When the elements of a rock have a preferred orientation, the rock is said to have fabric. Planar fabrics are foliations; linear fabrics are lineations.
Slaty cleavage (near vertical) intersecting bedding (near horizontal), Cambrian Forteau Formation, Indian Head Range, Newfoundland, Canada.
Slaty cleavage showing cleavage refraction, Noggin Island, Newfoundland, Canada.
Pressure solution cleavage, Cambrian Summerside Formation, Frenchman's Pond, Newfoundland, Canada.
Differentiated and transposed foliation: The most conspicuous foliation, running horizontally in this view, developed by differentiation and transposition of an earlier foliation, which is visible as small fold hinges within pale 'lithons'.
Crenulation lineation, Proterozoic Windermere Supergroup, British Columbia