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The Canon of John Lydgate Project

The Lives of Ss. Edmund and Fremund: Introduction

MS Harley 2278: List of Printed Notices and Reproductions
In 1787 Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin produced by hand a facsimile of a substantial portion of Harley 2278 (Books 1 and 2 of the "Lives of Ss. Edmund and Fremund," but not Book 3), including handpainted copies of 66 of the miniatures. The Thorkelin reproduction is preserved in the Kongelige Bibliotek in Copenhagen as Ny kgl. Saml. [New Royal Collection], MS 513b 4°. See Kiernan, Kevin S. "Thorkelin's Trip to Great Britain and Ireland, 1786-1791." The Library, 6th ser. 5 (1983): 1-21. On Thorkelin's trip to the British Museum and his copies of MSS which he found there. He is mostly known for his editio princeps of Beowulf, but he also had a copy made of Lydgate's "St. Edmund" from Harley MS 2278 (his copy is described with his other MSS on pp. 13-14 of the article).

Abou-El-Haj, Barbara. "Bury St Edmunds Abbey Between 1070 and 1124: A History of Property, Privilege, and Monastic Art Production." Art History 6.1 (March 1983): 1-29. An article on the Abbey, and especially on the illustrations to New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, MS M.736, including a pictorial "Life of St. Edmund" in 32 miniatures (early twelfth century). Illustrations 17 and 18, on a plate between pp. 12 and 13, reproduce three miniatures from Harley 2278, each of which depicts the shrine of St. Edmund at Bury (fols. 4v, 9r, 117r); these miniatures are discussed briefly on pp. 14-15. Pp. 27-28n106 notes that, despite several references in documentary sources to a golden "Majesty" (a statue either of Christ or of Edmund) attached to the shrine, no such statue appears in the illustrations in Harley 2278, and whether Bury ever had such a figure remains uncertain.

Alexander, J. J. G. "Painting and Manuscript Illumination for Royal Patrons in the Later Middle Ages." In English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages. Ed. V[incent] J[ohn] Scattergood and J. W. Sherborne. London: Gerald Duckworth and Co., 1983. Pp. 141-162. P. 151 mentions Harley 2278 as the presentation manuscript of the Lives of Ss. Edmund and Fremund. Plate 11 (the plates appear between pages 148 and 149) reproduces (B&W) fol. 4v (with a miniature showing Henry VI kneeling at the shrine of St. Edmund).

Ashdown, Mrs. Charles H. [Emily Jessie]. British Costume during XIX Centuries (Civil and Ecclesiastical), Illustrated with 459 Engravings in the Text, 110 Plates, and 9 Coloured Reproductions, from Original Costumes and from Illuminated MSS., Missals, Brasses, Effigies, etc., from Original Research in the Manuscript Department of the British Museum and in Various National Collections. London and Edinburgh: T. C. and E. C. Jack, 1910. [There were various printings, most of them undated, but seeming to range from about 1910 to 1954]. Fig. 201 (among the plates between pp. 156 and 157) is a black-and-white engraved reproduction of a miniature from British Library MS. Harley 2278, showing the King Alkmund, Queen Siware, and their Court (fol. 10r); Fig. 204 (among the plates between pp. 160 and 161) is a black-and-white engraved reproduction of a miniature from British Library MS. Harley 2278, fol. 13v, showing the lying-in of Siware (birth of St. Edmund), with various attendant ladies.

Backhouse, Janet. The Illuminated Manuscript. Oxford: Phaidon, 1979. P. 66, plate 56: reproduces (colour) the upper portion of fol. 41v (showing some text and a miniature of King Lothbrok Going Hunting).

Backhouse, Janet. The Illuminated Page: Ten Centuries of Manuscript Painting in the British Library. London: British Library; Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1997. Item 151 (p. 172) is British Library MS Harley 2278, with a reproduction (colour) of ff. 105v-106r: "John Lydgate, who died about 1450, was a monk of Bury St Edmunds and court poet to King Henry V and his son, Henry VI. This copy of his verse life of St Edmund was written and illuminated by order of the abbot as a gift for 12-year-old Henry VI after he had spent Christmas at Bury in 1433. No exact parallel has been found for the idiosyncratic style of its illuminator. He seems to have been familiar not only with contemporary English work but also with material from Holland, France, Germany and Bohemia. He has a lively sense of narrative and seems to have enjoyed depicting rich fabrics and tiny details."

Baker, Audrey. "Figure Painting on Rood Screens in Churches of Norfolk and South Devonshire." Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1937. Compares the four panel paintings from Ely of the Life of St. Etheldreda (now in possession of the Society of Antiquaries) with illustrations in Harley 2278. See also Fletcher, John, below; also Tudor-Craig, Pamela, below.

Barker, H[orace] R. West Suffolk, Illustrated; Giving an Account of Every Town and Village in the Western Division of the County, a Description of Every Church (Whether Now Used or in Ruins), and a Short Account of the Old Castles, Monasteries, Halls, and Other Buildings; Also Containing Allusions to All the Chief Historical Events with which this very Interesting Part of East Anglia is Associated, and Notes on the Family History, and Archæological Discoveries in the District; 566 Illustrations of the Different Places Mentioned in the Letterpress; Many of these Views have been Specially Produced, at Great Expense, to Render the Work more Attractive, Complete, and Up-to-date. Bury St. Edmunds: F. G. Pawsey and Co., 1907. Pp. 44-92 is the section on Bury St. Edmunds, with pictures of many of the town buildings and the abbey ruins; there is some account of the life of St. Edmund and his cult, as well as something of a history of the Abbey. There is an oblique reference to Harley 2278 on p. 59: Edmund's shrine is described based upon "the paintings in Lydgate's metrical life of St Edmund, which he presented to Henry VI." Also, on p. 243, there is a paragraph on Lydgate's life and works, included in which is a brief description of Harley 2278 (though here misidentified as a copy of Lydgate's Life of St. Alban): "In the British Museum is a splendid copy on vellum, presented to King Henry VI. There are 120 drawings beautifully illuminated; two portraits of the King; one of Curteis, Abbot of Bury (1429-45); and one of Lydgate himself kneeling before St. Edmund's shrine."

Benham, William. Old St. Paul's Cathedral. London: Seeley; New York: Macmillan, 1902. Pp. 62-63: The body of St. Edmund was at one time, during an incursion into Suffolk by Vikings, conveyed to London and placed in the Church of St. Gregory by St. Paul's; the Bishop and Canons of St. Paul's attempted to secure the relics for St. Paul's permanently. Six stanzas of Lydgate's Life of St. Edmund are here quoted, describing the incident. Facing p. 62 is a colour reproduction of a miniature from Harley 2278, fol. 113v, showing the Bishop and Canons surrounding the coffin in the Church of St. Gregory.

Besant, Walter (Sir). The Survey of London. 10 vols. London: A. and C. Black, 1902-1912. Vols. 2 and 3 are on medieval London, with the titles: Mediaeval London: Historical and Social and Mediaeval London: Ecclesiastical. 2: 335 includes a reproduction (B&W) of a miniature which is said here to show Lydgate working at his desk; this is London, British Library, MS Harley 2278, fol. 74r, showing, not Lydgate (the headdress seems inappropriate for a monk), but Surchard, secretary to and biographer of St. Fremund, who is mentioned in the first stanza on fol. 74v as the source of Lydgate's account of Fremund's life.

Birch, Walter de Gray, and Henry Jenner. Early Drawings and Illuminations: An Introduction to the Study of Illustrated Manuscripts, with a Dictionary of Subjects in the British Museum. London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1879. Primarily an index to subjects portrayed in illuminations in British Library manuscripts; Harley 2278 is listed in the list of illuminated manuscripts (p. 15), and in the index it appears under "Edmund the King, Saint, life of" on p. 117.

British Library. The Benedictines in Britain. British Library Series 3. London: British Library, 1980. A collection of essays and exhibition catalogue. Harley 2278 is Item 71 in the exhibition, described on pp. 55-56 and 108. Plate 3 (the plates appear between pp. 56 and 57) is a reproduction (colour) of fol. 4v (full page, with a miniature showing Henry VI kneeling at the shrine of St. Edmund).

British Museum. A Catalogue of the Harleian Manuscripts in the British Museum with Indexes of Persons, Places, and Matters. 4 vols. London: By Royal Command, 1808-1812; rpt. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1973. 2: 639-640.

British Museum. Department of Manuscripts. Illuminated Manuscripts and Bindings of Manuscripts Exhibited in the Grenville Library. Guide to Exhibited Manuscripts 3. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1923. Pp. 21-22, no. 36.

Carley, James P. "John Leland and the Foundations of the Royal Library: The Westminster Inventory of 1542." Bulletin of the Society for Renaissance Studies 7 (1989): 13-22. The inventory is London, PRO Augm. Office, Misc. books 160 (E.315.160), fols. 107v-120r; "later transcriptions are found in London, British Library, Additional MSS 4729 and 25469" (p. 17n12); Carley is in the process of editing the Inventory for publication. P. 21 includes a paragraph on Harley 2278, identifying it with item 467 in the Westminster Inventory, and treating it as one of the "escapees" from the royal library. "I am particularly baffled by the journeys of this book: originally royal, possibly at Richmond for a period, it must have been at Westminster in 1542 to be inventoried. Before 1544, however, it was owned by the Lord Chancellor, Thomas, baron Audley of Walden (d. 1544), whose signature appears on fol. 119v. Its subsequent movements remain a mystery."

Clarke, Daisy E. Martin. "A New Lydgate Manuscript." Modern Language Review 24 (1929): 324-328. On Exeter Misc. rolls 59, a fragment of the Lives of Ss. Edmund and Fremund; the text of the fragment is compared with that of Harley 2278.

Comfort, Nicholas. The Lost City of Dunwich. Lavenham, Suffolk: Terence Dalton, 1994. An account of Dunwich, an ancient city on the Suffolk coast which has gradually been lost to the North Sea. There are a few references to St. Edmund, and on p. 80 appears a B&W reproduction of a miniature from Harley 2278, fol. 16v (with a caption on p. 81 identifying the subject as "Medieval pilgrims beginning their voyage"--in fact, it is more correctly described as a picture of King Offa sailing to Saxony--and identifying the work as "John Lyegate's [sic] Life of St Edmund c. 1433"). Pp. 15-16 on the Viking raids in this area and the death of St. Edmund: "In 866 the Nuremberg-born King Edmund bought off the attackers with horses; they rode north to sack York, returning in 869 to devastate monasteries at Ramsey, Soham and Thorney and crush the forces Edmund had assembled. By tradition Edmund held out at Framlingham but was taken prisoner and put to death on 20th November, 869, at Hagelisdun (either Hoxne, Hellesdon near Norwich or Halgeston near Sutton Hoo; one story has him [16] buried in a mound not yet excavated). He was tied to a tree and /hot at by archers until his body resembled a pin-cushion, then beheaded. Edmund was immediately hailed as a martyr, as was Bishop Humbert of Elmham, who died with him."

Cox, J. C. "The Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds." In The Victoria History of the County of Suffolk. Ed. William Page. 2 vols. London: Archibald Constable and Co., 1907-1911. 2: 56-72, and Plate 1 (facing p. 72). P. 65 (col. b) includes a description of the visit to Bury by Henry VI with a mention of Harley 2278 as the Abbey's gift to the king.

Doyle, A. I. "Book Production by the Monastic Orders in England (c. 1375-1530): Assessing the Evidence." In Medieval Book Production: Assessing the Evidence; Proceedings of the Second Conference of The Seminar in the History of the Book to 1500, Oxford, July 1988. Ed. Linda L. Brownrigg. Los Altos Hills, CA: Red Gull Press / Anderson-Lovelace, 1990. Pp. 1-19. P. 7: Harley 2278 is mentioned among other manuscripts produced in the "Lydgate workshop" in or near Bury.

Doyle, A. I. "English Books In and Out of Court from Edward III to Henry VII." In English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages. Ed. V[incent] J[ohn] Scattergood and J. W. Sherborne. London: Gerald Duckworth and Co., 1983. Pp. 163-181. Pp. 174-175: Harley 2278 is not evidence of a permanent royal library prior to Edward IV.

Dugdale, William (Sir). Monasticon Anglicanum; A History of the Abbies and Other Monasteries, Hospitals, Frieries, and Cathedral and Collegiate Churches . . . in England and Wales; Also of Such Scotch, Irish, and French Monasteries As Were in Any Manner Connected with Religious Houses in England; . . . A New Edition, Enriched with a Large Accession of Materials Now First Printed . . . the History of Each Religious Foundation in English Being Prefixed to Its Respective Series of Latin Charters. By John Caley . . . Henry Ellis, . . . and Rev. Bulkeley Bandinel. 6 vols. in 8. London: Longman, 1817-1830. 3: 98-176 on Bury St. Edmunds. 3: 99n: brief description of Lydgate's "Life of St. Edmund" (including a one-stanza quotation from it) and its presentation manuscript, Harley 2278; another brief reference on p. 104. 3: 113-115, on Abbot Curteys; after a one sentence account of his election, there is a paragraph describing Henry VI's visit in 1433 and (pp. 113-114) a paragraph on Lydgate's "Edmund" and Harley 2278; on p. 114 appears an engraving reproducing from Harley 2278 the image of Henry VI kneeling at the tomb of St. Edmund.

Evans, Joan. English Art, 1307-1461. The Oxford History of English Art 5. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1949. Rpt.: New York: Hacker Art Books, 1981. P. 92.

Evans, Margaret Carey. Hoxne and St. Edmund: A Search into Evidence for a Cult of the Saint in Hoxne During the Middle Ages. Illus. Stephen J. Govier. [Hoxne]: [Privately printed], 1995. An account of the author's research into the Hoxne connection with the cult of St. Edmund. Evans was instrumental in discovering the sites of two local medieval chapels dedicated to Edmund, which helps to confirm the local legends of this being the site of Edmund's martyrdom. The other main contenders (based on interpretation of Abbo's "Haegilisdun"--Hellesdon, near Norwich, and Bradfield St. Clare, near Bury, where there is a field named "Hellesden Ley") may have some linguistic evidence in their favour (though not much stronger than "Haegilisdun"="Hoxne") but have no local traditions and can show no evidence of medieval cultic associations with Edmund. A line-drawing on p. 4, showing Edmund tied to the tree and being shot with arrows, is said, on the one hand, to be from a twelfth-century manuscript in the British Library, and then as being from fol. 61 of Harley MS. 2278; it is, in fact, adapted from a miniature in New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, MS M.736, a Life of St. Edmund executed at Bury St. Edmunds around 1125-1150, which includes a sequence of 32 full-page miniatures preceeding the text as a sort of pictorial "Life." There is an engraving of the wolf guarding St. Edmund's severed head on p. 28, and another on the back cover; these are said (p. 28) to be based upon carvings seen in Bury St. Edmunds: the former (on p. 28) is actually based upon a miniature in Harley 2278, fol. 64r.

Fletcher, John. "Four Scenes from the Life of St. Etheldreda." Antiquaries Journal 54 (1974): 287-289. Concerning a series of panel paintings, now in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries, by Robert Pygot of Bury, executed about 1455, which show many of the same stylistic features of the manuscript illustrations of the "Bury Style" found in MS Harley 2278 and others. Harley 2278 is mentioned in one sentence on p. 287. See also Baker, Audrey, above; also Tudor-Craig, Pamela, below.

Fletcher, John. "Slices from a Deep Cake: Dating Panel Paintings of St. Etheldreda from Ely." Country Life 28 March 1974, 728-730. Concerning a series of panel paintings, and the use of dendrochronology to date the wood upon which they are painted, which are now in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries. They were produced by Robert Pygot of Bury in about 1455, and show many of the same stylistic features of the manuscript illustrations of the "Bury Style" found in MS Harley 2278 and others. There one paragraph (on p. 728) on the occasion and illustrations of Harley 2278, and Fig. 2 reproduces a miniature from fol. 31r, showing the Crowning of King Edmund.

Garnett, Richard, and (Sir) Edmund William Gosse. English Literature: An Illustrated Record. 4 vols. London: Macmillan, 1903-1904. On Vol. 1, p. 186, there is a reproduction (B&W) of a miniature (the manuscript is not identified beyond a note that it is a "fifteenth-century MS. in the British Museum") showing "Lydgate in his Study"; this is the miniature from fol. 74r of MS Harley 2278, showing, not Lydgate (the headdress seems inappropriate for a monk), but Surchard, secretary to and biographer of St. Fremund, who is mentioned in the first stanza on fol. 74v as the source of Lydgate's account of Fremund's life. Also, Vol. 1, a plate facing p. 188: a reproduction of fol. 6r of Harley 2278, including the presentation portrait showing Lydgate (or is it Abbot Curteys?) presenting the manuscript to Henry VI.

Gillingwater, Edmund. A Historical and Descriptive Account of St. Edmund's Bury, in the County of Suffolk; Comprising an Ample Detail of the Origin, Dissolution, and Venerable Remains of the Abbey, and Other Places of Antiquity in that Ancient Town. St. Edmund's Bury: J. Rackham, 1804. (2nd ed.: 1811.) Pp. 32-46 are on the martyrdom of St. Edmund, interspersed with quotations from Lydgate's Lives of Ss. Edmund and Fremund. In a note on pp. 46-47, Gillingwater gives a short account of Lydgate's life and works (the latter including the Life of Edmund and the Life of Fremund, the Banner and Standard of Edmund, and a Ballad royal of invocation to St. Edmund). Gillingwater also gives a list of Lydgate portraits: he notes that Harley 2278 has a portrait of Abbot Curteys, accompanied by Lydgate, giving the manuscript to Henry VI.

Goodwin, Albert. The Abbey of St. Edmundsbury. The Gladstone Memorial Prize Essay, 1926. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1931. P. 70: on the visit to the monastery in 1433 by Henry VI, n2: "The copy of his life of St. Edmund, begun at Curteys' suggestion and presented to the King on this occasion, is now one of the most precious treasures in the British Museum."

Griffiths, Ralph A[lan]. The Reign of King Henry VI: The Exercise of Royal Authority, 1422-1461. London: E. Benn; Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1981. P. 53 and n. 15 (the text of the note appears on p. 64) mention London, British Library, MS Harley 2278: "the king's visit [to Bury St. Edmunds] is commemorated by John Lydgate's colourful illuminations in his life of St Edmund and St Fremund which was subsequently presented to the king" (the note specifically mentions the miniatures on fols. 6r [the presentation portrait] and 4v [Henry kneeling at the shrine of St. Edmund] as representing the boy king at Bury).

Hammond, Eleanor Prescott. On the Text of Chaucer's Parlement of Foules. Decennial Publications (University of Chicago) 7. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1902. Pp. 23-24: The differences in the text of Edmund between Harley 2278 and Ashmole 46, which Horstmann takes as evidence of a second revision by Lydgate, are, according to Hammond, probably improvements by the scribe (certainly the change of dedicatee from Henry VI in Harley to Edward IV in Ashmole could not have been made by Lydgate if Lydgate died around 1499).

Herbert, J[ohn] A[lexander]. Illuminated Manuscripts. The Connoisseur's Library. London: Methuen and Co., 1911. Rpt.: Burt Franklin Bibliographical Series 11. New York: Burt Franklin, [1969]. P. 235: in the conclusion of his chapter on "English Illumination after 1300," Herbert declares that "[t]he first quarter of the fifteenth century saw the production of a few really fine manuscripts, . . . [b]ut on the whole the are of illumination was on the down grade. Henry V's successful invasion of France introduced a taste for French illumination, then at its prime. . . . Under Edward IV this fashion gave way to a similar enthusiasm for Flemish painting, and native art decayed and perished for lack of encouragement. The manuscripts of distinctively English character are chiefly interesting as illustrations of costume, like the famous Lydgate's Life of S. Edmund (Harl. 2278) presented to Henry VI in 1433; or as evincing a genuine depth of mystical devotion, like the Cottonian 'Desert of Religion' (Faust. B. vi, pt. ii); rather than through their intrinsic merits as works of art."

Hervey, Francis (Lord). Corolla Sancti Edmundi: The Garland of Saint Edmund King and Martyr. London: John Murray, 1907. Pp. 409-508 give the text of Lydgate's "Life of St. Edmund" from Harley 2278; the frontispiece reproduces (engraving, colour) the miniature showing the birth of St. Edmund (fol. 13v, though not here identified); a plate facing p. 418 reproduces (engraving, colour) the first page of the story (fol. 10v: a page of text with an elaborately decorated initial; again, not here identified).

Hope, W[illiam] H[enry] St. John. English Altars from Illuminated Manuscripts, with Descriptive Notes. Alcuin Club Collections 1. London, New York, and Bombay: Longmans, Green and Co., 1899 [for 1897-1989]. Plate X, figs. 1-3. The first of a series of collections of illustrations towards a study of church ornament, this volume reproduces (in B&W) 36 pictures of altars from English churches from the tenth to the sixteenth centuries, with brief notes on the pages facing the plates (the notes generally just identify the source manuscript, the subject of the picture, and then go on to mention the colours that cannot be seen in the monochrome reproduction). Hope's Preface credits J. Wickham Legge and Walter Howard Frere with most of the selection of pictures. Plate X consists of four manuscript miniatures, figs. 1-3 being from MS. Harley 2278: X(1) is the miniature from fol. 55v, King Edmund talking with a bishop, standing before an altar; X(2) is the miniature from fol. 92v, showing three virgins removing the body of Fremund from a coffin in the chapel at Offchurch, Co. Warwick; X(3) is the miniature from fol. 12r, including two scenes, the first in which Alkmund appears to a widow with the sun upon his chest, and the second in which Alkmund is seen kneeling before the pope.

Horstmann, C[arl], ed. Altenglische Legenden, Neue Folge, mit Einleitung und Anmerkungen. Heilbronn: Gebr. Henninger, 1881. Pp. 376-440 (the text of Lydgate's "Lives of Ss. Edmund and Fremund" from Harley 2278).

Humphreys, Henry Noel. The Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages: An Account of the Development and Progress of the Art of Illumination, as a Distinct Branch of Pictorial Ornamentation, from the IVth. to the XVIIth. Centuries, . . . Illustrated by a Series of Examples, of the Size of the Originals, selected from the most Beautiful MSS. of the Various Periods, executed on Stone and Printed in Colours, by Owen Jones. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1849. Rpt.: London: Bracken Books, 1989. Plate XVII: facsimile, in colour, of fol. 10v (the beginning of the story, with an elaborately decorated initial "I").

James, Montague Rhodes. On the Abbey of S. Edmund at Bury. Cambridge Antiquarian Society Publications, Octavo Publications 28. Cambridge: Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 1895. Two essays: 1. "Bibliotheca Buriensis" (pp. 1-114), "On the Abbey Church of S. Edmund at Bury" (pp. 115-212). P. 104n1 speaks of Harley 2278 (Lydgate's presentation MS for Henry VI) as showing, "if it was executed at Bury, as it most probably was, . . . that there were first-rate artists there in the fifteenth century." P. 136: James summarizes our knowledge of the shrine of St. Edmund, noting that various pictures of it have been published, all based upon "ten or eleven" miniatures in Harley 2278 which show it. "It is of the usual type, a chest of wood covered with metal plates (silver-gilt in this case), and shaped like a church without a tower. In some of the pictures of it there are four canopied figures in the panels on each side, crosses on the angles, and rings at the ends. In others, gold equestrian figures appear near it, and there are statues (four on a side) above those on the panels. Elsewhere, it is surrounded with an elaborate metal railing; and, when represented in situ, it stands on a richly-carved base of marble, coloured green, on a purple plinth. So much for the pictures, which were probably painted at Bury."

Jocelin of Brakelond. Chonicle of the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds. Trans. Diana Greenway and Jane Sayers. The World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. The picture on the front cover (the head of St. Edmund being retrieved from the protection of the wolf) is a reproduction of the central portion of the miniature on fol. 66r of British Library MS Harley 2278.

Kauffmann, C[laus] M[ichael]. Romanesque Manuscripts, 1066-1190, with 350 Illustrations. A Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles 3. London: Harvey Miller, 1975. P. 74: At the end of the entry describing Pierpont Morgan Library MS M.736 (a twelfth-century Latin life of St. Edmund from Bury, Kauffmann remarks: "The 15th-century illustrations of Lydgate's Life of St. Edmund (B.L. Harley 2278) are not very similar."

Ker, N[eil] R., ed. Medieval Libraries of Great Britain: A List of Surviving Books. 2nd ed. London: Royal Historical Society, 1964. With a Supplement: Watson, Andrew G., ed. Medieval Libraries of Great Britain: A List of Surviving Books; Supplement to the Second Edition. Royal Historical Society, Guides and Handbooks 15. London: Royal Historical Society, 1987. An ascription of Harley 2278 in the first ed. to Bury St. Edmunds, Ben. abbey of St. Edmund, is rejected in the 2nd ed.

Kirchner, Joachim. Scriptura Gothica libraria a saeculo XII usque ad finem medii ævi, LXXXVII imaginibus illustrata. Munich and Vienna: Rudolf Oldenbourg, 1966. Plate 55 reproduces (B&W) fol. 111r (three stanzas of text, ll. 1247-1267); the manuscript is briefly described, and the three stanzas of fol. 111r are transcribed, on p. 70.

Knight, Charles, ed. Old England: A Pictorial Museum of Regal, Ecclesiastical, Municipal, Baronial, and Popular Antiquities. 2 vols. London: James Sangster and Co., 1844. Given the reflected glory which came to his monastery, "[w]e need not then be surprised to see Lydgate allowed to master so many departments of knowledge, or to open a school in the monastery of Bury for teaching some of them, as he did, to the sons of the nobility of his day. Another and equally pleasant instance of the estimation in which he as held is commemorated by a most splendid illuminated MS. now in the British Museum, forming a life of St. Edmund, and which he presented to Henry VI. when he visited the monastery in 1440: a pension of 7l. 13s. 4d. was the monarch's answering gift; a most princely one, according to the then value of money."

Lasko, P[eter], and N[igel] J. Morgan, eds. Medieval Art in East Anglia, 1300-1500. London: Thames and Hudson; Norwich: Jarrold and Sons, 1973. Harley 2278 is Item 66 (description on p. 46); one miniature is reproduced on p. 47: fol. 85r, an angel appears to Fremund and instructs him. "This sumptuous copy of John Lydgate's Life of St Edmund was made for presentation to Henry VI. The book is decorated with 120 framed miniatures set in the text. On f. 6, the monks of Bury are shown presenting the book to the king, who visited the Abbey in 1433-4, and who is shown kneeling before the Shrine of St Edmund on f. 4v.
"On f. 3v, as a full-page decoration, are the arms of the Abbey or [sic; read "of"] Bury, Azure three ducal crowns or. On f. 1v there is a miniature of Adam and Eve with the serpent. Reference to Adam and Eve, the symbolism of the three crowns of the arms and to Henry VI is made in the prologue to the poem. Miniatures illustrating the lives and miracles of the saints are frequently set within the text. These paintings often have landscape and interior settings showing an interest in spatial representation. In some, a deep-blue sky fades to a pale-blue horizon. These features originate in French manuscripts of the period c. 1410-20, by the Boucicaut and Bedford Masters. The soft painterly figure style with much use of white giving the effect of tinted drawing owes much to an English background. A painterly approach is found, for example, in the Bury Grammar School Psalter (Cat. No. 46). Possibly this psalter, the Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde (Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS. 61), and the Desert of Religion (Cat. No. 50) were all made at Bury and represent the artistic background of the Life of St Edmund. It has been suggested that Dutch manuscripts could also have been a formative influence, for these also have squat figures painted in a soft manner. An example of such possible sources would be the Picture Bible (The Hague, Royal Library MS. 78. D. 38) of 1425 made in Utrecht. The landscape settings of this book are reminiscent of the Life of St Edmund.
"The manuscript is central to the theory of a school of painting centred on Bury St Edmunds c. 1420-40. Related work in panel-painting which is a product of this school are the scenes of the Life of St Etheldreda (London, Society of Antiquaries).
"As Lydgate was a monk of Bury, it is likely that he may have personally supervised the decoration of the book." (This description is signed "N.J.M." for Nigel Morgan.)

Mackinlay, J. B. Saint Edmund, King and Martyr: A History of his Life and Times with an Account of the Translations of his Incorrupt Body, etc., from Original MSS. London and Leamington: Art and Book Co.; New York, Cincinnati and Chicago: Benziger Brothers, 1893. Pp. 21-22, from the opening list of authorities for Chap. 2, "Saint Edmund's Parentage and Birth": "MS. Harl. 2278, presented to Henry VI. on his visiting Bury, and ornamented with 120 limnings, is considered one of the richest illuminated manuscripts in the world (see a description of it in vol. ii. of the Harleian Catalogue, pp. 639-649). Also see pp. 350-351: "The hundred and twenty pictures in Lydgate's famous poem represent with the richness of medieval illumination all the principal scenes in the saint's history, together with a coloured frontispiece of St. Edmund's banner, the arms, three crowns d'or on azure ground, the shrine with King Henry VI. kneeling at it, the early miracles, the building of the great church, and the translation of [351] the incorrupt body." Facing p. 307 is a plate, reproducing (B&W) the miniature showing King Henry kneeling at the shrine, from Harley 2278, fol. 4v.

Manly, John M., and Edith Rickert. The Text of the Canterbury Tales Studied on the Basis of All Known Manuscripts. 8 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1940. Vol. 1: "Descriptions of the Manuscripts." There is a chapter on "Illumination" by Margaret Rickert (pp. 561-605): Harley 2278 is mentioned on pp. 574, 577, 579-580, 585-586.

McKeehan, Irene Pettit. "Some Relationships between the Medieval Legends of British Saints and Medieval Romance." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1923. Chap. 2 surveys the various accounts of the life of St. Edmund, including Lydgate's, beginning with the "historical nucleus" of the story as found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year 870. Section 11 (pp. 110-119) is specifically on Lydgate's Lives of Ss Edmund and Fremund. The circumstances of its composition in 1433 and presentation to King Henry VI are recounted; the presentation copy, MS Harley 2278, is briefly described. McKeehan's article ("St. Edmund of East Anglia: The Development of a Romantic Legend." University of Colorado Studies General series 15 (1925): 13-74) is Chap. 2 of her dissertation with only the various lightest of revision to make it publishable separately: it also includes the above reference to Harley 2278.

Millar, Eric G[eorge]. English Illuminated Manuscripts from the XIVth to the XVth Century. Paris and Brussels: G. van Oest, 1928. [Simultaneously published, by the same publisher, in a French translation by Jean Buhot; there is also a deluxe edition of the English work limited to 25 numbered copies on handmade paper.] The bulk of the book is one hundred plates from a variety of manuscripts; these are accompanied by descriptions, with a general introduction, and indices. Millar also offers a "Handlist" of all known English illuminated manuscripts of these two centuries (pp. 79-94); Harley 2278 is Item 300 (on p. 91) in this Handlist, with a very brief description: "Date: A.D. 1433; Provenance: Bury St. Edmunds; presentation copy to Henry VI; Nature of MS.: Lydgate, metrical Life of St. Edmund; Remarks: miniatures rough, but interesting for costumes." This description is accompanied by bibliographical references to Lord Hervey's Corolla and to the British Museum's Guide to Exhibeted Manuscripts.

Miller, J[ames] I[van], Jr. "Literature to History: Exploring a Medieval Saint's Legend and its Context." In Literature and History. Ed. I. E. Cadenhead, Jr. University of Tulsa Department of English Monograph Series 9. Tulsa, Oklahoma: University of Tulsa, 1970. Pp. 59-72.

Miller, James Ivan, Jr. "Lydgate the Hagiographer as Literary Artist." In The Learned and the Lewed: Studies in Chaucer and Medieval Literature. Ed. Larry D. Benson. Harvard English Studies 5. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974. Pp. 279-290.

Moore, Samuel. "Patrons of Letters in Norfolk and Suffolk c. 1450." PMLA 27 (1912): 188-207; 28 (1913): 79-105. Harley 2278 mentioned on 27: 205.

Orme, Nicholas. From Childhood to Chivalry: The Education of the English Kings and Aristocracy, 1066-1530. London and New York: Methuen, 1984. Pl. 14 (between pp. 132 and 133) reproduces (B&W) the miniature of Henry VI kneeling at the shrine of St. Edmund, from MS Harley 2278, fol. 4v. (Pl. 13 is incorrectly identified on p. ix in the list of Illustrations as also being from Harley 2278; it reproduces a letter of Margaret Paston.)

Pearsall, Derek. John Lydgate. Medieval Authors: Poets of the Later Middle Ages. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul; Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1970. Pp. 33 and 47n34; Plate 3 (facing p. 167) reproduces (B&W) fol. 9r (a miniature showing "Lydgate praying for inspiration at the shrine of St. Edmund").

Renoir, Alain, and C. David Benson. "John Lydgate." In A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050-1500. Ed. J. Burke Severs and Albert E. Hartung. 9 vols. to date. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1967-. 6: 2096, 2118-2119.

Rickert, Margaret [Josephine]. La miniatura inglese. 2 vols. Collana della storia della miniatura 4-5. Milan: Electa editrice, 1959-1961. 2: Plate 57 is a reproduction (B&W) of the presentation picture on fol. 6r showing Lydgate--or is it Curteys who is making the presentation with Lydgate looking on?

Rickert, Margaret. Painting in Britain: The Middle Ages. 2nd ed. Pelican History of Art Z5. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965. Plate 183A reproduces (B&W) the presentation picture on fol. 6r showing Lydgate himself--or is it Curteys making the presentation with Lydgate looking on? P. 183: "Of different style but of exactly the same date [as Harley 4605, a French Christine de Pisan MS., which helps to document the French influence in the development of this East Anglian style] is a most interesting manuscript of the Metrical Life of St Edmund by John Lydgate, which was written at Bury St Edmunds, where Lydgate was a monk, in 1433-4 (Brit. Mus., Harl. MS. 2278; Plate 183A). The pictures are framed miniatures, which, except for drawings, have always been infrequent in English illumination. The compositions are still lacking in perspective and show the high horizon characteristic of all late medieval pictures; but the figures themselves are arranged in groups which have some relation to the floor plan, tilted though this is, and it is noteworthy that outside the architectural enclosure, blue sky with floating white clouds can be seen. The figures in these miniatures in some respects remind us of the earlier miniature (Camb., Corpus Christi Coll., MS. 61 [the frontispiece, showing Chaucer reading outdoors to a royal audience]; Plate 178), which shows characteristics of the Continental International Style, especially in the somewhat bizarre form which this took in Burgundy; and the Lydgate pictures display the same interest in rich and fashionable constumes. The figures are short and stocky without any Gothic elegance, but they are modelled with considerable vigour; the faces are round, the flesh is soft, and the eyes are bright and lively with varied expressions. There are no sharp, hard contour lines visible. The style might be characterized as soft and 'painterly,' in contrast to that of David in the St Omer Psalter (Plate 182A). The source of this soft style seems to be found in contemporary Dutch miniatures rather than in French; and it seems to have had some influence on a similar manner of painting figures with soft shadows, which is found in some of the York and Norwich glass of the second third of the fifteenth century. The miniature reproduced in plate 183A is particularly interesting as depicting the presentation of the book by Lydgate and the monks of Bury to King Henry VI, for whom it was written. Another miniature (fol. 4 verso) commemorates a visit of the King to the shrine of St Edmund at Bury in 1433." P. 187 (with reference to Plate 188): this Plate shows four scenes from a series of panel paintings illustrating the Life of St. Etheldreda. These panels are possibly from Ely Cathedral, now in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries, and thought to have been painted about 1455 by Robert Pygot of Bury. They show many of the same stylistic features of the manuscript illustrations found in MS Harley 2278 and others. "The figures are of much the same proportions, with rounded foreheads and bright eyes. The costumes, with their full, pleated skirts and bands of embroidery, are somewhat like those of the Lydgate, and in some cases have the rather bizarre character which is found in costumes represented in Burgundian art of the period."

Rogers, Nicholas J. "Fitzwilliam Museum MS 3-1979: A Bury St. Edmunds Book of Hours and the Origins of the Bury Style." In England in the Fifteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1986 Harlaxton Symposium. Ed. Daniel Williams. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell and Brewer, 1987. Pp. 229-243 and Plates 1-14. The manuscript is mentioned on p. 231 (where n. 12 supplements the list of printed notices given by Scott), and pp. 235-236 and 240-241 have some description of the manuscript illustrations and the "Bury Style." Rogers includes eight reproductions from the manuscript (the plates are at the back of the volume, following p. 390): Plate 4 reproduces (B&W) fol. 1v, showing the banner of St. Edmund, on which is represented Adam and Eve and the serpent with the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil; Plate 8 reproduces (B&W) fol. 6r (full page), including the presentation picture showing the king enthroned with Lydgate--or is it Abbot Curteys--presenting to the king a book; Plate 9 reproduces the two-part miniature from fol. 12r (first, Alkmund, King of Saxony and father of Edmund, on his way to Rome, encounters a widow who sees a sun shining on his breast; second, Alkmund kneeling before the Pope); Plate 10 reproduces (B&W) the miniature from fol. 100v ("the people implore St Edmund's help against the Danes"); Plate 11 reproduces (B&W) the miniature from fol. 25r ("Alkmund chooses Edmund's governor and companions"); Plate 12 reproduces (B&W) the miniature from fol. 103v ("the death of Sweyn"); Plate 13 reproduces (B&W) the miniature from fol. 74r ("Burchard writing St Fremund's life"); Plate 14 reproduces (B&W) the miniature from fol. 65r ("the search for St Edmund's head").

Rokewode, John Gage, ed. Chronica Jocelini de Brakelonda, De rebus gestis Samsonis, Abbatis monasterii Sancti Edmundi, nunc primum typis mandata. Camden Society Publications 13. London: Camden Society, 1840. P. 104 reproduces (line drawing) the banner of St. Edmund, showing Adam and Eve with the tree and serpent between them; the Preface, p. xi, identifies the original of this drawing as the Harley MS of Lydgate's Life of St. Edmund (i.e., Harley 2278, fol. 1v).

Rossi, Sergio. Poesia Cavalleresca e Poesia Religiosa Inglese nel Quattrocento. Collana Universita Commerciale "L. Bocconi"; Lingue e Letterature Straniere 8. Milan: Istituto Editoriale Cisalpino, 1960. [2nd ed., 1964.] Pp. 193-209 are on Lydgate's Lives of Ss. Edmund and Fremund; Pl. 7 (facing p. 238) is a (colour) reproduction of a miniature showing the coronation of Edmund as King of the East Angles, from British Library, MS Harley 2278, fol. 31r.

Scarfe, Norman. "The Body of St. Edmund: An Essay in Necrobiography." Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 31 (1969): 303-317 and Pl. XLVIII. Traces the post-mortem history of Edmund's body, including a consideration of claims that it was stolen for the Church of St. Sernin in Toulouse. P. 316n54: "A vivid illustration of the open shrine in 1433, from B. M. Harl. MS. 2278, is reproduced as Plate XLVIII, b. Drawn with unusually realistic detail, much of it confirmed by other written sources, it nevertheless illustrated Lydgate's account of the translation of Edmund's body from the 'rotounde' chapel in 1095, and cannot be regarded as conclusive evidence that the mummy was displayed so flagrantly, or at all, in 1433. The detail in Plate XLVIII, a, is naturally more convincing. Professor Peter Lasko's first response to the elaborate goldwork in b was that it might represent an early thirteenth-century refacing: but a suggested to him immediately work of Edward I's time." Plate XLVIII on p. 317 reproduces (a) the miniature showing Lydgate kneeling at the shrine of Edmund, from fol. 9r, and (b) the miniature of the tomb being opened in the presence of four mitred and twelve tonsured men, from fol. 117r. Below the illustrations is this caption: "St. Edmund's shrine in 1433. Two illustrations from the metrical Life of St. Edmund and St. Fremund by the Bury monk, John Lydgate (?1370-?1451): B. M. Harleian MS. 2278, fols. 9 (above) and 117 (below). Lydgate presented this MS. book to the young Henry VI during his stay at the abbey. Folio 9 shows the poet praying to the martyr. Behind him a secular figure in a blue gown sits holding a staff. The green marble screen linking the four 3-lb. candles that were alight night and day was probably provided from Edward I's grants in 1285 and 1296 (Pat. 13 Ed. I. m 13 and 24 Ed. I. m 18). His closest counsellor, Henry de Lacy, gave two of the gold crosses on the 'roof' of the golden shrine, one with a carbuncle (sapphire), which prompted Lydgate to address the saint as 'carboncle of martirs alle, o hevenly gemme, saphir of stabilness.' The small square panel presumably enabled the guardians of the shrine to check the presence and condition of the saint. Folio 117 shows the 'lid' raised, as it seems to have been when the fire broke out in 1465 (see p. 316)."

Scattergood, V[incent] J[ohn]. Politics and Poetry in the Fifteenth Century, 1399-1485. Blandford History Series. London: Blandford Press, 1971. Plate 14 (the plates appear between pp. 208 and 209) reproduces (B&W) a miniature from fol. 13v (though not so identified here) showing a group of women with elaborate headdresses (being an illustration of the Birth of St. Edmund, with the various women in attendance upon his mother).

Schirmer, Walter F. John Lydgate: A Study in the Culture of the XVth Century. Trans. Ann E. Keep. London: Methuen; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961. (English trans. of John Lydgate: Ein Kulturbild aus dem 15. Jarhundert. Buchreihe der Anglia, Zeitschrift für englische Philologie 1. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1952.) Pp. 146, 163; Plate 8 (B&W, facing p. 146) claims to be Harley 2278 fol. 6r, but it is in fact a picture of Harley 1766, fol. 5r; his Plate 6 (facing p. 63; incorrectly identified as Harley 1766, fol. 5r) reproduces (B&W) the presentation portrait (the miniature only: not the page) from Harley 2278; reproduction (B&W) of the presentation picture on fol. 6r showing Lydgate himself--or is it Curteys making the presentation with Lydgate looking on?

Scott, Kathleen L. "Caveat lector: Ownership and Standardization in the Illustration of Fifteenth-Century English Manuscripts." English Manuscript Studies 1100-1700 1 (1989): 19-63. P. 62n78 mentions Harley 2278 as the presentation copy to Henry VI of Lydgate's Lives of Ss. Edmund and Fremund.

Scott, Kathleen L. "Lydgate's Lives of Saints Edmund and Fremund: A Newly-Located Manuscript in Arundel Castle." Viator 13 (1982): 335-366. Fig. 7 reproduces (B&W) fol. 12r (full page, including a two-part miniature: first, Alkmund, King of Saxony and father of Edmund, on his way to Rome, encounters a widow who sees a sun shining on his breast; second, Alkmund kneeling before the Pope); Fig. 8 reproduces (B&W) fol. 61r (full page, including a miniature of the martydom, showing Edmund being shot full of arrows).

Seymour, M[aurice] C[harles]. "Some Lydgate Manuscripts: Lives of SS Edmund and Fremund and Danse Macabre." Edinburgh Bibliographical Society Transactions 5.4 (1983-1984, 1984-1985): 10-24 (pp. 13-14 include a description of Harley 2278).

Shaw, William A. "The Early English School of Portraiture." Burlington Magazine 65 (1934): 171-184 (including 3 plates). Section 5 of the article, pp. 182-184, is an argument for recognition of Lydgate's importance as an illuminator and portrait painter, which far outstrips his importance as a writer of doggerel verse; more specifically, Shaw wishes to demonstrate the possibility that a painter named "Hans," who was sent to France in 1442 with Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, to render the likenesses of three countesses who were being considered as possible brides for Henry VI, was John Lydgate. Shaw declares that "[c]ertainly it is not open to question that Lydgate is responsible for the original illumination which is copied in Harleian MS. 1766," showing two monks, one of whom is identified as Lydgate. Similarly, every other representation of Lydgate in manuscripts, including the image of Lydgate kneeling at the shrine of St. Edmund in Harley 2278, is declared to be "deliberate self-portraits whether we are dealing with Lydgate's original or merely with scribal copies. Of that there can be no question." [Though Shaw does not say so, I would presume that, if the one miniature in Harley 2278 is by Lydgate's hand, so too would all the other illustrations in the MS. be by him.] Shaw goes on to suggest that the set of miniatures in the Chaundler MS. (Cambridge, Trinity College, MS. R.14.5) are by Lydgate, and that Lydgate probably painted the "Dance of Death" at St. Paul's as well as providing the verses which accompanied the painting. [Unfortunately, Shaw never explains the basis for his assumption that every Lydgate "portrait" must necessarily be a self-portrait, and I know of no evidence otherwise that Lydgate practiced the arts of illumination and portraiture.]

Stratford, Jenny. "The Royal Library in England before the Reign of Edward IV." In England in the Fifteenth Century: Proceedings of the 1992 Harlaxton Symposium. Ed. Nicholas Rogers. Harlaxton Medieval Studies 4; Paul Watkins Medieval Studies 16. Stamford, Lincolnshire: Paul Watkins, 1994. Pp. 187-197. Argues (against Janet Backhouse, "Founders of the Royal Library," among others) that, in some form or another, there was a "royal library" prior to the reign of Edward IV. P. 197: "A few books made for Henry [VI] himself are known, for example the presentation copy of Lydgate's Life of St Edmund and St Fremund, which is now among the Harley manuscripts. It does not seem to have been at Richmond in 1535, but to have been moved to Westminster by 1542 [note 42: "BL, Harley MS 2278; J. P. Carley, 'John Leland and the Foundation of the Royal Library: The Westminster Inventory of 1542,' Bull. of the Soc. for Renaissance Stud., 7 (1989), p. 21."]."

Strong, Roy. Tudor and Jacobean Portraits (National Portrait Gallery). 2 vols. London: HMSO, 1969. 2: Plate 285 reproduces (B&W) fol. 4v, the miniature only (showing Henry VI kneeling at the shrine of St. Edmund).

Strutt, Joseph. The Regal and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of England, Containing in a Compleat Series the Representations of All the English Monarchs, from Edward the Confessor to Henry the Eighth, Together with Many of the Great Persons that were Eminent under their Several Reigns, . . . the Whole Carefully Collected from Ancient Illuminated Manuscripts. London: J. Thane, for the author, 1773. P. 81 includes an engraved reproduction of the presentation picture on fol. 6r showing Lydgate himself--or is it Curteys making the presentation with Lydgate looking on?

T[out], T. F. "Henry VI." In Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee. 21 vols. London: Smith, Elder, and Co., 1908-1909. 9: 507-520. P. 508: "Henry celebrated the Christmas of 1433 at Bury St. Edmunds, remaining there or at Elmswell until after Easter" with a reference to the Monasticon ed. by Ellis (see Dugdale, above) which reproduces "a picture of Henry praying before St. Edmund's shrine, from the Life of St. Edmund, the very beautiful Harl. MS. 2278, which Lydgate, the author, presented to Henry."

[Tudor-Craig, Pamela.] Exhibition of Medieval Paintings from Norwich (St Michael at Plea): 18th July to 28th October, 1956. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1956. Pp. [5], [7]. The author is not named on the title page, but is named on the opening page of the Introduction to the Catalogue. "This Exhibition has been organized in conjunction with the Courtauld Institute of Art." An exhibition of the eight painted panels from St Michael at Plea, Norwich. Not paginated: includes a one-page "Preface" by Trenchard Cox and Anthony Blunt; then Tudor-Craig, "Medieval Paintings from St Michael at Plea, Norwich: Catalogue and Introduction" (Introduction is 4 pages, Catalogue with Bibliography, 2 pages). On the last page of the Introduction (p. [5]) appears a paragraph comparing the style with that of the illustrations in Harley 2278: "Neither the armour nor the precocious atmospheric background are impossible in England in the 1430's. This statement could rest upon the manuscript 'Life of St Edmund' illuminated for Bury St Edmunds in 1433-4 (British Museum Harley 2278) and its satellite (B.M. Yates Thompson 47). Even in this book, illustrating a Lydgate text for an English monastery[,] the illuminations cannot be called without qualification 'English.' Their lively figurines, all hesitating kings and hurrying messengers, are probably derived from Dutch illumination. The style of these two manuscripts appears to have been the basis of the Suffolk School of painting, which produced during the 1430's and 1440's the St Etheldreda panels in the Society of Antiquaries, and the screens of Kersey, Woodbridge and Somerleyton. In Norfolk, where the tradition of panel painting had been longer established, the influence of the Bury St Edmunds style appears to have been more selective. First among the borrowed elements is the fantastic slashed armour worn by the St George on the screen at Ranworth; and second, the more sober but perhaps equally significant armour of the soldiers in the Resurrection of St Michael at Plea, featuring the then novel sallet. Lastly, the deep blue sky, fading to a white dawn on the horizon, of the Resurrection panel was introduced at every opportunity into the scenes of St Edmund's life and martyrdom. It made its appearance considerably earlier in French and Burgundian manuscripts, most obviously in the Tres Riches Heures of the Duke of Berry, but the 'Life of St Edmund' seems to have marked its introduction into this country." These points are summarized again in the description of Item 8 of the Catalogue, the Resurrection panel, on p. [7]: "Parallels for the armour, and in particular the sallet--an innovations of the 1430's--may be found in the illuminated 'Life of St Edmund' (B.M. Harley 2278) where a blue sky in place of a gold background also appears. The influence of this manuscript made for Bury St Edmunds in 1433-4, or of a closely similar work, may be found in the fantastic armour of St George at Ranworth."
This introduction by P. Tudor-Craig, in revised form, also appears as "Medieval Panel Paintings from Norwich, St Michael at Plea," Burlington Magazine 98 (1956): 333-334, with an illustration on a plate facing p. 333; p. 334: "The single panel of the Resurrection is, perhaps deservedly, less well known, and more problematical. Like the MS. of Lydgate's Life of St Edmund [identified in a note as Harley 2278], it may stand as a document of contact during the 1430's with Germany and the Low Countries." See also Baker, Audrey, above; also Fletcher, John, above.

Van Dijk, S[tephen] J[oseph] P[eter], and J[oan] Hazelden Walker. The Myth of the Aumbrey: Notes on Medieval Reservation Practice and Eucharistic Devotion. London: Burns and Oates, 1957. This study offers a correction to certain speculations of Gregory G. E. A. Dix, "A Detection of Aumbries." P. 45: Pecham, in applying the decrees of the Lateran Council to the question of the reservation of the Host, may have had in mind a hanging "pyx" or "tabernacle" such as the one seen in an minature in Lydgate's Lives of Ss. Edmund and Fremund, MS Harley 2278, fol. 55r (reproduced here in B&W as Plate 7, facing p. 64).

Wall, J[ames] Charles. Shrines of British Saints, with Numerous Illustrations. The Antiquary's Books. London: Methuen and Co., 1905. Pp. 216-223 are on the life, miracles, and cult (especially relics and shrine) of St. Edmund; Edmund is also mentioned briefly on p. 25 in a list of English saints. Lydgate's Lives of Ss. Edmund and Fremund is mentioned on p. 222 with respect to Henry VI's visit to Bury and the book which was prepared for him in commemoration; this book (not here identified, but being London, British Library, MS Harley 2278) "is our authority for the representations of the shrine as it stood in the fifteenth century"; on the previous page (p. 221), a similar declaration appears: "It is this shrine [constructed under orders of Henry III and dedicated on 18 Feb. 1269], with certain alterations and greater ornamentation, which we see in Lydgate's illuminations." Wall includes three reproductions of miniatures from Harley 2278: Plate XXIII (facing p. 215) reproduces (B&W) the miniature only from fol. 113v ("Feretrum of St. Edmund, being translated from its temporary refuge in the Church of St. Gregory-by-St. Paul to Bury St. Edmunds"); Plate XXIV (facing p. 217) reproduces (B&W) the miniature (and several lines of text above and below it) from fol. 9r, showing Lydgate kneeling at the shrine (praying for inspiration); Plate XXV (facing p. 219) reproduces (B&W) the miniature (and one line of text above it) from fol. 4v, showing Henry VI kneeling before the shrine with various monks and courtiers looking on.

Wanley, Humphrey. The Diary of Humfrey Wanley. Ed. C[yril] E[rnest] Wright and Ruth C. Wright. 2 vols. London: Bibliographical Society, 1966. 1: 64: there are four entries (14, 1, 5, 8), dated 12-17 Aug. 1720, regarding the examination and purchase of Harley 2278 by Robert Harley from William Colston.

Warton, Thomas. The History of English Poetry from the Close of the Eleventh to the Commencement of the Seventeenth Century. 3 vols. (with a fourth vol., being an index to the other three, added in 1806). London: J. Dodsley, J. Walter, T. Becket, J. Robson, G. Robinson, and J. Bew, and Mssrs. Fletcher at Oxford, 1774-1781. [The early publishing history of this work is complicated by the fact that Vol. 1 was issued in a second edition (1775) before the publication of Vol. 2.] 2: 54-57.

Watson, Andrew G. Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts c. 700-1600 in The Department of Manuscripts, The British Library. 2 vols. (Texts and Plates). London: British Library, 1979. Item 646 (1: 121), with plate (2: Plate 418, reproducing [B&W] the upper half of fol. 109v, showing 13 lines of text and a decorated initial).

Wright, C. E. English Vernacular Hands from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Centuries. Oxford Palaeographical Handbooks. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960. Plate 18 reproduces (B&W, with description and transcription) fol. 66v (lines 904-924 of the text, with a decorated initial).

Wright, C. E. Fontes Harleiani: A Study of the Sources of the Harleian Collection of Manuscripts Preserved in the Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum. British Museum Bicentenary Publications. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1972. Lists what is known of the previous owners of Harley 2278 before its acquisition for the Harley collection.

Wülker, Richard [Paul]. Geschichte der englischen Litteratur von den ältesten Beiten bis zur Gegenwart, mit 162 Abbildungen im Text, 25 Tafeln in Farbendruck, Rupferstich und Holzschnitt und 11 Faksimile-Beilagen. Leipzig and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut, 1896. Facing p. 168 there is a plate reproducing (in colour) fol. 6r of MS Harley 2278, which includes the presentation portrait to Henry VI; on a sheet of tissue which protects the plate is reproduced the single stanza from that page--"The noble story to putte in remembrance"--and it is given in English and in German.

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