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Elliot, Doreen, Nazneen S. Mayadas and Thomas D. Watts, eds. The World of Social Welfare: Social Welfare and Services in an International Context. Springfield, IL: Thomas, 1990.

Sixteen papers provide an overview of social welfare in diverse country settings. Contributions examine social welfare in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Nicaragua, Brazil, Britain, Sweden, the USSR, Israel, Iran, Japan, India, China, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, Australia, and New Zealand. Also contains a case study of the office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to illustrate the application of two international models of social welfare. Contributors are mainly in the field of social work. (Copyright 1990, Sociological Abstracts, all rights reserved).

Forbes Martin, Susan. Refugee Women. Women and Development Series. London and New Jersey: Zed Books Ltd., 1991.

Refugee Women looks at the harsh conditions of daily life for refugees and the implications for their host countries. It shows how discrimination and violence from refugee women's own communities in addition to the threat of military attack, abduction and rape, can greatly increase their emotional trauma. It examines the steps needed to protect their rights and promote their empowerment. This book stresses the importance of refugee women's participation. It also surveys the current international commitment to refugees and offers practical recommendations for action. (adapted from back cover).

Gilad, Lisa. The Northern Route: An Ethnography of Refugee Experiences. St. Johns: Memorial University Press, 1990.

Gold, Steven J. "Refugee resettlement" American Sociological Association (ASA). 1989.

Because refugees flee their own countries with few political or economic resources, they are almost totally dependent on host country governments, organizations, agencies, and interest groups to provide them with the basic necessities for survival. Resettlement services provide invaluable assistance, but refugees are frequently excluded from important decisions regarding their resettlement, and are expected to be cooperative and grateful for all services provided. Fieldwork and in-depth interviews with Vietnamese and Soviet Jewish refugees and their resettlement agencies in Calif indicate that the structure and organization of resettlement programs yield conflict between refugees and their benefactors over issues such as location, levels and stability of funding, job placement, and future position in the host society. It is concluded that benefactors' policies take refugees' powerless status for granted, making them subject to a paternalism not generally acceptable in US society. (Copyright 1990, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)

Haines, David W. Refugees in America in the 1990s: A Reference Handbook. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

Originally intended to update an earlier reference work by the editor on the US refugee situation (Refugees in the United States, 1985), this work has evolved such that the bulk of it is completely original and the rest substantially revised. It explores the evolution of the refugee program and current patterns of refugee resettlement and adaptation and offers an extensive, annotated literature review. Afghan, ethnic Chinese from Southeast Asia, Cuban, Eastern European refugee, Ethiopian and Eritrean, Haitian, Hmong, Iranian, Khmer, Lao, Soviet Jew, and Vietnamese issues are discussed in relation to the historical, social, and cultural context of the refugee's homeland, initial and long-term experiences in the US, and future prospects. Also considered are public and political opinions on refugee admission to the US, ethical problems raised by reducing refugee flows, and documentaries about refugees. The book's 19 chapters are organized in 3 parts with a preface. (Copyright 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Incorporated, all rights reserved).

Haines, David W. "Patterns in refugee resettlement and adaptation" in Refugees in America in the 1990's: A Reference Handbook. David W. Haines, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

The uniqueness of the US refugee resettlement situation is defined in relation to refugee capabilities, expectations, values, experiences, and initial Vs long-term quality of life. Age differences of different nationalities, occupational and educational backgrounds, and the effects of exodus and transit have a direct impact on resettlement. Varying environments, changing public policies, and features specific to the community of settlement make assimilation a complex process. Downward occupational mobility once in the US is the norm. The role of family and the refugee community is discussed, and projections are offered about the future refugee situation. (Copyright 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)

Haines, David W. "An annotated introduction to the literature" in Refugees in America in the 1990's: A Reference Handbook. David W. Haines, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

An extensive overview of the academic literature about refugees in the US, with citations selected based on relevance, availability, and parsimony (avoiding multiple references). This annotation serves as an introduction to the available academic literature, but is necessarily inconclusive because of the scope of this project. Selections include books, journals, conference papers, bibliographies, and government documents. (Copyright 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)

Haines, David W. "Refugees in America: established patterns and emerging themes" American Sociological Association (ASA). 1996.

The resettlement of refugees in the US over the last fifty years has yielded a broad range of research, from many disciplinary perspectives, on a very diverse set of people. Certain clear patterns have emerged from that research, many of which mirror findings from the more general immigration research. The effects of demographic structure, educational and occupational background, and host society conditions, e.g., are well-documented. As the understanding of these patterns has been refined through analysis of different refugee groups, as these groups have aged and progressed in generations, and as the global political order itself has shifted, other issues emerge. Of particular importance are the reconstruction of relations with home country, the elaboration of political beliefs and social attitudes about both home and new countries, and the mending of ruptures in religious and spiritual beliefs. These emerging themes will remain both vital to, and distinct from, the general understanding of the immigrant experiences. (Copyright, 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Incorporated, all rights reserved)

Haines, David W. and Karen E. Rosenblum. "Global conversations in a parochial context: twenty years of press accounts about refugees in a southern city" American Sociological Association (ASA). 1997.

Over the last 150 years, Richmond, VA, has been sequentially the most northern and immigrant-settled city of the South, the almost accidental capital of the Confederacy, a center for the creation of "lost cause" mythology and retreat in minority rights, and a "New South" city with a combination of race-based politics and business-oriented civic leadership. Press accounts of refugee resettlement in Richmond since 1975 illuminate the conceptualization of refugees within such a milieu. Four dominant themes emerge: (1) refugee resettlement has provided the opportunity to expand the parameters of discourse about cultural diversity; (2) consideration of refugees and their high employment rate illustrate the inherent values of the local civic business coalition; (3) refugees are resettled almost entirely by well-established Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish institutions, thus providing the opportunity to reiterate the link between social service and established religious values; and (4) the conceptualization of refugees. Copyright 1997, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)

Haines, David W and Augustine Ha-T. Vinh. Refugee Resettlement in the United States: An Annotated Bibliography on the Adjustment of Cuban, Soviet and Southeast Asian Refugees. 1980

The 304 citations included in this annotated bibliography focus on the issues of refugee settlement in the United States during the last 20 years. The experiences of three major refugee groups (those from the Soviet Union, Southeast Asia, and Cuba) are emphasized. Published literature, papers, and reports generally characterized as research are included. Each citation contains the document's author and title, and publication information; the topic(s) covered; the population group(s) discussed; the annotation; and text information. (Copyright 1983, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)

Hansen, Art and Anthony Oliver-Smith, eds. Involuntary Migration and Resettlement: The Problems and Responses of Dislocated People. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982.

Harris, Stuart and Morton Weinfeld "Refugees and other migrants, international instruments and future options and dilemmas" pp. 309-336 in Adelman, Howard, Allan Borowski, Meyer Burstien and Lois Foster, eds. Immigration and Refugee Policy in Australia and Canada Compared. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994.

Hawkins, Freda. Critical Years in Immigration: Canada and Australia Compared. Second edition. McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History, no. 2. Montreal, London and Buffalo: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1991.

Examines and analyzes Canadian and Australian policies and programs relating to immigration, focusing on the years after 1972 when a process of liberalization and modernization in immigration policies and programs took place in both countries. Explores the major features of Canadian and Australian immigration during the period from 1900 to 1972, then examines immigration policy and management in each country in the period 1972 to 1986. Discusses important developments in both countries in the areas of refugee policy, and illegal or undocumented immigration. Examines the policies of multiculturalism adopted by both Canada and Australia in the early 1970s. Explores critical issues in the contemporary management of immigration in Canada and Australia, and looks future. (Copyright American Economic Association 1997; all rights reserved.)

Hinkson, Heather A. Canadian Refugee Policy: International Developments and Debates on the Role of Gender in Refugee Determination Procedures. Master of Arts McGill-University Montreal, 1996.

Through the evolution of international human rights law and policy, gender has become a prohibited ground for persecution. However the international definition of a refugee contained in the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees does not explicitly include gender as an enumerated ground on which persecution can be feared. This omission has required women who fear gender-based persecution to use the Convention's "membership in a particular social group" provision. Traditionally, judicial interpretation of criteria establishing a "particular social group" was not consistent in cases alleging gender-based persecution. In 1993, Canada developed guidelines that attempt to establish a coherent and consistent application of the "particular social group" category. This represents a state policy initiative to recognize the international evolution of policy on gender as a basis for persecution. Although the guidelines challenge theories of state sovereignty in the design and execution of domestic policy, they demonstrate that a coherent and consistent framework for granting asylum status to women who fear gender-based persecution can be developed in such policy. (Copyright 1996, Canadian Research Index, all rights reserved).

Huntington, Ray L. "Education, employment, politics, and changing sex roles: Palestinian refugee women in the occupied territories " Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 56(12) 1996: 4963-A.

Hyder, Syed G. The Dialectic of Crisis: Tamils and Sikhs in Canada. Master of Arts Thesis. University of Calgary, 1991.

On August 11, 1986 one hundred and fifty-five Tamil refugee claimants arrived off the coast of Newfoundland. Nearly one year later, one hundred and seventy-four Sikh refugee claimants appeared off the coast of Nova Scotia. The nature of each arrival, and the circumstances surrounding each arrival were remarkably similar. The fundamental difference between the arrivals, though, was the manner in which the government defined them. Whereas the Tamils were welcomed with open arms, the Sikhs were accused of being illegal aliens. The Sikh arrival was defined as representing a "national crisis". By using the refugee arrivals as a case study, the thesis seeks to explain how two virtually identical incidents were managed by the government in a dichotomous manner. This thesis explores the belief that the language used to define a problem, not only gives the problem meaning, but also shapes the reality in which the problem will be addressed. The thesis contends that political language, in fact, constructs political reality. Though the term "crisis" is not new to politics, a contemporary phenomena is that of "crisis decision-making'. The intent of this thesis is to assess the impact that the "crisis" label has on a policy problem. The thesis advances the opinion that in a "crisis" situation the government finds itself in a dialectic. (Copyright 1992, Canadian Research Index, all rights reserved).

Ima, Kenji. Refugees from Vietnam

Kaprielian-Churchill and Stacy Churchill. The Pulse of the World: Refugees in Our Schools. Toronto: OISE Press, 1994.

Lam, Lawrence. "Blocked mobility and entrepreneurship, resettlement of Vietnamese-Chinese refugees in Montreal, 1980-1990. Mimeo. Toronto: York University, 1994.

This paper attempts to link the 'blocked mobility thesis' and its impact on the economic well-being of refugees in their adopted homeland, including the emergence of ethnic small business activities as manifested by the Vietnamese-Chinese refugees' resettlement in Montreal from 1980 to 1990. The findings suggest that a smooth and rapid entry of Vietnamese-Chinese refugees into the Canadian mainstream economy was hindered by such factors as non-recognition of their professional qualifications by potential employers, effective controls by professional associations or licensing bodies, and discriminatory practices used against them by some employers. These barriers had effectively blocked their ambition and expectation to participate equally and fully in the economy of the host society. Some of them were trapped in a cycle of dead-end jobs, some were becoming increasingly marginalized, concentrated in informal employment or informal economic activities such as sweatshops, home work or subcontracting work. Others became reluctant entrepreneurs or ghetto merchants. (Copyright 1995, American Economic Association, all rights reserved).

Lam, Lawrence. Vietnamese- Chinese Refugees in Montreal: Factors Affecting Their Resettlement. Toronto: York University, 1983.

Lee, Kiyoung. Multiple Wage-Earner Strategies in Southeast Asian Refugee Households during Early Resettlement. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 57(10) 1997: 4544-A.

Levinson, Daniel. The Season's of a Woman's Life. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1996.

Louk, Sandra I. and J. Michael Armer. "Hispanic ethnicity and enclave participation: do they modify the effects of English proficiency on refugee earnings?" American Sociological Association (ASA). 1993.

Among the most important determinants identified in the literature on refugee employment and economic settlement is English language proficiency, but there are differences in the importance of this variable for Hispanics and non-Hispanics. One theory is that English proficiency is less important for refugees participating in ethnic enclave economies than for those working in the mainstream marketplace. According to this reasoning, the earnings of Hispanics will be less affected by English proficiency in settings such as Fla, where Hispanics have a greater probability of working in an ethnic enclave situation. To test this thesis, 1991 interview data on earnings of Hispanic and non-Hispanic refugees (total N = 600+) and on earnings of refugees whose employers are from the same Vs other ethnic groups are examined. (Copyright 1993, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)

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