." The Other Voice in Early Modern Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010. [An anthology of texts related to the medieval debate surrouding the Roman de la rose, translated from French, Latin, etc.]

Hult, David F. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: Readership and Authority in the First "Roman de la Rose." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Huot, Sylvia. Dreams of Lovers and Lies of Poets: Poetry, Knowledge, and Desire in the "Roman de la rose." Research Monographs in French Studies 31. London: Legenda, 2010. [Contents: The desire for knowledge and the knowledge of desire: models of poetic composition in the Roman de la Rose -- Desire, knowledge and self-knowledge: Narcissus and the Rose -- Orpheus's songs (I): the failed ascent and the failure of lineage -- Orpheus's songs (II): poetry, the unspoken and the unspeakable -- The conquest of the Rose: a Virgilian 'Art of love' -- Conclusion: The lover's dream.]

Huot, Sylvia. The "Romance of the Rose" and its Medieval Readers: Interpretation, Reception, Manuscript Transmission. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Kay, Sarah. The Romance of the Rose. Critical Guides to French Texts 110. London: Grant and Cutler, 1995.

Kelly, Douglas. Internal Difference and Meanings in the "Roman de la Rose." Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995.

Luria, Maxwell. A Reader's Guide to the "Roman de la Rose." Hamden: Archon Books, 1982.

McWebb, Christine, ed. Debating the "Roman de la Rose": A Critical Anthology. Intro. and Latin translations by Earl Jeffrey Richards. Routledge Medieval Texts. London and New York: Routledge, 2007. [English; includes texts in Old French and Latin. Contents: Italian humanism and French clericalism in the fourteenth century -- The defense of courtly discourse and morals -- The Debate Epistles (1401-1402) -- The Architectonics of Voices (1401-1404) -- The debate after the debate and French humanism.]

Minnis, A[lastair] J. "From Coilles to Bel Chose: Discourses of Obscenity in Jean de Meun and Chaucer." In Medieval Obscenities. Ed. Nicola McDonald. Woodbridge, Suffolk: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2006. Pp. 156-178.

Minnis, A[lastair] J. Magister amoris: The "Roman de la rose" and Vernacular Hermeneutics. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. [Available online here. Contents: Introduction: Maistre Jehan de Meun and the magisterium amoris -- Academic Prologues to Ovid and the Vernacular Art of Love -- Lifting the Veil: Sexual/Textual Nakedness in the Roman de la Rose -- Parler proprement: Words, Deeds, and Proper Speech in the Rose -- Signe d'estre malles: Genre, Gender, and the End of the Rose -- Theorizing the Rose: Crises of Textual Authority in the Querelle de la Rose -- Pruning the Rose: Evrart de Conty and European Vernacular Commentary.]

Reid, George D. T. "Dante and the Roman de la Rose: A Contribution to the Study of Dante and Old French Literature." Ph.D. thesis, University of Reading, 2002. [Abstract: "This thesis examines the extensive influence on Dante of the Roman de la Rose, the most esteemed mediaeval vernacular text after his Commedia. Despite its importance, there have been relatively few studies of the Rose's influence on Dante. Chapter 1 examines the overall impact of Old French literature on Dante, identifying the Rose as his principal OF source. Using a wide range of approaches, Chapter 2 examines circumstantial evidence, whilst Chapter 3 presents textual and poetic evidence, to identify Dante as the author of the poem Il Fiore, whose authorship has long been disputed. The Fiore is an Italian adaptation of the Rose: establishing that Dante wrote it would confirm the centrality of the Rose in his oeuvre. Chapter 4 uses a similar approach to demonstrate that Dante wrote an earlier poem, the Detto d'Amore, which is modelled on aspects of the Rose, thereby confirming that Dante had a profound interest in the Rose from the beginning of his literary career. Chapter 5 examines the presence of the Rose in the Commedia, and argues that the French poem fundamentally influenced its content and narrative structure. In particular, the Inferno attacks the biologically-based love ideology and celebration of fraud in Jean de Meun's part of the Rose, whilst recanting the similar values of the Fiore; the Purgatorio matches this condemnation of Jean with a partly sympathetic treatment of Guillaume de Lorris's section of the Rose; and the Paradiso treats the whole Rose with a mixture of ideological criticism and artistic respect."]

Stakel, Susan. False Roses: Structures of Duality and Deceit in Jean de Meun's "Roman de la Rose." Stanford French and Italian Studies 69. Satatoga: Anma Libri, 1991.

Thompson, Jefferson M. "Ratio Amoris and Amor Rationis: The Struggle for Supremacy between Love and Reason in The Romance of the Rose and The Knight's Tale." In From Kievan Prayers to Avantgarde: Papers in Comparative Literature. Ed. Piotr Fast and Waclaw Osadnik Osadnik. Studia Humanitatis 3. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Energeia, 1999. Pp. 83-98.

Wetherbee, Winthrop. "The Literal and the Allegorical: Jean de Meun and the De planctu Naturae." Mediaeval Studies 33 (1971): 264-291.

G. Geoffrey Chaucer

Abraham, David H. "Cosyn and Cosynage: Pun and Structure in the Shipman's Tale." Chaucer Review 11 (1977): 319-327.

Adams, John F. "The Janus Symbolism in 'The Merchant's Tale.'" Studies in Medieval Culture 4 (1974): 446-451.

Alexiou, Margaret, and Peter Dronke. "The Lament of Jephtha's Daughter: Themes, Traditions, Originality." Studi Medievali 12 (1971): 819-863. [Relevant to Chaucer and his Physician's Tale.]

Allen, Judson Boyce, and Theresa Anne Moritz. A Distinction of Stories: The Medieval Unity of Chaucer's Fair Chain of Narratives for Canterbury. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1981.

Allen, Mark. "Mirth and Bourgeois Masculinity in Chaucer's Host." In Masculinities in Chaucer: Approaches to Maleness in the "Canterbury Tales" and "Troilus and Criseyde." Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Chaucer Studies 25. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1998. Pp. 9-21.

Allen, Valerie, and Ares Axiotis, eds. Chaucer: Contemporary Critical Essays. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.

Aloni, Gila. "Extimacy in the 'Miller's Tale.'" Chaucer Review 41 (2006-2007): 163-184. ["Extimacy" is not the opposite of intimacy, but an idea that the Other is intimate, in a parasitical relationship with the self; the article explores the theme of "privitee" and its relation to ideas of extimacy in the tale.]

Altman, Leslie J. W. "January's Decision: An Example of Chaucer's Use of the Miroir de Mariage in the Merchant's Tale." Romance Philology 29 (1976): 514-518.

Ames, Ruth M. God's Plenty: Chaucer's Christian Humanism. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1984.

Amsler, Mark. "The Wife of Bath and Women's Power." Assays 4 (1987): 67-83.

Anderson, J. J. "The Narrators in the Book of the Duchess and the Parlement of Foules." The Chaucer Review 26 (1991-1992): 219-235.

Andreas, James R. "'Newe science' from 'Olde bokes': A Bakhtinian Approach to the Summoner's Tale." Chaucer Review 25 (1990-1991): 138-51. ["In the Summoner's Tale Chaucer festively inverts tradition so as not to present a perversion of Christianity. Authorities in the Middle Ages approved the romance form for tales, and the fabliau was a comic, carnivalesque inversion of the romance. In Chaucer's use of these forms, laughter is produced by placing the past in the present. The Summoner develops a conflict between a friar and a layman. The Summoner fits the profile of a carnival tale-teller as a parody of his profession who is damned according to tradition. Numerous other associations and details connect the Summoner with carnival tradition. Throughout the Summoner's Tale and the following tales, the attitude of carnival allows the Summoner and other pilgrims such as the Squire to parody Christian traditions" (from on-line "Chaucer Bibliography").]

Andreas, James R. "'Wordes betwene': The Rhetoric of the Canterbury Links." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 45-64. ["Bakhtin's theories of discourse are presaged in the works of Geoffrey of Vinsauf from which Chaucer borrows in the Canterbury Tales. This foreshadowing is most clear in Chaucer's views of language in which the word becomes a magical illusion allowing 'the living and the dead [to] speak to one another through the magical medium of the utterance' (45). Such conversation is most apparent in the links between the Canterbury Tales. The feast metaphor accurately describes the amplificatio present throughout the tales. Chaucer also seems to use Vinsauf's trope of expolitio, in that Chaucer implies something is more important that what he says. Both Vinsauf and Bakhtin posit that the 'most crucial aspect of languge . . . is the fact that it can . . . replicate itself with ever finer gradations of meaning and expression' (50). For Chaucer the activity of translation provides an opportunity for renewal which creates delight. The links between the tales not only provide the opportunity for dialogue, but they also characterize and aculturate each speaker. The nature of speech as dialogue is most apparent in the Man of Law's Prologue. The links also provide a space in the narrative for laughter to occur" (from on-line "Chaucer Bibliography").]

Andretta, Helen Ruth. Chaucer's "Troilus and Criseyde": A Poet's Response to Ockhamism. Studies in the Humanities; Literature-Politics-Society 29. New York, Bern, Frankfurt-am-Main, Paris, and Vienna: Peter Lang, 1997.

Andrew, Malcolm, ed. Critical Essays on Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. London: Open University Press; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

Andrew, Malcolm. "January's Knife: Sexual Morality and Proverbial Wisdom in the Merchant's Tale." English Language Notes 16 (1979): 273-277.

ap Roberts, Robert. "The Growth of Criseyde's Love." In Medieval Studies Conference, Aachen 1983: Language and Literature. Ed. Wolf-Dietrich Bald and Horst Weinstock. Bamberger Beiträge zur englischen Sprachwissenschaft 15. Frankfort, Bern, New York, Nancy: Peter Lang, 1984. Pp. 131-141.

Arnovick, Leslie K. "Dorigen's Promise and Scholar's Premise: The Orality of the Speech Act in the Franklin's Tale." In Oral Poetics in Middle English Poetry. Ed. Mark C. Amodio. New York: Garland, 1994. Pp. 125-147. ["Linguistic, legal, and folkloric contexts inform the orality of Dorigen's garden conversation with Aurelius, and produce the interpretive tensions within it. As a speech-act, Dorigen's discourse--taken in its entirety--constitutes a rejection, an assertion of her intention not to love Aurelius. Within the discourse, however, lines 989-98 represent a secondary speech act which compromises the first; 'the propositional content of Dorigen's secondary utterance completely conforms to that required for promises' (p 136). Yet the linguistic soundness of this secondary proposal is itself undercut by the legal definitions for invalid promises (eg, when they necessitate an immoral action). In the world of the folktale from which the plot of FranT is ultimately derived, however, 'promises made insincerely and rashly do obligate their speakers' (p 140). The critical disagreements about the status of Dorigen's promise reflect the contradictory nature of the evidence, and Chaucer's playful refusal to rest in any single interpretation" (Bleeth FranT 514).]

Arthur, Karen. "Equivocal Subjectivity in Chaucer's Second Nun's Prologue and Tale." Chaucer Review 32 (1997-1998): 217-231.

Arthur, Ross G. "Why Artow Angry: The Malice of Chaucer's Reeve." English Studies in Canada 13.1 (Mar. 1987): 1-11.

Ashley, Kathleen M. "Renaming the Sins: A Homiletic Topos of Linguistic Instability in the Canterbury Tales." In Sign, Sentence, Discourse: Language in Medieval Thought and Literature. Ed. Julian N. Wasserman and Lois Roney. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1989. Pp. 272-293.

Ashton, Gail. "Patient Mimesis: Griselda and the Clerk's Tale." Chaucer Review 32 (1997-1998): 232-238.

Astell, Ann W. Chaucer and the Universe of Learning. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996. ["The order of the fragments comprising The Canterbury Tales and the structure of that collection have long been questioned. Astell proposes that Chaucer intended the order preserved in what is known as the Ellesmere manuscript. In supporting her claim, Astell reveals a wealth of insights into the world of medieval learning, Chaucer's expected audience, and the meaning of The Canterbury Tales."]

Bachman, W. Bryant, Jr. "'To maken illusioun': The Philosophy of Magic and the Magic of Philosophy in the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 12 (1977): 55-67.

Baker, Denise N. "Chaucer and Moral Philosophy: The Virtuous Women of The Canterbury Tales." Medium Ævum 60 (1991): 241-256.

Baldwin, Ralph. The Unity of the Canterbury Tales. Anglistica 5. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde og Bagger, 1955.

Barefield, Laura. "Women's Power in the 'Tale of Constance.'" Medieval Perspectives 15 (2000): 27-34.

Barney, Stephen A., ed. Chaucer's Troilus: Essays in Criticism. London: Scholar Press, 1980.

Barney, Stephen A. Studies in "Troilus": Chaucer's Text, Meter, and Diction. Medieval Texts and Studies 14. East Lansing, MI: Colleagues Press, 1993.

Beidler, Peter G. "Contrasting Masculinities in the Shipman's Tale: Monk, Merchant, and Wife." In Masculinities in Chaucer: Approaches to Maleness in the "Canterbury Tales" and "Troilus and Criseyde." Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Chaucer Studies 25. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1998. Pp. 131-142.

Beidler, Peter G., Jennifer McNamara Bailey, Christine G. Berg, Sister Elaine Marie Glanz, Anne M. Dickson, Tracey A. Cummings, and Elizabeth M. Biebel. "Dramatic Intertextuality in the Miller's Tale: Chaucer's Use of Characters from Medieval Drama as Foils for John, Alisoun, Nicholas, and Absolon." Chaucer Yearbook 3 (1996): 1-19.

Bennett, J. A. W. Chaucer at Oxford and at Cambridge. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974. [Chaucer's education]

Benson, C[arl] David. "Chaucer as Revolutionary." In Selected Essays: International Conference on Representing Revolution 1989. Ed. John Michael Crafton. Carrollton: West Georgia College, 1991. Pp. 9-20.

Benson, C[arl] David. Chaucer's Drama of Style: Poetic Variety and Contrast in The Canterbury Tales. University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Benson, C[arl] David. Chaucer's "Troilus and Criseyde." London: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

Benson, C[arl] David, ed. Critical Essays on Chaucer's "Troilus and Criseyde" and his Major Early Poems. London: Open University Press; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991.

Benson, C[arl] David. "True Troilus and False Cresseid: The Descent from Tragedy." In The European Tragedy of Troilus. Ed. Piero Boitani. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. Pp. 153-170.

Benson, Larry D. "Chaucer and Courtly Speech." In Genres, Themes, and Images in English Literature from the Fourteenth to the Fifteenth Century: The J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Perugia, 1986. Ed. Piero Boitani and Anna Torti. Tübinger Beiträge zur Anglistik 11. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1988. Pp. 11-30.

Benson, Larry D. "The Order of The Canterbury Tales." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 3 (1981): 77-120.

Besserman, Lawrence. Chaucer and the Bible: An Introduction, Critical Reviews of Research, Indexes, and Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1988.

Besserman, Lawrence. "Chaucer, Spain, and the Prioress's Antisemitism." Viator 35 (2004): 329-353. [Abstract: "The goal of the present essay is to demonstrate how unlikely it would have been for Chaucer to have subscribed to the antisemitic views depicted in the Prioress's Tale. The demonstration consists of three sections. The first section takes a fresh look at textual clues in the fictional response to the Prioress's Tale within the Canterbury Tales. The second section adduces neglected evidence of intersections between Chaucer's diplomatic and court-related career and the careers of prominent contemporary Jews in Spain, and also in Anglo-Spanish relations, from the 1360s to the 1390s. The third section examines Chaucer's surprisingly favorable depictions of Jews in two passages, one from the House of Fame and one from the Prologue to the Treatise on the Astrolabe. These two passages are routinely neglected by commentators on Chaucer's attitude toward Jews, an attitude too often presumed to be the same as that expressed in the Prioress's Tale."]

Besserman, Lawrence. "Girdles, Belts, and Cords: A Leitmotif in Chaucer's 'General Prologue.'" Papers on Language and Literature 22 (1986): 222-225.

Besserman, Lawrence. "Ideology, Antisemitism, and Chaucer's Prioress's Tale." Chaucer Review 36 (2001-2002): 48-72.

Bestul, Thomas H. "Chaucer's Parson's Tale and the Late-Medieval Tradition of Religious Meditation." Speculum 64 (1989): 600-619.

Biebel, Elizabeth M. "A Wife, a Batterer, a Rapist: Representations of 'Masculinity' in the Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale." In Masculinities in Chaucer: Approaches to Maleness in the "Canterbury Tales" and "Troilus and Criseyde." Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Chaucer Studies 25. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1998. Pp. 63-75.

Birney, Earle. Essays on Chaucerian Irony. Ed., with an essay on irony, by Beryl Rowland. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985.

Biscoglio, Frances Minetti. The Wives of the "Canterbury Tales" and the Tradition of the Valiant Woman of Proverbs 31:10-31. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1992.

Bishop, Louise M. "'Of Goddes pryvetee nor of his wyf': Confusion of Orifices in Chaucer's Miller's Tale." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 44 (2002): 231-246.

Blake, Norman F. "Critics, Criticism and the Order of The Canterbury Tales." Archiv 218 (1981): 47-58.

Blake, Norman F. "The Debate on the Order of The Canterbury Tales." Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 10 (1985): 31-42.

Blamires, Alcuin. The Canterbury Tales. The Critics Debate. Atlantic Highlights, NJ: Humanities Press, 1987.

Blamires, Alcuin. Chaucer, Ethics, and Gender. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. [Contents: Fellowship and detraction in the architecture of the Canterbury Tales: from "The General Prologue" and "The Knight's Tale" to "The Parson's Prologue" -- Credulity and vision: "The Miller's Tale," "The Merchant's Tale," "The Wife of Bath's Tale" -- Sex and lust: "The Merchant's Tale," "The Reeve's Tale," and other Tales -- The ethics of sufficiency: "The Man of Law's Introduction" and "Tale"; "The Shipman's Tale" -- Liberality: "The Wife of Bath's Prologue" and "Tale" and "The Franklin's Tale" -- Problems of patience: "The Franklin's Tale," "The Clerk's Tale," "The Nun's Priest's Tale" -- Men, women, and moral jurisdiction: "The Friar's Tale," "The Physician's Tale," and the Pardoner -- Proprieties of work and speech: "The Second Nun's Prologue" and "Tale," "The Canon's Yeoman's Prologue" and "Tale," "The Manciple's Prologue" and "Tale," and "The Parson's Prologue."]

Blamires, Alcuin. "Chaucer the Reactionary: Ideology and the 'General Prologue' to The Canterbury Tales." Review of English Studies ns 51 [204] (2000): 523-539. [Abstract: "Chaucer's 'General Prologue' to The Canterbury Tales is more politically charged than is commonly supposed. It formulates ruling ideology after the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 through a tactical distribution of blame for oppression among scapegoats and away from lordship (Knight) and judiciary (Franklin). It identifies a source of manorial exploitation primarily at the level of the Reeve, a peasant foreman whose harshness contrasts with the distant benevolence of his own lord. While the anticlerical dimension of the Prologue's propagandist make-up is well known, readers have missed the full social implication of its uncompromising strategy because of the received myth of a socially unfixed Chaucer whose writing issues from a classlessness straddling different social strata. A clear commitment to aristocratic ideology and disdain for peasant aspiration, however, is visible in the 'General Prologue' and persists in the tales that follow."]

Blamires, Alcuin. "Refiguring the 'Scandalous Excess' of Medieval Woman: The Wife of Bath and Liberality." In Gender in Debate from the Early Middle Ages to the Renaissance. Ed. Thelma S. Fenster and Clare A. Lees. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Pp. 57-78.

Blanch, Robert J., and Julian N. Wasserman. "White and Red in the Knight's Tale: Chaucer's Manipulation of a Convention." In Chaucer in the Eighties. Ed. Julian N. Wasserman and Robert J. Blanch. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986. Pp. 175-191.

Bloch, R. Howard. "Chaucer's Maiden's Head: The Physician's Tale and the Poetics of Virginity." In Chaucer: Contemporary Critical Essays. Ed. Valerie Allen, and Ares Axiotis. New Casebooks. New York: St. Martin's, 1996. Pp. 145-156.

Bloom, Harold, ed. Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Knight's Tale." New York: Chelsea, 1988.

Bloom, Harold, ed. Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Pardoner's Tale." New York: Chelsea, 1988.

Bloomfield, Josephine. "Chaucer and the Polis: Piety and Desire in the Troilus and Criseyde." Modern Philology 94 (1996-1997): 291-304.

Bloomfield, Morton W. "The Friar's Tale as a Liminal Tale." Chaucer Review 17 (1982-1983): 286-291.

Bloomfield, Morton W. "The Wisdom of the Nun's Priest's Tale." In Chaucerian Problems and Perspectives: Essays Presented to Paul E. Beichner, CSC. Ed. Edward Vasta, and Zacharias P. Thundy. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979. Pp. 70-82.

Boenig, Robert. Chaucer and the Mystics: "The Canterbury Tales" and the Genre of Devotional Prose. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1995.

Boenig, Robert. "Musical Instruments as Iconographical Artifacts in Medieval Poetry." In Material Culture and Cultural Materialisms in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Ed. Curtis Perry. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 5. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 2001. Pp. 1-16. [On the references to musical instruments and their commodification in Beowulf, Guillaume Machaut's Remedy of Fortune, and Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Miller's Tale," in each of which the primary significance of the musical instruments is something beyond an instrument for making music.]

Boffey, Julia. "The Reputation and Circulation of Chaucer's Lyrics in the Fifteenth Century." Chaucer Review 28 (1993-1994): 23-40.

Boffey, Julia. "'Twenty thousand more': Some Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Responses to The Legend of Good Women." In Middle English Poetry: Texts and Traditions; Essays in Honour of Derek Pearsall. Ed. A[listair] J. Minnis. York Manuscripts Conferences, Proceedings 5. Woodbridge, Suffolk, and Rochester, NY: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, in association with the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of York, 2001. Pp. 279-297.

Boitani, Piero. "Antiquity and Beyond: The Death of Troilus." In The European Tragedy of Troilus. Ed. Piero Boitani. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. Pp. 1-19.

Boitani, Piero. Chaucer and the Imaginary World of Fame. Chaucer Studies 10. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1984.

Boitani, Piero. "Chaucer's Labyrinth: Fourteenth-Century Literature and Language." Chaucer Review 17 (1982-1983): 197-220. [On the "House of Fame."]

Boitani, Piero, ed. The European Tragedy of Troilus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Bolens, Guillemette. "The Game of Chess in Chaucer's Book of the Duchess." Chaucer Review 32 (1998-1999): 325-334.

Bolton, W. F. "The Wife of Bath: Narrator as Victim." Women and Literature 1 (1981): 54-65.

Booker, M. Keith. "'Nothing that is so is so': Dialogic Discourse and the Voice of the Woman in the Clerk's Tale and Twelfth Night." Exemplaria 3 (1991): 519-537.

Bott, Robin L. "'O, keep me from their worse than killing lust': Ideologies of Rape and Mutilation in Chaucers's Physician's Tale and Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus." In Representing Rape in Medieval and Early Modern Literature. Ed. Elizabeth Robertson, and Christine M. Rose. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Pp. 189-211.

Bowden, Muriel. A Commentary on the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. 2nd ed. 1967; rpt. London: Souvenir Press, 1973.

Bowers, John M. "Chaucer after Smithfield: From Postcolonial Writer to Imperialist Author." In The Post-Colonial Middle Ages. Ed. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen. New Middle Ages. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. Pp. 53-66.

Bowers, John M. "Chaucer's Canterbury Tales--Politically Corrected." In Rewriting Chaucer: Culture, Authority, and the Idea of the Authentic Text, 1400-1602. Ed. Thomas A. Prendergast and Barbara Kline. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1999. Pp. 13-44.

Bowers, Robert William. "'As I Yow Devyse': The Role of the Frame Narrator of the Canterbury Tales." Ph.D. diss., University of Denver, 2001. [DAI 62 (2001-2002): 2432A.]

Bowden, Betsy. Chaucer Aloud: The Varieties of Textual Interpretation. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987. [The book is accompanied by an audio cassette with readings of Chaucerian passages.]

Bowman, Mary R. "'Half as she were mad': Dorigen in the Male World of the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 27 (1992-1993): 239-251. [Available online here.]

Bradbury, Nancy Mason. "Chaucerian Minstrelsy: Troilus and Criseyde." In her Writing Aloud: Storytelling in Late Medieval England. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1998. Pp. 175-201.

Braswell, Mary Flowers. "Chaucer's Palimpsest: Judas Iscariot and the Pardoner's Tale." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 303-310. [The unidentified old man has similarities with legends of an accursed Judas Iscariot wandering the earth.]

Braswell-Means, Laurel. "A New Look at an Old Patient: Chaucer's Summoner and Medieval Physiognomia." Chaucer Review 25 (1990-1991): 266-275. [Sees Summoner as an incurable choleric (suggested by the red face, black and scabrous eyebrows, and facial sores which have not responded to even the very strong medicines which Chaucer lists--and confirmed by his anger, etc.), needing the healing of St. Thomas.] [physiognomy]

Brewer, Derek S., ed. Chaucer: The Critical Heritage, 1385-1933. 2 vols. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978.

Brewer, Derek S. "Chaucer's Knight as Hero, and Machaut's Prise d'Alexandrie." In Heroes and Heroines in Medieval English Literature: A Festschrift to André Crépin on the Occasion of his Sixty-fifth Birthday. Ed. Leo Carruthers. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1994. Pp. 81-96. [In part, a response to Terry Jones, Chaucer's Knight. See also Emerson Brown ("Chaucer's Knight"); also Maurice Keen ("Chaucer's Knight"); also John H. Pratt ("Was Chaucer's Knight Really a Mercenary?").]

Brewer, Derek S. "Comedy and Tragedy in Troilus and Criseyde." In The European Tragedy of Troilus. Ed. Piero Boitani. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. Pp. 95-109.

Brewer, Derek S. Geoffrey Chaucer. Writers and their Background. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1975.

Brewer, Derek S. An Introduction to Chaucer. London: Longman, 1985.

Brinton, Laurel J. "Chaucer's 'Tale of Melibee': A Reassessment." English Studies in Canada 10 (1984): 251-264.

Brody, Saul N. "Making a Play for Criseyde: The Staging of Pandarus's House in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde." Speculum 73 (1998): 115-140. [A reconsideration of some of the issues raised by Smyser, "The Domestic Background to Troilus and Criseyde"--filling out some of the hints about the architectural nature of Pandarus's house, Troilus's entry to the bedroom through the "stews," etc. Argues for a kind of dramatic scene setting in Chaucer's text.]

Brody, Saul Nathaniel. "Truth and Fiction in the Nun's Priest's Tale." Chaucer Review 14 (1979): 33-47.

Bronfman, Judith. Chaucer's "Clerk's Tale": The Griselda Story Received, Rewritten, Illustrated. Garland Studies in Medieval Literature 11; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1831. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1994.

Brooks, Douglas, and Alastair Fowler. "The Meaning of Chaucer's Knight's Tale." Medium Ævum 39 (1970): 123-146.

Brooks, Harold F. Chaucer's Pilgrims: The Artistic Order of the Portraits in the "Prologue." London: Methuen, 1962.

Brown, Emerson, Jr. "Biblical Women in the Merchant's Tale: Feminism, Antifeminism, and Beyond." Viator 5 (1974): 387-412.

Brown, Emerson, Jr. "Chaucer's Knight: What's Wrong with Being Worthy?" Mediaevalia 15 (1993 [for 1989]): 183-205. [In part, a response to Terry Jones, Chaucer's Knight. See also Derek Brewer ("Chaucer's Knight as Hero"); also Maurice Keen ("Chaucer's Knight"); also John H. Pratt ("Was Chaucer's Knight Really a Mercenary?").]

Brown, Peter. Chaucer and the Making of Optical Space. Oxford [etc.]: Peter Lang, 2007. [Publisher's description: "The author links Chaucer's writings with the medieval optical tradition in its various forms (scholastic texts, encyclopedias, exempla, vernacular poetry) both in general cultural terms and through the discussion of specific examples. He shows how the science of optics, or perspectiva, provides an account of spatial perception, including visual error, and demonstrates how these aspects of optical theory impact on Chaucer's poetry. He provides detailed and sustained analysis of the spatial content of narratives across the range of Chaucer's works, relating them to optical ideas and making use of Lefebvre's theory of the production of space. The texts discussed include the Book of the Duchess, House of Fame, Knight's Tale, Miller's Tale, Reeve's Tale, Merchant's Tale, Squire's Tale and Troilus and Criseyde." Contents: Prospect - The Making of Optical Space - Encyclopedias and Sermons - Chaucer and Perspectiva - Literary Models - The Mind's Eye: The Book of the Duchess - Chivalric Space: The Knight's Tale - Urban Space: The Miller's Tale - Trojan Space: Troilus and Criseyde (Part I) - The 'covered quality of things': Troilus (Part 2) - Retrospect.]

Brown, Peter. Chaucer at Work: The Making of the "Canterbury Tales." London and New York: Longman, 1994. [Publisher's description: "Chaucer at Work is a new kind of introduction to the Canterbury Tales. It avoids excessive amounts of background information and involves the reader in the discovery of how Chaucer composed his famous work. It presents a series of sources and contexts to be considered in conjunction with key passages from Chaucer's poems. It includes sets of questions to encourage the reader to examine the text in detail and to build on his or her observations. This well-informed and practical guide will prove invaluable reading to those studying medieval literature at undergraduate level and English literature at A level." Contents: The general prologue -- The knight's tale -- The miller's tale -- The wife of Bath's prologue and tale -- The merchant's tale -- The franklin's tale -- The pardoner's prologue and tale -- The nun's priest's tale.]

Brown, Peter. "The Containment of Symkyn: The Function of Space in the Reeve's Tale." Chaucer Review 14 (1979-1980): 225-236.

Burger, Glenn. Chaucer's Queer Nation. Medieval Cultures 34. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003. ["Burger argues that, under the pressure of producing a poetic vision for a new vernacular English audience in the 'Canterbury Tales,' Chaucer reimagined late medieval relations between the body and the community" (publisher's description).]

Burger, Glenn. "Doing What Comes Naturally: The Physician's Tale and the Pardoner." In Masculinities in Chaucer: Approaches to Maleness in the "Canterbury Tales" and "Troilus and Criseyde." Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Chaucer Studies 25. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1998. Pp. 117-130.

Burger, Glenn. "Erotic Discipline . . . or 'Tee Hee, I Like My Boys to be Girls': Inventing with the Body in Chaucer's Miller's Tale." In Becoming Male in the Middle Ages. Ed. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen and Bonnie Wheeler. New York: Garland Publishing, 2000. Pp. 245-260.

Burger, Glenn. "Kissing the Pardoner." PMLA 107 (1992): 1143-1156. ["Argues that this means embracing the 'discoherence' of masculinity (and power and authority) that is taking place in the tale" (IMB).]

Burlin, Robert B. Chaucerian Fiction. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

Burnley, John David. "Chaucer's Host and Harry Bailly." In Chaucer and the Craft of Fiction. Ed. Leigh A. Arrathoon. Rochester, MI: Solaris Press, 1986. Pp. 195-218.

Burton, T. L. "The Wife of Bath's Fourth and Fifth Husbands and Her Ideal Sixth: The Growth of a Marital Philosophy." Chaucer Review 13 (1978): 34-50.

Burton, T. L., and John F. Plummer, eds. "Seyd in forme and reverence": Essays on Chaucer and Chaucerians in Memory of Emerson Brown, Jr. Provo, UT: Chaucer Studio Press, 2006. [Contents: John F. Plummer, "Emerson L. Brown, Jr.: Some Bio-Bibliographical Notes"; "The Publications of Emerson Brown, Jr."; 1. The Canterbury Tales: Howell Chickering, "'And I seyde his opinion was good': How Irony Works in the Monk's Portrait"; Paul R. Thomas, "Chaucer's Knight's Tale: Were Arcite and Emelye Really Married?: Why it Matters"; Josephine A. Koster, "The Vita Sancte Alicie Bathoniensis: Transgressions of Hagiographic Rhetoric in the Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale"; Britton Harwood, "Chaucer on the Couch: The Pardoner's Performance and the Case for Psychoanalytic Criticism"; Holly A. Crocker, "Wifely Eye for the Manly Guy: Trading the Masculine Image in the Shipman's Tale"; T. L. Burton, "Sir Gawain and the Green Hag: The Real Meaning of the Wife of Bath's Tale." 2. Early Poems: Michael Kensak, "'My first matere I wil yow telle': Losing (and Finding) Your Place in Chaucer's Book of the Duchess"; Lorraine Kochanske Stock, "'Peynted . . . text and [visual] glose': Primitivism, Ekphrasis, and Pictorial Intertextuality in the Dreamers' Bedrooms of Roman de la Rose and Book of the Duchess." 3. Troilus and Criseyde and Henryson's Testament of Cresseid: Joseph Wittig, "Tereus, Procne, and Her Sister: Chaucer's Representation of Criseyde as Victim"; Winthrop Wetherbee, "Cresseid vs. Troylus in Henryson's Testament." 4. Minor Poems: Thomas D. Hill, "Adam, 'The Firste Stocke' and the Political Context of Chaucer's Gentilesse"; Robert F. Yeager, "'Saving the Appearances' II: Another Look at Chaucer's Complaint to His Purse." 5. Oral Performance: Alan T. Gaylord, "Chaucerian Sentences: Revisiting a 'Crucial Passage' from the Nun's Priest's Tale"; Michael W. Twomey, "Reading Chaucer's Latin Aloud." 6. Editing and Annotating: Peter G. Beidler, "Where's the Point?: Punctuating Chaucer's Canterbury Tales"; Daniel J. Ransom, "Annotating Chaucer: Some Corrections and Additions." 7. Philosophical and Scriptural Topics: D. Thomas Hanks, Jr., "Chaucer, Auctoritas, and the Problem of Pain"; John F. Plummer, "Fables, Cupiditas, and Vessels of Tree: Chaucer's Use of The Epistles to Timothy."]

Butterfield, Ardis, ed. Chaucer and the City. Chaucer Studies. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2006. [Publisher's description: "Literature of the city and the city in literature are topics of major contemporary interest. This volume enhances our understanding of Chaucer's iconic role as a London poet, defining the modern sense of London as a city in history, steeped in its medieval past. Building on recent work by historians on medieval London, as well as modern urban theory, the essays address the centrality of the city in Chaucer's work, and of Chaucer to a literature and a language of the city. Contributors explore the spatial extent of the city, imaginatively and geographically; the diverse and sometimes violent relationships between communities, and the use of language to identify and speak for communities; the worlds of commerce, the aristocracy, law, and public order. A final section considers the longer history and memory of the medieval city beyond the devastations of the Great Fire and into the Victorian period." Contents: Ardis Butterfield, "Introduction: Chaucer and the Detritus of the City"; Marion Turner, "Greater London"; Ruth Evans, "The Production of Space in Chaucer's London"; Barbara Nolan, "Chaucer's Poetics of Dwelling in Troilus and Criseyde"; Christopher Cannon, "Chaucer and the Language of London"; Derek Pearsall, "The Canterbury Tales and London Club Culture"; Helen Cooper, "London and Southwark Poetic Companies: 'Si tost c'amis' and the Canterbury Tales"; C. David Benson, "Literary Contests and London Records in the Canterbury Tales"; Elliot Kendall, "The Great Household in the City: The Shipman's Tale"; John Scattergood, "London and Money: Chaucer's Complaint to His Purse"; Paul Davis, "After the Fire: Chaucer and Urban Poetics, 1666-1743"; Helen Phillips, "Chaucer and the Nineteenth-Century City."]

Butterfield, Ardis. "Lyric and Elegy in The Book of the Duchess." Medium Ævum 60 (1991): 33-60.

Cady, Diane Marie. "'Al is for to selle': Money, Language and Gender in the Canterbury Tales." Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 2001. [DAI 62 (2001-2002): 2415A.]

Calabrese, Michael A. Chaucer's Ovidian Arts of Love. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994.

Calabrese, Michael A. "The Lover's Cure in Ovid's Remedia Amoris and Chaucer's 'Miller's Tale.'" English Language Notes 32.1 (Sept. 1994): 13-18.

Calabrese, Michael. "Performing the Prioress: 'Conscience' and Responsibility in Studies of Chaucer's Prioress's Tale." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 44 (2002): 66-91.

Camargo, Martin. "The Consolation of Pandarus." Chaucer Review 25 (1990-1991): 214-228.

Cannon, Christopher. "Chaucer and Rape: Uncertainty's Certainties." In Representing Rape in Medieval and Early Modern Literature. Ed. Elizabeth Robertson and Christine M. Rose. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Pp. 255-279. ["Discusses the issue of Chaucer's alleged 'raptus' of Cecily Chaumpaigne and argues that the concept of consent is essential in distinguishing sexual acts as criminal" (IMB).]

Cannon, Christopher. "Raptus in the Chaumpaigne Release and a Newly Discovered Document Concerning the Life of Geoffrey Chaucer." Speculum 68 (1993): 74-94. [Chaucer and the "rape" of Cecily Champain.]

Carney, Clíodhna, and Frances McCormack, eds. Chaucer's Poetry: Words, Authority and Ethics. Dublin Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature 4. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2013. [Publisher's description: "This book reminds us of the reasons to read, and re-read, Chaucer. The essays cast new light on the poetry and, in their careful scholarship and sensitivity to the past, show us paradoxically how Chaucer is being re-conceived in the 21st century." Contents: "Goodfellas, Sir John Clanvowe and Chaucer's Friar's Tale: 'Occasions of Sin,'" by John Scattergood; "Patterns of Disruption in the Prioress's Tale," by Niamh Pattwell; "Chaucer's Ethical Poetic in the Canterbury Tales," by Megan Murton; "How to Say 'I': The Clerk, the Wife and Petrarch," by Clíodhna Carney; "Chaucer and the Sun-God: King and Poet," by Helen Phillips; "Chaucer's Metrical Landscape," by Kristin Lynn Cole; "'By mouth of innocentz': Rhetoric and Relic in the Prioress's Tale," by Frances McCormack; "Time and Authority in Chaucer's Parliament of Fowls," by Charlotte Steenbrugge.]

Carruthers, Mary. "Letter and Gloss in the Friar's and Summoner's Tales." Journal of Narrative Technique 2 (1972): 208-214.

Carruthers, Mary. "The Wife of Bath and the Painting of Lions." In Feminist Readings in Middle English Poetry: The Wife of Bath and All Her Sect. Ed. Ruth Evans, and Lesley Johnson. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. Pp. 22-53. [Reprinted from PMLA 94 (1979): 209-222, with a new afterword by the author. Also rpt. in Chaucer to Spenser: A Critical Reader. Ed. Derek Pearsall. Blackwell Critical Readers in Literature. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. Pp. 42-64.]

Carter, Susan. "Coupling the Beastly Bride and the Hunter Hunted: What Lies Behind Chaucer's Wife of Bath's Tale." Chaucer Review 37 (2002-2003): 329-345.

Cawsey, Kathy. Twentieth-Century Chaucer Criticism: Reading Audiences. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2011. [Publisher's description: "Shifting ideas about Geoffrey Chaucer's audience have produced radically different readings of Chaucer's work over the course of the past century. Kathy Cawsey, in her book on the changing relationship among Chaucer, critics, and theories of audience, draws on Michel Foucault's concept of the 'author-function' to propose the idea of an 'audience function' which shows the ways critics' concepts of audience affect and condition their criticism. Focusing on six trend-setting Chaucerian scholars, Cawsey identifies the assumptions about Chaucer's audience underpinning each critic's work, arguing these ideas best explain the diversity of interpretation in Chaucer criticism. Further, Cawsey suggests few studies of Chaucer's own understanding of audience have been done, in part because Chaucer criticism has been conditioned by scholars' latent suppositions about Chaucer's own audience. In making sense of the confusing and conflicting mass of modern Chaucer criticism, Cawsey also provides insights into the development of twentieth-century literary criticism and theory."]

Chance, Jane. The Mythographic Chaucer: The Fabulation of Sexual Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

Cherniss, Michael D. "The Clerk's Tale and Envoy, the Wife of Bath's Purgatory, and the Merchant's Tale." Chaucer Review 6 (1972): 235-254.

Chessell, Del. "The Clerk's Tale: For Better or Worse." Critical Review 29 (1989): 77-88.

Choi, Yejung. "Body and Text in Chaucer's Man of Law's Tale." Feminist Studies in English Literature 10 (2002): 223-243.

Ciccone, Nancy. "The Chamber, the Man in Black, and the Structure of Chaucer's Book of the Duchess." Chaucer Review 44 (2009-2010): 205-223.

Clark, Roy Peter. "Doubting Thomas in Chaucer's Summoner's Tale." Chaucer Review 11 (1976): 164-178.

Clark, Roy Peter. "Wit and Witsunday in Chaucer's Summoner's Tale." Annuale Mediaevale 17 (1976): 48-57.

Clarke, K. P. Chaucer and Italian Textuality. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Clogan, Paul M. "The Imagery of the City of Thebes in 'The Knight's Tale.'" In Typology and English Medieval Literature. Ed. Hugh T. Keenan. Georgia State Literary Studies 7. New York: AMS, 1992. Pp. 169-181.

Coletti, Theresa. "The Meeting at the Gate: Comic Hagiography and Symbol in The Shipman's Tale." Studies in Iconography 3 (1977): 47-56.

Collette, Carolyn. "Afterlife." In A Companion to Chaucer. Ed. Peter Brown. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2000. Pp. 8-22. [Geoffrey Chaucer: reception history; reputation.]

Collette, Carolyn P. "Chaucer and Victorian Medievalism: Culture and Society." Poetica 29-30 (1989): 115-125. ["An analysis of popular Victorian attitudes toward Chaucer fostered by periodicals which constructed him variously as a child poet, a poet of the English countryside and a poet-businessman" (Collette, "Afterlife," Companion to Chaucer).]

Collette, Carolyn P. "Heeding the Counsel of Prudence: A Context for the Melibee." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 416-433.

Collette, Carolyn P. "Joan of Kent and Noble Women's Roles in Chaucer." Chaucer Review 33 (1998-1999): 350-362. ["Argues that Joan of Kent, wife of the Black Prince, occupied an important position among the political circle with which Chaucer was connected, and examines Chaucer's awareness of both the model of Joan of Kent and the portrayal of noble women in the works of Christine de Pizan" (IMB). ["Joan, the Fair Maid of Kent"]]

Collette, Carolyn P. "Seeing and Believing in the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 26 (1991-1992): 395-410.

Collette, Carolyn P. Species, Phantasms, and Images: Vision and Medieval Psychology in "The Canterbury Tales." Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2001.

Collins, David. "The Story of Diomede and Criseyde: Changing Relationships in an Evolving Legend." Publications of the Arkansas Philological Association 7.2 (1981): 9-30.

Collins, Marie. "Love, Nature and Law in the Poetry of Gower and Chaucer." In Court and Poet: Selected Proceedings of the International Courtly Literature Society. Ed. Glyn S. Burgess. Arca: Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers and Monographs 5. Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1981. Pp. 113-128.

Condren, Edward I. Chaucer from Prentice to Poet: The Metaphor of Love from Dream Visions to "Troilus and Criseyde." Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008.

Cook, Jon. "Carnival and The Canterbury Tales: 'Only Equals May Laugh' (Herzen)." In Medieval Literature: Criticism, Ideology and History. Ed. David Aers. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986. Pp. 169-191.

Cook, Mary Joan, RSM. "The Double Role of Criseyde in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde." Florilegium 8 (1986): 187-198.

Cooper, Geoffrey. "'Sely John' in the 'Legende' of the Miller's Tale." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 79 (1980) 1-12.

Cooper, Helen. The Canterbury Tales. Oxford Guides to Chaucer 1. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. [Besides a re-examination of Chaucer's Tales, this also provides some consideration of Chaucer's reputation in the centuries following his death.]

Cooper, Helen. "Chaucer's Self-Fashioning." Poetica 55 (2001): 55-74.

Cooper, Helen. The Structure of the Canterbury Tales. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1983.

Corsa, Helen. Chaucer: Poet of Mirth and Morality. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1964.

Cowgill, Bruce Kent. "'By corpus dominus': Harry Bailly as False Spiritual Guide." Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 15.1 (1985): 157-181.

Cox, Catherine S. Gender and Language in Chaucer. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1997.

Cox, Catherine S. "'Grope wel bihynde': The Subversive Erotics of Chaucer's Summoner." Exemplaria 7.1 (Spring 1995): 145-177.

Cramer, Patricia. "Lordship, Bondage, and the Erotic: The Psychological Bases of Chaucer's 'Clerk's Tale.'" Journal of English and Germanic Philology 89 (1990): 491-511.

Crane, Susan. "Alison's Incapacity and Poetic Instability in the Wife of Bath's Tale." PMLA 102 (1987): 20-28.

Crane, Susan. "The Franklin as Dorigen." Chaucer Review 24 (1989-1990): 236-252.

Crane, Susan. "Froissart's Dit dou bleu chevalier as a Source for Chaucer's Book of the Duchess." Medium Ævum 61 (1992): 59-74.

Crane, Susan. Gender and Romance in Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales." Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. ["In this fresh look at Chaucer's relation to English and French romances of the late Middle Ages, Crane shows that Chaucer's depictions of masculinity and femininity constitute an extensive and sympathetic response to the genre. Crane draws on feminist and genre theory to argue that Chaucer's profound interest in the cultural construction of masculinity and femininity arises in large part from his experience of romance."]

Crocker, Holly A. Chaucer's Visions of Manhood. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. [Contents: Seeing gender's aspects: vision, agency, and masculinity in the Tale of Melibee -- Portrait of a father as a bad man: visible pressure in the Physician's Tale -- "My first matere I wil yow telle": visual impact in the Book of the Duchess -- Which wife? What man? Gender invisibility between Chaucer's wife and shipman -- Miscellaneous Chaucer: proverbial masculinity in Harley 7333.] [gender; masculinity]

Dahood, Roger. "The Punishment of the Jews, Hugh of Lincoln, and the Question of Satire in Chaucer's Prioress's Tale." Viator 36 (2005): 465-491. [Dahood argues against the idea that the Tale is satirical, and supports the idea that Chaucer's own attitudes were antisemitic.]

Daileader, Celia R. "The Thopas-Melibee Sequence and the Defeat of Antifeminism." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 26-39.

Damon, John. "Seinte Cecile and Cristes owene knyghtes: Violence, Resignation, and Resistance in the Second Nun's Tale." In Crossing Boundaries: Issues of Cultural and Individual Identity in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Ed. Sally McKee. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 3. Turnhout: Brepols, 1999. Pp. 41-56.

Dane, Joseph A. "Double Truth in Chaucer's Franklin's Tale." Studia Neophilologica 63 (1991): 161-167. ["In late ME, trouthe had two potentially contradictory meanings: (1) fidelity (cf MnE troth) and (2) factuality (cf MnE truth). A third sense- -'linguistic truth'--mediates this double meaning. The interpretive issues that surround Arveragus's 'Trouthe is the hyeste thyng that man may kepe' (line 1479) depend upon these multiple meanings: 'Truth is the highest thing' refers to sense 2, but to talk of 'keeping' truth invokes sense 1. Dorigen's trust in personal relations prevents her from ascertaining whether the rocks have really disappeared (truth as factuality) or whether Aurelius's statement that they have disappeared (linguistic truth) is correct. FranT depends 'not only on ignorance of facts . . . but on ignorance of the way language works in relation to those facts' (p 164). Dorigen intends her statement that she will love Aurelius best when the rocks disappear as a rejection. 'But so locked is she in archaic trouthe (fidelity), she can neither grasp linguistic truth (what she means) nor even factual truth (what is the case with those rocks)' (p 164)" (Bleeth, FranT 468).]

Dane, Joseph A. "The Mechanics of Comedy in Chaucer's Miller's Tale." Chaucer Review 14 (1979-1980): 215-224.

Dane, Joseph A. "The Myth of Chaucerian Irony." Papers in Language and Literature 24 (1988): 115-133.

Dane, Joseph A. "The Reception of Chaucer's Eighteenth-Century Editors." Text: Transactions of the Society for Textual Scholarship 4 (1988): 217-236.

Dane, Joseph A. Who is Buried in Chaucer's Tomb?: Studies in the Reception of Chaucer's Book. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1998. ["A provocative and somewhat polemical book that raises many questions about the tradition of editing Chaucer and the principles on which modern editions have been based" (Collette, "Afterlife," Companion to Chaucer).]

D'Arcy, Anne Marie. "'Cursed folk of Herodes al new': Supersessionist Typology and Chaucer's Prioress." In Writing Gender and Genre in Medieval Literature: Approaches to Old and Middle English Texts. Ed. Elaine Treharne. Essays and Studies ns 55. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, for the English Association, 2002. Pp. 117-136.

Davenant, John. "Chaucer's View of the Proper Treatment of Women." Maledicta 5 (1981): 153-161.

Davenport, W. A. Chaucer: Complaint and Narrative. Chaucer Studies 14. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1988.

Davenport, W. A. Chaucer and his English Contemporaries: Prologue and Tale in the "Canterbury Tales." Chaucer Studies. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. [Davenport studies Chaucer in relation to his contemporaries (Gower, Langland, and the Gawain-poet) to demonstrate that Chaucer's work is consistently surprising, daring and experimental.]

Davi, Angelique Marie. "The Rhetoric of Textuality: Memory and Narrative in Chaucer's Poetry." Ph.D. diss., Tufts University, 2001. [DAI 62.8 (Feb. 2002): 2755A.]

Davis, Isabel, and Catherine Nall, eds. Chaucer and Fame: Reputation and Reception. Chaucer Studies 43. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2015. [Publisher's description: "Fama, or fame, is a central concern of late medieval literature: where fame came from, who deserved it, whether it was desirable and how it was acquired and kept. An interest in fame was not new but was renewed and rethought within the vernacular revolutions of the later Middle Ages. The work of Geoffrey Chaucer collates received ideas on the subject of fama, both from the classical world and from the work of his contemporaries. Chaucer's place in these intertextual negotiations was readily recognized in his aftermath, as later writers adopted and reworked postures which Chaucer had struck, in their own bids for literary authority. This volume tracks debates on fama which were past, present and future to Chaucer, using his work as a centre point to investigate canon formation in European literature from the late Middle Ages and into the Early Modern period."]

Davis, Kathleen. "Hymeneal Alogic: Debating Political Community in The Parliament of Fowls." In Imagining a Medieval English Nation. Ed. Kathy Lavezzo. Medieval Cultures 37. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. Pp. 161-187.

Dawson, Robert B. "Custance in Context: Rethinking the Protagonist of the Man of Law's Tale." The Chaucer Review 26 (1991-1992): 293-308.

Dean, James. "Chaucer's Book of the Duchess: A Non-Boethian Interpretation." Modern Language Quarterly 46 (1985): 235-249.

Dean, James. "Dismantling the Canterbury Book." PMLA 100 (1985): 746-762.

Delany, Sheila, ed. Chaucer and the Jews: Sources, Contexts, and Meaning. The Multicultural Middle Ages. New York and London: Routledge, 2002.

Delany, Sheila. "Chaucer's Prioress, the Jews, and the Muslims." In Chaucer and the Jews: Sources, Contexts, Meanings. Ed. Sheila Delany. Multicultural Middle Ages. New York and London: Routledge, 2002. Pp. 43-57.

Delany, Sheila. "Difference and the Difference it Makes: Sex and Gender in Chaucer's Poetry." In "A wyf ther was": Essays in Honour of Paule Mertens-Fonck. Ed. Juliette Dor. Liège: L3 (Liège Language and Literature), Département d'anglais, Université de Liège, 1992. Pp. 103-111.

Delany, Sheila. The Naked Text: Chaucer's "Legend of Good Women." Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993.

Delany, Sheila. "Sexual Economics, Chaucer's Wife of Bath, and The Book of Margery Kempe." Minnesota Review 5 (1975): 104-115. [Rpt. in her Writing Women (New York, 1983). Rpt. in Feminist Readings in Middle English Poetry: The Wife of Bath and All Her Sect. Ed. Ruth Evans, and Lesley Johnson. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. Pp. 72-87.]

Delasanta, Rodney. "The Theme of Judgment in the Canterbury Tales." Modern Language Quarterly 31 (1970): 298-307.

Dickson, Lynne. "Deflection in the Mirror: Feminine Discourse in The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 15 (1993): 61-90.

Dillon, Janette. Geoffrey Chaucer. Writers in their Time. London: Macmillan, 1993.

DiLorenzo, Raymond D. "Wonder and Words: Paganism, Christianity, and Consolation in Chaucer's Book of the Duchess." University of Toronto Quarterly 52 (1982): 20-39.

Dinshaw, Carolyn. Chaucer's Sexual Poetics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Donaldson, E. Talbot. "Chaucer the Pilgrim." PMLA 69 (1954): 928-936. [Repr. in his Speaking of Chaucer (London: Athlone; New York: Norton, 1970), 1-12. "In distinguishing Chaucer the poet from Chaucer the pilgrim-narrator, Donaldson opened the way for multiple new critical readings of the irony produced by the simultaneous naivete of the pilgrim and the moral judgement of the author in the pilgrim portraits of the General Prologue" (Collette, "Afterlife," Companion to Chaucer).]

Donaldson, E. Talbot. Speaking of Chaucer. London: Athlone Press; New York: W. W. Norton, 1970.

Donaldson, Kara Virginia. "Alisoun's Language: Body, Text and Glossing in Chaucer's 'The Miller's Tale.'" Philological Quarterly 71 (1992): 139-153.

Dronke, Peter. "The Conclusion of Troilus and Criseyde." Medium Ævum 33 (1964): 47-52.

Dugas, Don John. "The Legitimization of Royal Power in Chaucer's Man of Law's Tale." Modern Philology 95 (1997): 27-43.

Eaton, R. D. "Narrative Closure in Chaucer's Franklin's Tale." Neophilologus 84 (2000): 309-321.

Edwards, A. S. G. "The Early Reception of Chaucer and Langland." Florilegium 15 (1998): 1-22.

Edwards, Elizabeth. "The Economics of Justice in Chaucer's Miller's and Reeve's Tales." Dalhousie Review 82 (2001): 91-112.

Edwards, Robert R. The Dream of Chaucer: Representation and Reflection in the Early Narratives. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1989.

Edwards, Robert R. "Narration and Doctrine in the Merchant's Tale." Speculum 66 (1991): 342-367.

Edwards, Robert R. "'The Sclaundre of Walter': The Clerk's Tale and the Problem of Hermeneutics." In Mediaevalitas: Reading the Middle Ages; The J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Ninth Series, Perugia, 1995. Ed. Piero Boitani and Anna Torti. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1996. Pp. 15-41.

Ellis, D. S. "The Merchant's Wife: Language, Sex and Commerce in Margery Kempe and Chaucer." Exemplaria 2 (1990): 595-626.

Ellis, Roger. Patterns of Religious Narrative in the Canterbury Tales. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1986.

Ellis, Steve. Chaucer at Large: The Poet in the Modern Imagination. Medieval Cultures 24. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2000. [Publisher's description: "Offered as part of the sexcentenary commemoration of Chaucer's death, this very readable study examines Chaucer's impact on the academic and non-academic worlds of the 19th and 20th centuries. Chronological chapters assess Chaucer's impact on the Pre-Raphaelites, on W B Yeats, on Edwardian children's stories and on post-World War One authors. Ellis also considers modern translations and contrasts the relationship between academia's interest in Chaucer and his representation in the media and in historical fiction since the Second World War."]

Ellis, Steve. "The Death of the Book of the Duchess." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 249-258. [Argues (and examines the implications of the argument) that the "Book of the Duchess" is entitled by Chaucer "The Deeth of Blaunche the Duchesse"; among the evidence cited is Chaucer's reference to the work in Legend of Good Women and Lydgate's use of the same phrase to name it in Fall of Princes 1.305 (p. 249; again, p. 250). It is a poem about the finality of "death," and the memoralizing of past happiness increases the Black Knight's pain rather than consoles him. Like Troilus, he ends in woe.]

Emsley, Sarah. "'By evene acord': Marriage and Genre in the Parliament of Fowls." Chaucer Review 34 (1999-2000): 139-149. [Emsley argues that the Parliament is in an epithalamium tradition: its theme is not courtly love but marriage, and, whether or not a "real" betrothal was the occasion, and although the wedding of the royal birds is postponed, the multiple marriages or matings of "ordinary" birds are completed and celebrated in a hymn to marriage at the end.]

Epstein, Robert W., and William Robins, eds. Sacred and Profane in Chaucer and Late Medieval Literature: Essays in Honour of John V. Fleming. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.

Everest, Carol A. "Pears and Pregnancy in Chaucer's 'Merchant's Tale.'" In Food in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays. Ed. Melitta Weiss Adamson. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1744; Garland Medieval Casebooks 12. New York, and London: Garland, 1995. Pp. 161-175.

Everest, Carol A. "Sex and Old Age in Chaucer's Reeve's Prologue." Chaucer Review 31 (1996-1997): 99-114.

Everest, Carol A. "Sight and Sexual Performance in the Merchant's Tale." In Masculinities in Chaucer: Approaches to Maleness in the "Canterbury Tales" and "Troilus and Criseyde." Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Chaucer Studies 25. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1998. Pp. 91-103.

Everhart, Deborah. "Criseyde through Her Own Eyes." In Representations of the Feminine in the Middle Ages. Ed. Bonnie Wheeler. Feminea Medievalia 1. Dallas: Academia, 1993. Pp. 23-42.

Farrell, Thomas J. "Privacy and the Boundaries of Fabliau in the Miller's Tale." ELH 56 (1989): 773-795.

Fehrenbacher, Richard W. "'Al That Which Chargeth Nought to Seye': The Theme of Incest in Troilus and Criseyde." Exemplaria 9.2 (Fall 1997): 341-369.

Fehrenbacher, Richard W. "'A yeerd enclosed al aboute': Literature and History in the Nun's Priest's Tale." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 134-148. [Abstract: "A discussion of literature and history in Chaucer's Nun's Priest's Tale. The writer examines the passage toward the end of the tale where, in lines 4583-87, Chaucer directly alludes to the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 and to one of its leaders, Jack Straw. He agrees with new readings of this passage that interpret the rhetorical excesses of the Nun's Priest's Tale as an attempt to contain the invocation of a social and historical dimension in this passage. He argues, however, that although the tale repeatedly attempts to escape the realm of the historical by seeking refuge in the realm of the literary, history cannot be banished entirely from literature. He shows how the boundaries between literature and history are continuously compromised and renegotiated in the tale."]

Fein, Susanna Greer, and David Raybin, ed. Chaucer: Contemporary Approaches. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "Eleven essays that explore how modern scholarship interprets Chaucer's writings." Contents: I. Chaucer's places. Italy / Robert R. Edwards; France / Ardis Butterfield; England / Kathy Lavezzo -- II. Chaucer's audiences. Manuscripts and scribes / Simon Horobin; Receptions: medieval, tudor, modern / Seth Lerer -- III. Chaucer and language. Language in use / Karla Taylor; Colonialism, Latinity, and resistance / John M. Bowers -- IV. Reenvisioning Chaucer. Humor in perspective / Laura Kendrick; Dream poems / A. C. Spearing; Gender and sexuality / Glenn Burger; Literary history / Steven Justice.]

Fein, Susanna Greer, David Raybin, and Peter C. Braeger, eds. Rebels and Rivals: The Contestive Spirit in "The Canterbury Tales." Fwd. Derek Pearsall. Studies in Medieval Culture 29. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1991. [Contents: The Inn, the Cathedral, and the Pilgrimage of The Canterbury Tales" / Frederick B. Jonassen -- Up and Down, To and Fro: Spatial Relationships in The Knight's Tale / William F. Woods -- Clerkly Rivalry in The Reeve's Tale / Bruce Kent Cowgill -- 'Lat the Children Pleye': The Game Betwixt the Ages in The Reeve's Tale / Susanna Greer Fein -- The Wife of Bath: Chaucer's Inchoate Experiment in Feminist Hermeneutics / Susan K. Hagen -- 'My Spirit Hath His Fostryng in the Bible': The Summoner's Tale and the Holy Spirit / Jay Ruud -- Lords, Churls, and Friars: The Return to Social Order in The Summoner's Tale / Linda Georgianna -- The Falcon's Complaint in The Squire's Tale / Charles A. Owen, Jr. -- 'And Pave It Al of Silver and of Gold': The Humane Artistry of The Canon's Yeoman's Tale / David Raybin -- A Memoir of Chaucer's Institute / C. David Benson -- Appendix: The Portrayals of Fortune in the Tales of The Monk's Tale (Abstract) / Peter C. Braeger.]

Ferster, Judith. Chaucer on Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Ferster, Judith. "Interpretation and Imitation in Chaucer's Franklin's Tale." In Medieval Literature: Criticism, Ideology and History. Ed. David Aers. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986. Pp. 148-168.

Fichte, Joerg O., ed. Chaucer's Frame Tales: The Physical and the Metaphysical. Tübinger Beigträge zur Anglistik 9. Tübingen: Gunter Narr; Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1987.

Finke, Laurie. "'All is for to selle': Breeding Capital in the Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale." In Geoffrey Chaucer: The Wife of Bath Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays from Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism. Boston: St. Martin's, 1996. Pp. 171-188.

Finke, Laurie A. "To Knytte up al this Feeste: The Parson's Rhetoric and the Ending of the Canterbury Tales." Leeds Studies in English 15 (1984): 95-107.

Finlayson, John. "Petrarch, Boccaccio, and Chaucer's Clerk's Tale." Studies in Philology 97 (2000): 255-275.

Finley, William K., and Joseph Rosenblum, eds. Chaucer Illustrated: Five Hundred Years of "The Canterbury Tales" in Pictures. London: British Library; New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press, 2003.

Finnegan, Robert Emmett. "'She Should Have Said No to Walter': Griselda's Promise in The Clerk's Tale." English Studies 75 (1994): 303-321.

Fischer, Andreas. "Story and Discourse in Sir Gawain and The Franklin's Tale." In Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings. Ed. Rüdinger Ahrens. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1990. Pp. 310-319. ["FranT and SGGK are chivalric romances, contain folk-motifs freshly reworked, incorporate elements of the fantastic, and show chivalric virtues--especially trouthe or trawthe--being put to the test. Dorigen and Gawain both make two promises of trouthe, the second invalidating the first; in both cases, the resulting conflict is resolved happily. But the happy endings conceal critiques of the chivalric code. Dorigen's dilemma arises from her inability to accept imperfection, symbolized in the story by the black rocks; 'like Gawain she falls short of her own high principles' (p 316). Three conflicting evaluations of Gawain's conduct--his own, the Green Knight's, and that of Arthur's court--are paralleled by three unanswered questions in FranT: which of the three men was 'the mooste fre'? The Franklin's silence on this issue points to the greater question of 'Dorigen's quandary and of the values that caused it' (p 316). Both poems test codes of behavior, and reveal them to be 'as difficult and dangerous as they are ideal and admirable' (p 318)" (Bleeth, FranT 455).]

Fisher, John H. The Importance of Chaucer. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992.

Flake, Timothy H. "Love, Trouthe, and the Happy Ending of the Franklin's Tale." English Studies 77 (1996): 209-226.

Fleming, John V. "Bernard, Chaucer, and the Literary Critique of the Military Class." In Chivalry, Knighthood, and War in the Middle Ages. Ed. Susan J. Ridyard. Sewanee Mediaeval Studies 9. Sewanee, TN: University of the South Press, 1999. Pp. 137-150.

Fleming, John V. Classical Imitation and Interpretation in Chaucer's Troilus. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.

Fleming, John V. "Deiphoebus Betrayed: Virgilian Decorum, Chaucerian Feminism." Chaucer Review 21 (1986-1987): 182-199.

Fleming, John V. "Gospel Asceticism: Some Chaucerian Images of Perfection." In Chaucer and Scriptural Tradition. Ed. David L. Jeffrey. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1984. Pp. 183-195.

Fletcher, Alan J. "Chaucer the Heretic." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 25 (2003): 53-121. [Chaucer and religion]

Fletcher, Alan J. "The Faith of a Simple Man: Carpenter John's Creed in the Miller's Tale." Medium Ævum 61 (1992): 96-105.

Flynn, James. "The Art of Telling and the Prudence of Interpreting the Tale of Melibee and Its Context." Medieval Perspectives 7 (1992): 53-63.

Forni, Kathleeen. The Chaucerian Apocrypha: A Counterfeit Canon. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2001.

Foster, Edward E., and David H. Carey. Chaucer's Church: A Dictionary of Religious Terms in Chaucer. Aldershot, Hants., and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002.

Foster, Michael. Chaucer's Narrators and the Rhetoric of Self-Representation. Oxford [etc.]: Peter Lang, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Methods of representing individual voices were a primary concern for Geoffrey Chaucer. While many studies have focused on how he expresses the voices of his characters, especially in The Canterbury Tales, a sustained analysis of how he represents his own voice is still wanting. This book explores how Chaucer's first-person narrators are devices of self-representation that serve to influence representations of the poet. Drawing from recent developments in narratology, the history of reading, and theories of orality, this book considers how Chaucer adapts various rhetorical strategies throughout his poetry and prose to define himself and his audience in relation to past literary traditions and contemporary culture. The result is an understanding of how Chaucer anticipates, addresses, and influences his audience's perceptions of himself that broadens our appreciation of Chaucer as a master rhetorician." Contents: Geoffrey Chaucer -- Late fourteenth century literature -- Orality as a mode of transmitting texts in Middle English literature -- The narrator -- Rhetorical constructions of the self -- The narrator as a persona -- Medieval ways of reading texts -- Performance of the self -- Constructing identities through texts -- Identifying audiences in the Middle Ages -- Identifying contemporary audiences of historical texts -- Rhetorical topoi in literature -- Textual transmission in the late fourteenth century -- Creating identities in Middle English literature -- Defining the relationship between author, narrator, and audience -- The idea of the author in Middle English literature --Ricardian social history and literature.]

Fowler, Elizabeth. "The Empire and the Waif: Consent and Conflict of Laws in the Man of Law's Tale." In Medieval Literature and Historical Inquiry: Essays in Honor of Derek Pearsall. Ed. David Aers. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000. Pp. 55-68.

Fox, Denton. "Chaucer's Influence on Fifteenth-Century Poetry." In Companion to Chaucer Studies. Ed. Beryl Rowland. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968. Pp. 385-402.

Fradenburg, Louise O. "Criticism, Anti-Semitism, and the Prioress's Tale." Exemplaria 1 (1989): 69-115.

Fradenburg, Louise O. "Sacrificial Desire in Chaucer's Knight's Tale." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 27.1 (Winter 1997): 47-75. [Abstract: "Analyzes the logic of sacrificial desire that lies at the heart of Geoffrey Chaucer's 'Knight's Tale.' History of European militancy and of the knights of faith; Renunciation in embracing of finitude; Attainment of triumph through life beyond finitude."]

Frank, Hardy Long. "Seeing the Prioress Whole." Chaucer Review 25 (1990-1991): 229-237.

Frazier, J. Terry. "The Digression on Marriage in The Franklin's Tale." South Atlantic Bulletin 43.1 (1978): 75-85.

Friedman, John B. "Alice of Bath's Astral Destiny: A Re-Appraisal." Chaucer Review 35 (2000-2001): 166-181. [Illuminates the Wife of Bath's "personality type" by reference to medieval treatises on Fortune found in astrological-medical miscellanies.]

Friedman, John B. "Another Look at Chaucer and the Physiognomists." Studies in Philology 78 (1981): 138-152. [physiognomy]

Friedman, John B. "Dorigen's 'Grisly Rokkes Blake' Again." Chaucer Review 31 (1996-1997): 133-144.

Fuller, David. "'Hevest up the dore': Overcoming Obstacles to Meaning in Chaucer's Miller's Tale." Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association 9 (1988): 17-28.

Fulton, Helen. "Mercantile Ideology in Chaucer's Shipman's Tale." Chaucer Review 36 (2001-2002): 311-328.

Fumo, Jamie Claire. The Legacy of Apollo: Antiquity, Authority and Chaucerian Poetics. Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 2010. [Publisher's description: "In The Legacy of Apollo, Jamie C. Fumo presents a series of connected readings of classical and medieval texts that shape the god's pre-modern legacy. By examining Ovid's Metamorphoses and its commentaries, Virgil's Aeneid, mythographic manuals and iconography, popular sermons, saints' lives, and a range of Chaucerian works, Fumo innovatively brings the fruits of current scholarly practices of intertextuality to a body of medieval subject matter. This wide-ranging work traces the resonances of Apollo up to the cusp of the early modern period and reveals the medieval development of a newly self-conscious poetics of inspiration in England." Contents: Apollo as human god: Ovid and medieval Ovidianism -- The medieval Apollo: classical authority and Christian hermeneutics -- Imperial Apollo: from Virgil's Rome to Chaucer's Troy -- Fragmentary Apollo: The Squire's Tale, The Franklin's Tale, and Chaucerian self-fashioning -- Domestic Apollo: crises of truth in The Manciple's Tale.]

Furrow, Melissa M. "The Author and Damnation: Chaucer, Writing and Penitence." Forum for Modern Language Studies 33 (1997): 245-257. ["Discusses Chaucer's Retraction against the background of the rise of vernacular literature. Includes a diplomatic edition of extracts from MS. London, B.L., Harley 5085" (IMB).]

Furrow, Melissa M. "The Man of Law's St. Custance: Sex and the saeculum." Chaucer Review 24 (1989-1990): 223-235. [Constance]

Furrow, Melissa M. "Middle English Fabliaux and Modern Myth." ELH 56 (1989): 1-18.

Fyler, John M. Chaucer and Ovid. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979.

Fyler, John M. "Love and Degree in the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 21 (1986-1987): 321-337.

Gallacher, Patrick J. "Chaucer and the Rhetoric of the Body." Chaucer Review 28 (1993-1994): 216-235.

Gallacher, Patrick J. "Food, Laxatives, and the Catharsis in Chaucer's Nun's Priest's Tale." Speculum 51 (1976): 49-68.

Gallacher, Patrick J. "Perception and Reality in the Miller's Tale." Chaucer Review 18 (1983-1984): 38-48.

Galloway, Andrew. "Chaucer's 'Former Age' and the Fourteenth-Century Anthropology of Craft: The Social Logic of a Premodernist Lyric." ELH 63 (1996): 535-554.

Galloway, Andrew. "Marriage Sermons, Polemical Sermons, and The Wife of Bath's Prologue: A Generic Excursus." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 14 (1992): 3-30.

Gamble, Giles Y. "Troilus Philocaptus: A Case Study in Amor Hereos." Studia Neophilologica 60 (1988): 175-178. [Lovesickness in Troilus and Criseyde.]

Ganim, John M. "Carnival Voices and the Envoy to the Clerk's Tale." Chaucer Review 22 (1987-1988): 112-27. ["The Envoy to the Clerk's Tale does not function as either a 'dramatic device or a mere aside' (113), but as a parodic remark about literary criticism. Several elements in the Envoy indicate that Chaucer wrote it after he had written the tale, and in the Envoy Chaucer quotes from and parodies himself. Close reading reveals a number of carnival qualities in the Envoy, including a sense of play, puns, animal imagery, and a reversal of the seriousness of the preceding tale" (from on-line "Chaucer Bibliography").]

Ganze, Alison. "'My trouth for to holde--Allas, Allas!': Dorigen and Honor in the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 42 (2007-2008): 312-329. [shame; guilt; honour]

Gardner, John C. The Life and Times of Chaucer. New York: Alfred J. Knopf, 1977.

Gaylord, Alan T. "Friendship in Chaucer's Troilus." Chaucer Review 3 (1968): 239-264.

Gaylord, Alan T. "The Promises in The Franklin's Tale." English Literary History 31 (1964): 331-365.

Gaylord, Alan T. "Sentence and Solaas in Fragment VII of the Canterbury Tales: Harry Bailly as Horseback Editor." PMLA 82 (1967): 226-235.

Georgianna, Linda. "The Clerk's Tale and the Grammar of Assent." Speculum 70 (1995): 793-821. [On Griselda's agreement to an abhorrent vow: all previous attempts to explain it have been unsatisfactory; ultimately, our reaction to Griselda's unexplained and inexplicable consent to Walter's demand is to be a measure of the security of her faith and the weakness of our own.]

Georgianna, Linda. "Lords, Churls, and Friars: The Return to Social Order in the Summoner's Tale." In Rebels and Rivals: The Contestive Spirit in "The Canterbury Tales." Ed. Susanna Greer Fein, David Raybin, and Peter C. Braeger. Studies in Medieval Culture 29. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Pubications, Western Michigan University, 1991. Pp. 149-172.

Giaccherini, Enrico. "Theatrical Chaucer." European Medieval Drama 1997: Papers from the Second International Conference on "Aspects of European Medieval Drama," Camerino, 4-6 July 1997. Ed. Sydney Higgins. Tempo di Spettacoli. Camerino: Centro Linguistico di Ateneo, Universita' degli Studi di Camerino, 1997. Pp. 95-109. [On Chaucer and the mystery plays, esp. in "The Miller's Tale."]

Gillespie, Alexandra. "Reading Chaucer's Words to Adam." Chaucer Review 42 (2008): 269-283. [Includes some discussion of Linne Mooney's identification of Chaucer's scribe as Adam Pinkhurst.]

Ginsberg, Warren. "Petrarch, Chaucer and the Making of the Clerk." In The Performance of Middle English Culture: Essays on Chaucer and the Drama in Honor of Martin Stevens. Ed. James J. Paxson, Lawrence M. Clopper, and Sylvia Tomasch. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1998. Pp. 125-141.

Gittes, Katharine S. Framing the "Canterbury Tales": Chaucer and the Medieval Frame Narrative Tradition. Contributions to the Study of World Literature 41. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Glowka, Arthur Wayne. A Guide to Chaucer's Meter. Lanham, MD: University of America Press, 1991.

Godfrey, Mary F. "The Fifteenth-Century Prioress's Tale and the Problem of Anti-Semitism." In Rewriting Chaucer: Culture, Authority, and the Idea of the Authentic Text, 1400-1602. Ed. Thomas A. Prendergast and Barbara Kline. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1999. Pp. 93-115.

Godfrey, Mary F. "Only Words: Cursing and the Authority of Language in Chaucer's Friar's Tale." Exemplaria 10.2 (Fall 1998): 307-328.

Goodall, Peter. "Being Alone in Chaucer." Chaucer Review 27 (1992-1993): 1-15.

Gordon, Ida L. The Double Sorrow of Troilus: A Study of Ambiguities in Troilus and Criseyde. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.

Goyne, Jo. "Pleasing Virtue: The Problem of Word and Will in Chaucer's Clerk's Tale." In Representations of the Feminine in the Middle Ages. Ed. Bonnie Wheeler. Feminea Medievalia 1. Dallas: Academia, 1993. Pp. 139-160.

Gravlee, Cynthia A. "Presence, Absence, and Difference: Reception and Deception in The Franklin's Tale." In Desiring Discourse: The Literature of Love, Ovid through Chaucer. Ed. James J. Paxson, and Cynthia A. Gravlee. Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press, 1998. Pp. 177-187.

Gray, Douglas. "'Lat be thyne olde ensaumples': Chaucer and Proverbs." In Interstices: Studies in Late Middle English and Anglo-Latin Texts in Honour of A. G. Rigg. Ed. Richard Firth Green and Linne R. Mooney. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003. Pp. 122-136.

Green, Richard Firth. "Palamon's Appeal of Treason in the Knight's Tale." In The Letter of the Law: Legal Practice and Literary Production in Medieval England. Ed. Emily Steiner and Candace Barrington. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002. Pp. 105-114.

Greenberg, Nina Manasan. "Dorigen as Enigma: The Production of Meaning and the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 33 (1998-1999): 329-349.

Grennen, Joseph E. "St. Cecilia's Chemical Wedding: The Unity of the Canterbury Tales Fragment VIII." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 65 (1966): 466-481.

Grudin, Michaela Paasche. Chaucer and the Politics of Discourse. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1996.

Gwiazda, Piotr. "Reading the Commonplace: Boethius, Chaucer, and Myth of the Golden Age." Carmina Philosophiae: Journal of the International Boethius Society 11 (2002): 75-92.

Hagen, Susan K. "The Wife of Bath: Chaucer's Inchoate Experiment in Feminist Hermeneutics." In Rebels and Rivals: The Contestive Spirit in "The Canterbury Tales." Ed. Susanna Greer Fein, David Raybin, and Peter C. Braeger. Fwd. Derek Pearsall. Studies in Medieval Culture 29. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University Press, 1991. Pp. 105-124.

Hallissy, Margaret. Clean Maids, True Wives, Steadfast Widows: Chaucer's Women and Medieval Codes of Conduct. Contributions in Women's Studies 130. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Hallissy, Margaret. A Companion to Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales." Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Hamaguchi, Keiko. Non-European Women in Chaucer: A Postcolonial Study. Studies in English Medieval Language and Literature 14. Frankfurt-am-Main [etc.]: Peter Lang, 2006. [Publisher's description: "Since Jeffrey Jerome Cohen edited The Postcolonial Middle Ages in 2000, some scholars have applied postcolonial criticism to the study of the Middle Ages. However, even in postcolonial studies of Chaucer, the role of non-European women in his work has not yet been fully discussed. Using postcolonial theory, the author explores how Chaucer represents non-European women, his Others both in gender and in culture. Her examination of non-European women in his work from a non-Westerner's point of view reveals that his representation is complicated and ambivalent, showing diverse views. The ambivalence in Chaucer reflects his own complicated position as courtier, soldier, minor diplomat, controller of customs and poet, and also the fourteenth century's historical background and attitude." Contents: "The Resistance of the Syrian Mother-in-law in the Man of the Law's Tale"; "Canacee's Problematic Marriage in the Squire's Tale"; "The Colonization of Dido"; "Domesticating Amazons in the Knight's Tale"; "Transgressing the Borderline of Gender: Zenobia in the Monk's Tale."]

Hamilton, Marie Padgett. "Echoes of Childermas in the Tale of the Prioress." Modern Language Review 34 (1939): 1-8. [Rpt. in Chaucer: Modern Essays in Criticism. Ed. Edward Wagenknecht. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959. Pp. 88-97.]

Hanawalt, Barbara A. "The Host, the Law, and the Ambiguous Space of Medieval London Taverns." In Medieval Crime and Social Control. Ed. Barbara A. Hanawalt and David Wallace. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999. Pp. 204-223. [On tavern keepers in medieval London, including Chaucer's knowledge of them (towards his portrayal of the Host of the Tabard Inn, Harry Bailie): "Chaucer's knowledge of inns and taverns would have been informed by his experience with a variety of London establishments rather than any specific innkeeper in one tavern" (217). "Describes the 'contested space' of taverns, i.e. how on the one hand they were associated with women because they did most of the brewing and the space where ale and beer were sold was an extension of the female, domestic space; and how on the other hand all women associated with taverns had a bad reputation in literature, and thus policing inns and taverns was a major concern for English and civil laws" (IMB).]

Hanks, D. Thomas, Jr. "'Goddes Pryvetee' and Chaucer's Miller's Tale." Christianity and Literature 33.2 (Winter 1984): 7-12.

Hanna, Ralph, III, and Traugott Lawler, eds. Jankyn's Book of Wikked Wyves, Vol. 1: The Primary Texts. Chaucer Library. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1997. ["Using materials collected by Karl Young and Robert A. Pratt." Only one volume published to date.] [Wife of Bath: sources]

Hanning, Robert W. "The Struggle between Noble Designs and Chaos: The Literary Tradition of Chaucer's Knight's Tale." Literary Review 23 (1980): 519-541.

Hansen, Elaine Tuttle. Chaucer and the Fictions of Gender. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991.

Hansen, Elaine Tuttle. "'Of His Love Dangerous to Me': Liberation, Subversion, and Domestic Violence in the Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale." In Geoffrey Chaucer, The Wife of Bath: Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays from Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 1996. Pp. 273-289.

Hansen, Elaine Tuttle. "The Powers of Silence: The Case of the Clerk's Griselda." In Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Ed. Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. Pp. 230-249.

Harder, Kelsie B. "Chaucer's Use of the Mystery Plays in the Miller's Tale." Modern Language Quarterly 17 (1956): 193-198.

Harding, Wendy. "The Function of Pity in Three Canterbury Tales." Chaucer Review 32 (1997-1998): 162-174.

Hardman, Phillipa. "The Book of the Duchess as a Memorial Monument." Chaucer Review 28 (1993-1994): 205-215.

Hardman, Phillipa. "Chaucer's Man of Sorrows: Secular Images of Pity in the Book of the Duchess, the Squire's Tale, and Troilus and Criseyde." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 93 (1994): 204-227.

Harley, Marta Powell. "Geoffrey Chaucer, Cecilia Chaumpaigne, and Alice Perrers: A Closer Look." Chaucer Review 28 (1993-1994): 78-82.

Hartman, Ronald. "Boethian Parallels in the Tale of Melibee." English Studies 79 (1998): 166-170.

Harwood, Britton J. "Chaucer on 'Speche': House of Fame, the Friar's Tale, and the Summoner's Tale." Chaucer Review 26 (1991-1992): 343-349.

Hatcher, Elizabeth R. "Life without Death: The Old Man in Chaucer's 'Pardoner's Tale.'" Chaucer Review 9.3 (Winter 1975): 246-252. [The Old Man represents to the revelours the logical outcome of their desire, their quest to kill death: they wish to eliminate death but have not thought to eliminate old age as well. If they succeed in killing death, they will, like the Old Man, live forever--as old men desiring to die.]

Havely, Nicholas R. Chaucer's Boccaccio: Sources of Troilus and the Knight's and Franklin's Tales. Chaucer Studies 5. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1980.

Heffernan, Carol Falvo. Comedy in Chaucer and Boccaccio. Chaucer Studies. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2009. [Publisher's description: "Although many of Chaucer's sources have been exhaustively studied, relatively little work has been done on the influence of his contemporary Boccaccio, a gap which this book aims to fill. It examines the relationship of the comic tales, the so-called fabliaux, in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Boccaccio's Decameron, demonstrating that not only did Chaucer draw on Boccaccio's work, but that they shared the same comic literary tradition stretching back into antiquity. By putting the tales and the characters side-by-side, it throws new light on Chaucer's inventiveness and mode of working." Contents: Introductory Matters; The Comic Inheritance of Boccaccio and Chaucer; Parallel Comic Tales in the Decameron and the Canterbury Tales; Antifraternal Satire; Boccaccio's Filostrato and Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde: Adding Comedy; Conclusion.]

Heffernan, Carol Falvo. "Contraception and the Pear Tree Episode of Chaucer's Merchant's Tale." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 94 (1995): 31-41.

Heffernan, Carol Falvo. The Melancholy Muse: Chaucer, Shakespeare and Early Medicine. Duquesne Studies, Language and Literature Series 19. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1995.

Heyworth, Gregory. "Ineloquent Ends: Simplicitas, Proctolalia, and the Profane Vernacular in the Miller's Tale." Speculum 84 (2009): 956-983. [Abstract: "The complaint of clerics in early-fifteenth-century England that Latin eloquence lay toothless and gibbering on its deathbed was neither new nor surprising nor even true. What this particular author is really complaining about is the rise of a vernacular poetic in the fourteenth century in such authors as Langland and Chaucer that, influenced by the demotic energies of Wyclif, valued linguistic and narrative simplicitas over ornate Latinity. A watchword of late-medieval reformist theology, simplicity compassed a notion of natural faith unmediated by the artifice of learning. As a poetic trope familiar to medievals from both Quintilian and Cicero, it described the use of popular, everyday speech for sophisticated rhetorical ends."]

Hieatt, Constance B. "The Dreams of Troilus, Criseyde, and Chauntecleer: Chaucer's Manipulaton of the Categories of Macrobius et al." English Studies in Canada 14 (1988): 400-414.

Higl, Andrew. Playing the "Canterbury Tales": The Continuations and Additions. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2012. [Publisher's description: "Playing the Canterbury Tales addresses the additions, continuations, and reordering of the Canterbury Tales found in the manuscripts and early printed editions of the Tales. Many modern editions present a specific set of tales in a specific order, and often leave out an entire corpus of continuations and additions. Andrew Higl makes a case for understanding the additions and changes to Chaucer's original open and fragmented work by thinking of them as distinct interactive moves in a game similar to the storytelling game the pilgrims play. Using examples and theories from new media studies, Higl demonstrates that the Tales are best viewed as an 'interactive fiction,' reshaped by active readers. Readers participated in the ongoing creation and production of the tales by adding new text and rearranging existing text, and through this textual transmission, they introduced new social and literary meaning to the work. This theoretical model and the boundaries between the canonical and apocryphal texts are explored in six case studies: the spurious prologues of the Wife of Bath's Tale, John Lydgate's influence on the Tales, the Northumberland manuscript, the ploughman character, and the Cook's Tale. The Canterbury Tales are a more dynamic and unstable literary work than usually encountered in a modern critical edition." Contents: Introduction; Reclaiming the 'spurious' and 'apocryphal'; Thresholds to the Tales; The many John Lydgates in the world of the Tales; The movable parts of Northumberland MS 455; Geoffrey's games in the Tale of Beryn; Playing games with the Plowmen; Answering the riddle of the Cook's Tale; Conclusion.] [Chaucer: reception history]

Hill, Thomas. "She, This in Blak": Vision, Truth, and Will in Geoffrey Chaucer's "Troilus and Criseyde." Studies in Medieval History and Culture. London and New York: Routledge, 2006. ["She, This in Blak takes a fresh look at Chaucer's great Trojan romance, Troilus and Criseyde, in light of recent scholarship on late scholastic discourses on representation and causality as they pertain to human perception and judgment. This study also contributes to a growing literature on the impact of scholastic psychological theory upon contemporary cultural forms by examining the way in which late medieval accounts of perception and cognition can illuminate the construction of the poem's subjects, including one of the most compelling and controversial figures in medieval literature, Chaucer's Criseyde. By examining Chaucer's depiction of Troilus, Pandarus, and Criseyde within this contemporary cultural context, She, This in Blak offers a better grounded and more historically illuminating view of the poem than is provided by psychological readings based on modern constructions of intentionality."]

Hirsh, John. Chaucer and the "Canterbury Tales": A Short Introduction. Blackwell Introductions to Literature. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.

Hodges, Laura F. Chaucer and Costume: The Secular Pilgrims in the "General Prologue." Chaucer Studies 26. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2000.

Hodges, Laura F. "Costume Rhetoric in the Knight's Portrait: Chaucer's Every-Knight and his Bismotered Gypon." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 274-302. [Chaucer's knight is "a verray, parfit gentil knyght" and so on, but he is no "knight in shining armour," nor a Gawain as in Gawain and the Green Knight, immaculate and displaying his pentangle. Chaucer's knight is "worthy" but "bismotered"; he is imperfect. On the one hand, this can be seen as a realistic image of chivalry in the late fourteenth century, and the knight is a true representative of his estate. On another level, there are the biblical metaphors of arming the soldier of Christ, and medieval allegories like the "Pilgrimage of the Life of Man" which extend the moral symbolism of knightly arms, and thus our knight is seen to fall short morally: he lacks the armour of virtue, and has come in a dirty shirt. This moral implication is further confirmed by pilgrimage metaphors: one is to put off the old man and put on the new; wearing clean clothes to begin a pilgrimage is an outward indication of inward readiness for spiritual renewal.]

Hodges, Laura F. "A Reconsideration of the Monk's Costume." Chaucer Review 27 (1992-1993): 33-46.

Holley, Linda Tarte. Chaucer's Measuring Eye. College Station, TX: Rice University Press, 1990. ["Drawing on medieval theories of measurable space, the author shows how Chaucer's verbal structures often move as the eye does, with the result that his reader experiences motion in created space."]

Holsinger, Bruce. "Pedagogy, Violence, and the Subject of Music: Chaucer's Prioress's Tale and the Ideologies of 'Song.'" New Medieval Literature 1 (1997): 157-192.

Holton, Amanda. The Sources of Chaucer's Poetics. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Focusing on four aspects of Chaucer's poetics-use of narrative, speech, rhetoric, and figurative language-this is the first book-length study to identify Chaucer's distinctive poetic strategies by making specific comparisons with known textual sources. The author provides a combination of analysis of both poetic stylistics and sources, reading The Legend of Good Women and five of The Canterbury Tales (The Knight's Tale, The Man of Law's Tale, The Physician's Tale, The Monk's Tale, and The Manciple's Tale) against their textual sources, including Ovid's Metamorphoses and Heroides, Boccaccio's Teseida, Virgil's Aeneid, Le Roman de la Rose, and histories by Nicholas Trevet and Guido delle Colonne. Holton provides a picture of Chaucer's habits as a writer, showing that he was consistent in asserting his own techniques against the pressure of his sources and in keeping control over words and their meaning." Contents: Introduction; Narrative; Speech; Rhetoric; Figurative language; Conclusion.]

Hopenwasser, Nanda. "The Wife of Bath as Storyteller: 'Al Is for to Selle' Or Is It?; Idealism and Spiritual Growth as Evidenced in the Wife of Bath's Tale." Medieval Perspectives 10 (1995): 101-115.

Hornsby, Joseph Allen, IV. Chaucer and the Law. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1988.

Howard, Donald R. Chaucer: His Life, His Works, His World. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1987.

Howard, Donald R. The Idea of the Canterbury Tales. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

Howes, Laura L. Chaucer's Gardens and the Language of Convention. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997.

Ingham, Patricia Clare. "Pastoral Histories: Utopia, Conquest, and the Wife of Bath's Tale." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 44 (2002): 34-46.

Jacobs, Kathryn. "The Marriage Contract of the Franklin's Tale: The Remaking of Society." Chaucer Review 20 (1985-1986): 132-143.

Jager, Eric. The Tempter's Voice: Language and the Fall in Medieval Literature. Ithaca, NY, and London: Cornell University Press, 1993. [Includes a chapter on the "Merchant's Tale" and its parody of the Genesis account of the Fall of Man.]

Jankowski, Eileen S. "Chaucer's Second Nun's Tale and the Apocalyptic Imagination." Chaucer Review 36 (2001-2002): 128-148.

Jefferson, Bernard L. Chaucer and the Consolation of Philosophy of Boethius. 1917; New York: Haskell House, 1965.

Jeffrey, David Lyle, ed. Chaucer and Scriptural Tradition. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1984.

Johnson, Lesley. "Reincarnations of Griselda: Contexts for the Clerk's Tale?" In Feminist Readings in Middle English Poetry: The Wife of Bath and All Her Sect. Ed. Ruth Evans, and Lesley Johnson. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. Pp. 195-220.

Johnson, Lynn Staley. "The Prince and His People: A Study of the Two Covenants in the Clerk's Tale." Chaucer Review 10 (1975-1976): 17-29.

Johnston, Andrew James. "The Exegetics of Laughter: Religious Parody in Chaucer's Miller's Tale." In A History of English Laughter. Ed. Manfred Pfister. Internationale Forschungen zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft 57. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2002. Pp. 17-33.

Jonassen, Frederick B. "The Inn, the Cathedral, and the Pilgrimage of The Canterbury Tales." In Rebels and Rivals: The Contestive Spirit in "The Canterbury Tales." Ed. Susanna Greer Fein, David Raybin, and Peter C. Braeger. Fwd. Derek Pearsall. Studies in Medieval Culture 29. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University Press, 1991. Pp. 1-35.

Jones, Terry. Chaucer's Knight: The Portrait of a Medieval Mercenary. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980.

Jordan, Robert M. Chaucer and the Shape of Creation: The Aesthetic Possibilities of Inorganic Structure. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967.

Jordan, Robert M. Chaucer's Poetics and the Modern Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. [Chaucer asks many of the same questions now being posed by writers, but Chaucer was a fideist whose belief compensated for his energetic and radical questioning of the material world and of the language by which human beings apprehend it.]

Jordan, Tracey. "Fairy Tale and Fabliau: Chaucer's The Miller's Tale." Studies in Short Fiction 21 (1984): 87-93.

Jordan, Timothy R. "The Concentration of Carnivalesque Themes in the Shared Fabliaux of the Decameron and the Canterbury Tales." M.A. thesis, Indiana State University, 2006. [Carnival]

Jordan, William Chester. "The Pardoner's 'Holy Jew.'" In Chaucer and the Jews: Sources, Contexts, Meanings. Ed. Sheila Delany. Multicultural Middle Ages. New York and London: Routledge, 2002. Pp. 25-42.

Jost, Jean E. "Ambiguous Brotherhood in the Friar's Tale and Summoner's Tale." In Masculinities in Chaucer: Approaches to Maleness in the "Canterbury Tales" and "Troilus and Criseyde." Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Chaucer Studies 25. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1998. Pp. 77-90.

Jost, Jean E., ed. Chaucer's Humor: Critical Essays. Garland Studies in Humor 5; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1504. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1994.

Jost, Jean E. "May's Mismarriage of Youth and Elde: The Poetics of Sexual Desire in Chaucer's Merchant's Tale." In Representations of the Feminine in the Middle Ages. Ed. Bonnie Wheeler. Feminea Medievalia 1. Dallas: Academia, 1993. Pp. 117-137.

Justman, Stewart. "Trade as Pudendum: Chaucer's Wife of Bath." Chaucer Review 28 (1993-1994): 344-352.

Kaminsky, Alice R. Chaucer's "Troilus and Criseyde" and the Critics. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1980. ["A retrospective analysis of the various types of critical response to Troilus and Criseyde during the middle years of the twentieth century" (Collette, "Afterlife," Companion to Chaucer).]

Kao, Wan-Chuan. "Conduct Shameful and Unshameful in The Franklin's Tale." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 34 (2012): 99-139. [On ideas of marriage and on Dorigen's "affective engagement with shame."] [shame; Dorigen]

Kealy, J. Kieran. "Voices of the Tabard: The Last Tales of the Canterbury Tales." In From Arabye to Engelond: Medieval Studies in Honour of Mahmoud Manzalaoui on His 75th Birthday. Ed. A. E. Christa Canitz and Gernot R. Wieland. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1999. Pp. 113-129. ["Reads Ret[raction] as the 'culminating moment in the progressive disillusionment' of the Canterbury fiction for poet and reader alike. SNT [Second Nun's Tale], CYT [Canon's Yeoman's Tale], and ManT [Manciple's Tale] together 'systematically confront' medieval notions of truth and the ability of humans to know it, leading to the need for confession" ("Chaucer Bibliography" summary).]

Keen, Maurice. "Chaucer's Knight, the English Aristocracy and the Crusade." In English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages. Ed. V. J. Scattergood and J. W. Sherborne. London: Duckworth, 1983. Pp. 45-61. [Presents evidence (at least partly to answer Terry Jones and his "accusations") to show that Chaucer's description of the Knight presents him as a crusader, and that crusading was in Chaucer's time still considered a noble occupation for a knight. See also Derek Brewer ("Chaucer's Knight as Hero"); also Emerson Brown ("Chaucer's Knight"); also John H. Pratt ("Was Chaucer's Knight Really a Mercenary?").]

Keen, William. "'To doon ye ese': A Study of the Host in the General Prologue of the Canterbury Tales." Topic: A Journal of the Liberal Arts 17 (1969): 5-18.

Keiser, George R. "Language and Meaning in Chaucer's Shipman's Tale." Chaucer Review 12 (1977): 147-161.

Kelen, Sarah A. "Climbing Up the Family Tree: Chaucer's Tudor Progeny." Journal of the Early Book Society 6 (2003): 109-123. [reception history; on the "tudorization" of Geoffrey Chaucer]

Kellogg, A[lfred] L. "The Possible Unity of Chaucer's Prioress." Chaucer Yearbook 3 (1996): 55-71.

Kellogg, Laura D. Boccaccio's and Chaucer's Cressida. Studies in the Humanities: Literature, Politics, Society 16. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine. Davis Medieval Texts and Studies 5. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1986.

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Chaucerian Tragedy. Chaucer Studies 24. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1997. ["This book takes issue with several critical stereotypes about tragedy in the medieval period, suggesting that contrary to received wisdom it was not a common term, nor was there a uniform meaning given to it by the few who used it. Professor Kelly argues that Chaucer was the first author of the middle ages to write tragedies in the vernacular, and it was his understanding and demonstration of tragedy which shaped notions of the genre. The book seeks to place Chaucer's achievement in a critical and historical context, beginning by contrasting modern and medieval theoretical approaches to the study of genres. It goes on to discuss Boccaccio's concept of tragedy as a dramatic form and his De casibus before turning to Chaucer himself, exploring the ideas of tragedy prevalent in medieval England, showing what Chaucer meant by the term, and the influences upon him. Troilus and Criseyde is analysed specifically as a tragedy, and consideration is given to its reception in modern times. Later chapters take up two of Chaucer's imitators, John Lydgate and Robert Henryson, and analyse the ways in which they understood and practiced tragedy" (publisher's description).]

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. "Meanings and Uses of Raptus in Chaucer's Time." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 20 (1998): 101-165. [Chaucer and the "rape" of Cecily Champain.]

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. "Statutes of Rapes and Alleged Ravishers of Wives: A Context for the Charges against Thomas Malory, Knight." Viator 28 (1997): 361-419. [On the charges of "raptus" against Thomas Malory. Includes texts, translations, and commentary on all of the relevant statutes, and also summarizes the legal literature and case histories. Includes (pp. 405-407) a summary of Chaucer's investigation of a "raptus" (while much attention has been given to Cecily Champain's release of Chaucer, less attention has been given to his later appointment as a justice in investigating a charge of rape and abduction). On p. 410, Kelly finally arrives at the case of Malory. His conclusion (pp. 415-419) runs counter to that of Christopher Cannon's article on Cecily Champagne: "the statutes seem designed with only abduction in mind, and subsequent judicial use confirms this impression" (415). Pp. 418-419: Malory makes some changes to the tales of the abduction of Guenevere by Meliagance and the later "abduction" of Guenevere by Lancelot, perhaps reflecting his own experience of the statutes of "raptus."]

Kempton, Daniel. "Chaucer's Knight and the Knight's Theseus: 'And Though That He Were Worthy, He Was Wys.'" Journal of Narrative Technique 17.3 (Fall, 1987): 237-258.

Kempton, Daniel. "Chaucer's Tale of Melibee: 'A litel thyng in prose.'" Genre 21 (1988): 263-278.

Kendrick, Laura. Chaucerian Play: Comedy and Control in The Canterbury Tales. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Kennedy, Thomas C. "Rhetoric and Meaning in The House of Fame." Studia Neophilologica 68 (1996): 9-23.

Kikuchi, Shigeo. "Lose Heart, Gain Heaven: The False Reciprocity of Gain and Loss in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 102 (2001): 427-434.

Kirby, Thomas A. Chaucer's Troilus: A Study in Courtly Love. University, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1940.

Kiser, Lisa J. "Chaucer and the Politics of Nature." In Beyond Nature Writings: Expanding the Boundaries of Ecocriticism. Ed. Karla Armbruster and Kathleen R. Wallace. Under the Sign of Nature: Explorations in Ecocriticism. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 2001. Pp. 41-56.

Kiser, Lisa J. Truth and Textuality in Chaucer's Poetry. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1991.

Klassen, Norman. Chaucer on Love, Knowledge, and Sight. Chaucer Studies 21. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1995.

Kline, Daniel T. "'Myne by right': Oath Making and Intent in The Friar's Tale." Philological Quarterly 77 (1998): 271-293.

Klitgård, Ebbe. "Chaucer's Narrative Voice in the House of Fame." Chaucer Review 32 (1997-1998): 260-266. [Klitgård begins with Minnis's observation (in the Oxford Guides to Chaucer volume on the shorter poems) that Chaucer was a rhetorical poet who gave primacy to the spoken word, and this article is to give further confirmation to that fact. Klitgård looks at the House of Fame in terms of oral performance and rhetorical technique (a familiarizing tone, a playful voice, but coupled with a seriousness of intent and with "bookish" allusiveness). Pearsall's dismissive comment on the poem, as "an embarrassed giggle," is unfair to Chaucer. The ending of the poem is perhaps explicable when one thinks of oral performances and their contingencies. If one takes 500-1000 lines as the standard length of an evening's entertainment, then the first three books fit into three evenings (and each book, including the third, ends with a "teazer" to create "suspense" and generate interest in the next performance), and it is quite conceivable that we are missing only one further 1000-line installment. Perhaps Book 4 was written and was subsequently lost, or perhaps it was never composed because the audience and the opportunity was lost (through, perhaps, a crisis at court which interrupted the sequence and caused interest in it to be lost).]

Knapp, Peggy A. Chaucer and the Social Contest. New York and London: Routledge, 1990. [An examination of the contest of tales set against the context of contests generally in fourteenth-century life.]

Knapp, Peggy A. "Chaucer Imagines England (in English)." In Imagining a Medieval English Nation. Ed. Kathy Lavezzo. Medieval Cultures 37. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. Pp. 131-160.

Knapp, Peggy A[nn]. Chaucerian Aesthetics. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Chaucerian Aesthetics examines The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde from both medieval and post-Kantian vantage points. These sometimes congruent, sometimes divergent perspectives illuminate both the immediate pleasure of encountering beauty and its haunting promise of intelligibility. Although aesthetic reflection has sometimes seemed out of sync with modern approaches to mind and language, Knapp defends its value in general and demonstrates its importance for the analysis of Chaucer's narrative art. Focusing on language games, persons, women, humor, and community, this book ponders what makes art beautiful." Contents: Introduction: Why aesthetics? -- Chaucerian resoun ymaginatyf -- Playing with language games -- Beautiful persons -- The beauty of women -- The aesthetics of laughter -- Imagining community.]

Knapp, Peggy A. "The Nature of Nature: Criseyde's 'Slydyng Corage.'" Chaucer Review 13 (1978-1979): 133-140.

Knapp, Peggy A. "Robyn the Miller's Thrifty Work." In Sign, Sentence, Discourse: Language in Medieval Thought and Literature. Ed. Julian N. Wasserman and Lois Roney. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1989. Pp. 294-308.

Koff, Leonard Michael. Chaucer and the Art of Storytelling. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Koff, Leonard Michael, and Brenda Deen Schildgen, eds. The Decameron and the Canterbury Tales: New Essays on an Old Question. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2000.

Kohanski, Tamarah. "In Search of Malyne." Chaucer Review 27.3 (1992-1993): 228-238. [Available online here. [Reeve's Tale]]

Kolve, V. A. Chaucer and the Imagery of Narrative: The First Five Canterbury Tales. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1984.

Kolve, V. A. "Chaucer's Second Nun's Tale and the Iconography of Saint Cecilia." In New Perspectives in Chaucer Criticism. Ed. Donald L. Rose. Norman, OK: Pilgrim, 1981. Pp. 137-174.

Kolve, V. A. "Chaucer's Wheel of False Religion: Theology and Obscenity in 'The Summoner's Tale.'" In The Centre and Its Compass: Studies in Medieval Literature in Honor of Professor John Leyerle. Ed. Robert A. Taylor, James F. Burke, Patricia J. Eberle, Ian Lancashire, and Brian S. Merrilees. Studies in Medieval Culture 33. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1993. Pp. 265-296.

Kraman, Cynthia. "Communities of Otherness in Chaucer's Merchant's Tale." In Medieval Women in their Communities. Ed. Diane Watt. Cardiff: University of Wales Press; Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1997. Pp. 138-154.

Krier, Theresa M., ed. Refiguring Chaucer in the Renaissance. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1998.

Kruger, Steven F. "Claiming the Pardoner: Toward a Gay Reading of Chaucer's Pardoner's Tale." Exemplaria 6 (1994): 115-139.

Kruger, Steven F. "Imagination and the Complex Movement of Chaucer's 'House of Fame.'" Chaucer Review 28 (1993-1994): 117-134.

Ladd, Roger A. "Selling Alys: Reading (with) the Wife of Bath." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 34 (2012): 141-171.

Laird, Edgar. "Chaucer, Clanvowe, and Cupid." Chaucer Review 44 (2009-2010): 344-350.

Laird, Edgar. "Geoffrey Chaucer and the Other Contributors to the Treatise on the Astrolabe." In Rewriting Chaucer: Culture, Authority, and the Idea of the Authentic Text, 1400-1602. Ed. Thomas A. Prendergast and Barbara Kline. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1999. Pp. 145-165.

Lambdin, Laura C., and Robert T. Lambdin, eds. Chaucer's Pilgrims: An Historical Guide to the Pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales. Westport, CT, and London: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Lancashire, Ian. "Moses, Elijah and the Back Parts of God: Satiric Scatology in Chaucer's Summoner's Tale." Mosaic 14 (1981): 17-30.

Laskaya, Anne. Chaucer's Approach to Gender in the "Canterbury Tales." Chaucer Studies 23. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1995.

Lawton, David. "Chaucer's Two Ways: The Pilgrimage Frame of The Canterbury Tales." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 9 (1987): 3-40.

Lawton, David A. Chaucer's Narrators. Chaucer Studies 13. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1985.

Leicester, H. Marshall, Jr. "The Art of Impersonation: A General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales." PMLA 95 (1980): 213-224.

Leicester, H. Marshall, Jr. The Disenchanted Self: Representing the Subject in the Canterbury Tales. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Lenz, Tanya S. Dreams, Medicine, and Literary Practice: Exploring the Western Literary Tradition Through Chaucer. Cursor Mundi 18. Turnhout: Brepols, 2014. [Publisher's description: "This ground-breaking volume explores the intersection of dreams, medicine, and literary practice in the poetry of Chaucer and influential literary works from antiquity through the late fourteenth century. An introductory exploration considers topics such as Asclepian dream healings of ancient Greece, Old English poetry, medieval mystics, and foundational works by Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galen, Avicenna, Macrobius, and others. Detailed analyses of a series of Chaucer's poems follow. Frequently incorporating and commenting on antecedent works, these late medieval poems span various genres including the dream-vision, the romance-tragedy, and the comic tale. Dreams and medicine are woven into the fabric of these texts, the author contends, revealing distinct and often surprising insights. One such insight is the 'double potential' of literary practice, medicine, and dreams--that is, each is capable of facilitating healing and wholeness yet equally capable of causing harm and disease. Ultimately, this book shows that the joining together of medicine and dreams constitutes a vital dimension of these key works in Western literature--one that reveals a profound connection between literature and the fundamentally human experiences of disease, healing, and dreaming."] [Contents: Introduction: Dreams and Medicine in Western Antiquity and the Middle Ages; Chap. 1: Chaucer, Literary Asclepian: Late Antique Dream Theory and the Book of the Duchess; Chap. 2: 'God turne us every drem to goode!': Dreams, Transformation, and Medicine in the House of Fame; Chap. 3: 'The lyf so short, the craft so long to lerne': The Parliament of Fowls; Chap. 4: Literary Lechecraft: Contagion and Cure in Troilus and Criseyde; Chap. 5: 'Thy litel wit aslepe': The Prologue to the Legend of Good Women; Chap. 6: Ravishing the Dream: The Nun's Priest's Tale.]

Leonard, Frances McNeely. Laughter in the Courts of Love: Comedy in Allegory. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1980.

Lerer, Seth. Chaucer and his Readers: Imagining the Author in Late Medieval England. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. ["An extended and learned discussion of Chaucer's reception in the fifteenth century, an attempt to 'understand the quality of post-Chaucerian writing . . . to chart the forms and consequences of the reception and transmission of Chaucer's poetry by those admittedly unworthy of his mantle'" (Collette, "Afterlife," Companion to Chaucer).]

Lerer, Seth. "'Now holde youre mouth': The Romance of Orality in the Thopas-Melibee Section of the Canterbury Tales." In Oral Poetics in Middle English Poetry. Ed. Mark C. Amodio. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1595; Albert Bates Lord Studies in Oral Tradition 13. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1994. Pp. 181-205.

Lester, G. A. "Chaucer's Unkempt Knight." English Language Notes 27.1 (Sept. 1989): 25-29.

Levitan, Alan. "The Parody of Pentecost in Chaucer's Summoner's Tale." University of Toronto Quarterly 40 (1970-1971): 236-246.

Levy, Bernard S. "Biblical Parody in the Summoner's Tale." Tennessee Studies in Literature 11 (1966): 45-60.

Lewis, C. S. "What Chaucer Really Did to Il Filostrato." Essays and Studies 17 (1932): 56-75. [Rpt. in Chaucer's "Troilus": Essays in Criticism. Ed. Stephen A. Barney. Hamden: Archon, 1980. Pp. 37-54. [Troilus and Criseyde; Boccaccio]]

Leyerle, John. "The Heart and the Chain." In The Learned and the Lewed: Studies in Chaucer and Medieval Literature. Ed. Larry D. Benson. Harvard English Studies 5. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974. Pp. 113-145. [That Chaucer's works are dominated by two clusters of themes: the heart (of love but also of mutability) and the chain (of order but also of imposed control). Pp. 118-123 on Knight's Tale and Miller's Tale: the one is about the links in the "Great Chain" and the other is about the holes.]

Lindahl, Carl. Earnest Games: Folkloric Patterns in the "Canterbury Tales." Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987

Lindley, Arthur. "'Vanysshed was this daunce, he nyste where': Alisoun's Absence in 'The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale.'" ELH 59 (1992): 1-21.

Lionarons, Joyce Tally. "Magic, Machines, and Deception: Technology in the Canterbury Tales." Chaucer Review 27 (1992-1993): 377-386.

Lochrie, Karma. "Women's 'Pryvetees' and Fabliau Politics in the Miller's Tale." Exemplaria 6 (1994): 287-304.

Lomperis, Linda. "Bodies that Matter in the Court of Late Medieval England and in Chaucer's Miller's Tale." Romanic Review 86 (1995): 243-264.

Lomperis, Linda. "Unruly Bodies and Ruling Practices: Chaucer's Physician's Tale as Socially Symbolic Act." In Feminist Approaches to the Body in Medieval Literature. Ed. Linda Lomperis, and Sarah Stanbury. New Cultural Studies Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993. Pp. 21-37.

Love, Damian. "'Al This Peynted Process': Chaucer and the Psychology of Courtly Love." English Studies 83 (2002): 391-398.

Lucas, Angela M. "The Mirror in the Marketplace: Januarie through the Looking Glass." Chaucer Review 33 (1998-1999): 123-145. [Merchant's Tale; January and May]

Luengo, Anthony E. "Magic and Illusion in The Franklin's Tale." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 77 (1978): 1-16.

Lumiansky, Robert M. Of Sondry Folk: The Dramatic Principle in the Canterbury Tales. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1955.

Lynch, Kathryn L., ed. Chaucer's Cultural Geography. Basic Readings in Chaucer and His Time. London and New York: Routledge, 2002. [Publisher's description: "This compilation of new essays and essays published over the past fifty years explores Chaucer's experiences with the cultural other, especially Chaucer's relationship to Far Eastern, Islamic, and African sources. While studies of Chaucer's 'orientalism' have heretofore focused on the Squire's Tale, Chaucer's Cultural Geography considers many different Chaucerian works in the context of sexual geographies and colonizing and postcolonizing discourses. It comes at a time when critical methodology is being debated and a variety of approaches to Chaucer studies using modes of analyses normally reserved for later periods, including Said's orientalism theories, Dollimore's 'transgressive proximity' and new French feminism. Moreover, the book fits well into the new emphasis in the Chaucer curriculum on globalism and multiculturalism." Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. "Orientalism and the Critical History of the 'Squire's Tale,'" Kenneth Bleeth; 3. "Domesticating the Exotic in the 'Squire's Tale,'" John M. Flyer; 4. "The Historical Basis of Chaucer's 'Squire's Tale,'" Vincent DiMarco; 5. "East Meets West in Chaucer's 'Squire's Tale' and 'Franklin's Tale,'" Katherine Lynch; 6. "Orientation and Nation in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales," Suzanne Conklin Akbari; 7. "Scientific Imagery in Chaucer," Dorothee Metlitzki; 8. "The Canterbury Tales and the Arabic Frame Tradition," Katherine Slater Gites; 9. "Criticism, Anti-Semitism and the 'Prioress's Tale,'" Louise O. Fradenburg; 10. "Mappae Mundi and 'The Knights Tale': The Geography of Power, the Technology of Control," Sylvia Tomasch; 11. "Geographies of Desire: Orientalism in Chaucer's Legend of Good Women," Sheila Delany; 12. "Worlds Apart: Orientalism, Antifeminism, and Heresy in Chaucer's 'Man of Law's Tale,'" Susan Schibanoff; 13. "Chaucer and Englishness," Derek Pearsall. [Arabia; the East; the Orient]]

Lynch, Kathryn L. Chaucer's Philosophical Visions. Chaucer Studies 27. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2000.

Lynch, Kathryn L. "Despoiling Griselda: Chaucer's Walter and the Problem of Knowledge in The Clerk's Tale." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 10 (1988): 41-70. [Clerk's Tale]

Lynch, Kathryn L. "East Meets West in Chaucer's Squire's and Franklin's Tales." Speculum 70 (1995): 530-551. [Arabia; the East; the Orient; Orientalism]

Lynch, Kathryn L. "The Logic of the Dream Vision in Chaucer's House of Fame." In Literary Nominalism and the Theory of Rereading Late Medieval Texts: A New Research Paradigm. Ed. Richard J. Utz. Medieval Studies 5. Lewiston, NY; Queenston, ON; and Lampeter, Dyfed, Wales: Edwin Mellen Press, 1995. Pp. 179-203.

Machan, Tim William. Techniques of Translation: Chaucer's Boece. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1985.

Mandel, Jerome. Geoffrey Chaucer: Building the Fragments of The Canterbury Tales. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1992.

Mandel, Jerome. "Governance in the Physician's Tale." Chaucer Review 10 (1976): 316-325.

Mandel, Jerome. "'Jewes werk' in Sir Thopas." In Chaucer and the Jews: Sources, Contexts, Meanings. Ed. Sheila Delany. Multicultural Middle Ages. New York and London: Routledge, 2002. Pp. 59-68.

Mann, Jill. "Chaucer and Atheism: The Presidential Address." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 17 (1995): 5-19.

Mann, Jill. Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire: The Literature of Social Classes and the General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Mann, Jill. Feminizing Chaucer. 2nd ed. Chaucer Studies. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2002. [Supercedes her Geoffrey Chaucer. Publisher's description: "Women are a major subject of Chaucer's writings, and their place in his work has attracted much recent critical attention. Feminizing Chaucer investigates Chaucer's thinking about women, and re-assesses it in the light of developments in feminist criticism. It explores Chaucer's handling of gender issues, of power roles, of misogynist stereotypes and the writer's responsibility for perpetuating them, and the complex meshing of activity and passivity in human experience. Mann argues that the traditionally 'female' virtues of patience and pity are central to Chaucer's moral ethos, and that this necessitates a reformulation of ideal masculinity. First published (as Geoffrey Chaucer) in the series 'Feminist Readings,' this new edition includes a new chapter, 'Wife-Swapping in Medieval Literature.' The references and bibliography have been updated, and a new preface surveys publications in the field over the last decade."]

Mann, Jill. "Shakespeare and Chaucer: 'What is Criseyde Worth?'" In The European Tragedy of Troilus. Ed. Piero Boitani. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. Pp. 219-242.

Mann, Jill. "The Speculum Stultorum and the Nun's Priest's Tale." Chaucer Review 9 (1975): 262-282.

Manning, Stephen. "Fabular Jangling and Poetic Vision in the Nun's Priest's Tale." South Atlantic Review 52 (1987): 3-16.

Manning, Stephen. "Rhetoric, Game, Morality, and Geoffrey Chaucer." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 1 (1979): 105-118.

Marcus, David. Jephthah and his Vow. Austin: Texas Tech, 1986. [Relevant to Chaucer and his Physician's Tale.]

Martin, Ellen E. "Chaucer's Ruth: An Exegetical Poetic in the Prologue to the Legend of Good Women." Exemplaria 3 (1991): 467-490.

Martin, Priscilla. Chaucer's Women: Nuns, Wives, and Amazons. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1990.

Mathewson, Jeanne T. "'For love and not for hate': The Value of Virginity in Chaucer's Physician's Tale." Annuale Mediaevale 14 (1973): 35-42.

Matsuda, Takami. "The Summoner's Prologue and the Tradition of the Vision of the Afterlife." Poetica 55 (2001): 75-82.

McAlpine, Monica E. "The Pardoner's Homosexuality and How it Matters." PMLA 95 (1980): 8-22.

McCall, John P. Chaucer among the Gods: The Poetics of Classical Myth. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1979.

McCall, John P. "The Trojan Scene in Chaucer's Troilus." English Literary History 29 (1962): 263-275.

McCarthy, Conor. "Love, Marriage, and Law: Three Canterbury Tales." English Studies 83 (2002): 504-518. ["The Franklin's Tale"; "The Clerk's Tale"; "The Merchant's Tale"]

McCormack, Frances. Chaucer and the Culture of Dissent: The Lollard Context and Subtext of the "Parson's Tale." Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2007. [Publisher's description: "Chaucer and the Culture of Dissent investigates the links between Chaucer's Parson's Tale and Lollard discourse and ideas. From the moment the Parson is introduced in the General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales suggestions of Lollardy surround him. Chaucer therefore invites (or even dares) his reader to go in search of Lollard codes in the Parson's Tale. This book balances a literary and historical approach to reading Chaucer's Parson's Tale." Here, Frances McCormack considers the evidence of Chaucer's connection to the movement and analyzes the similarities between the Parson's language and Lollard sect vocabulary. She investigates whether Chaucer made use of a Wycliffite version of the Bible in writing the tale, and considers whether the Parson expounds any points of Lollard doctrine."]

McEntire, Sandra J. "Illusions and Interpretation in the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 31 (1996-1997): 145-163.

McGerr, Rosemarie Potz. Chaucer's Open Books: Resistance to Closure in Medieval Discourse. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998.

McGinnis, Wayne D. "The Dramatic Fitness of the Nun's Priest's Tale." CEA Critic 37.2 (1975): 24-26.

McGregor, Francine. "What of Dorigen?: Agency and Ambivalence in the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 31 (1996-1997): 365-378.

McKinley, Kathryn L. "The Silenced Knight: Questions of Power and Reciprocity in The Wife of Bath's Tale." Chaucer Review 30 (1995-1996): 359-378.

McTaggart, Anne. Shame and Guilt in Chaucer. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. [Contents: Shame and guilt, now and then -- Shamed guiltless in Chaucer's pagan antiquity -- Honor, purity, and sacrifice in The Knight's Tale and The Physician's Tale -- Structures of reciprocity in Chaucerian romance -- The ills of illocution: shame, guilt, and confession in The Pardoner's Tale and The Parson's Tale -- Conclusion: Chaucer and medieval shame culture.]

McTaggart, Anne. "What Women Want?: Mimesis and Gender in Chaucer's Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale." Contagion: Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture 19.1 (2012): 41-67. [An application of René Girard's theory of mimesis and mimetic desire.]

Meale, Carol M[argaret]. "Women's Piety and Women's Power: Chaucer's Prioress Reconsidered." Essays on Ricardian Literature in Honour of J. A. Burrow. Ed. A. J. Minnis, et al. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. Pp. 39-60.

Meech, Sanford B. Design in Chaucer's Troilus. 1959; New York: Greenwood, 1970.

Meecham-Jones, Simon. "The Invisible Siege: The Depiction of Warfare in the Poetry of Chaucer." In Writing War: Medieval Literary Responses to Warfare. Ed. Corinne Saunders, Françoise Le Saux, and Neil Thomas. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2004. Pp. 147-167.

Mehl, Dieter. "The Audience of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde." In Chaucer and Middle English Studies in Honour of Rossell Hope Robbins. Ed. Beryl Rowland. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1974. Pp. 173-189.

Mehl, Dieter. Geoffrey Chaucer: An Introduction to his Narrative Poetry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Middleton, Anne. "The Clerk and His Tale: Some Literary Contexts." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 2 (1980): 121-150.

Mieszkowski, Gretchen. "Chaucer's Much Loved Criseyde." Chaucer Review 26 (1991-1992): 109-132.

Miller, Mark. Philosophical Chaucer: Love, Sex, and Agency in the "Canterbury Tales." Cambridge Studies in Medieval Literature 55. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. [Publisher's description: "Mark Miller's innovative study argues that Chaucer's Canterbury Tales represent an extended meditation on agency, autonomy, and practical reason. This philosophical aspect of Chaucer's interests can help us understand what is both sophisticated and disturbing about his explorations of love, sex, and gender. Partly through fresh readings of the Consolation of Philosophy and the Romance of the Rose, Miller charts Chaucer's relation to the association in the Christian West between problems of autonomy and problems of sexuality, and reconstructs how medieval philosophers and poets approached psychological phenomena often thought of as the exclusive province of psychoanalysis. The literary experiments of the Canterbury Tales represent a distinctive philosophical achievement that remains vital to our own attempts to understand agency, desire, and their histories." Contents: Introduction: Chaucer and the problem of normativity; 1. Naturalism and its discontents in the Miller's Tale; 2. Normative longing in the Knight's Tale; 3. Agency and dialectic in the Consolation of Philosophy; 4. Sadomasochism and utopia in the Roman de la Rose; 5. Suffering love in the Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale; 6. Love's promise: the Clerk's Tale and the scandal of the unconditional.]

Minnis, A. J. Chaucer and Pagan Antiquity. Chaucer Studies 8. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1982.

Minnis, A. J. "The Construction of Chaucer's Pardoner." In Promissory Notes on the Treasury of Merits: Indulgences in Late Medieval Europe. Ed. Robert N[orman] Swanson. Brill's Companions to the Christian Tradition 5. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2006. Pp. 169-195.

Minnis, A. J. Fallible Authors: Chaucer's Pardoner and Wife of Bath. The Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. [Pardoner's Tale; Wife of Bath's Tale]

Minnis, A. J. "From Coilles to Bel Chose: Discourses of Obscenity in Jean de Meun and Chaucer." In Medieval Obscenities. Ed. Nicola McDonald. Woodbridge, Suffolk: York Medieval Press / Boydell and Brewer, 2006. Pp. 156-178.

Minnis, A. J. The Shorter Poems. Oxford Guides to Chaucer. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

Miskimin, Alice. "The Illustrated Eighteenth-Century Chaucer." Modern Philology 77 (1979-1980): 26-55.

Miskimin, Alice. The Renaissance Chaucer. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975. ["Still the most extensive discussion of the reception of Chaucer in the sixteenth century. Addresses Chaucer's reputation for learning in this period" (Collette, "Afterlife," Companion to Chaucer).]

Mitchell, J. Allan. Ethics and Exemplary Narrative in Chaucer and Gower. Chaucer Studies 33. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2004. [Publisher's description: "Why do medieval writers routinely make use of exemplary rhetoric? How does it work, and what are its ethical and poetical values? And if Chaucer and Gower must be seen as vigorously subverting it, then why do they persist in using it? Borrowing from recent developments in ethical criticism and theory, this book addresses such questions by reconstructing a late medieval rationale for the ethics of exemplary narrative. The author argues that Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Gower's Confessio Amantis attest to the vitality of a narrative--rather than strictly normative--ethics that has roots in premodern traditions of practical reason and rhetoric. Chaucer and Gower are shown to be inheritors and respecters of an early and unexpected form of ethical pragmatism--which has profound implications for the orthodox history of ethics in the West." Contents: Reading for the moral: controversies and trajectories -- Rhetorical reason: cases, conscience, and circumstances -- Gower for example: Confessio Amantis and The measure of the case -- All that is written for our doctrine: proof, remembrance, conscience -- Moral Chaucer: ethics of exemplarity in the Canterbury Tales -- Pointing the moral: the Friar, Summoner, and Pardoner's satire -- Griselda and the question of ethical monstrosity.]

Mitchell-Smith, Ilan. "'As olde stories tellen us': Chivalry, Violence, and Geoffrey Chaucer's Critical Perspective in 'The Knight's Tale.'" Fifteenth-Century Studies 32 (2007): 83-99. [Offers a Boethian reading of the "Knight's Tale," seeing it as a representation of a world in which Fortune holds sway (and the ability of humans to control outcomes is limited), in which Palamon and Arcite represent the violence and disorder that results from excess, and in which Theseus, though well-intentioned, is fundamentally ineffectual.]

Mooney, Linne R. "Chaucer's Scribe." Speculum 81 (2006): 97-138. [Identifies the scribe of the Hengwrt and Ellesmere manuscripts of the Canterbury Tales as Adam Pinkhurst, a member of the Scriveners' Company of London in the 1390s, son of a Surrey landowner. His signature in the Scriveners' Company's Common Paper (members' book of regulations) appears to be the same hand as that of the Ellesmere, Hengwrt and other early Chaucer manuscripts. He may also be the "Adam Scriven" of Chaucer's lyrical complaint against "Adam." Also see the reply to Mooney by Alexandra Gillespie, "Reading Chaucer's Words to Adam," Chaucer Review 42 (2008): 269-283.]

Morgan, Gerald, ed. Chaucer in Context: A Golden Age of English Poetry. Oxford [etc.]: Peter Lang, 2012. [Publisher's description: "The study of the work of Geoffrey Chaucer--still regarded as a literary genius more than 600 years after his death--centres on the problems of detailed readings of his poetry (including in some cases the textual authority for these readings) and the historical context that gives them meaning. In some ways, the modern understanding of the shaping historical context was undermined in the second half of the twentieth century by the dogmatism of Robertsonian Augustinianism, as a basis for the interpretation of medieval literature in general and of Chaucer's poetry in particular, and at the same time by the reactions of determined opposition provoked by this approach. Undeniably, medieval views often fail to coincide with modern ones and they are frequently uncomfortable for modern readers. Nevertheless, Chaucer's brilliance as an observer of the human scene coexists with and irradiates these unfamiliar medieval ideas. The essays in this volume explore in detail the historical context of Chaucer's poetry, in which orthodox Catholic ideas rather than revolutionary Wycliffite ones occupy the central position. At the same time, they offer detailed readings of his poetry and that of his famous contemporaries in an attempt to do justice to the independent and original work of these poetic masters, writing in the great royal households of England in the period 1360-1400." Contents: Simon Horobin: Review; Anne J. Duggan: 'The Hooly Blisful Martir for to Seke'; Alan J. Fletcher: Piers Plowman and the Benedictines; Caroline E. Jones: A Lesson in Patience; Gavin Hughes: Fourteenth-Century Weaponry, Armour and Warfare in Chaucer and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight; David Scott-Macnab: Sir Thopas and his Lancegay; William Marx: An Absent King: Perceptions of the Politics of Power in the Reign of Richard II and the Middle English Prose Brut; Gerald Morgan: Chaucer's Knight's Tale: The Book of the Duke; Barry Windeatt: Plea and Petition in Chaucer; Mary Carr: The Fall of Lucifer and the Sin of Pride in Piers Plowman; A. V. C. Schmidt: The Humanity of Pearl; Brendan O'Connell: The Poetics of Fraud: Jean de Meun, Dante and Chaucer; Nicolas Jacobs: Criseyde's Last Word.]

Morgan, Gerald. "Experience and the Judgement of Poetry: A Reconsideration of the Franklin's Tale." Medium Ævum 70 (2001): 204-225.

Morgan, Gerald. "Moral and Social Identity and the Idea of Pilgrimage in the General Prologue." Chaucer Review 37 (2002-2003): 285-314.

Morgan, Gerald. "The Worthiness of Chaucer's Worthy Knight." Chaucer Review 44 (2009-2010): 115-158. [Rpt. in his The Shaping of English Poetry, Volume III: Essays on "Beowulf," Dante, "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," Langland, Chaucer and Spenser. Oxford [etc.]: Peter Lang, 2013. Pp. 123-180.]

Morrison, Susan Signe. Excrement in the Late Middle Ages: Sacred Filth and Chaucer's Fecopoetics. The New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. [Contents: Introduction -- The medieval body: disciplining material and symbolic excrement -- The rhizomatic body -- Moral filth and the sinning body: hell purgatory, resurrection -- Gendered filth -- Chaucerian fecopoetics -- Urban excrement in The Canterbury tales -- Sacred filth: relics, ritual, and remembering in The prioress's tale -- The excremental human god and redemptive filth: The pardoner's tale -- The rhizomatic pilgrim body and alchemical poetry -- Chaucerian fecology and wasteways: The nun's priest's tale -- Looking behind, looking ahead -- Looking behind -- Waste studies: a brief introduction -- Bottoms up! A manifesto for waste studies.]

Mullaney, Samantha. "The Language of Costume in the Ellesmere Portraits." Trivium 31 (1999): 33-57. [Vol. 31 of Trivium is a special issue: "Sources, Exemplars, and Copy-Texts: Influence and Transmission; Essays from the Lampeter Conference of the Early Book Society, 1997." Ed. William Marx. The article includes reproductions (B&W) of a number of the portraits from the Ellesmere manuscript of the Canterbury Tales.]

Murphy, Ann B. "The Process of Personality in Chaucer's Wife of Bath's Tale." The Centennial Review 28.3 (Summer, 1984): 204-222.

Muscatine, Charles. Chaucer and the French Tradition: A Study in Style and Meaning. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964.

Myles, Robert. Chaucerian Realism. Chaucer Studies 20. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1994.

Myles, Robert, and David Williams, eds. Chaucer and Language: Essays in Honour of Dougas Wurtele. Montréal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2001.

Nakao, Yoshiyuki. The Structure of Chaucer's Ambiguity. Studies in English Medieval Language and Literature 36. Frankfurt am Main [etc.]: Peter Lang, 2013. [Publisher's description: "This book focuses on ambiguity in Troilus and Criseyde, one of Geoffrey Chaucer's (1343?-1400) representative works. It examines systematically how and why ambiguity is likely to arise. After reviewing previous scholarship on ambiguity in Chaucer, the author proposes a new theoretical framework, 'double prism structure,' incorporating the most recent findings in the area of semantics, pragmatics, and cognitive linguistics together with medieval rhetoric and allegory. Using this framework the book examines ambiguity due to textual domains, interpersonal domains and linguistic domains. Ambiguity in Chaucer has not been studied in sufficient detail so far. The work opens new vistas for the study of the phenomenon." Contents: Previous scholarship -- Our point of view and method -- Ambiguity in metatext -- Ambiguity in intertextuality -- Ambiguity in macro-textual structure -- Ambiguity in reported speech -- Ambiguity in discourse -- Ambiguity in speaker's intention -- Ambiguity in modality -- Ambiguity in syntax -- Ambiguity in words -- Ambiguity in voice.]

Narkiss, Doron. "The Fox, the Cock, and the Priest: Chaucer's Escape from Fable." Chaucer Review 32 (1997-1998): 46-63.

Newton, Allyson. "The Occlusion of Maternity in Chaucer's Clerk's Tale." In Medieval Mothering. Ed. John Carmi Parsons, and Bonnie Wheeler. New Middle Ages 3; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 1979. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1996. Pp. 63-75.

Nicholson, R. H. "Theseus's 'Ordinaunce': Justice and Ceremony in the Knight's Tale." Chaucer Review 22 (1987-1988): 192-213.

Nolan, Barbara. "Chaucer's Poetics of Dwelling in Troilus and Criseyde." In Chaucer and the City. Ed. Ardis Butterfield. Chaucer Studies. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2006. Pp. 57-75.

Nolan, Barbara. "'A poet ther was': Chaucer's Voices in the General Prologue to The Canterbury Tales." PMLA 101 (1986): 154-169.

North, J. D. Chaucer's Universe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. [". . . Chaucer is shown to have made far more extensive structural and allegorical use of astronomy in his poetry than has ever previously been suspected."]

O'Connell, Brendan. "'Ignotum per ignocius': Alchemy, Analogy and Poetics in Fragment VIII of The Canterbury Tales." In Transmission and Transformation in the Middle Ages. Ed. Kathleen Cawsey and Jason Harris. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2007. Pp. 131-156.

Oberembt, Kenneth J. "Chaucer's Anti-Misogynist Wife of Bath." Chaucer Review 10 (1975-1976): 287-302. [Argues that the Wife's arguments are not heretical but orthodox, in line with the dominant Augustinian tradition as opposed to St. Jerome's more severe teachings.]

Oerlemans, Onno. "The Seriousness of the Nun's Priest's Tale." The Chaucer Review 26 (1991-1992): 317-328. [Argues, against Lee Patterson, among others, that there is a linear progression in the Tales, and, further, that the "Nun's Priest's Tale" is the climax of the whole.]

Olson, Glending. "Author, Scribe, and Curse: The Genre of 'Adam Scriveyn.'" Chaucer Review 42 (2007-2008): 284-297.

Olson, Glending. "The End of The Summoner's Tale and the Uses of Pentecost." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 21 (1999): 209-245.

Olson, Glending. "Geoffrey Chaucer." Chap. 21 of The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Ed. David Wallace. New Cambridge History of English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Pp. 566-588.

Olson, Glending. "Measuring the Immeasurable: Farting, Geometry, and Theology in the Summoner's Tale." Chaucer Review 43 (2008-2009): 414-427.

Olson, Paul A. The "Canterbury Tales" and the Good Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Owen, Charles A., Jr. The Manuscripts of "The Canterbury Tales." Chaucer Studies 17. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1991.

Owen, Charles A., Jr. Pilgrimage and Storytelling in the Canterbury Tales: The Dialetic of "Ernest" and "Game." Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977.

Owen, Charles A., Jr. "The Tale of Melibee." Chaucer Review 7 (1973): 267-280.

Page, Barbara. "Concerning the Host." Chaucer Review 4 (1969-1970): 1-13.

Parry, Joseph D. "Dorigen, Narration, and Coming Home in the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 30 (1995-1996): 262-293.

Parry, Joseph D. "Interpreting Female Agency and Responsibility in The Miller's Tale and The Merchant's Tale." Philological Quarterly 80 (2001): 133-167.

Partridge, Stephen. The Manuscript Glosses to the "Canterbury Tales." Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 2001.

Partridge, Stephen. "The Tradition of the Pilgrim Portraits in Manuscripts and Early Printings of the Canterbury Tales." In Chaucer: Visual Approaches. Ed. Susanna Fein and David Raybin. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, [forthcoming 2016]. Pp. ??.

Patch, Howard R. "Chaucer and Lady Fortune." Modern Language Review 22 (1927): 377-388.

Patterson, Lee. "Ambiguity and Interpretation: A Fifteenth-Century Reading of Troilus and Criseyde." Speculum 54 (1979): 297-330.

Patterson, Lee. Chaucer and the Subject of History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.

Patterson, Lee. "The 'Parson's Tale' and the Quitting of the 'Canterbury Tales.'" Traditio 34 (1978): 331-380. [Discusses the genre of the Parson's Tale (the "manual for penitents," a genre arising out of the Fourth Lateran Council), the relation of the Tale to those of the other pilgrims (counts 35 parallels in phrase, but most of these just "Chaucerisms," and the others proverbial and of general rather than specific application to the other pilgrims: sin is presented by the Parson as the central fact of the human condition, which certainly applies to all of the pilgrims), the relation of the Tale to the Canterbury Tales as a whole (the paradox of the Tale which is no tale; the Tale which by its very nature undermines the entire CT enterprise of which it is itself a part), and the relation to Chaucer (Patterson sees Chaucer as having "turned religious" late in life, and sees the ParsT and Retraction as something of a deathbed confession).]

Patterson, Lee. Putting the Wife in Her Place: The William Matthews Lectures, 1995. London: Birkbeck College, 1995. [Wife of Bath]

Pattwell, Niamh. "'The venym of Symony': The Debate on the Eucharist in the Late Fourteenth Century and The Pardoner's Prologue and Tale." In Transmission and Transformation in the Middle Ages. Ed. Kathleen Cawsey and Jason Harris. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2007. Pp. 115-130. [With a focus on the "venym" / poison in the Pardoner's Tale, Pattwell contextualizes the story within late fourteenth-century concerns about corruption in the church (especially Wyclif and Lollard accusations), simony and simoniacal priests, and the corrupting effect ("venym") of a sinful priest serving the eucharist. Pattwell, for instance, sees the apothecary's speech on the effects of his rat poison as a direct inversion of the standard list (found, for instance, in Lydgate's "Virtutes missarum") of the "meeds" of the Mass (taking Mass will save you from sudden death on your way home from Church; the apothecary's poison is guaranteed to cause sudden death, etc.).]

Payne, Robert O. Geoffrey Chaucer. 2nd ed. Twayne English Authors Series 1. Boston: Twayne Publishers / G. K. Hall, 1986.

Payne, Robert O. The Key of Remembrance: A Study of Chaucer's Poetics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963.

Pearsall, Derek. The Canterbury Tales. Unwin Critical Library. London: Allen and Unwin, 1985.

Pearsall, Derek. "Chaucer's Poetry and Its Modern Commentators: The Necessity of History." In Medieval Literature: Criticism, Ideology, and History. Ed. David Aers. New York: St. Martin's, 1986. Pp. 123-147.

Pearsall, Derek. "Chaucer's Tomb: The Politics of Reburial." Medium Ævum 64 (1995): 51-73.

Pearsall, Derek. "Criseyde's Choices." Studies in the Age of Chaucer: Proceedings 2 (1986): 17-29.

Pearsall, Derek. "Epidemic Irony in Modern Approaches to Chaucer's Canterbury Tales." In Medieval and Pseudo-Medieval Literature: The J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Perugia, 1982-3. Ed. Piero Boitani and Anna Torti. Tübinger Beiträge zur Anglistik 6. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag; Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1984. Pp. 79-89.

Pelen, Marc M. "Chaucer's Wife of Midas Reconsidered: Oppositions and Poetic Judgment in the Wife of Bath's Tale." Florilegium 13 (1994): 141-160.

Pelen, Marc M. "The Escape of Chaucer's Chauntecleer: A Brief Revaluation." Chaucer Review 36 (2001-2002): 329-335. [Nun's Priest's Tale]

Pelen, Marc M. "Idleness and Alchemy in Fragment VIII(G) of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales: Oppositions in Themes and Images from the Roman de la Rose." Forum for Modern Language Studies 31.3 (July 1995): 193-214.

Perry, Sigrid Pohl. "'Trewe wedded libbynge folk': Metaphors of Marriage in Piers Plowman and the Canterbury Tales." Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1981. [DAI 42 (1981-1982): 2125A. Abstract: "Marriage is a common experience which often molds other relationships, so Chaucer and Langland find it a ready vehicle to explore human interaction on other levels. The inward extension of union reflects the integration of the faculties of the mind with the passions of the body--a psychological marriage, and the harmony of the soul with God--a spiritual marriage. In the same way the various elements of society are united to their sovereign in a political marriage through law and affection. These analogies are not original with Chaucer and Langland. The nuptial metaphor has a long history in moral psychology, theology, and political philosophy. To understand just how Langland and Chaucer manipulate the marriage metaphor in its psychological, spiritual, and political dimensions, the dissertation explores some of these traditional uses of the metaphor and compares them with Chaucer's and Langland's treatment."]

Phillips, Helen, ed. Chaucer and Religion. Christianity and Culture: Issues in Teaching and Research 4. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2010. [Publisher's description: "Religion was central to medieval attitudes to almost everything and it aroused, of course, profound engagement but also deep anxieties and controversy. Religion has--perhaps more than any other subject-- also prompted opposed and controversial opinions during the history of Chaucer criticism, and centuries before Chaucer criticism was invented Chaucer was reinterpreted in the cause of religious controversy, in Henry VIII's reign, as a proto -Protestant. Chaucer's works themselves, however, contain at their heart their own reasons for controversy and debate about their religious implications and affiliations. His oeuvre includes brilliant performances in several of the great religious genres of his period, including saint's life, Marian prayer and miracle narratives, as well, of course, as anticlerical satire, but with a writer as complex, multiple, and often as elusive and evasive as Chaucer criticism has been extraordinarily divided even about the most obvious question of whether and how far many specific texts actually are religious and can or should be read from a Christian standpoint." Contents: Love, marriage, sex, gender / Alcuin Blamires -- Chaucer and the Bible / Graham D. Caie -- Chaucer and Lollardy / Frances M. McCormack -- 'Toward the fen': church and churl in Chaucer's Fabliaux / Stephen Knight -- 'A manner latyn corrupt': Chaucer and the absent religions / Anthony Bale -- The matter of Chaucer: Chaucer and the boundaries of romance / Helen Phillips -- Mary, sanctity and prayers to saints: Chaucer and late- medieval piety / Sherry Reames -- 'Th'ende is every tales strengthe': Contextualizing Chaucerian perspectives on death and judgment / Carl Phelpstead -- Chaucer and the saints: miracles and voices of faith / Laurel Broughton -- Chaucer and the communities of pilgrimage / Dee Dyas -- Classicizing Christianity in Chaucer's dream poems: the Books of the duchess, Book of fame and Parliament of fowls / Stephen Knight -- Morality in the Canterbury tales, Chaucer's lyrics and the Legend of good women / Helen Phillips -- 'To demen by interrogaciouns': accessing the Christian context of the Canterbury tales with enquiry-based learning / Roger Dalrymple -- 'Gladly wolde [they] lerne[?]': US students and the Chaucer class / D. Thomas Hanks Jr -- Teaching teachers: Chaucer, ethics, and romance / David Raybin -- Reflections on teaching Chaucer and religion: the Nun's priest's tale and the Man of law / Gillian Rudd.]

Phillips, Helen. An Introduction to the Canterbury Tales: Fiction, Writing, Context. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Phillips, Helen. "Structure and Consolation in the Book of the Duchess." Chaucer Review 16 (1981-1982): 107-118.

Pichaske, David R., and Laura Sweetland. "Chaucer on the Medieval Monarchy: Harry Bailly in The Canterbury Tales." Chaucer Review 11 (1976-1977): 179-200.

Pigg, Daniel F. "The Carpenter's 'Ernest of Game': A Reevaluation of Noah's Flood in the Miller's Tale." In Geardagum: Essays on Old and Middle English Language and Literature 15 (1994): 41-53.

Pinti, Daniel J., ed. Writing after Chaucer: Essential Readings in Chaucer and the Fifteenth Century. Basic Readings in Chaucer and his Times 1; Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 2040. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1998.

Pitcher, John A. Chaucer's Feminine Subjects: Figures of Desire in the "Canterbury Tales." New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. [Publisher's description: "This study shows how contemporary theory can serve to clarify structures of identity and economies of desire in medieval texts. Bringing the resources of psychoanalytic and poststructuralist theory to bear on Chaucer's tales about women, this book addresses those registers of the Canterbury project that remain major concerns for recent feminist theory: the specificity of feminine desire, the cultural articulation of gender, the logic of sacrifice as a cultural ideal, the structure of misogyny and domestic violence. This book maps out the ways in which Chaucer's rhetoric is not merely an element of style or an instrument of persuasion but the very matrix for the representation of de-centered subjectivity." Contents: Chaucer's feminine subjects: feminism, deconstruction, psychoanalysis -- Figures of desire in The Wife of Bath's Prologue and tale -- The rhetoric of desire in The Franklin's tale -- The martyr's purpose: The rhetoric of disavowal in The Clerk's tale -- Chaucer's Wolf: exemplary violence in The Physician's tale.] [women; gender studies]

Portnoy, Phyllis. "The Best-text / Best-book of Canterbury: The Dialogic of the Fragments." Florilegium 13 (1994): 161-172.

Portnoy, Phyllis. "Beyond the Gothic Cathedral: Post-Modern Reflections in the Canterbury Tales." Chaucer Review 28 (1993-1994): 279-292.

Potter, Russell Alan. "Political Chaucer: The Deployment of the Chaucer Canon, 1390-1990." Ph.D. diss., Brown University, 1991. [DAI 52 (1991-1992): 3276A.]

Pratt, John H. "Was Chaucer's Knight Really a Mercenary?" Chaucer Review 22 (1987-1988): 8-27. [In part, a response to Terry Jones, Chaucer's Knight. See also Derek Brewer ("Chaucer's Knight as Hero"); also Emerson Brown ("Chaucer's Knight"); also Maurice Keen ("Chaucer's Knight").]

Pratt, Robert A. "Jankyn's Book of Wikked Wyves: Medieval Antimatrimonial Propaganda in the Universities." Annuale Mediaevale 3 (1962): 5-27.

Prendergast, Thomas A., and Barbara Kline, eds. Rewriting Chaucer: Culture, Authority, and the Idea of the Authentic Text. Athens, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1999.

Price, Merrall Llewelyn. "Sadism and Sentimentality: Absorbing Antisemitism in Chaucer's Prioress." Chaucer Review 43 (2008-2009): 197-214.

Prior, Sandra Pierson. "Parodying Typology and the Mystery Plays in the Miller's Tale." Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 16 (1986): 57-73.

Prior, Sandra Pierson. "Virginity and Sacrifice in Chaucer's Physician's Tale." In Constructions of Widowhood and Virginity in the Middle Ages. Ed. Cindy L. Carlson, and Angela Jane Weisl. New Middle Ages. New York: St. Martin's, 1999. Pp. 165-180.

Pugh, Tison, and Marcia Smith Marzec, eds. Men and Masculinities in Chaucer's "Troilus and Criseyde." Chaucer Studies 38. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Issues relating to the male characters and the construction of masculinities in Chaucer's masterpiece of love found and love lost are explored here. Collectively the essays address the question of what it means to be a man in the Middle Ages, what constitutes masculinity in this era, and how such masculinities are culturally constructed; they seek to advance scholarly understanding of the themes, characters, and actions of Troilus and Criseyde through the hermeneutics of medieval and modern concepts of manliness. Throughout, they argue that Troilus and the other characters, including Criseyde, are subject to multiple and conflicting interpretations, especially in regard to the intersections of their genders with their sexual performances and their conflicted relationships to generic expectations for gendered conduct." Contents: Introduction: "The Myths of Masculinity in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde"; "'Beautiful as Troilus': Richard II, Chaucer's Troilus, and Figures of (Un)Masculinity," John M. Bowers; "The State of Exception and Sovereign Masculinity in Troilus and Criseyde," Robert Sturges; "Revisiting Troilus's Faint," Gretchen Mieszkowski; "What Makes a Man?: Troilus, Hector, and the Masculinities of Courtly Love," Marcia Smith Marzec; "Masculinity and Its Hydraulic Semiotics in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde," James J. Paxson; "Masochism, Masculinity, and the Pleasures of Troilus," Holly Crocker; "'The Dreams in Which I'm Dying': Sublimation and Unstable Masculinities in Troilus and Criseyde," Kate Koppelman; "'A Mannes Game': Criseyde's Masculinity in Troilus and Criseyde," Angela Jane Weisl; "Troilus's Gaze and the Collapse of Masculinity in Romance," Molly A. Martin; "Sutured Looks and Homoeroticism: Reading Troilus and Pandarus Cinematically," Richard Zeikowitz; "Being a Man in Piers Plowman and Troilus and Criseyde," Michael A. Calabrese; "'The Monstruosity in Love': Sexual Division in Chaucer and Shakespeare," R. Allen Shoaf.]

Puhvel, Martin. "The Death of Alys of Bath's 'Revelour' Husband." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 103 (2002): 329-340. [Wife of Bath]

Pulham, Carol A. "Promises, Premises: Dorigen's Dilemma Revisited." Chaucer Review 31 (1996-1997): 76-86.

Pulsiano, Philip. "Redeemed Language and the Ending of Troilus and Criseyde." In Sign, Sentence, Discourse: Language in Medieval Thought and Literature. Ed. Julian N. Wasserman and Lois Roney. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1989. Pp. 153-174.

Pulsiano, Philip. "The Twelve Spoked Wheel of the Summoner's Tale." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 382-389.

Quinn, Esther Casier. Geoffrey Chaucer and the Poetics of Disguise. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2008. [Contents: Introduction: Telling the truth, but telling it slant -- I. Intimations of what's to come: people, places, events, and poetry -- II. Dream worlds. The book of the Duchess: "Reysed as fro deth to lyve"; The house of fame: Enter the eagle; The parliament of fowls: the goddess Nature as parliamentarian -- III. Pagan worlds. Troy: "kalendes of chaunge"; Rome and "elleswhere"; Toward "Atthenes" -- IV. Moving toward Canterbury. the duke and the judge; "Cherles tales"; Rhyming and royalty; Tales without women; Jaunty rhymes and solemn prose; Tales without endings; Those other tales -- V. Chaucer in a different key: the short poems.]

Rambuss, Richard. "'Processe of Tyme': History, Consolation, and Apocalypse in The Book of the Duchess." Exemplaria 2 (1990): 659-683.

Raybin, David. "'And pave it al of silver and of gold': The Humane Artistry of 'The Canon's Yeoman's Tale.'" In Rebels and Rivals: The Contestive Spirit in "The Canterbury Tales." Ed. Susanna Greer Fein, David Raybin, and Peter C. Braeger. Fwd. Derek Pearsall. Studies in Medieval Culture 29. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University Press, 1991. Pp. 189-212.

Raybin, David. "Custance and History: Woman as Outsider in Chaucer's Man of Law's Tale." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 12 (1990): 65-84.

Raybin, David. "'Wommen, of Kynde, Desiren Libertee': Rereading Dorigen, Rereading Marriage." Chaucer Review 27 (1992-1993): 65-86.

Raybin, David, and Linda Tarte Holley, eds. Closure in "The Canterbury Tales": The Role of "The Parson's Tale." Studies in Medieval Culture 41. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 2000. [Publisher's description: "This collection of nine essays, plus an extensive bibliography, seeks to reexamine The Parson's Tale and its place in The Canterbury Tales, especially since so many readers and critics who love Chaucer have found it difficult to love the Parson and what he has to say. As the editors say in their Introduction: 'The studies included here span the range of Parson's Tale criticism from the textual, to the philological, to the hermeneutical. What they share is the assumption that if one is to understand the role of The Parson's Tale, one must begin by accepting the language and method by which Chaucer fashioned it. Such is the example of Chaucer's earliest editors, who judged the tale interesting and worthy of being copied with care. A tale which, more than any other of The Canterbury Tales, directs a reader to a life of good works, good thoughts, and happy ending deserves no less.'" Contents: Introduction / David Raybin and Linda Tarte Holley -- The Parson's Tale in Current Literary Studies / Siegfried Wenzel -- 'Manye been the weyes': The Flower, Its Roots, and the Ending of The Canterbury Tales / David Raybin -- The Parson's Tale and Its Generic Affiliations / Richard Newhauser -- Prolegomenon to a Print History of The Parson's Tale: The Novelty and Legacy of Wynkyn de Worde's Text / Daniel J. Ransom -- The Words of the Parson's 'Vertuous Sentence' / Peggy Knapp -- Chaucer's Parson and the 'Idiosyncracies of Fiction' / Judith Ferster -- Dropping the Personae and Reforming the Self: The Parson's Tale and the End of The Canterbury Tales / Gregory Roper -- 'The goode wey': Ending and Not-Ending in The Parson's Tale / Charlotte Gross -- Epilogue: Closing the Eschatological Account / Linda Tarte Holley -- Bibliography of Scholarship Treating The Parson's Tale / David Raybin.]

Rayner, Samantha J. Images of Kingship in Chaucer and his Ricardian Contemporaries. Chaucer Studies. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2008. [Publisher's description: "The idea of kingship forms a recurrent theme in the poems of the so-called 'Ricardians,' John Gower, William Langland, the Gawain-poet and Chaucer--unsurprisingly, during a period of considerable turmoil. This book aims to widen understanding of these poets through an examination of the theme in Confessio Amantis, Piers Plowman and the works of the Gawain-poet and then setting these against the works of Geoffrey Chaucer, the most well-known and studied of the Ricardians. It brings the other poets' work into sharper focus, showing that despite a diversity in style and approach, common concerns and attitudes underpin all of the poets under consideration." Contents: Gower, The Confessio Amantis; Langland, Piers Plowman; The Gawain-poet; Chaucer, The Dream Poems.]

Reichl, Karl. "Chaucer's Troilus: Philosophy and Language." In The European Tragedy of Troilus. Ed. Piero Boitani. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. Pp. 133-152.

Reidy, John. "Grouping of Pilgrims in the 'General Prologue' to The Canterbury Tales." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 47 (1962): 595-603.

Reiss, Edmund. "Ambiguous Signs and Authorial Deceptions in Fourteenth-Century Fictions." In Sign, Sentence, Discourse: Language in Medieval Thought and Literature. Ed. Julian N. Wasserman and Lois Roney. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1989. Pp. 113-137.

Reiss, Edmund. "Chaucer and Medieval Irony." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 1 (1979): 67-82.

Reiss, Edmund. "The Pilgrimage Narrative and the Canterbury Tales." Studies in Philology 67 (1970): 295-305.

Rex, Richard. "The Sins of Madame Eglentyne" and Other Essays on Chaucer. Newark: University of Delaware Press; London: Associated University Presses, 1995.

Rhodes, James Francis. Poetry Does Theology: Chaucer, Grosseteste, and the Pearl-Poet. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001. [Publisher's description: "This detailed study argues that theology and poetry enjoyed a mutually beneficial and productive relationship during the 14th century and that both poets and theologians, in this time of humanism, asserted the sanctity of the human body. Rhodes examines examples of poets writing about theology, such as Chaucer's Nun's Priest's Tale, and of theologians transmitting their ideas in verse, notably Robert Grossetest in his The Castle of Love. He also considers the ways in which Langland expanded on Grosseteste's ideas and discusses the theological position of the Pearl-poet." Contents: Poetry and theology. Transforming theological discourse: a theoretical and practical approach -- Theology and humanism in the fourteenth century -- The Nun's Priest's metamorphosis of scholastic discourse -- Grosseteste and Langland. Robert Grosseteste's Le chateau d'amour and late medieval anthropocentrism -- Langland and the Four daughters of God -- The Pearl-poet. "kark and combraunce huge" in Cleanness -- Vision and history in Patience -- The dreamer redeemed: exile and the kingdom in Pearl -- The Bishop's tears: baptism, justification, and the resurrection of the body (politic) in Saint Erkenwald -- Chaucer. Pilgrimage and dtorytelling in the Canterbury tales -- The "greyn" and the "fruit of thilke seed of chastitee": Charity and chastity in the Prioress's tale and the Second nun's tale -- From caritas to love: The reeve's tale and Fragment 1 -- "Com hider, love, to me!" The Pardoner's untransformed discourse.]

Richardson, Cynthia C. "The Function of the Host in the Canterbury Tales." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 12 (1970): 325-344.

Richardson, Gudrun. "The Old Man in Chaucer's Pardoner's Tale: An Interpretative Study of His Identity and Meaning." Neophilologus 87 (2003): 323-337.

Riddy, Felicity. "Engendering Pity in the Franklin's Tale." In Feminist Readings in Middle English Poetry: The Wife of Bath and All Her Sect. Ed. Ruth Evans, and Lesley Johnson. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. Pp. 54-71.

Rigby, S. H. Chaucer in Context: Society, Allegory and Gender. Manchester Medieval Studies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1996. [A historian considers current disputes in Chaucer studies (was he a sceptic or a believer? was he a misogynist or a defender of women? did his writings challenge the social order or defend the status quo?)]

Rigby, S. H. "The Wife of Bath, Christine de Pizan, and the Medieval Case for Women." Chaucer Review 35 (2000-2001): 133-165.

Robertson, D. W., Jr. A Preface to Chaucer: Studies in Medieval Perspectives. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

Robbins, Rossell Hope. "Geoffroi Chaucier, Poète français, Father of English Poetry." Chaucer Review 13 (1978-1979): 93-115. [Geoffrey Chaucer as a writer of French verse.]

Robinson, Ian. Chaucer and the English Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.

Rock, Catherine A. "Forsworn and Fordone: Arcite as Oath-Breaker in the Knight's Tale." Chaucer Review 40 (2005-2006): 416-432.

Rooney, Anne. Geoffrey Chaucer: A Guide through the Critical Maze. Criticism in Focus / State of the Art. Bristol: Bristol Press / Bristol Classical Press, 1989.

Rose, Christine M. "The Jewish Mother-in-Law: Synagoga and the Man of Law's Tale." In Chaucer and the Jews: Sources, Contexts, Meanings. Ed. Sheila Delany. Multicultural Middle Ages. New York and London: Routledge, 2002. Pp. 3-23.

Rose, Christine M. "Reading Chaucer Reading Rape." In Representing Rape in Medieval and Early Modern Literature. Ed. Elizabeth Robertson and Christine M. Rose. New Middle Ages. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Pp. 21-60.

Rosenberg, Bruce. "The Oral Performance of Chaucer's Poetry." Forum 13 (1980): 224-237.

Ross, Valerie A. "Believing Cassandra: Intertextual Politics and the Interpretation of Dreams in Troilus and Criseyde." Chaucer Review 31 (1996-1997): 339-356.

Rossiter, William T. Chaucer and Petrarch. Chaucer Studies. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 2010. [Publisher's description: "Despite the fact that Chaucer introduced Petrarch's work into England in the late fourteenth century, Petrarch's influence has been very little studied. This book, the first full-length study of Chaucer's reading and translation of Petrarch, examines Chaucer's translations of Petrarch's Latin prose and Italian poetry against the backdrop of his experience of Italy, gained through his travels therein the 1370s, his interaction with Italians in London, and his reading of the other two great Italian medieval poets, Boccaccio and Dante. The book also considers Chaucer's engagement with early Italian humanism and the nature of translation in the fourteenth century, including a preliminary examination of adaptations of Chaucer's pronouncements upon translation and literary production. Chaucer'sadaptations of Petrarch's Latin tale of Griselda and the sonnet 'S'amor non è,' as the Clerk's Tale and the 'Canticus Troili' from Troilus and Criseyde respectively, illustrate his various translative strategies. Furthermore, Chaucer's references to Petrarch in his prologue to the Clerk's Tale and in the Monk's Tale provide a means of gauging the intellectual relationship between two of the most important poets of the time." Contents: Introduction: Forms of Translatio; Father of English Poetry, Father of Humanism: When Chaucer "met" Petrarch; 'The double sorwe of Troilus to tellen': Petrarchan Inversions in Chaucer's Filostrato; 'But if that I consente': The First English Sonnet; 'Mutata veste': Griselda between Boccaccio and Petrarch; 'Of hire array what sholde I make a tale?': Griselda between Petrarch and Chaucer; Conclusion: 'translacions and enditynges.']

Rowland, Beryl. "The Chess Problem in Chaucer's Book of the Duchess." Anglia 80 (1962): 384-389.

Rowland, Beryl. "On the Timely Death of the Wife of Bath's Fourth Husband." Archiv für das Studium der Neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 209 (1972): 273-282. [Rowland argues that Chaucer wants us to consider the possibility that the Fourth Husband was murdered in order to make room for Jankyn, and that the Wife's journey to Jerusalem was intended to provide her with an alibi.]

Royle, Nicholas. "'The Miller's Tale' in Chaucer's Time." In Postmodernism Across the Ages: Essays for a Postmodernity That Wasn't Born Yesterday. Ed. Bill Readings and Bennet Schaber. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1993. Pp. 63-71.

Rudat, Wolfgang E. H. Earnest Exuberance in Chaucer's Poetics: Textual Games in the Canterbury Tales. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1993.

Rudd, Niall. The Classical Tradition in Operation: Chaucer, Virgil, Shakespeare, Plautus, Pope, Horace, Tennyson, Lucretius, Pound, Propertius. Robson Classical Lectures 2. Toronto, Buffalo, and London: University of Toronto Press, 1994. [Lecture 1 is on Chaucer and Virgil.]

Ruggiers, Paul G. "Serious Chaucer: The Tale of Melibeus and the Parson's Tale." In Chaucerian Problems and Perspectives: Essays Presented to Paul E. Beichner, C.S.C. Ed. Edward Vasta and Zacharias P. Thundy. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979. Pp. 83-94.

Russell, J. Stephen. Chaucer and the Trivium: The Mindsong of the Canterbury Tales. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 1998. [A study of how Chaucer's education and his ideas of language are reflected in his works.]

Ruud, Jay. "'My spirit hath his fostryng in the Bible': 'The Summoner's Tale' and the Holy Spirit." In Rebels and Rivals: The Contestive Spirit in "The Canterbury Tales." Ed. Susanna Greer Fein, David Raybin, and Peter C. Braeger. Fwd. Derek Pearsall. Studies in Medieval Culture 29. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University Press, 1991. Pp. 125-148.

Sadlek, Gregory M. "Bakhtin, the Novel, and Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde." Chaucer Yearbook 3 (1996): 87-101.

Sadlek, Gregory M. "Chaucer in the Dock: Literature, Women, and Medieval Antifeminism." Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Teaching 14.1 (Spring, 2007): 117-131.

St. John, Michael. Chaucer's Dream Visions: Courtliness and Individual Identity. Studies in European Cultural Transition 7. Aldershot, Hants., and Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 2000. ["A thorough examination of the European dimension of Chaucer's four dream visions which, Michael St John argues, were intended as devices to communicate the courtly culture of European poets such as Boethius, Dante and Guillaume de Lorris. Considering the 'Book of the Duchess,' the 'House of Fame,' the 'Parliament of Fowls' and the 'Legend of Good Women' in turn, St John illustrates the influence of Thomas Aquinas on Chaucer's philosophy and considers Chaucer's use of literary materials and social conventions" (publisher's description).]

Salter, Elizabeth. "Troilus and Criseyde: Poet and Narrator." Acts of Interpretation: The Text in Its Contexts, 700-1600: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature in Honor of E. Talbot Donaldson. Ed. Mary J. Carruthers and Elizabeth Kirk. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1982. Pp. 281-291.

Salu, Mary, ed. Essays on "Troilus and Criseyde." Chaucer Studies 3. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1991.

Sanyal, Jharna. "Criseyde through the Boethian Glass." Journal of the Department of English (Calcutta University) 22 (1986): 72-89. [Troilus and Criseyde]

Sato, Tsutomu. "The Narrator-Audience Relationship in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde." Studies in Medieval English Language and Literature 2 (1987): 31-53.

Saul, Nigel. "Chaucer and Gentility." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 41-55. [gentilesse]

Saunders, Corinne J., ed. Chaucer. Blackwell Guides to Criticism. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2001. [Presents "key critical views of Chaucer in the twentieth century." Publisher's description: "This lively student compendium presents a comprehensive selection of the key critical views of Chaucer in the twentieth century. Stimulating introductions and editorial comment enable students to enter into dialogue with critical opinion, and thereby with Chaucer's writings, whilst the juxtaposition of past and present criticism equips them with a sense of historical perspective. A preliminary chapter addresses the growth of Chaucer criticism over the centuries, and the main developments of the twentieth century, incorporating a range of brief extracts. The structure of the volume then reflects the three major divisions of Chaucer's writing: The Dream Vision poetry, Troilus and Criseyde, The Canterbury Tales. Linking discussions introduce the main themes and critical issues of these works. Each section then presents different seminal approaches. For 'The Canterbury Tales,' for example, students can chart their paths through early allegorical readings, iconographic studies, New Historical approaches, and gender theory. In this way, the volume furnishes the reader with a broader critical repertoire and encourages independence of thought, but also offers a unified discussion of Chaucer's work."]

Saunders, Corinne J. "Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales." In A Companion to Medieval Poetry. Ed. Corinne J. Saunders. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 67. Chichester, and Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Pp. 452-475.

Saunders, Corinne J. "Love and the Making of the Self: 'Troilus and Criseyde.'" In A Concise Companion to Chaucer. Ed. Corinne Saunders. Blackwell Concise Companions to Literature and Culture. Oxford, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2006. Pp. 134-155.

Saunders, Corinne J. "Women Displaced: Rape and Romance in Chaucer's Wife of Bath's Tale." Arthurian Literature 13 (1995): 115-131.

Sayce, Olive. "Chaucer's 'Retractions': The Conclusion of the Canterbury Tales and its Place in Literary Tradition." Medium Ævum 40 (1971): 230-248. [Posits the idea that the Retraction may be a scribe's attempt to bring the Tales to a neat conclusion rather than being Chaucer's.]

Scala, Elizabeth. "Desire in the Canterbury Tales: Sovereignty and Mastery between the Wife and Clerk." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 31 (2009): 81-108.

Scanlon, Larry. "The Authority of Fable: Allegory and Irony in the Nun's Priest's Tale." Exemplaria 1 (1989): 43-68.

Scattergood, [Vincent] John. "Chaucer in the Suburbs." In Medieval Literature and Antiquities: Studies in Honour of Basil Cottle. Ed. Myra Stokes and T. L. Burton. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1987. Pp. 145-162. [On medieval London: the walled city, the countryside, the suburbs. Rpt. in his Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996. Pp. 128-145.]

Scattergood, V[incent] J[ohn]. "Perkyn Revelour and the 'Cook's Tale.'" Chaucer Review 19 (1984-1985): 14-23. [Rpt. in his Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996. Pp. 183-191. Perkyn is a recognizable literary type: he is a "revelour" (like the Wife of Bath's fourth husband, or the protagonists of the "Pardoner's Tale") and, perhaps, a "gallaunt." Scattergood also speculates somewhat on what the plot might have been. He concludes with the suggestion that Chaucer may have abandoned the tale because it would have been too much like the "Pardoner's Tale" had he continued.]

Scattergood, [Vincent] John. "Social and Political Issues in Chaucer: An Approach to Lak of Stedfastnesse." Chaucer Review 21 (1986-1987): 469-475. [Rpt. in his Reading the Past: Essays on Medieval and Renaissance Literature. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 1996. Pp. 192-198.]

Scheitzeneder, Franziska. "'For myn entente nys but for to pleye': On the Playground with the Wife of Bath, the Clerk of Oxford, and Jacques Derrida." In Clerks, Wives and Historians: Essays on Medieval English Language and Literature. Sammlung / Collection Variations 8. Ed. Winfried Rudolf, Thomas Honegger, and Andrew James Johnston. Bern [etc.]: Peter Lang, 2007. Pp. 47-68.

Scheps, Walter. "Sir Thopas: The Bourgeois Knight, the Minstrel and the Critics." Tennessee Studies in Literature 11 (1966): 35-43.

Schibanoff, Susan. Chaucer's Queer Poetics: Rereading the Dream Trio. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006.

Schibanoff, Susan. "Worlds Apart: Orientalism, Antifeminism, and Heresy in Chaucer's Man of Law's Tale." Exemplaria 8.1 (Spring 1996): 59-96.

Schildgen, Brenda Deen. Pagans, Tartars, Moslems and Jews in Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales." Tampa: University of South Florida Press, 2001. [Publisher's description: "This examination of the Canterbury Tales removes it from its familiar medieval European and Christian context to place it within a wider tradition which has its roots in pagan antiquity, Judaism and Islam. Schildgen presents Chaucer as having a 'compiler' role, conscious that he was producing a work with a multitude of meanings for a range of different audiences. With this refreshing perspective, the study examines the antique philosophy of the knight and squire, the 'Man of Law's' tale of the Islamic east, the Wife of Bath's and Franklin's philosophies drawn from pre-Christian Britain and the Christian-Jewish tensions of the prioress and monk tales."]

Schless, Howard. Dante and Chaucer. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1984.

Schmidt, A. V. C. "Chaucer and the Golden Age." Essays in Criticism 26 (1976): 99-115.

Schneider, Paul Stephen. "'Taillynge ynough': The Function of Money in the Shipman's Tale." Chaucer Review 11 (1976-1977): 201-209.

Schoek, Richard J., and J. Taylor, ed. Chaucer Criticism: An Anthology. 2 vols. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1960-1961.

Schwartz, Robert B. "The Social Character of May Games: A Popular Background for Chaucer's Merchant's Tale." Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 27 (1979): 43-51.

Schweitzer, Edward C. "Fate and Freedom in The Knight's Tale." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 3 (1981): 13-46.

Schweitzer, Edward C. "The Misdirected Kiss and the Lover's Malady in Chaucer's 'Miller's Tale.'" In Chaucer in the Eighties. Ed. Julian N. Wasserman and Robert J. Blanch. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986. Pp. 223-233.

Scott, Anne. "'Considerynge the Beste on Every Syde': Ethics, Empathy, and Epistemology in the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 390-415.

Scott-Macnab, David. "A Re-examination of Octovyen's Hunt in The Book of the Duchess." Medium Ævum 56 (1987): 183-199.

Severs, J. Burke. The Literary Relationships of Chaucer's "Clerkes Tale." Hamden: Archon, 1972.

Seymour, M[aurice] C[harles]. A Catalogue of Chaucer Manuscripts. 2 vols. Aldershot, Hants., and Brookfield, VT: Ashgate / Scolar Press, 1995-1997.

Sharp, Michael D. "Reading Chaucer's 'Manly Man': The Trouble with Masculinity in the Monk's Prologue and Tale." In Masculinities in Chaucer: Approaches to Maleness in the "Canterbury Tales" and "Troilus and Criseyde." Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Chaucer Studies 25. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1998. Pp. 173-185.

Sheneman, Paul. "The Tongue as a Sword: Psalms 56 and 63 and the Pardoner." Chaucer Review 27.4 (1993-1994): 396-400.

Sherman, Mark A. "The Politics of Discourse in Chaucer's Knight's Tale." Exemplaria 6 (1994): 87-114.

Shoaf, R. Allen. Chaucer's Body: The Anxiety of Circulation in the "Canterbury Tales." Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2001.

Shoaf, R. Allen. "The Franklin's Tale: Chaucer and Medusa." In Chaucer: Contemporary Critical Essays. Ed. Valerie Allen and Ares Axiotis. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. Pp. 242-252.

Shoaf, R. Allen, and Catherine S. Cox, eds. Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, "Subgit to alle poesye": Essays in Criticism. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 104. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, SUNY, 1992.

Smilie, Ethan Kobus. "'Inquisityf of Goddes pryvetee' and a Wyf: Curiositas in the Canterbury Tales." Ph.D. diss., University of Dallas, 2012. [Abstract: "This dissertation examines Chaucer's depiction of curiositas in the Canterbury Tales. Its argument is that, while displaying an orthodox view of curiositas, Chaucer modified the way in which the vice was conceived by manifesting the intellectual sin in physical terms, by making concrete, indeed, poeticizing, the mental vice. In doing so, he democratizes the vice, portraying the typically highbrow and clerkly sin as one that anyone can commit. Moreover, he indicates that poetry can both instill an inordinate desire for knowledge and provide a remedy for it, while concluding that the primary cause of a poetic work posing such a threat is the reader's 'entente.' In order to establish both Chaucer's debt to and his divergence from previous thinking in regard to the curiositas, this study begins with a synoptic history of thought on the vice up to and including fourteenth century England. Following this is an examination of six of the Canterbury Tales that best display Chaucer's modifications. In the Miller's and Reeve's Tales, Chaucer portrays the object of knowledge the curiosus seeks to be pryvetee. By their very nature, the fabliaux implicate the readers in the sin, though by means of two poetic devices--typology and punning--Chaucer suggests that poetry can also provide a remedy for the vice. In the Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale, Chaucer portrays the search for curious objects of knowledge and the disclosure of such knowledge by means of gossip and confession. The Wife displays what might be called 'poetic gossip,' through which Chaucer shows, more precisely, poetry's ability to instill curiositas in a reader. The Friar's, Summoner's, and Clerk's Tales refine the earlier examination of the object of the curiosus' knowledge, showing it to be the devil's pryvetee. By means of the exemplary natures of these tales Chaucer comments on the role authors' and readers' intents play in the existence of the vice. This study concludes with speculations as to how the Tales as a whole contribute to Chaucer's modifications of the conception of curiositas, particularly the poem's ability either to instill or avert a reader's curiositas."]

Smith, Warren S. "Dorigen's Lament and the Resolution of the Franklin's Tale." Chaucer Review 36 (2001-2002): 374-390.

Smith, Warren S. "The Wife of Bath Debates Jerome." Chaucer Review 32 (1997-1998): 129-145.

Smyser, H. M. "The Domestic Background of Troilus and Criseyde." Speculum 31 (1956): 297-315. [An attempt to imagine the houses of Troilus and Criseyde, especially Criseyde's house, as an aid to better understanding the poem.]

Smyth, Karen Elaine. "Reassessing Chaucer's Cosmological Discourse at the End of 'Troilus and Criseyde' (c.1385)." Fifteenth-Century Studies 32 (2007): 150-163.

Spearing, A. C. "Classical Antiquity in Chaucer's Chivalric Romances." In Chivalry, Knighthood, and War in the Middle Ages. Ed. Susan J. Ridyard. Sewanee Mediaeval Studies 9. Sewanee, TN: University of the South Press, 1999. Pp. 53-73.

Spearing, A[nthony] C. "Renaissance Chaucer and Father Chaucer." English 34.1 [148] (Spring 1985): 1-38.

Specht, Henrik. Chaucer's Franklin in "The Canterbury Tales": The Social and Literary Background of a Chaucerian Character. Publications of the Department of English, the University of Copenhagen, 10. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forl., 1981.

Sprung, Andrew. "'If it youre wille be': Coercion and Compliance in Chaucer's Clerk's Tale." Exemplaria 7.2 (Fall 1995): 345-369.

Spurgeon, Caroline F[rances] E[leanor], ed. Five Hundred Years of Chaucer Criticism and Allusion, 1357-1900. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1925.

Stanbury, Sarah. "Regimes of the Visual in Premodern England: Gaze, Body, and Chaucer's Clerk's Tale." New Literary History 28 (1997): 261-289.

Stanbury, Sarah. "The Voyeur and the Private Life in Troilus and Criseyde." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 13 (1991): 141-158.

Stanbury, Sarah. "Women's Letters and Private Space in Chaucer." Exemplaria 6 (1994-1995): 271-285.

Steadman, John M. Disembodied Laughter: Troilus and the Apotheosis Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.

Steinberg, Diane Vanner. "'We do Usen Here no Wommen for to Selle': Embodiment of Social Practices in Troilus and Criseyde." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 259-273. [Male desire ("love") is often described in medieval texts as a "besieging" of a woman until she "yields": thus it is a form of masculine intrusion into feminine space. Troilus and Criseyde are not playing the same game or at any point moving towards a mutually satisfying conclusion: "Troilus wants a lover in the Romeo and Juliet mode, someone with his almost adolescent commitment to an ideal of love. He believes that he has found her in Criseyde, but, of course, what Pandarus actually woos and obtains for him is an ordinary mortal woman, perhaps more in the mode of one of Shakespeare's comic heroines, a Rosalind who knows that 'men have died from time to time, and worms have eaten them, but not for love,' or a Beatrice who teasingly maintains that she loves 'no more than reason,' and only 'in friendly recompense.' Troilus is very much a tragic hero who finds himself on stage with a comic heroine, one determined to end the play with an affirmation of life on earth, despite all of the difficulties of that life. It is precisely this comic determination that enables Criseyde to survive her transfer to the Greek camp" (269).]

Steinberg, Glenn A. "Chaucer in the Field of Cultural Production: Humanism, Dante, and the House of Fame." Chaucer Review 35 (2000-2001): 182-203.

Stevens, Martin. "The Winds of Fortune in the Troilus." Chaucer Review 13 (1978-1979): 285-307.

Strohm, Paul. "Chaucer's Audience." Literature and History 3 [no. 5] (1977): 26-41.

Strohm, Paul. Social Chaucer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.

Strohm, Paul. "Some Generic Distinctions in the Canterbury Tales." Modern Philology 68 (1971): 321-328.

Stroud, T. A. "The Palinode, the Narrator, and Pandarus's Alleged Incest." Chaucer Review 27 (1992-1993): 16-30.

Sturges, Robert S. "The Canterbury Tales' Women Narrators: Three Traditions of Female Authority." Modern Language Studies 13 (1983): 41-51.

Sweeney, Michelle. Magic in Medieval Romance: From Chrétien de Troyes to Geoffrey Chaucer. Dublin, and Portland, OR: Four Courts Press, 2000.

Taylor, Andrew. "Anne of Bohemia and the Making of Chaucer." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 19 (1997): 95-119.

Taylor, Andrew. "The Curious Eye and the Alternative Endings of The Canterbury Tales." In Part Two: Reflections on the Sequel. Ed. Paul Budra and Betty A. Schellenberg. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998. Pp. 34-52.

Taylor, Mark N. "Servant and Lord / Lady and Wife: The Franklin's Tale and Traditions of Courtly and Conjugal Love." Chaucer Review 32 (1997-1998): 64-81.

Taylor, Paul Beekman. Chaucer's Chain of Love. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996. ["Traces the thematic and structural implications for Chaucer's poetry of the Platonic-Christian concept of the chain of love between God and his creation, linking time, space, and words."]

Terrell, Katherine H. "Reallocation of Hermeneutic Authority in Chaucer's House of Fame." Chaucer Review 31 (1996-1997): 279-290.

Thomas, Paul R. "Cato on Chauntecleer: Chaucer's Sophisticated Audience." Neophilologus 72 (1988): 278-283.

Thomas, Paul R. "'Have ye no mannes herte?': Chauntecleer as Cock Man in the Nun's Priest's Tale." In Masculinities in Chaucer: Approaches to Maleness in the "Canterbury Tales" and "Troilus and Criseyde." Ed. Peter G. Beidler. Chaucer Studies 25. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1998. Pp. 187-202.

Thomas, Susanne Sara. "The Problem of Defining Sovereynetee in the Wife of Bath's Tale." Chaucer Review 41 (2006-2007): 87-97.

Thompson, N. S. "Man's Flesh and Woman's Spirit in the Decameron and the Canterbury Tales." In The Body and the Soul in Medieval Literature. Ed. Piero Boitani and Anna Torti. The J. A. W. Bennett Memorial Lectures, Tenth Series, Perugia, 1998. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1999. Pp. 17-29.

Thundy, Zacharias P. "Significance of Pilgrimage in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales." Literary Half-Yearly 20.2 (July 1979): 64-77.

Thurston, Paul T. Artistic Ambivalence in Chaucer's Knight's Tale. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1968.

Tomasch, Sylvia. "Postcolonial Chaucer and the Virtual Jew." In The Postcolonial Middle Ages. Ed. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen. New Middle Ages. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. Pp. 243-260. [Rpt. in Chaucer and the Jews: Sources, Contexts, Meanings. Ed. Sheila Delany. Multicultural Middle Ages. New York and London: Routledge, 2002. Pp. 69-85.]

Traversi, Derek. Chaucer, The Earlier Poetry: A Study in Poetic Development. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1987.

Travis, Peter W. "Reading Chaucer Ab Ovo: Mock-Exemplum in the Nun's Priest's Tale." In The Performance of Middle English Culture: Essays on Chaucer and the Drama in Honor of Martin Stevens. Ed. James J. Paxson, Lawrence M. Clopper, and Sylvia Tomasch. Cambridge, and Rochester, NY: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, 1998. Pp. 161-181.

Treharne, Elaine. "The Stereotype Confirmed?: Chaucer's Wife of Bath." In Writing Gender and Genre in Medieval Literature: Approaches to Old and Middle English Texts. Ed. Elaine Treharne. Essays and Studies ns 55. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, for the English Association, 2002. Pp. 93-115.

Trigg, Stephanie. Congenial Souls: Reading Chaucer from Medieval to Postmodern. Medieval Cultures 30. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002. [Reception history.]

Trigg, Stephanie. "Discourses of Affinity in the Reading Communities of Geoffrey Chaucer." In Rewriting Chaucer: Culture, Authority, and the Idea of the Authentic Text, 1400-1602. Ed. Thomas A. Prendergast and Barbara Kline. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1999. Pp. 270-291.

Tripp, Raymond P., Jr. "Beowulf and Chaucer's Walter: Memory and the Continuity of Compulsion." Geardagum: Essays on Old and Middle English Language and Literature 9 (1988): 59-74.

Turner, Marion. Chaucerian Conflict: Languages of Antagonism in Late Fourteenth -Century London. Oxford English Monographs. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. [Contents: Introduction: Chaucerian conflict -- Discursive turbulence: slander, the House of fame, and the Mercers' petition -- Urban treason: Troilus and Criseyde and the 'treasonous aldermen' of 1382 -- Idealism and antagonism: Troynovaunt in the late fourteenth century -- Ricardian communities: Thomas Usk's social fantasies -- Conflicted Compaignyes: the Canterbury fellowship and urban associational form --Conflict resolved?: the language of peace and Chaucer's "Tale of Melibee."]

Ullyot, Michael. "English Auctores and Authorial Readers: Early Modernizations of Chaucer and Lydgate." In Reading and Literacy in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Ed. Ian Frederick Moulton. Arizona Studies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 8. Turnhout: Brepols, and Abingdon: Marston, 2004. Pp. 45-62.

Urban, Malte. Fragments: Past and Present in Chaucer and Gower. Oxford [etc.]: Peter Lang, 2009. [Publisher's description: "This book examines the ways in which Geoffrey Chaucer and John Gower appropriated their sources, paying particular attention to the theories of history and political agendas informing these appropriations. The study offers comparative readings of Chaucer's and Gower's works, framed by a concern with twentieth-century theories that explore the limits of historicist and deconstructive readings of late medieval texts. Starting with Gower's Vox Clamantis, the chapters offer largely chronological readings of texts such as Chaucer's dream visions, Troilus and Criseyde, the Tale of Melibee and the Physician's Tale, and a selection of tales from Gower's Confessio Amantis. The querying historicism pursued in these readings offers a new way of considering late medieval literature, focusing on close-reading and a dialogue between medieval and post-medieval cultural discourses." Contents: Gower's Vox Clamantis and the Politics of History -- Chaucer's Dream Visions and Authority -- Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde and the Myth of Trojan Origins -- Gower's Use of Troy -- Chaucer's Tale of Melibee, Gower's Confessio VII, and the Use of Reading -- Chaucer's and Gower's stories of Virginia and the Body of History.]

Utz, R. Chaucer and the Discourse of German Philology: A History of Reception and an Annotated Bibliography of Studies, 1798-1948. Making the Middle Ages. Turnhout: Brepols, 2002.

Van Dyke, Carolynn. "The Clerk's and Franklin's Subjected Subjects." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 17 (1995): 45-68.

Van, Thomas A. "False Texts and Disappearing Women in the Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 179-193.

Van, Thomas A. "Walter at the Stake: A Reading of Chaucer's Clerk's Tale." Chaucer Review 22 (1987-1988): 214-224.

Vandelinde, Henry. "'Wlatsom and Abhomynable': Murder and Homicide in the Canterbury Tales." Clues 22.2 (Fall-Winter 2001): 167-176.

Veldhoen, N. H. G. E. "'Which was the mooste fre?': Chaucer's Realistic Humour and Insight into Human Nature as Shown in The Frankeleyns Tale." In In Other Words: Transcultural Studies in Philology, Translation, and Lexicology Presented to Hans Heinrich Meier on the Occasion of His Sixty-Fifth Birthday. Ed. J. Lachlan Mackenzie and Richard Todd. Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 1989. Pp. 107-116. [The concluding demaund in the tale is not a merely rhetorical question; indeed, in some of the analogues getting the answer correct is a matter of life and death. Veldhoen argues that Chaucer complicates the situation generally, that "Dorigen" is not a possible answer since in the various analogues her behaviour is quite explicitly condemned; rather, he argues that, in Chaucer's version, either Averagus or Aurelius are "correct" answers (Averagus in terms of strict justice, Aurelius with some lovers' sympathy).]

Volk-Birke, Sabine. Chaucer and Medieval Preaching: Rhetoric for Listeners in Sermons and Poetry. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1991.

Wack, Mary F. "Lovesickness in Troilus." Pacific Coast Philology 19.1 (Nov. 1984): 55-61.

Wack, Mary F. "Pandarus, Poetry, and Healing." Studies in the Age of Chaucer: Proceedings 2 (1986): 127-133.

Walker, Faye. "Making Trouble: Postmodern Theory with/in Chaucer Studies." Style 26 (1992): 577-592.

Walker, Greg. "Laughable Men: Comedy and Masculinity from Chaucer to Shakespeare." In Puzzling Laughter in Plays of the Tudor Age / Rires et problemes dans le theatre des Tudor. Ed. Roberta Mullini. Collection-Theta 6. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, 2002. Pp. 1-20.

Walker, Greg. "Rough Girls and Squeamish Boys: The Trouble with Absolon in The Miller's Tale." In Writing Gender and Genre in Medieval Literature: Approaches to Old and Middle English Texts. Ed. Elaine Treharne. Essays and Studies ns 55. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer / Boydell and Brewer, for the English Association, 2002. Pp. 61-91.

Wallace, David. "Chaucer and the Absent City." In Chaucer's England: Literature in Historical Context. Ed. Barbara Hanawalt. Medieval Studies at Minnesota 4. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. Pp. 59-90. [London per se is not presented in the Canterbury Tales directly (the pilgrimage begins, not in London, but in Southwark). But there are, as in the "Cook's Tale" or the "Canon's Yeoman's Tale," descriptions of city life based upon Chaucer's knowledge of London: the figure of the City in the Canterbury Tales tends to be one of a place of "duplicity and bad faith."]

Wasserman, Julian N. "Both Fixed and Free: Language and Destiny in Chaucer's Knight's Tale and Troilus and Criseyde." In Sign, Sentence, Discourse: Language in Medieval Thought and Literature. Ed. Julian N. Wasserman and Lois Roney. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1989. Pp. 194-222.

Wasserman, Julian N., and Robert J. Blanch, eds. Chaucer in the Eighties. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1986.

Watson, Robert A. "Dialogue and Invention in the Book of the Duchess." Modern Philology 98 (2001): 543-576.

Weisl, Angela Jane. Conquering the Reign of Femeny: Gender and Genre in Chaucer's Romance. Chaucer Studies 22. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1995.

Weisl, Angela Jane. "'Quiting Eve': Violence Against Women in the Canterbury Tales." In Violence Against Women in Medieval Texts. Ed. Anna Roberts. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998. Pp. 115-136. [Summary: "Though Chaucer grants women agency in CT, they act against a background of violence that is often ignored or mitigated. The fabliaux, the romances, and the religious narratives all present violence against women as a normal part of society. WBT comes closest to challenging such violence, and ClT is the most antipathetic to women" [Online Chaucer Bibliography].]

Wenzel, Siegfried. "Chaucer's Pardoner and his Relics." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 11 (1989): 37-41.

West, Richard. Chaucer, 1340-1400: The Life and Times of the First English Poet. London: Constable; New York: Carroll and Graf, 2000.

Wetherbee, Winthrop. Chaucer and the Poets: An Essay on Troilus and Criseyde. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984.

Wetherbee, Winthrop. "Chaucer and the Tragic Vision of Life." Poetica 55 (2001): 39-53.

Wetherbee, Winthrop. "Convention and Authority: A Comment on Some Recent Critical Approaches to Chaucer." In New Perspectives in Chaucer Criticism. Ed. Donald Rose. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1981. Pp. 71-81.

Wetherbee, Winthrop. Geoffrey Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales. Landmarks of World Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Wheatley, [Thomas] Edward. "Commentary Displacing Text: The Nun's Priest's Tale and the Scholastic Fable Tradition." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 18 (1996): 119-141.

Wheeler, Bonnie. "Trouthe without Consequences: Rhetoric and Gender in Chaucer's Franklin's Tale." In Representations of the Feminine in the Middle Ages. Ed. Bonnie Wheeler. Feminea Medievalia 1. Dallas: Academia, 1993. Pp. 91-116.

Whitlark, James S. "Chaucer and the Pagan Gods." Annuale Mediaevale 18 (1977): 65-75.

Wilcockson, Colin. "A Note on Chaucer's Prioress and her Literary Kinship with the Wife of Bath." Medium Ævum 61 (1992): 92-96. [The fact that both the description of the Prioress and the arguments advanced in the Wife of Bath's Prologue derive from the same passage in the Romance of the Rose is seen as a significant and suggestive linkage between the two "literary sisters."]

Williams, David. The Canterbury Tales: A Literary Pilgrimage. Boston: Twayne Publishers / G. K. Hall, 1987.

Williams, David. "Distentio, Intentio, Attentio: Intentionality and Chaucer's Third Eye." Florilegium 15 (1998): 37-60. [On "intention" and the third eye of Prudence (mentioned by Criseyde).]

Wilson, Katharina. "Hagiographic (Dis)play: Chaucer's 'The Miller's Tale.'" In Auctor Ludens: Essays on Play in Literature. Ed. Gerald Guinness and Andrew Hurley. Philadelphia: Benjamins, 1986. Pp. 37-45.

Wimsatt, James I. Chaucer and his French Contemporaries: Natural Music in the Fourteenth Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

Wimsatt, James I. "Theories of Intertextuality and Chaucer's Sources and Analogues." Mediaevalia 15 (1993 [for 1989]): 231-239.

Windeatt, Barry A. Chaucer's Dream Poetry: Sources and Analogues. Chaucer Studies 7. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1982.

Windeatt, Barry A. "Classical and Medieval Elements in Chaucer's Troilus." In The European Tragedy of Troilus. Ed. Piero Boitani. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. Pp. 111-131.

Windeatt, Barry A. "The Scribes as Chaucer's Early Critics." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 1 (1979): 119-11. ["A study of fifteenth-century reception of Chaucer's work by reading scribal variation and alteration as products of understanding and criticism rather than as marks of confusion and error" (Collette, "Afterlife," Companion to Chaucer).]

Windeatt, Barry A. Troilus and Criseyde. Oxford Guides to Chaucer. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.

Winstead, Karen A. "Chaucer's Parson's Tale and the Contours of Orthodoxy." Chaucer Review 43 (2008-2009): 239-259.

Wolfe, Matthew C. "Placing Chaucer's Retraction for a Reception of Closure." Chaucer Review 33 (1998-1999): 427-431.

Wood, Chauncy. Chaucer and the Country of the Stars: Poetic Uses of Astrological Imagery. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.

Wood, Chauncy. The Elements of Chaucers's Troilus. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1984.

Woods, William F. Chaucerian Spaces: Spatial Poetics in Chaucer's Opening Tales. SUNY Series in Medieval Studies. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008. [Publisher's description: "Chaucerian Spaces explores the affect and the significance of space and place in the first six tales in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. In these tales, characters inhabit a landscape and places within it that express their inner life." Contents: Dwelling places of chivalry and nature -- Alysoun the housewife -- The solace of open spaces -- Symkyn's place -- Changing places -- The riches of exilic space -- The domestic market -- The exile and her kingdom -- Chaucer's spatial poetics.]

Woods, William F. "Chivalry and Nature in The Knight's Tale." Philological Quarterly 66.3 (Summer, 1987): 287-301.

Woods, William F. "'My Sweete Foo': Emelye's Role in The Knight's Tale." Studies in Philology 88 (1991): 276-306.

Woods, William F. "Private and Public Space in the Miller's Tale." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 166-178.

Woods, William F. "Up and Down, To and Fro: Spatial Relationships in 'The Knight's Tale.'" In Rebels and Rivals: The Contestive Spirit in "The Canterbury Tales." Ed. Susanna Greer Fein, David Raybin, and Peter C. Braeger. Fwd. Derek Pearsall. Studies in Medieval Culture 29. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University Press, 1991. Pp. 1-35.

Woolf, Rosemary. "Chaucer as a Satirist in the General Prologue to The Canterbury Tales." In Geoffrey Chaucer: A Critical Anthology. Ed. J. A. Burrow. Penguin Critical Anthologies. Harmondsworth: Penquin Books Ltd., 1969.

Wright, Michael J. "Isolation and Individuality in the Franklin's Tale." Studia Neophilologica 70 (1998): 181-186.

Wurtele, Douglas J. "The Blasphemy of Chaucer's Merchant." Annuale Mediaevale 21 (1981): 91-110.

Wurtele, Douglas J. "Chaucer's Franklin and the Truth about 'Trouthe.'" English Studies in Canada 13 (1987): 359-374.

Wurtele, Douglas J. "Chaucer's Wife of Bath and the Problem of the Fifth Husband." Chaucer Review 23 (1988-1989): 117-128.

Wurtele, Douglas J. "The Penitence of Geoffrey Chaucer." Viator 11 (1980): 335-359.

Wurtele, Douglas J. "Prejudice and Chaucer's 'Prioress.'" Revue de l'Universite d'Ottawa / University of Ottawa Quarterly 55 (1985): 33-43.

Wurtele, Douglas J. "Some Uses of Physiognomical Lore in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales." Chaucer Review 17 (1982-1983): 130-141. [physiognomy]

Yeager, R. F. "Chaucer's 'To His Purse': Begging, or Begging Off?" Viator 36 (2005): 373-414. [Yeager argues against the usual understanding of the poem as a begging poem that flatters Henry IV; he argues that it was probably written originally for Richard II, that Henry or his henchmen sought from him some show of support, and that the apparent flattery of the envoy is backhanded and insincere. ["The Complaint of Chaucer to his Purse"]]

Zatta, Jane Dick. "Chaucer's Monk: A Mighty Hunter before the Lord." Chaucer Review 29 (1994-1995): 111-133.

Zeikowitz, Richard E. "Silenced but Not Stifled: The Disruptive Queer Power of Chaucer's Pardoner." Dalhousie Review 82 (2002): 55-73.

Zitter, Emmy Stark. "Anti-Semitism in Chaucer's Prioress's Tale." Chaucer Review 25 (1990-1991): 277-284. [A good article on the tale, suggesting that, although Chaucer is no less anti-semitic than the Prioress, the Prioress's limitations are seen in the lack of grace at the end of her tale: like the Jews themselves, she believes in Law and revenge, not in forgiveness and grace.]

Stephen R. Reimer
English; University of Alberta; Edmonton, Canada
Created: 24 Oct. 1996; Last revised: 5 June 2016

email: Stephen.Reimer@UAlberta.Ca
URL: https://sites.ualberta.ca/~sreimer/engl324/324-bib.htm