Publications sorted by topic

Assisted migration
Boreal forest plants
Cavitation fatigue
Climate change
Cold hardiness
Conifer xylem
Drought-adapted plants
Phenotypic plasticity
Phloem transport
Provenance trials
Tree rings
Wood density
Xylem anatomy
Xylem transport

Uwe Hacke's profile @ Google Scholar, Web of Science, and ORCID:



A book on xylem structure and function:

xylem book

Available at
Thanks to the contributors!





Publications sorted by year


R.M. Hillabrand, U.G. Hacke, V.J. Lieffers (2019)
Defoliation constrains xylem and phloem functionality. Tree Physiology (in press)

A.L. Jacobsen, R.B. Pratt, M.D. Venturas, U.G. Hacke (2019)
Large volume vessels are more vulnerable to water-stress induced embolism formation than small vessels in poplar stem xylem. IAWA Journal 40: 4-22. PDF

J. Sebastian-Azcona, A. Hamann, U. Hacke, D. Rweyongeza (2019)
Survival, growth and cold hardiness tradeoffs in white spruce populations: implications for assisted migration. Forest Ecology and Management 433: 544–552. PDF

R.C. Stanfield, P.J. Schulte, K.E. Randolph, U.G. Hacke (2019)
Computational models evaluating the impact of sieve plates and radial water exchange on phloem pressure gradients. Plant, Cell & Environment 42: 466–479. PDF

R.M. Hillabrand, V.J. Lieffers, E.H. Hogg, E. Martínez-Sancho, A. Menzel, U.G. Hacke (2019)
Functional xylem anatomy of aspen exhibits greater change due to insect defoliation than to drought. Tree Physiology 39: 45-54. PDF



J. Sebastian-Azcona, U.G. Hacke, A. Hamann (2018)
Adaptations of white spruce to climate: strong intra-specific differences in cold hardiness linked to survival. Ecology and Evolution 8:1758–1768. PDF



Invited Reviews:

U.G. Hacke, R. Spicer, S.G. Schreiber, L. Plavcová (2017)
An ecophysiological and developmental perspective on variation in vessel diameter. Plant, Cell & Environment 40: 831-845. PDF
Supporting Information Table

M.D. Venturas, J.S. Sperry, U.G. Hacke (2017)
Plant xylem hydraulics: what we understand, current research, and future challenges. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 59: 356-389. PDF


Research Articles:

H.D. Adams et al. (2017)
A multi-species synthesis of physiological mechanisms in drought-induced tree mortality. Nature Ecology & Evolution doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0248-x Abstract

R.C. Stanfield, U.G. Hacke, J. Laur (2017)
Are phloem sieve tubes leaky conduits supported by numerous aquaporins? American Journal of Botany 104: 719-732. PDF

E. Martinez-Sancho, I. Dorado-Linan, U.G. Hacke, H. Seidel, A. Menzel (2017)
Contrasting hydraulic strategies of Scots pine and Sessile oak at the southernmost distribution limits. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 598. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00598. PDF



R.M. Hillabrand, U.G. Hacke, V. Lieffers (2016)
Drought-induced xylem pit membrane damage in aspen and balsam poplar. Plant, Cell & Environment 39: 2210–2220. PDF

U.G. Hacke, J. Laur (2016)
Xylem refilling: a question of sugar transporters and pH? Plant, Cell & Environment 39: 2347–2349. PDF

L. Sack et al. (2016)
Plant hydraulics as a central hub integrating plant and ecosystem function: meeting report for "Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics" (Washington, DC, May 2015). Plant, Cell & Environment 39: 2085–2094. PDF

U.G. Hacke, J. Laur (2016)
Aquaporins: Channels for the molecule of life. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. PDF

C. Brocious, U.G. Hacke (2016)
Stomatal conductance scales with petiole xylem traits in Populus genotypes. Functional Plant Biology 43: 553-562. PDF

S.M. Gleason, M. Westoby, S. Jansen et al. (2016)
Weak tradeoff between xylem safety and xylem-specific hydraulic efficiency across the world's woody plant species. New Phytologist 209: 123–136. PDF

S.G. Schreiber, U.G. Hacke, S. Chamberland, C.W. Lowe, D. Kamelchuk, K. Bräutigam, M.M. Campbell, B.R. Thomas (2016)
Leaf size serves as a proxy for xylem vulnerability to cavitation in plantation trees. Plant, Cell & Environment 39: 272–281. PDF



U.G. Hacke, B. Lachenbruch, J. Pittermann, S. Mayr, J.-C. Domec, P.J. Schulte (2015)
The hydraulic architecture of conifers. In: Functional and Ecological Xylem Anatomy (ed. U.G. Hacke). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 39-75. Link to book.

U.G. Hacke (2015)
The hydraulic architecture of Populus. In: Functional and Ecological Xylem Anatomy (ed. U.G. Hacke). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 103-131. Link to book.

P.J. Schulte, U.G. Hacke, A.L. Schoonmaker (2015)
Pit membrane structure is highly variable and accounts for a major resistance to water flow through tracheid pits in stems and roots of two boreal conifer species. New Phytologist 208: 102–113. PDF

S.G. Schreiber, U.G. Hacke, A. Hamann (2015)
Variation of xylem vessel diameter in a wide-spread boreal forest tree in western Canada: insights from a large-scale reciprocal transplant experiment. Functional Ecology 29: 1392–1401. PDF

, M.D. Venturas, E.D. MacKinnon, A.L. Jacobsen, J.S. Sperry, R. B. Pratt (2015)
The standard centrifuge method accurately measures vulnerability curves of long-vesselled olive stems. New Phytologist 205: 116–127. PDF



, U.G. Hacke (2014)
The Role of Water Channel Proteins in Facilitating Recovery of Leaf Hydraulic Conductance from Water Stress in Populus trichocarpa. PLoS ONE 9(11): e111751. Full text

J, U.G. Hacke (2014)
Exploring Picea glauca aquaporins in the context of needle water uptake and xylem refilling. New Phytologist 203: 388–400. PDF

S, P. Schmid, J. Laur, S. Rosner, K. Charra-Vaskou, B. Daemon, U.G. Hacke (2014)
Uptake of water via branches helps timberline conifers refill embolized xylem in late winter. Plant Physiology 164: 1731–1740. PDF

Variable plant hydraulic conductance. Tree Physiology 34: 105-108. Full Text

Irradiance-induced changes in hydraulic architecture. Botany 92: 437–442. PDF



L, S. Jansen, M. Klepsch, U.G. Hacke (2013)
Nobody’s perfect: can irregularities in pit structure influence vulnerability to cavitation? Frontiers in Plant Science Vol 4 Article 453 - PDF

S, C. Ding, A. Hamann, U.G. Hacke, B.R. Thomas, J.S. Brouard (2013)
Frost hardiness vs. growth performance in trembling aspen: an experimental test of assisted migration. Journal of Applied Ecology 50: 939-949 - PDF

, U.G. Hacke (2013)
Transpirational demand affects aquaporin expression in poplar roots. Journal of Experimental Botany 64: 2283–2293 - PDF

W, L. Plavcová, L.D.L. Anderegg, U.G. Hacke, J.A. Berry, C.B. Field (2013)
Drought’s Legacy: Multi-year hydraulic deterioration underlies widespread aspen forest die-off and portends increased future risk*. Global Change Biology 19: 1188-1196 - PDF

*This paper was recommended by F1000Prime.

S, A. Hamann, U.G. Hacke, B.R. Thomas (2013)
Sixteen years of winter stress: an assessment of cold hardiness, growth performance and survival of hybrid poplar clones at a boreal planting site. Plant, Cell and Environment 36: 419-428 - PDF

, U.G. Hacke, A.M. Almeida-Rodriguez, E. Li, C.J. Douglas (2013)
Gene expression patterns underlying changes in xylem structure and function in response to increased nitrogen availability in hybrid poplar. Plant, Cell and Environment 36: 186-199. - PDF



B. Choat, S. Jansen et al. (2012) Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought. Nature 491: 752-755. - Abstract

L, U.G. Hacke (2012)
Phenotypic and developmental plasticity of xylem in hybrid poplar saplings subjected to experimental drought, nitrogen fertilization and shading. Journal of Experimental Botany 63: 6481-6491 - PDF

A., R.B. Pratt, M.F. Tobin, U.G. Hacke, F.W. Ewers (2012)
A global analysis of xylem vessel length in woody plants. American Journal of Botany 99: 1583-1591. - PDFeetings: New research on plant–water relations examines the molecular, structural, and physiological mechanisms of plant responses to their environment (2012) New Phytologist 196: 345-348. - PDF

, U.G. Hacke (2012)
Cellular localization of aquaporin mRNA in hybrid poplar stems. American Journal of Botany 99: 1249-1254. Cover illustration. - PDF - Appendices



L, U.G. Hacke (2011)
Heterogeneous distribution of pectin epitopes and calcium in different pit types of four angiosperm species. New Phytologist 192: 885-897.- PDF

A, U.G. Hacke, J. Laur (2011)
Influence of evaporative demand on aquaporin expression and root hydraulics in hybrid poplar. Plant, Cell and Environment 34: 1318-1331.- PDF

L, U.G. Hacke, J.S. Sperry (2011)
Linking irradiance-induced changes in pit membrane ultrastructure with xylem vulnerability to cavitation
. Plant, Cell and Environment 34: 501-513.- PDF

, U.G. Hacke, A. Hamann, B.R. Thomas (2011)
Genetic variation of hydraulic and wood anatomical traits in hybrid poplar and trembling aspen
. New Phytologist 190: 150-160.- PDF



J. Cai, U. Hacke, S. Zhang, M.T. Tyree (2010)
What happens when stems are embolized in a centrifuge? Testing the cavitron theory. Physiologia Plantarum 140: 311-320. - PDF

U., L. Plavcová, A. Almeida-Rodriguez, S. King-Jones, W. Zhou, J.E.K. Cooke (2010)
Influence of nitrogen fertilization on xylem traits and aquaporin expression in stems of hybrid poplar. Tree Physiology 30: 1016-1025. - PDF

A, U.G. Hacke, S.M. Landhäusser, V.J. Lieffers, M.T. Tyree (2010)
Hydraulic acclimation to shading in Boreal conifers of varying shade tolerance. Plant, Cell and Environment 33: 382-393. - PDF



U.G. Hacke, S. Jansen (2009)
Embolism resistance of three boreal conifer species varies with pit structure. New Phytologist 182: 675–686. - PDF

U.G. Hacke, A.L. Jacobsen, R.B. Pratt (2009)
Xylem function of aridland shrubs from California, USA: an ecological and evolutionary analysis. Plant, Cell and Environment 32: 1324–1333. - PDF



, J.S. Sperry, H. Taneda, S.E. Bush, U.G. Hacke (2008)
Evaluation of centrifugal methods for measuring xylem cavitation in conifers, diffuse- and ring-porous angiosperms. New Phytologist 177: 558–568. - PDF



, J.S. Sperry, T. Feild, Y. Sano, E.H. Sikkema, J. Pittermann (2007)
Water transport in vesselless angiosperms: conducting efficiency and cavitation safety. International Journal of Plant Science 168: 1113-1126. - PDF

J, U.G. Hacke, T. Feild, Y. Sano, E.H. Sikkema (2007)
Hydraulic consequences of vessel evolution in angiosperms. International Journal of Plant Science 168: 1127-1139. - PDF



, U.G. Hacke, J. Pittermann (2006)
Size and function in conifer tracheids and angiosperm vessels. American Journal of Botany 93: 1490-1500. - PDF

S, U. Hacke, P. Schmid, F. Schwienbacher, A. Gruber (2006)
Frost drought in conifers at the alpine timberline: xylem dysfunction and adaptations. Ecology 87: 3175–3185.

J, J.S. Sperry, J.K. Wheeler, U.G. Hacke, E. Sikkema (2006)
Mechanical reinforcement against tracheid implosion compromises the hydraulic efficiency of conifer xylem. Plant, Cell and Environment 29: 1618-1628. - PDF

J, J.S. Sperry, U.G. Hacke, J.K. Wheeler, E. Sikkema (2006)
Inter-tracheid pitting and the hydraulic efficiency of conifer wood: the role of tracheid allometry and cavitation protection. American Journal of Botany 93: 1265-1273. - PDF

U, J.S. Sperry, J.K. Wheeler, L. Castro (2006)
Scaling of angiosperm xylem structure with safety and efficiency. Tree Physiology 26: 689-701. - PDF

R.N. Addington, L.A. Donovan, R.J. Mitchell, J.M. Vose, S.D. Pecot, S.B. Jack, U.G. Hacke, J.S. Sperry, R. Oren (2006)
Adjustments in hydraulic architecture of Pinus palustris maintain similar stomatal conductance in xeric and mesic habitats. Plant, Cell and Environment 29: 535-545. - PDF



, J.S. Sperry, U.G. Hacke, J.K. Wheeler, E. Sikkema (2005)
Torus-margo pits help conifers compete with angiosperms. Science 310: 1924. - PDF

U, J.S. Sperry, J. Pittermann (2005)
Efficiency vs. safety trade-offs for water conduction in angiosperm vessels vs. gymnosperm tracheids. In: Vascular Transport in Plants (eds. N.M. Holbrook, M. Zwieniecki). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 333-353.

J, U.G. Hacke, J.K. Wheeler (2005)
Comparative analysis of end wall resistance in xylem conduits. Plant, Cell and Environment 28: 456-465. - PDF

J, J.S. Sperry, U.G. Hacke, N. Hoang (2005)
Inter-vessel pitting and cavitation in woody Rosaceae and other vesseled plants: a basis for a safety vs. efficiency trade-off in xylem transport. Plant, Cell and Environment 28: 800-812. - PDF



, J.S. Sperry, J. Pittermann (2004)
Analysis of circular bordered pit function II. Gymnosperm tracheids with torus-margo pit membranes. American Journal of Botany 91: 386-400. - PDF

J, U.G. Hacke (2004)
Analysis of circular bordered pit function I. Angiosperm vessels with homogenous pit membranes. American Journal of Botany 91: 369-385. - PDF

Get al. (2004)
The Cohesion-Tension Theory. New Phytologist 163: 451-452. - PDF



J.S. Sperry, V. Stiller, U.G. Hacke (2003)
Xylem hydraulics and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum: opportunities and unresolved issues. Agronomy Journal 95: 1362-1370. - PDF

U, J.S. Sperry (2003)
Limits of xylem refilling under negative pressure in Laurus nobilis and Acer negundo. Plant, Cell and Environment 26: 303-311. - PDF



, U.G. Hacke (2002)
Desert shrub water relations with respect to soil characteristics and plant functional type. Functional Ecology 16: 367-378. - PDF

J, U.G. Hacke, R. Oren, J.P. Comstock (2002)
Water deficits and hydraulic limits to leaf water supply. Plant, Cell and Environment 25: 251-263. - PDF

J.S. Sperry, V. Stiller, U.G. Hacke (2002)
Soil water uptake and water transport through root systems. In: Plant Roots: The Hidden Half, 3rd ed. (eds. Y. Waisel, A. Eshel, U. Kafkafi). Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, pp 663-681.



, J.S. Sperry (2001)
Functional and ecological xylem anatomy. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 4: 97-115. - PDF

U, J.S. Sperry, W.T. Pockman, S.D. Davis, K. McCulloh (2001)
Trends in wood density and structure are linked to prevention of xylem implosion by negative pressure. Oecologia 126: 457-461. - PDF

U, V. Stiller, J.S. Sperry, J. Pittermann, K. McCulloh (2001)
Cavitation fatigue: embolism and refilling cycles can weaken the cavitation resistance of xylem. Plant Physiology 125: 779-786. - PDF



, J.S. Sperry, B.E. Ewers, D.S. Ellsworth, K.V.R. Schäfer, R. Oren (2000)
Influence of soil porosity on water use in Pinus taeda. Oecologia 124: 495-505. - PDF

U, J.S. Sperry, J. Pittermann (2000)
Drought experience and cavitation resistance in six shrubs from the Great Basin, Utah. Basic and Applied Ecology 1: 31-41. - PDF



, J.S. Sperry, U.G. Hacke (1999)
The relationship between xylem conduit diameter and cavitation caused by freezing. American Journal of Botany 86: 1367-1372. - PDF



, J.J. Sauter (1996)
Drought-induced xylem dysfunction in petioles, branches, and roots of Populus balsamifera L. and Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Plant Physiology 111: 413-417. - PDF

U, J.J. Sauter (1996)
Xylem dysfunction during winter and recovery of hydraulic conductivity in diffuse-porous and ring-porous trees. Oecologia 105: 435-439. - PDF



, J.J. Sauter (1995)
Vulnerability of xylem to embolism in relation to leaf water potential and stomatal conductance in Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea and Populus balsamifera. Journal of Experimental Botany 46: 1177-1183. - PDF