The window manager is a specific application that manages the windows in an interface. Each window contains defined controls for user interaction provided by the window manager. The following window controls assist the user in interacting with and navigating in the interface:
The client area is the application's display area where the user
performs most application-level tasks. For example, if a user is working with
a graphics editor or text editor, the client area contains the figure or
document being edited. The client area is inside the window frame and can
contain multiple work areas..
For more information, see the Client Area reference page.
The window title contains a short string of text that identifies the window. Depending on the type of window and its function, the title is the title of the application or it indicates the purpose of the window.
If a window includes a title, it is in a horizontal bar at the top of the
window, just above the client area and between the window menu button and the
window control buttons (maximize and minimize)..
For more information, see the Window Title reference page.
The window menu displays a list of window actions. You should list all possible actions because keyboard users must interact with the window manager through the window menu. Almost all windows have window menus.
Locate a window menu button just above the client area. Align the left edge
of the button with the left edge of the client area and the button just to the
left of the window title, unless you include other buttons between the window
menu button and the window title..
For more information, see the Window Menu reference page.
The maximize button contains a graphic that indicates whether or not the window is maximized. If it is not, the user can press the maximize button to enlarge the window. If the window is already maximized, the user can press the maximize button to change the window to its original size and location. Using the maximize button is faster than choosing the Maximize or Restore choice from the window menu.
If the window includes a maximize button, it appears just above the client
area and its right border is aligned with the right border of the client area.
Primary windows contain maximize buttons; secondary windows usually do not..
For more information, see the Maximize (Choice) reference page.
The minimize button is a small square or down arrow graphic. The user can press the minimize button to minimize or iconify the window to an icon. Using the minimize button is faster than choosing the Minimize choice from the window menu.
If the window includes a minimize button, it appears just above the client
area and directly to the left of the maximize button. Primary windows usually
have minimize buttons; secondary windows do not have them..
For more information, see the Minimize (Choice) reference page.
The window icon is a minimized (or iconified) representation of a window or window family. The window manager places window icons in the window icon viewer.
The window manager minimizes all windows of a window family together. When
a window is minimized, the application running inside the window continues
running. To interact with window icons, the user opens the window icon
For more information, see the Window Icon and Window Icon Box reference pages.
Although your application can supply an initial size for windows to the window manager, the user can vary window size for easier interaction. Using size borders is faster for mouse users than the Size choice in the window menu. Secondary windows do not include size borders.
The size borders are the outermost controls of the window frame and are made up of two parts: the corner handles and the edge handles. If you want to include size borders, put one corner handle in each corner of the window and one edge handle between each pair of corner handles.
Handles let the user change the height and width of windows without affecting the relative position of the window, as follows.
For more information, see the Window Frame reference page.
You can present additional window manager functions as buttons on the
window frame. Place any additional buttons directly to the left of the
minimize button or directly to the right of the window menu button and above
the client area. Any additional buttons should correspond to an entry in the